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Sample records for included elevated levels

  1. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions. Whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. By using Western blotting analysis, we measured hepatic ALT isoforms at the protein level in obese and diabetic animals and in Fao hepatoma cells treated with dexamethasone and insulin. In addition, we measured glucose output in Fao cells over-expressing ALT1 and ALT2. Both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats and during fasting. However, in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated, and the increase of ALT2 was correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone, but suppressed by insulin in Fao cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. We have shown the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Plants with elevated levels of glucan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Kraemer, Florian J.; Hake, Sarah

    2018-03-20

    The present disclosure relates to mutations in licheninase genes encoding polypeptides with decreased licheninase activity, which when expressed in plants results in elevated levels of glucan in the plants. In particular, the disclosure relates to licheninase nucleic acids and polypeptides related to glucan accumulation in plants, plants with reduced expression of a licheninase nucleic acid, and methods related to the generation of plants with increased glucan content in the cell walls of leaf tissue.

  3. 77 FR 33490 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,525] Long Elevator & Machine... former workers of Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., including workers whose unemployment insurance...

  4. Elevated peripheral visfatin levels in narcoleptic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narcolepsy is a severe sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexies and a tendency towards obesity. Recent discoveries indicate that the major pathophysiology is a loss of hypocretin (orexin producing neurons due to immunologically mediated degeneration. Visfatin is a recently described proinflammatory adipokine. It is identical to the immune modulating pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF. Our study examines the hypothesis that visfatin levels are altered in narcoleptic patients. METHODS: For the analysis, a total of n = 54 patients (n = 18 males and n = 36 females with the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to DSM-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders were examined (BMI mean 30.3+/-5.5, age mean 52.5+/-16.1 years. As a control group 39 unrelated (n = 12 males and n = 27 females healthy volunteers with no sleep disorder according to DSM-IV were included (BMI mean 28.5+/-4.6, age mean 51.1+/-13.6 years. Peripheral visfatin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit with a measurement range from 0.1-1000 ng/ml. Narcolepsy symptoms, severity and frequency of symptoms as well as the total duration of various aspects of the symptomatology were assessed by unstructured and structured clinical interviews in including the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Sleep Inventory. RESULTS: Circulating visfatin was found to be significantly increased in HLA DR2 positive narcoleptic patients compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results add to the evidence of disturbed immunological regulation in patients with narcolepsy.

  5. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most often used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate levels can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion may be the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist....... Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate level elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate level varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The present review is based...... on a comprehensive PubMed search between the dates of January 1, 1960, to April 30, 2013, using the search term lactate or lactic acidosis combined with known associations, such as shock, sepsis, cardiac arrest, trauma, seizure, ischemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, thiamine, malignancy, liver, toxins, overdose...

  6. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  7. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  8. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  9. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  10. Elevated potassium levels in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W; Nicolaisen, Sia K; Hasvold, Pål

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on the true burden of hyperkalemia (HK) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a real-world setting are scarce. Methods: The incidence rate of HK [first blood test with an elevated blood potassium level level >5.0 mmol/L] in primary or hospital care was assessed...

  11. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Cherry, J.A.; Megonigala, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  12. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with other liver disease, especially patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, is important since most AIH patients will a have favorable treatment response if diagnosed properly. Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the significance of elevated IgG levels in ...

  13. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

    1986-06-01

    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  14. The prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in an urban Chinatown community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, S J; Dhamija, M K; Luc, B J; Siqueira, F; Bartram, A H; Layden, T J; Wong, S S

    2010-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are a primary consideration in treatment decisions regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Levels can be elevated as a result of HBV-related liver injury or to other causes. The aim of this study was to assess the background prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in Chinese immigrants who were HBsAg negative. Subjects consisted of adults seen in an urban Chinatown Internal Medicine practice between 1, 2006 and 12, 2007. Clinical information was collected retrospectively. An elevated ALT level was defined as >19 U/L for women and >30 U/L for men. The primary analysis focused on 2457 persons who were HBsAg negative. Their mean age was 55 +/- 18 years, 64% were female and 36% were obese. All subjects were ethnically Chinese and 96% were born in Asia. Thirty percent had an elevated ALT level. In univariate analysis, factors associated with elevated ALT included older age (P < 0.001), female gender (P = 0.001), obesity (P < 0.001), diabetes (P < 0.001), hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.001) and hypertension (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis BMI, diabetes, female gender and hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with elevated ALT level. An additional analysis focused on a group of patients who were HBsAg positive, HBeAg negative and had HBV-DNA levels <1000 copies/mL. Fifty percent had elevated ALT levels. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels are common among Chinese immigrants without HBV (30%) and are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. Liver biopsy should be performed in selected patients with HBV to distinguish the cause of ALT elevation before initiating antiviral therapy.

  15. Elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in metastatic ovarian dysgerminoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    A case of a 32-year-old XY genotype female is described, presenting with mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and associated with an elevated serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (SACE) level. Lymph node histology showed a malignant dysgerminoma of ovarian origin. Combined chemotherapy led to a radiological regression of the lymphadenopathy and coincided with a decrease in SACE concentration. The authors suggest that SACE may be a marker for disseminated germinoma tumours and may be useful for monitoring treatment.

  16. Photosynthesis and Plant Growth at Elevated Levels of CO_2

    OpenAIRE

    Amane, Makino; Tadahiko, Mae; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University; Department of Applied Plant Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tohoku University

    1999-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the effects of elevated CO_2 levels on photosynthesis in relation to the whole plant growth in terrestrial higher C_3 plants. Short-term CO_2 enrichment stimulates the rate of phtosynthesis. Plant mass is also enhanced by CO_2 enrichment. However, the effects of long-term CO_2 enrichment on photosynthesis are variable. Generally, the prolonged exposure to CO_2 enrichment reduces the initial stimulation of photosynthesis in many spesies, and frequently suppresses pho...

  17. 77 FR 62265 - Long Elevator & Machine Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Kone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,525] Long Elevator & Machine... Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration for workers and former workers of Long Elevator... (hereafter referred to as Long Elevator & Machine Company or the subject firm). The Department's Notice was...

  18. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau protein levels in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Sachio; Miyakawa, Tomohiro; Maesato, Hitoshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Akira; Arai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Susumu; Kashima, Haruo

    2008-06-01

    Limited neuronal cell loss is seen in the neuropathology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), but the extent of neuronal damage has not been well studied. Moreover, there is still a debate as to whether alcohol itself causes brain damage in humans. Although, it is difficult to examine the extent of neuronal damage in living patients, recent studies have revealed that total tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reflect the rate of neuronal degeneration. Therefore, we hypothesized that the elevated CSF total tau in patients with WE was due to neuronal damage and thus we examined CSF total tau protein in patients with WE, as well as in those with alcohol withdrawal delirium (WD) and Korsakoff syndrome (KS). We also examined CSF total tau in nonalcohol dependent patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a disease control. CSF samples were obtained from 13 acute WE patients with alcohol dependence, 9 WD patients with alcohol dependence and 16 KS patients with alcohol dependence, and from 20 nonalcohol dependent AD patients. CSF was also obtained from 10 of the WE patients after their disease had progressed to the chronic stage. CSF tau protein levels in all samples were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau(181)) and amyloid beta-protein ending at amino acid 42 (A beta 42) in CSF were also determined for comparison between acute WE with AD. Total tau was significantly elevated in acute WE and decreased on long-term follow-up, but was not elevated in WD or KS. The patterns of p-tau(181) and A beta 42 differed between acute WE and AD. Intense neuronal cell death occurs transiently in WE, and the mechanism differs from that in AD. Neuronal damage is generally unaccompanied in WD. These results suggest that CSF total tau is a useful biological marker for WE.

  19. Maternal serum CA-125 level is elevated in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Erbil; Karaman, Yasemin; Alkış, İsmet; Han, Agahan; Yıldırım, Gökhan; Ark, Hasan Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum concentrations of cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and pre-eclampsia severity. We evaluated 91 females with a singleton pregnancy. Serum CA-125 levels were measured in subjects with severe pre-eclampsia (n=34) and those with mild pre-eclampsia (n=24). Females with healthy pregnancies (n=31) served as the control group. The three study groups were statistically similar in terms of maternal age, gestational age, and body mass index. The CA-125 level was significantly higher in the severe pre-eclampsia group than that in the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups (pCA-125 levels between the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups was observed. CA-125 level was positively correlated with proteinuria (r=0.489, p=0.000), systolic blood pressure (r=0.503, p=0.018), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.532, p=0.000). In contrast, CA-125 was negatively correlated with birth weight (r=0.266, p=0.012) and gestational age at birth (r=0.250, p=0.018). CA-125 level increased in severe pre-eclampsia, which reflected abnormal trophoblastic invasion and chronic inflammation. Elevated levels of CA-125 in pre-eclamptic patients may be a marker of the disease severity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term outcome of patients with elevated parathyroid hormone levels after successful parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Carmen C; Mendez, William; Lew, John I; Rodgers, Steven E; Montano, Raquel; Carneiro-Pla, Denise M; Irvin, George L

    2008-07-01

    Untreated long-term elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after successful parathyroidectomy may predict recurrent hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Although elevated PTH levels have been reported in eucalcemic patients after parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary HPT, the long-term clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Five hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with HPT. Parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative monitoring of PTH levels. Overall incidence of elevated PTH levels (measurements of >or= 70 pg/mL at any time during follow-up) and recurrent HPT (hypercalcemia and elevated PTH levels more than 6 months after parathyroidectomy). Of the 505 patients who underwent successful parathyroidectomy in this series and were followed up for more than 6 months, 337 (66.7%) consistently had PTH levels within the reference range, and 168 (33.3%) had elevated PTH levels. Of the 168 patients with elevated PTH levels, only 8 (4.8%) developed recurrent disease. The earliest recurrence occurred 2 years postoperatively. Factors associated with elevated PTH levels included advanced age, higher preoperative PTH levels, and mild postoperative renal insufficiency. Although one-third of the patients had elevated PTH levels after successful parathyroidectomy, most of these patients with elevated PTH levels (95%) will achieve long-term eucalcemia.

  1. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Antonio; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Vacante, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Agata, Velia; Malaguarnera, Michele; Basile, Francesco; Drago, Filippo; Bertino, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy.

  2. Thorough investigation of radon in a school with elevated levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.; Hunyadi, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2001-01-01

    Among the 890 schools surveyed for radon levels in Slovenia, 24 buildings were found in which air concentrations exceeded 1000 Bq m -3 in classrooms. These schools have been thoroughly investigated to find the source of elevated radon concentration and to undertake measures for the most effective remediation. The highest radon concentrations, up to 7 kBq m -3 in classrooms, were found in a poorly constructed school situated in a karstic area. The annual effective doses received by staff (3 persons) and pupils (21 persons) were estimated to range from 3.7 to 6.7 mSv, according to ICRP 65 methodology. Their homes were also tested for radon, where annual effective doses received from radon decay products range from 1.3 to 12.6 mSv. On average, the school contributed 60% to the annual effective dose

  3. Multiple sclerosis showing elevation of adenosine deaminase levels in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Sakai, Kenji; Odake, Yasuko; Yoshita, Mitsuhiro; Misaki, Kouichi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Yamada, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    An 80-year-old man developed dysarthria, quadriplegia, sensory disturbance and ataxia in all limbs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple enhanced lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) remarkably elevated. Tuberculosis DNA was not detected, and tuberculosis was not cultured either in the CSF. Brain biopsy revealed the inflammatory demyelinating lesions. With the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid improvement of his symptoms and MRI abnormalities. CSF levels of ADA also decreased. Multiple sclerosis should be included in differential diagnosis of disorders with ADA elevation in the CSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  5. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms contributing to marsh elevation change, including amelioration of salt stress by elevated CO2 and the importance of plant production and shoot-base expansion for elevation gain. Identification of biological processes contributing to elevation change is an important first step in developing comprehensive models that permit more accurate predictions of whether coastal marshes will persist with continued sea-level rise or become submerged. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  6. Influence of elevator acceleration induced loading on injury levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funai, K.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Nunen, E. van

    2008-01-01

    The influence on human body of the acceleration caused by the elevator emergency stop has been studied. Experiments were performed with an automotive dummy in an elevator. The study is furthermore based on numerical simulations in MADYMO with an active human model. Kinematics and contact forces of

  7. Elevated C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia inpatients is associated with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, R; Lobel, T; Krivoy, A; Shlosberg, D; Weizman, A; Katz, N

    2016-01-01

    An association between inflammation and behavioral domains of mental disorders is of growing interest. Recent studies reported an association between aggression and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the association between aggressive behavior and inflammatory markers in schizophrenia inpatients. Adult schizophrenia inpatients without affective symptoms (n=213) were retrospectively identified and categorized according to their C-reactive protein measurement at admission as either elevated (CRP>1 mg/dL; n=57) or normal (CRPaggression were compared: PANSS excitement component (PANSS-EC), restraints and suicidal behavior during hospitalization. Univariate comparisons between elevated and normal CRP levels were performed and multivariate analysis was conducted to control for relevant covariates. CRP levels significantly correlated with other laboratory markers indicating increased inflammation including leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (r=0.387, Paggressive behavior compared to patients with normal CRP levels (aggression) in schizophrenia inpatients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. CT Findings of Disease with Elevated Serum D-Dimer Levels in an Emergency Room Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Youn; Kwon, Woo Cheol; Kim, Young Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Wonju Christian Hospital, Yensei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are the leading causes of elevated serum D-dimer levels in the emergency room. Although D-dimer is a useful screening test because of its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, it has a low specificity. In addition, D-dimer can be elevated in various diseases. Therefore, information on the various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels and their radiologic findings may allow for accurate diagnosis and proper management. Herein, we report the CT findings of various diseases with elevated D-dimer levels in an emergency room setting, including an intravascular contrast filling defect with associated findings in a venous thromboembolism, fracture with soft tissue swelling and hematoma formation in a trauma patient, enlargement with contrast enhancement in the infected organ of a patient, coronary artery stenosis with a perfusion defect of the myocardium in a patient with acute myocardial infarction, high density of acute thrombus in a cerebral vessel with a low density of affected brain parenchyma in an acute cerebral infarction, intimal flap with two separated lumens in a case of aortic dissection, organ involvement of malignancy in a cancer patient, and atrophy of a liver with a dilated portal vein and associated findings.

  9. U.S. Coastal Lidar Elevation Data - Including the Great Lakes and Territories, 1996 - present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Services Center manages and distributes lidar data for the coastal United States, including territorial possessions via the Digital Coast Data...

  10. Elevated Amylase and Lipase Levels in the Neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Various neurosurgery events and diagnoses may lead to different degrees of serum pancreatic enzyme elevation. Patients with elevated pancreatic enzyme levels have a higher mortality rate than those with normal enzyme levels. We believe that abdominal CT should be indicated for patients if their amylase levels are more than 3-fold the upper normal limit and lipase levels are more than 5-fold.

  11. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  12. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury

  13. Elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in elderly patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Lee, S C

    2001-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia are linked to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has inhibitory effects on key processes in atherothrombosis. Although asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, is associated with atherosclerotic disease, there has been no report on association of ADMA with ischemic stroke. Here we investigated the relation of plasma ADMA, stroke, and homocyst(e)inemia in the elderly. Plasma ADMA and homocyst(e)ine concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ADMA than controls (1.85+/-1.32 vs. 0.93+/-0.32 micromol/l, P=0.0001). After adjustment for risk factors, elevated ADMA levels, above 90th percentile of normal controls (> or =1.43 micromol/l) was associated with stroke (OR=6.05, 95% CI; 2.77-13.3, P=0.02). ADMA plasma levels were positively correlated to homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.43, P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration > or =15.0 micromol/l) was a significant predictor of elevated ADMA level. Altogether, findings indicate that elevated ADMA concentrations are at increased risk for ischemic stroke in the elderly, and may account for increased risk of stroke in patients with hyperhomocyst(e)inemia.

  14. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p Greek RA patients present elevated levels of antibodies against P. mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  15. Laughter elevates the levels of breast-milk melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-06-01

    Patients with atopic eczema (AE) often complain of sleep disturbance. Melatonin is involved in sleep, and the levels of blood melatonin in patients with AE are decreased in comparison to healthy subjects. However, the levels of breast-milk melatonin had only been reported in healthy subjects. Laughter increased natural killer cell activity in blood and free radical-scavenging capacity in saliva in healthy subjects. Thus, the effect of laughter on the levels of breast-milk melatonin was studied in mothers with AE. Moreover, the effect of feeding with breast milk after laughter on allergic responses in infants was studied. Forty-eight infants aged 5-6 months were enrolled. All of the infants had AE and were allergic to latex and house dust mite (HDM). Half (n=24) of the mothers of these infants were patients with AE, while another 24 mothers were healthy subjects. The mothers viewed either an 87-min humorous DVD (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin) or an 87-min nonhumorous weather information DVD at 2000 h. After viewing, breast milk was collected sequentially from 2200, 2400, 0200, 0400 to 0600 h. The levels of breast-milk melatonin were measured. In addition, skin wheal responses to HDM and histamine were studied in infants. Laughter caused by viewing a humorous DVD increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers. In addition, allergic responses to latex and HDM of infants were reduced by feeding with breast milk after laughter of mothers with AE or of healthy mothers. Laughter increased the levels of breast-milk melatonin in both mothers with AE and healthy mothers, and feeding infants with increased levels of melatonin-containing milk reduced allergic responses in infants. Thus, laughter of mothers may be helpful in the treatment of infants with AE.

  16. Evaluation of factors associated with elevated newborn 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandi, V Shobi; Shaila, Bhattacharyya

    2017-05-24

    Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in dried blood spots has been widely used as a newborn screening tool for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Various maternal and neonatal factors can result in falsely high values of 17-OHP. There is a paucity of Indian studies in this regard because routine evaluation of newborn 17-OHP levels as a screening program is not widely practiced in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of various maternal and neonatal factors on newborn 17-OHP levels. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various maternal and neonatal factors on the newborn 17-OHP values. Retrospective data related to a total of 3080 newborn 17-OHP values and clinical characteristics were collected for 3 years (2013-2015). The data were analyzed to determine the influence of various factors on 17-OHP values. The mean value of 17-OHP in our study was 5.486±3.96 ng/mL. Gender and mode of delivery did not significantly affect the 17-OHP levels. The levels were significantly higher in preterm and low birth weight babies as compared to term babies and babies with normal birth weight. Stress factors like pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), early onset sepsis (EOS), neonatal seizures and birth asphyxia significantly increase the neonatal 17-OHP levels. The levels of 17-OHP in newborns was measured around day 3 of life are very sensitive to the influence of gestational age, birth weight and presence of stress factors like maternal PIH, birth asphyxia, neonatal sepsis and neonatal seizures and should be interpreted cautiously.

  17. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  18. Association of Elevated Amyloid Levels With Cognition and Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal People From the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ronald C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Knopman, David S.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The role of amyloid in the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiology is of central interest to the design of randomized clinical trials. The presence of amyloid has become a prerequisite for enrollment in several secondary prevention trials for AD, yet the precise effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent clinical and biomarker events is less certain. OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of elevated amyloid levels on subsequent changes in cognition and biomarkers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 564 cognitively normal individuals (median age, 78 years) from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a population-based longitudinal study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with serial cognitive data were selected for this study. The data used in this study were collected from January 12, 2006, to January 9, 2014. Individuals included in this study had undergone magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET at baseline were not cognitively impaired at baseline and had at least 1 clinical follow-up. A subset of 286 individuals also underwent serial imaging. Elevated amyloid level was defined as a standardized uptake value ratio of greater than 1.5 on PiB PET. Associations with baseline amyloid status and baseline and longitudinal change in clinical and imaging measures were evaluated after adjusting for age and hippocampal volume. APOE4 effects were also evaluated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cognitive measures of memory, language, attention/executive function, visuospatial skills, PiB levels, hippocampal and ventricular volumes, and FDG-PET measures. RESULTS At baseline, 179 (31.7%) individuals with elevated amyloid levels had poorer cognition in all domains measured, reduced hippocampal volume, and greater FDG-PET hypometabolism. Elevated amyloid levels at baseline were associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline in all domains (0.04 to 0.09 z score units per year

  19. Elevated serum level of human alkaline phosphatase in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rehman; Awan, Fazli Rabbi; Najam, Syeda Sadia; Islam, Mehboob; Siddique, Tehmina; Zain, Maryam

    2015-11-01

    To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass. normal weight (27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Of the 197 subjects, 97(49%) were obese and 100(51%) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity.

  20. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  1. Elevated serum osteoprotegerin levels in women: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Baracat, Maria Cândida Pinheiro; Soares Júnior, José Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    osteoprotegerin has emerged as a new candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, high levels of osteoprotegerin have been linked to vascular calcification, an independent and well-defined risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Thus, the action of osteoprotegerin in these situations has been questioned. to evaluate the effect of osteoprotegerin (OPG) on the human body, especially in bone tissue and in vascular diseases. the scientific databases consulted were PubMed-Medline and Cochrane, using keywords (MeSH terms) grouped into the following syntaxes: (Osteoprotegerin OR Osteoclastogenesis Inhibitory Factor OR Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 11b OR Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 11b OR FDCR-1 Protein OR FDCR 1 Protein OR OCIF Protein OR Follicular Dendritic Cell-Derived Receptor-1) AND (Bones AND Bone OR Bones AND Bone Tissue OR Bones OR Bone Tissue OR Cardiovascular Diseases). Osteoprotegerin is present in various organs and binds to two ligands: nuclear factor kB (RANKL) related to the differentiation of osteoclasts, and tumor necrosis factor related to the apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). OPG inhibits the regulation effects of nuclear factor kB on inflammation and on the skeletal and vascular systems, preventing the apoptosis induced by TRAIL, being related to the preservation of bone tissue. a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the association between OPG serum levels, bone integrity and cardiovascular disease can provide important data for future therapeutic interventions.

  2. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure

  3. Elevated tritium levels at the World Trade Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, Thomas M.; Hafner, Ronald S.; Parekh, Pravin P.; Wozniak, Gordon J.; Haines, Douglas K.; Husain, Liaquat; Rabun, Robert L.; Williams, Philip G.

    2002-05-14

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at [the]World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A method of ultralow-background liquid scintillation counting was used after distilling HTO from the samples. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.174 plus or minus 0.074 (2s) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 plus or minus 0.17 and 2.83 plus or minus 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from areas outside the ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and Kensico Reservoir. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. All these results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure.

  4. Elevated levels of Dickkopf-related protein 3 in seminal plasma of prostate cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzmaier Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of Dkk-3, a secreted putative tumor suppressor, is altered in age-related proliferative disorders of the human prostate. We now investigated the suitability of Dkk-3 as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa in seminal plasma (SP. Methods SP samples were obtained from 81 patients prior to TRUS-guided prostate biopsies on the basis of elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA; > 4 ng/mL levels and/or abnormal digital rectal examination. A sensitive indirect immunoenzymometric assay for Dkk-3 was developed and characterized in detail. SP Dkk-3 and PSA levels were determined and normalized to total SP protein. The diagnostic accuracies of single markers including serum PSA and multivariate models to discriminate patients with positive (N = 40 and negative (N = 41 biopsy findings were investigated. Results Biopsy-confirmed PCa showed significantly higher SP Dkk-3 levels (100.9 ± 12.3 vs. 69.2 ± 9.4 fmol/mg; p = 0.026. Diagnostic accuracy (AUC of SP Dkk-3 levels (0.633 was enhanced in multivariate models by including serum PSA (model A; AUC 0.658 or both, serum and SP PSA levels (model B; AUC 0.710. In a subpopulation with clinical follow-up > 3 years post-biopsy to ensure veracity of negative biopsy status (positive biopsy N = 21; negative biopsy N = 25 AUCs for SP Dkk-3, model A and B increased to 0.667, 0.724 and 0.777, respectively. Conclusions In multivariate models to detect PCa, inclusion of SP Dkk-3 levels, which were significantly elevated in biopsy-confirmed PCa patients, improved the diagnostic performance compared with serum PSA only.

  5. Effect of exercise timing on elevated postprandial glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Yoichi; Goya, Ryoma; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshimura, Eichi; Nishimura, Sena; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding optimal exercise timing for reducing postprandial glucose (PPG). The purpose of the present study was to determine the most effective exercise timing. Eleven participants completed four different exercise patterns 1 ) no exercise; 2 ) preprandial exercise (jogging); 3 ) postprandial exercise; and 4 ) brief periodic exercise intervention (three sets of 1-min jogging + 30 s of rest, every 30 min, 20 times total) in a random order separated by a minimum of 5 days. Preprandial and postprandial exercise consisted of 20 sets of intermittent exercise (1 min of jogging + 30 s rest per set) repeated 3 times per day. Total daily exercise volume was identical for all three exercise patterns. Exercise intensities were 62.4 ± 12.9% V̇o 2peak Blood glucose concentrations were measured continuously throughout each trial for 24 h. After breakfast, peak blood glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise (99 ± 6 mg/dl) than those with preprandial and postprandial exercise (109 ± 10 and 115 ± 14 mg/dl, respectively, P glucose concentrations were lower with brief periodic exercise than those with postprandial exercise (97 ± 5 and 108 ± 8 mg/dl, P glucose concentrations did not significantly differ among exercise patterns. Areas under the curve over 24 h and 2 h postprandially did not differ among exercise patterns. These findings suggest that brief periodic exercise may be more effective than preprandial and postprandial exercise at attenuating PPG in young active individuals. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This was the first study to investigate the effect of different exercise timing (brief periodic vs. preprandial vs. postprandial exercise) on postprandial glucose (PPG) attenuation in active healthy men. We demonstrated that brief periodic exercise attenuated peak PPG levels more than preprandial and postprandial exercise, particularly in the morning. Additionally, PPG rebounded soon after discontinuing postprandial

  6. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  7. Elevated Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels in Post-operative Biliary Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papit Nattee

    2009-04-01

    Conclusion: MIF production was elevated in BA patients compared to normal controls. It is likely that MIF plays a role in the pathophysiology of post-operative BA patients. However, the elevated MIF levels are not associated with either jaundice status or portal hypertension.

  8. Elevating endocannabinoid levels: pharmacological strategies and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2014-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, of endogenous agonists for these receptors known as 'endocannabinoids', and of processes responsible for endocannabinoid biosynthesis, cellular uptake and metabolism. There is strong evidence first, that this system up-regulates in certain disorders as indicated by an increased release of endocannabinoids onto their receptors and/or by increases in the expression levels or coupling efficiency of these receptors, and second, that this up-regulation often appears to reduce or abolish unwanted effects of these disorders or to slow their progression. This discovery has raised the possibility of developing a medicine that enhances up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system associated with these disorders by inhibiting the cellular uptake or intracellular metabolism of an endocannabinoid following its 'autoprotective' endogenous release. For inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolism, research has focused particularly on two highly investigated endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and hence on inhibitors of the main anandamide-metabolising enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and of the main 2-arachidonoyl glycerol-metabolising enzyme, monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase. The resulting data have provided strong preclinical evidence that selective FAAH and MAG lipase inhibitors would ameliorate the unwanted effects of several disorders, when administered alone or with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and that the benefit-to-risk ratio of a FAAH inhibitor would exceed that of a MAG lipase inhibitor or dual inhibitor of FAAH and MAG lipase. Promising preclinical data have also been obtained with inhibitors of endocannabinoid cellular uptake. There is now an urgent need for clinical research with these enzyme and uptake inhibitors.

  9. Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

  10. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obasi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  11. Prediction and comparison of noise levels from ground and elevated flare systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obasi, E. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Flaring is a process to dispose of hydrocarbons during clean-up, emergency shut downs or dispose a small volume waste streams of mixed gasses that cannot easily or safely be separated. This presentation discussed flaring as a noise issue. It focused on flaring noise characterization; flare noise modeling; flare sound power levels; and flare sound pressure level comparison at a distance of 1.5 km. The presentation included a photograph of flaring at a gas plant in Nigeria. The presentation listed some of the potential health effects associated with long term exposure to excessive noise, such as hearing loss; headaches; stress; fatigue; sleep disturbance; and high blood pressure. Companies flare gas to dispose waste gases in a safe and reliable manner through combustion and to depressurize gas lines during maintenance and emergencies. This presentation also discussed ground and elevated flares; components of flare noise characterization; and key factors affecting flare noise. A model to predict flaring noise was also presented. It demonstrated that at the same gas mass flow rate, the noise level from elevated flare stacks are significantly higher than ground flares. tabs., figs.

  12. Liver histology in hepatitis C virus positive patients with normal and elevated alanine amino transferase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Akhter, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    To compare liver histology in HCV RNA positive patients with normal and elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Level (AST). This Cohort (prospective) study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from Jan 2007 to July 2007. Forty patients with positive HCV RNA were included. Their liver function tests were followed for three months. Those having normal ALT on three occasions were taken as controls and those having elevated ALT were taken as cases. Liver biopsy was performed, Specimens were reviewed by single pathologist. Scheuer's scoring for grading of inflammation and staging of fibrosis of chronic hepatitis was used. Out of Forty patients having positive HCV RNA, 14 (35%) were male and 26 (65%) were female. Mean ALT in control group was 27.3 +- 6.1mu/l, mean ALT in cases was 91.7 +- 39.95 mu/l. Mean age in controls was 34.2 +- 10.75 years and in cases was 33.6 +- 9.40 years. On histopathology, the mean grade of inflammation in controls was 1.40 +- 0.681 while in cases was 1.20 +- 0.834, which was not statistically significantly different in the two groups (p= 0.411). Similarly mean staging of fibrosis in controls was 1.20 +- 0.768 and in cases was 1.35 +- 1.348 which was also not statistically different in the two groups (p=0.668). Stage 3 and 4 fibrosis was seen only in raised ALT group and not in the controls. Patients with persistently normal ALT and elevated ALT, although had similar grading of inflammation but the fibrosis score was more in elevated ALT group. None of the patients with normal ALT had normal histology, so decision for antiviral treatment should be individualized in this group also (JPMA 59:832; 2009). (author)

  13. Elevated serum levels of free triiodothyronine in adolescent boys with gynaecomastia compared with controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglæde, Lise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pubertal gynaecomastia is a frequent phenomenon occurring in 20-40% of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. Little is known about the aetiology of pubertal gynaecomastia. Markedly elevated thyroid hormone levels in adults with hyperthyroidism are associated with gynaecomastia. DESIGN...

  14. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, Pfasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patient with extremely elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengju; Yao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Dakui; Gu, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patients with extremely elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) level before operation(>50 μg/L). Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 1250 patients with colonic adenocarcinoma undergoing primary tumor resection between January 2001 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were divided into three groups according to the preoperative serum CEA levels as normal group (0-5 μg/L, 721 cases), elevated group(5-50 μg/L, 408 cases) and extremely elevated(>50 μg/L, 121 cases). Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival between groups. Cox regression was used to screen the independent prognostic factors of colon cancer. Compared with normal and elevated groups, patients with extremely elevated CEA had more advanced T,N,M stages (Pcolon cancer (all PColon cancer patients with extremely elevated preoperative CEA levels are associated with more unfavorable pathological factors, advanced TNM stage and more distant metastases (especially the liver metastases) during the follow-up. The elevated degree of preoperative CEA level is an independent poor prognostic factor of patients with colon cancer.

  16. Elevation of sulfatides in ovarian cancer: An integrated transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis including tissue-imaging mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald John F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfatides (ST are a category of sulfated galactosylceramides (GalCer that are elevated in many types of cancer including, possibly, ovarian cancer. Previous evidence for elevation of ST in ovarian cancer was based on a colorimetric reagent that does not provide structural details and can also react with other lipids. Therefore, this study utilized mass spectrometry for a structure-specific and quantitative analysis of the types, amounts, and tissue localization of ST in ovarian cancer, and combined these findings with analysis of mRNAs for the relevant enzymes of ST metabolism to explore possible mechanisms. Results Analysis of 12 ovarian tissues graded as histologically normal or having epithelial ovarian tumors by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI-MS/MS established that most tumor-bearing tissues have higher amounts of ST. Because ovarian cancer tissues are comprised of many different cell types, histological tissue slices were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tissue-imaging MS (MALDI-TIMS. The regions where ST were detected by MALDI-TIMS overlapped with the ovarian epithelial carcinoma as identified by H & E staining and histological scoring. Furthermore, the structures for the most prevalent species observed via MALDI-TIMS (d18:1/C16:0-, d18:1/C24:1- and d18:1/C24:0-ST were confirmed by MALDI-TIMS/MS, whereas, a neighboring ion(m/z 885.6 that was not tumor specific was identified as a phosphatidylinositol. Microarray analysis of mRNAs collected using laser capture microdissection revealed that expression of GalCer synthase and Gal3ST1 (3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate:GalCer sulfotransferase were approximately 11- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively, in the ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells versus normal ovarian stromal tissue, and they were 5- and 2.3-fold higher in comparison with normal surface ovarian epithelial cells, which is a likely

  17. The effect of educational level elevation on the mathematical skill in hearing-impaired students

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    Azam Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There is a relation between language skills and science learning in educational approach. Hearing-impairment and delay in learning of language skills influence the progress of learning. The aim of this research was to study the effect of educational level elevation on growth of mathematical skill. Therefore, third grade hearing-impaired students of secondary school, and forth grade hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students of elementary school were compared in terms of mathematical skill.Methods: The research was cross-sectional and the internationally standardized mathematics questions (2007 were selected as the tools of the test. The sample included 31 students of 4th grade elementary and third grade of secondary school with sever hearing loss from exceptional schools, and 17 normal-hearing students were randomly selected from ordinary schools next to the exceptional schools in Robatkarim, Karaj, and Shahriyar cities, Iran.Results: According to data analysis there was a meaningful difference between hearing-impaired students of forth and third grades and normal-hearing students in the three fields of knowledge, application and argument (p0.05.Conclusion: No significant improvement was seen in the mathematical skill of hearing-impaired students by educational level elevation. Writing mathematical books for the pre-elementary courses, revision of teaching methods, and increasing teaching hours are necessary in mathematics.

  18. Early Elevated Troponin Levels After Ischemic Stroke Suggests a Cardioembolic Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Shadi; Chang, Andrew D; Ricci, Brittany A; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; McTaggart, Ryan A; Hemendinger, Morgan; Narwal, Priya; Dakay, Katarina; Mac Grory, Brian; Cutting, Shawna M; Burton, Tina M; Song, Christopher; Mehanna, Emile; Siket, Matthew; Madsen, Tracy E; Reznik, Michael; Merkler, Alexander E; Lerario, Michael P; Kamel, Hooman; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Furie, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Elevated cardiac troponin is a marker of cardiac disease and has been recently shown to be associated with embolic stroke risk. We hypothesize that early elevated troponin levels in the acute stroke setting are more prevalent in patients with embolic stroke subtypes (cardioembolic and embolic stroke of unknown source) as opposed to noncardioembolic subtypes (large-vessel disease, small-vessel disease, and other). We abstracted data from our prospective ischemic stroke database and included all patients with ischemic stroke during an 18-month period. Per our laboratory, we defined positive troponin as ≥0.1 ng/mL and intermediate as ≥0.06 ng/mL and stroke subtype (embolic stroke of unknown source and cardioembolic subtypes) and positive and intermediate troponin levels, adjusting for key confounders, including demographics (age and sex), clinical characteristics (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, renal function, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, current smoking, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), cardiac variables (left atrial diameter, wall-motion abnormalities, ejection fraction, and PR interval on ECG), and insular involvement of infarct. We identified 1234 patients, of whom 1129 had admission troponin levels available; 10.0% (113/1129) of these had a positive troponin. In fully adjusted models, there was an association between troponin positivity and embolic stroke of unknown source subtype (adjusted odds ratio, 4.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-7.97; P =0.003) and cardioembolic stroke subtype (odds ratio, 5.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-13.63; P =0.002). We found that early positive troponin after ischemic stroke may be independently associated with a cardiac embolic source. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings using high-sensitivity troponin assays and to test optimal secondary prevention strategies in patients with embolic stroke of unknown source and positive troponin. © 2017 American

  19. Elevated serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5a levels in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jhih; Huang, Tsai-Wang; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chu, Der-Ming; Chen, Wei-Liang; Wu, Li-Wei

    2017-09-29

    Tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a is expressed in tumor-associated macrophages and is a biomarker of chronic inflammation. Herein, we correlated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels with metabolic syndrome status and made comparisons with traditional markers of inflammation, including c-reactive protein and interleukin-6. One hundred healthy volunteers were randomly selected, and cut-off points for metabolic syndrome related inflammatory biomarkers were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Linear and logistic regression models were subsequently used to correlate inflammatory markers with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, and serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels of >5.8 μg/L were associated with metabolic syndrome (c-statistics, 0.730; p = 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 0.618-0.842). In addition, 1 μg/L increases in tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels were indicative of a 1.860 fold increase in the risk of metabolic syndrome (p = 0.012). Elevated serum tartrate-resistant phosphatase isoform 5a levels are associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome, with a cut-off level of 5.8 μg/L.

  20. Surveillance of elevated blood lead levels in children in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Valdez-Abrego, Camilo; Adame-Lopez, Beatriz; Gurrola-Mendez, Aurora

    2012-09-01

    Because children exposed to lead have a very high health risk, surveillance and prevention programs are very important to avoid short- and long-term health effects. To describe the trend for the blood lead levels over a 12-year period in environmentally exposed children and to document the actions implemented to reduce the blood lead levels. We performed a retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-15 years who were enrolled in the Coahuila Health Secretary's Childhood Blood Lead Level Surveillance program. This database includes children from the city of Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico, where the biggest smelter in Latin America is located. A total of 151,322 observations were analyzed in the study. The percentage of samples with elevated blood lead levels decreased from 84.9% to 10.4% during 1998-2010, and the decrease was greater in girls than in boys. According to the results of our study, the majority of strategies and activities to decrease blood lead levels in an environmentally exposed population should be focused on children aged 0-5 years, on the home environment, on preventing fugitive emissions from smelters and other sources and on the proper disposal and confinement of industrial residues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  2. Predictors of elevated blood lead levels among 3-year-old Ukrainian children: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L S; Lukyanova, O M; Kundiev, Y I; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Z A; Chislovska, N V; Mucha, A; Zvinchuk, A V; Oliynyk, I; Hryhorczuk, D

    2005-10-01

    Lead is common in the general population. However, data are lacking for the Ukraine and many other countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU). In this study we evaluate the level of blood lead among 212 Ukrainian children and determine predictors of elevated lead levels. We also describe the health effects associated with elevated blood lead. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted in March 1998. Blood assays were analyzed for lead by labs at the Centers for Disease Control and using portable examination kits. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood lead (blood levels in the upper quartile >4.65 microg/dL) using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic status, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, diet, and health status. The geometric mean lead level was 3.15 microg/dL (range, 0.7--22.7). In our adjusted model, we observed a strong association between lead levels in the upper quartile and children whose fathers worked manual labor jobs in industries associated with lead exposures [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.25; P=0.025] and mothers who smoke indoors (adjusted OR=2.87; P=0.047). Daily hygiene and dietary habits were not associated with elevated lead levels. No increased risks of overall morbidity or lead-associated illness were observed (anemia, dental caries, renal disease, cardiovascular diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints). This is the first study to describe lead levels and associated variables among Ukrainian children in the peer-reviewed literature. Elevated lead levels in these children were associated with paternal occupation and mothers smoking indoors. At age 3 no adverse health effects were observed. More data are needed to determine the level of heavy metal contamination in children from the Ukraine and many other former Soviet nation-states.

  3. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: A prospective follow up study

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    Chu Winnie CW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. Methods In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. Results The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects. The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol. Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%. We invited 47 (9% subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months. None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol. Conclusions Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  4. Hong Kong Chinese school children with elevated urine melamine levels: a prospective follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alice P S; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Michael H M; Wong, Chun Kwok; Liu, Eric K H; Chu, Winnie C W; Chow, Viola C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Chan, Juliana C N

    2011-05-20

    In 2008, the outbreak of kidney stones in children fed by melamine-tainted milk products in Mainland China has caused major public concern of food safety. We identified Hong Kong school children with elevated urine melamine level from a community-based school survey in 2007-08 and reviewed their clinical status in 2009. In 2007-08, 2119 school children participated in a primary and secondary school survey in Hong Kong using a cluster sampling method. Urine aliquots from 502 subjects were assayed for melamine level. High urine melamine level was defined as urine melamine/creatinine ratio >7.1 μg/mmol. Subjects with high urine melamine level were invited for clinical evaluation in 2009 including urinalysis and ultrasound imaging of the urinary system. The age range of this subcohort was 6 - 20 years with 67% girls (335 female and 167 male subjects). The spot urine melamine/creatinine ratio of the 502 urine aliquots ranged from undetectable to 1467 μg/mmol (median 0.8 μg/mmol). Of these, 213 subjects had undetectable level (42%). We invited 47 (9%) subjects with high urine melamine level for re-evaluation and one subject declined. The median duration of follow-up was 23.5 months (interquartile range: 19.8 - 30.6 months). None of the 46 subjects (28% boys, mean age 13.9 ± 2.9 years) had any abnormality detected on ultrasound study of the urinary system. All subjects had stable renal function with a median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 0.70 mg/mmol (interquartile range: 0.00 - 2.55 mg/mmol). Hong Kong Chinese school children with high urine melamine levels appeared to have benign clinical course in the short term although a long term follow-up study is advisable in those with persistently high urine melamine level.

  5. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  6. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-02-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  7. Elevated Serum Level of HMGB1 in Patients with the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manganelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy problems are common in patients with rheumatic disease; indeed, autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies can affect pregnancy progress and lead to maternal complications. Recent studies have highlighted a close association between HMGB1, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, in this investigation, we analyzed serum levels of HMGB1, an alarmin which plays a pivotal role in inducing and enhancing immune cell function. Sera from 30 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (11 primary and 19 secondary APS, 35 subjects with pregnancy morbidity, and 30 healthy women were analysed for HMGB1 and its putative receptor RAGE (sRAGE by Western blot and for TNF-α by ELISA. Results revealed that APS patients showed significantly increased serum levels of HMGB1, sRAGE, and the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, as compared to healthy women. However, also, the pregnancy morbidity subjects showed significantly increased levels of HMGB1 and sRAGE as well as TNF-α compared to healthy women. Our findings suggest that in subjects with pregnancy morbidity, including obstetric APS, elevated levels of HMGB1/sRAGE may represent an alarm signal, indicating an increase of proinflammatory triggers. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of HMGB1/sRAGE as a possible tool to evaluate the risk stratification of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  9. Towards quantitave ecological risk assessment of elevated carbon dioxide levels in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Foekema, E.M.; Klok, T.C.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels has become of more interest in recent years. This, in relation to globally rising CO2 levels and related considerations of geological CO2 storage as a mitigating measure. In the present study effect data from literature were collected

  10. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  11. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu eMinamisawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2] affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment (ambient + 200 μmol⋅mol−1 using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari and two experimental lines of Koshihikari (chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  12. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  13. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  14. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  15. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Spectrum of Disorders Associated with Elevated Serum IgG4 Levels Encountered in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Ryu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently described systemic fibroinflammatory disease associated with elevated circulating levels of IgG4 and manifests a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Although serum IgG4 level has been described to be the most sensitive and specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, it is recognized that an elevated serum IgG4 level can be encountered in other diseases. In this study, we sought to identify the frequency of IgG4-RD and other disease associations in patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels seen in clinical practice. Among 3,300 patients who underwent IgG subclass testing over a 2-year period from January 2009 to December 2010, 158 (4.8% had an elevated serum IgG4 level (>140 mg/dL. IgG4 subclass testing was performed for evaluation of suspected IgG4-RD or immunodeficiency. Twenty-nine patients (18.4% had definite or possible IgG4-RD. Among those patients without IgG4-RD, a broad spectrum of biliary tract, pancreatic, liver, and lung diseases, as well as systemic vasculitis, was diagnosed. We conclude that patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels encountered in clinical practice manifest a wide array of disorders, and only a small minority of them has IgG4-RD.

  17. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical–antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. PMID:25042713

  18. Elevated levels of antibodies against xenobiotics in a subgroup of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kharrazian, Datis; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2015-04-01

    In spite of numerous research efforts, the exact etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. Genetics and environmental factors, including xenobiotics, are believed to be involved in the induction of autoimmune disease. Some environmental chemicals, acting as haptens, can bind to a high-molecular-weight carrier protein such as human serum albumin (HSA), causing the immune system to misidentify self-tissue as an invader and launch an immune response against it, leading to autoimmunity. This study aimed to examine the percentage of blood samples from healthy donors in which chemical agents mounted immune challenges and produced antibodies against HSA-bound chemicals. The levels of specific antibodies against 12 different chemicals bound to HSA were measured by ELISA in serum from 400 blood donors. We found that 10% (IgG) and 17% (IgM) of tested individuals showed significant antibody elevation against aflatoxin-HSA adduct. The percentage of elevation against the other 11 chemicals ranged from 8% to 22% (IgG) and 13% to 18% (IgM). Performance of serial dilution and inhibition of the chemical-antibody reaction by specific antigens but not by non-specific antigens were indicative of the specificity of these antibodies. Although we lack information about chemical exposure in the tested individuals, detection of antibodies against various protein adducts may indicate chronic exposure to these chemical haptens in about 20% of the tested individuals. Currently the pathological significance of these antibodies in human blood is still unclear, and this protein adduct formation could be one of the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals induce autoimmune reactivity in a significant percentage of the population. Copyright © 2014. The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Elevated ground-level O3 negatively influences paddy methanogenic archaeal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youzhi; Lin, Xiangui; Yu, Yongchang; Zhang, Huayong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on rice-paddy methane (CH4) emissions is incomplete, partly because information is limited concerning the mechanism of the microbial response to elevated ground-level ozone (O3). A field experiment was conducted in the China Ozone Free-Air Concentration Enrichment facility in a rice–wheat rotation system to investigate the responses of methanogenic archaeal communities to elevated ground-level O3 by culture-independent and -reliant approaches. We found that elevated ground-level O3 inhibited methanogenic activity and influenced the composition of paddy methanogenic communities, reducing the abundance and diversity of paddy methanogens by adversely affecting dominant groups, such as aceticlastic Methanosaeta, especially at the rice tillering stage. Our results indicated that continuously elevated ground-level O3 would negatively influence paddy methanogenic archaeal communities and its critical ecological function. These findings will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the responses and feedbacks of paddy ecosystems to global climate change. PMID:24217205

  20. Elevated Level of Serum Triglyceride may be the only threat of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heena

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank employees in Riyadh region of Saudi. Arabia. Abbas H Alsaeed. Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: abbasalsaeed@yahoo.com. Tel: +966 555459161 ...

  1. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; Peri, Giuseppe; Setiati, Tatty E.; Hack, C. Erik; Koraka, Penelopie; Soemantri, Augustinus; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Mantovani, Alberto; van Gorp, Eric C. M.

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  2. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, ATA; Peri, G; Setiati, TE; Hack, CE; Koraka, P; Soemantri, A; Osterhaus, ADME; Brandjes, DPM; van der Meer, JWM; Mantovani, A; van Gorp, ECM

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  3. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Peri, G.; Setiati, T.E.; Hack, C.E.; Koraka, P.; Soemantri, A.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Brandjes, D.P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Mantovani, A.; Gorp, E. van

    2005-01-01

    C-reactive protein is one of the most widely used indicators of the response of acute-phase proteins. The measurement of C-reactive protein in dengue, however, is clinically not useful, because of marginally elevated levels and absent association with disease severity. The prototypic long pentraxin,

  4. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Holst, J J; Møller, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone produced mainly in fat cells, appears to be important for the regulation of metabolism, insulin secretion/sensitivity and body weight. Recently, elevated plasma leptin levels have been reported in patients with arterial hypertension. Because a change in circulating lepti...

  5. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  6. Elevated circulating leptin levels in arterial hypertension: relationship to arteriovenous overflow and extraction of leptin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Holst, J J; Moller, S

    2000-01-01

    during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds (artery, and renal, hepatic, iliac and cubital veins). Plasma leptin was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Patients with hypertension had significantly elevated levels of circulating leptin (12.8 ng/l, compared with 4.1 ng....../l in the controls; Pblood pressure (r=0.38-0.62, P...

  7. There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatixhe Latifi-Pupovci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD, especially in patients with Graves’ disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves’ disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200 kIU/L. Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves’ disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P<0.05. Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves’ disease patients (r=0.43, P=0.006. Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors.

  8. Elevated second-trimester serum homocyst(e)ine levels and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, T K; Malinow, M R; Williams, M A; King, I B; Luthy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. In late gestation, levels of homocyst(e)ine are higher in preeclamptics, as compared with normotensive pregnant women. Our objective was to determine whether homocyst(e)ine elevations precede the development of preeclampsia. We used a prospective nested case-control study design to compare second trimester maternal serum homocyst(e)ine concentrations in 52 patients who developed preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria) compared with 56 women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. Study subjects were selected from a base population of 3, 042 women who provided blood samples at an average gestational age of 16 weeks and later delivered at our center. Serum homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Approximately 29% of preeclamptics, as compared to 13% of controls had homocyst(e)ine levels >/=5.5 micromol/l (upper decile of distribution of control values). Adjusted for maternal age, parity, and body mass-index, a second trimester elevation of homocyst(e)ine was associated with a 3. 2-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1. 1-9.2; p = 0.030). There was evidence of a interaction between maternal adiposity (as indicated by her prepregnancy body mass index) and parity with second trimester elevations in serum homocyst(e)ine. Nulliparous women with elevated homocyst(e)ine levels experienced a 9.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia as compared with multiparous women without homocyst(e)ine elevations (95% CI 2.1-14.1; p = 0.003). Women with a higher prepregnancy body mass index (>/=21.4 kg/m(2), or upper 50th percentile) and who also had elevated homocyst(e)ine levels, as compared with leaner women without homocyst(e)ine elevations were 6.9 times more likely to later develop preeclampsia (95% CI 1.4-32.1; p = 0.016). Our findings are consistent with other

  9. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels associate with elevated serum C-reactive protein in chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Damera, Sriharsha; Raphael, Kalani L.; Baird, Bradley C.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Greene, Tom; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    High serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in the general population. To examine whether this association is independent of serum vitamin D levels or modified in chronic kidney disease (CKD), we determined if such associations exist using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III of 14,420 adult participants in which 5.7% had CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73...

  10. The conservation value of elevation data accuracy and model sophistication in reserve design under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjian; Hoctor, Tom; Volk, Mike; Frank, Kathryn; Linhoss, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have explored the value of using more sophisticated coastal impact models and higher resolution elevation data in sea-level rise (SLR) adaptation planning. However, we know little about to what extent the improved models and data could actually lead to better conservation outcomes under SLR. This is important to know because high-resolution data are likely to not be available in some data-poor coastal areas in the world and running more complicated coastal impact models is relatively time-consuming, expensive, and requires assistance by qualified experts and technicians. We address this research question in the context of identifying conservation priorities in response to SLR. Specifically, we investigated the conservation value of using more accurate light detection and ranging (Lidar)-based digital elevation data and process-based coastal land-cover change models (Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model, SLAMM) to identify conservation priorities versus simple "bathtub" models based on the relatively coarse National Elevation Dataset (NED) in a coastal region of northeast Florida. We compared conservation outcomes identified by reserve design software (Zonation) using three different model dataset combinations (Bathtub-NED, Bathtub-Lidar, and SLAMM-Lidar). The comparisons show that the conservation priorities are significantly different with different combinations of coastal impact models and elevation dataset inputs. The research suggests that it is valuable to invest in more accurate coastal impact models and elevation datasets in SLR adaptive conservation planning because this model-dataset combination could improve conservation outcomes under SLR. Less accurate coastal impact models, including ones created using coarser Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data can still be useful when better data and models are not available or feasible, but results need to be appropriately assessed and communicated. A future research priority is to investigate how

  11. C-reactive protein, genetically elevated levels and risk of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Jeppe; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether genetically elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) cause increased risk of ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Levels of CRP >3mg/L, compared with levels disease and ischemic...... cerebrovascular disease. Genotype combinations of the 4 CRP polymorphisms associated with up to a 64% increase in CRP levels, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of up to 32% for ischemic heart disease and up to 25% for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, these genotype combinations did...... not associate with increased risk of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease....

  12. HDAC inhibition induces increased choline uptake and elevated phosphocholine levels in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Ward

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have emerged as effective antineoplastic agents in the clinic. Studies from our lab and others have reported that magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS-detectable phosphocholine (PC is elevated following SAHA treatment, providing a potential noninvasive biomarker of response. Typically, elevated PC is associated with cancer while a decrease in PC accompanies response to antineoplastic treatment. The goal of this study was therefore to elucidate the underlying biochemical mechanism by which HDAC inhibition leads to elevated PC. We investigated the effect of SAHA on MCF-7 breast cancer cells using (13C MRS to monitor [1,2-(13C] choline uptake and phosphorylation to PC. We found that PC synthesis was significantly higher in treated cells, representing 154±19% of control. This was within standard deviation of the increase in total PC levels detected by (31P MRS (129±7% of control. Furthermore, cellular choline kinase activity was elevated (177±31%, while cytidylyltransferase activity was unchanged. Expression of the intermediate-affinity choline transporter SLC44A1 and choline kinase α increased (144% and 161%, respectively relative to control, as determined by mRNA microarray analysis with protein-level confirmation by Western blotting. Taken together, our findings indicate that the increase in PC levels following SAHA treatment results from its elevated synthesis. Additionally, the concentration of glycerophosphocholine (GPC increased significantly with treatment to 210±45%. This is likely due to the upregulated expression of several phospholipase A2 (PLA2 isoforms, resulting in increased PLA2 activity (162±18% in SAHA-treated cells. Importantly, the levels of total choline (tCho-containing metabolites, comprised of choline, PC and GPC, are readily detectable clinically using (1H MRS. Our findings thus provide an important step in validating clinically translatable non-invasive imaging methods for follow

  13. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  14. Serum levels of IGFBP7 are elevated during acute exacerbation in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenjing Ruan,1 Minliang Wu,2 Liuhong Shi,1 Fengying Li,3 Liangliang Dong,1 Yuanhua Qiu,1 Xiaohong Wu,1 Kejing Ying1 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Department of Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, 3Department of Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7 level in the serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients during acute exacerbation (AE.Methods: The study population consisted of 47 AECOPD patients, including 25 patients enrolled between January 2011 and February 2011 (the first group and 22 patients enrolled from December 2011 to August 2012 (the second group and 29 healthy controls. Chemiluminescence–linked immunoassay was used to detect serum IGFBP7 levels. For the second group patients, IGFBP7 and C-reactive protein (CRP levels were measured both on the admission day and on the discharge day.Results: Among the first group AECOPD patients, serum IGFBP7 levels were significantly ­elevated in AECOPD patients in the intensive care unit (ICU; 52.92±16.32 ng/mL, and in ­hospitalized AECOPD patients not in ICU (40.66±13.9, compared to healthy subjects (30.3±7.09 ng/mL; P<0.01. For the second group AECOPD patients, the increased IGFBP7 levels reduced after the patients had recovered (34.42±11.88 vs 27.24±7.2 ng/mL; P<0.01. During AE, the correlation coefficient between IGFBP7 and CRP was 0.357. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.799 for CRP, and 0.663 for IGFBP7 in distinguishing patients with AECOPD on the admission day from the discharge day.Conclusion: Serum IGFBP7 levels were raised during AECOPD. Similar to the expression pattern of CRP, the IGFBP7 levels reduced after convalescence, suggesting that IGFBP7

  15. Vitamin D levels and susceptibility to asthma, elevated immunoglobulin E levels, and atopic dermatitis: A Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Paternoster, Lavinia; Standl, Marie; Moffatt, Miriam F; Farrall, Martin; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Strachan, David P; Demenais, Florence; Lathrop, Mark; Cookson, William O C M; Richards, J Brent

    2017-05-01

    Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of

  16. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme.

  17. Elevated Salivary Levels of Oxytocin Persist More than 7 h after Intranasal Administration

    OpenAIRE

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bhandari, Ritu; van der Veen, Rixt; Grewen, Karen M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 a.m.) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7 h in total. Oxytocin levels did not differ amon...

  18. Elevated salivary levels of oxytocin persist more than seven hours after intranasal administration

    OpenAIRE

    Marinus H. Van IJzendoorn; Ritu eBhandari; Rixt evan der Veen; Karen eGrewen; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the question how long salivary oxytocin levels remain elevated after intranasal administration, and whether it makes a difference when 16 IU or 24 IU of oxytocin administration is used. Oxytocin levels were measured in saliva samples collected from 46 female participants right before intranasal administration (at 9:30 AM) of 16 IU (n = 18) or 24 IU (n = 10) of oxytocin, or a placebo (n = 18), and each hour after administration, for 7h in total.Oxytocin levels did not differ among...

  19. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  20. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-04-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from -0.09 to -0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4 × 106 to 80.5 × 106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  1. Divergence of seafloor elevation and sea level rise in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Tiling-Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined effect of all of the processes affecting seafloor accretion and erosion by measuring changes in seafloor elevation and volume for five coral reef ecosystems in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Caribbean over the last several decades. Regional-scale mean elevation and volume losses were observed at all five study sites and in 77 % of the 60 individual habitats that we examined across all study sites. Mean seafloor elevation losses for whole coral reef ecosystems in our study ranged from −0.09 to −0.8 m, corresponding to net volume losses ranging from 3.4  ×  106 to 80.5  ×  106 m3 for all study sites. Erosion of both coral-dominated substrate and non-coral substrate suggests that the current rate of carbonate production is no longer sufficient to support net accretion of coral reefs or adjacent habitats. We show that regional-scale loss of seafloor elevation and volume has accelerated the rate of relative sea level rise in these regions. Current water depths have increased to levels not predicted until near the year 2100, placing these ecosystems and nearby communities at elevated and accelerating risk to coastal hazards. Our results set a new baseline for projecting future impacts to coastal communities resulting from degradation of coral reef systems and associated losses of natural and socioeconomic resources.

  2. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

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    Violeta Moya-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Elevated blood lead levels (BLL and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far.Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed.At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83, and 128 infants (63% had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%. Twenty-five infants (12.5% had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L. Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048 and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03 in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators.Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due

  3. Factors Associated with Elevated HIV RNA Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Degener, Tyler; Allen, Sara; Wilson, Alicia; Baranoski, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Virologic suppression is necessary to reduce the risk of complications from HIV infection and to prevent transmission to other individuals. Understanding factors associated with elevated HIV RNA levels in HIV-infected individuals could lead to interventions to improve engagement in care. Methods This retrospective, observational study assessed HIV-infected individuals engaged in care in an urban HIV clinic between April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016. The electronic medical re...

  4. Elevated levels of AST, ALT, and CPK · no family history of liver disease · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh B; Maddur, Haripriya

    2017-07-01

    A 26-year-old healthy male veteran with bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder was referred for a gastroenterology consultation after a routine laboratory evaluation revealed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, 1040 IU/L (normal range, 10-40 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase, 334 IU/L (normal range, 7-56 IU/L). He had been taking divalproex and ziprasidone for the previous 2 years, during which time liver test results had been normal.

  5. Plasma levels of myeloperoxidase are not elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Lukas; Lu, Guijing; Baldus, Stephan; Berglund, Lars; Eiserich, Jason P

    2008-08-01

    Plasma and serum levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a redox-active hemoprotein released by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) upon activation, is now recognized as a powerful prognostic determinant of myocardial infarction in patients suffering acute coronary syndromes. However, there is limited information on whether systemic MPO levels are also elevated and of discriminating value in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) representing different ethnic groups. Plasma levels of MPO and traditional CAD risk factors were quantified in African American and Caucasian patients (n=557) undergoing elective coronary angiography. MPO levels did not differ significantly between patients with or without CAD [421 pM (321, 533) vs. 412 pM (326, 500), p>0.05]. MPO levels were similar across ethnicity and gender, and correlated positively with CRP and fibrinogen levels (r=0.132, p=0.002 and r=0.106, p=0.011, respectively). In conclusion, plasma MPO levels were not elevated in patients with stable CAD, suggesting that systemic release of MPO is not a characteristic feature of asymptomatic CAD.

  6. Effect of Sustained Elevated Gastric pH Levels on Gefitinib Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weifeng; Tomkinson, Helen; Masson, Eric

    2017-09-01

    This open-label, randomized, phase 1 crossover study investigated the effect of elevated gastric pH level (>5) on the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Healthy male volunteers (n = 26) were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg (fasted), either alone on day 1 (unmodified gastric pH) or 1 hour following the second of 2 oral doses of the H 2 -receptor antagonist ranitidine 450 mg (elevated gastric pH). After a 3-week washout period, volunteers crossed to the other treatment. The geometric least-squares (GLS) mean AUC 0-∞ and C max for gefitinib were reduced by 47% and 71%, respectively, under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH; for both parameters, the 90%CI for the ratio of the GLS means lay below the prespecified lower limit. Median t max was delayed from 5 to 6 hours. Mean t 1/2 was similar under both gastric pH conditions. No serious adverse events were reported. The bioavailability of a single oral gefitinib 250-mg dose was reduced by approximately 50% when gefitinib was administered under conditions of sustained elevated gastric pH. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome showing elevated levels of antinuclear and anticentromere antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Seisuke; Kasahara, Akinori; Tada, Shoko; Tanaka, Takehiro; Umena, Sachio; Fukatsu, Haruka; Noguchi, Toshio; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 56-year-old female initially visited an otorhinolaryngologist because of an impaired sense of taste in September, 2010 and was referred to our facility in October, 2010. She was diagnosed with Basedow's disease for which she underwent subtotal thyroidectomy in 1984 and arthritis involving multiple joints, primarily affecting her hands. In addition, the anticentromere antibody (ACA) level was markedly high. On physical examination, alopecia as well as hyperpigmentation of the dorsum of the hands and back was observed. Dystrophic changes of the fingernails and a bilateral thumb abduction deformity were observed. Antinuclear antibodies were elevated. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed the mucosa carpeted with strawberry-like polypoid lesions. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimen of the stomach revealed a corkscrew-like appearance. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS). She admitted to our hospital in November, 2010. Oral prednisolone was administered with success. In July, 2012, her antimitochondrial M2 antibody level was elevated. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first patient with CCS, a history of Basedow's disease, and elevated levels of ACA and antimitochondrial M2 antibody. We consider the present case suggests CCS could be caused by immunological abnormality.

  8. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  10. [Elevated levels of homocysteine in plasma as a risk factor for coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzielińska, Z; Kadziela, J; Sitkiewicz, D; Kruk, M; Przyłuski, J; Deptuch, T; Piotrowski, W; Dabrowski, M; Ruzyłło, W

    2000-07-01

    This study was performed to assess the significance of association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and circulating homocysteine concentrations. 100 consecutive CAD patients (78 men and 22 women, aged 31 to 79 years) qualified for PTCA were investigated. At the time of PTCA, the risk factors for CAD and plasma for homocysteine and vitamins were obtained. The controls were without clinical evidence of coronary artery disease and hypertension (90 men and 30 women aged 32 to 81 years). Homocysteine was assayed using ELISA test. Red cell folate and plasma vitamin B12 were assayed by immunofluoroscency (Delphia test). Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than in controls (13.61 +/- 4.5 vs 10.99 +/- 4.49 mumol/L, p or = 12.83 mumol/L--was seen in 46% of the patients compared with 20% of the control group (p = 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) for CAD in persons with elevated homocysteine level was 3.1 (95% Cl 1.6-5.8, p < 0.001, adjusted for age). The OR for CAD of 5 mumol/L increment in homocysteine level was 2.1 (95% Cl 1.4-3.1 p < 0.001, adjusted for age). After adjustment for conventional risk factors (age, smoking, hypertension, family history of CAD, hyperlipidemia), elevated homocysteine level remained independent risk factor for CAD (OR 2.88, 95% Cl 1.1-7.8, p < 0.05). We observed inverse correlation between homocysteine and folate level (r = -0.32, p = 0.005) and between homocysteine and vitamin B12 concentrations (r = -0.24, p = 0.03), especially in men. Patients with elevated homocysteine level had lower levels of folate (629.6 +/- 241.2 nmol/L vs 735.1 +/- 252.4 nmol/L, p < 0.05), and vitamin B12 (213.6 +/- 64.4 pmol/L vs 246.6 +/- 62.3 pmol/L, p < 0.05) than patients with normal level of homocysteine. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease. A 5 mumol/L increment in total homocysteine level may be associated with twofold increase of risk for the disease.

  11. Systemic administration of monosodium glutamate elevates intramuscular glutamate levels and sensitizes rat masseter muscle afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xudong; Mann, Mandeep K; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; McErlane, Keith M

    2007-11-01

    There is evidence that elevated tissue concentrations of glutamate may contribute to pain and sensitivity in certain musculoskeletal pain conditions. In the present study, the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) was injected intravenously into rats to determine whether it could significantly elevate interstitial concentrations of glutamate in the masseter muscle and whether MSG administration could excite and/or sensitize slowly conducting masseter afferent fibers through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. The interstitial concentration of glutamate after systemic injection of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline (control) or MSG (10 and 50mg/kg) was measured with a glutamate-selective biosensor. The pre-injection baseline interstitial concentration of glutamate in the rat masseter muscle was 24+/-11 microM. Peak interstitial concentration after injection of 50mg/kg MSG was 63+/-18 microM and remained elevated above baseline for approximately 18 min. In vivo single unit recording experiments were undertaken to assess the effect of MSG (50mg/kg) on masseter afferent fibers. Injection of MSG evoked a brief discharge in one afferent fiber, and significantly decreased ( approximately 25%) the average afferent mechanical threshold (n=10) during the first 5 min after injection of MSG. Intravenous injection of ketamine (1mg/kg), 5 min prior to MSG, prevented the MSG-induced decreases in the mechanical threshold of masseter afferent fibers. The present results indicate that a 2- to 3-fold elevation in interstitial glutamate levels in the masseter muscle is sufficient to excite and induce afferent mechanical sensitization through NMDA receptor activation. These findings suggest that modest elevations of interstitial glutamate concentration could alter musculoskeletal pain sensitivity in humans.

  12. Behavioral toxicology of breeding common loons exposed to elevated levels of mercury in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, J.; Taylor, P. [Acadia Univ., Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, Wolfville, NS (Canada)

    1998-11-01

    A comparative investigation of loon behaviour was conducted across a range of lakes in Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia and the Lepreau watershed in southwestern New Brunswick that exhibited variations in lake chemistry, lake morphometry and mercury levels. Results showed an association of sub-lethal blood mercury contamination with changes in behaviour of young loon chicks. For example, the amount of time that chicks spend brooding (by back-riding) decreases as mercury levels in the blood rise. Preening increases at the same time. The increase in energy expenditure is not compensated with increases in feeding rates, suggesting that such altered time activity budgets disrupt the energetic balance of the young. Adult behaviour appeared to be less affected by increased mercury levels, but an association is suspected. It was concluded that loons and other upper-trophic level predators could be at risk from elevated levels of bioavailable mercury.

  13. A three-dimensional analysis of vergence movements at various levels of elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minken, A W; Van Gisbergen, J A

    1994-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that eye positions, recorded in subjects scanning a distant visual scene with the head in a stable position, have only two degrees of freedom (Listing's law). Due to cyclovergence, this law is modified in near-vision. Two previous quantitative studies have documented that the sign of the torsional vergence component depends systematically on elevation: when fixating a nearby target, the eyes show intorsion in up gaze, extorsion in down gaze and no cyclotorsion at some intermediate elevation level (to be denoted as the null elevation). Both studies found a linear cyclovergence/elevation relation, but disagreed on the amount of cyclotorsion. A further uncertainty is how this phenomenon develops dynamically when the binocular fixation point shifts from a far to a near position. Therefore, we have investigated the dynamic coupling between the horizontal and torsional components of vergence in human subjects who were instructed to refixate a light target after it stepped in depth. The target steps were presented at various vertical and horizontal directions relative to the straight-ahead axis of the cyclopean eye. We found that the quantitative relations among horizontal vergence, torsional vergence and elevation were intermediate between those found in the two earlier near-vision studies and that they correspond reasonably to the predictions of a model by Mok and co-workers. The cyclotorsion vergence component had about the same latency and dynamics as the horizontal component. When refixations were studied at different elevations, the torsional vergence component changed from incyclotorsion in up gaze to excyclotorsion in down gaze. In agreement with expectations derived from two quantitative models, the null elevation of cyclovergence was near the binocular primary position. Furthermore, we found no consistent additional dependence on the horizontal direction of the refixation trajectory relative to the midsaggital plane. Other experiments

  14. Elevated serum leptin levels are associated with good nutritional status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ekrem; Ahbap, Elbis; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Sakaci, Tamer; Basturk, Taner; Koc, Yener; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Ucar, Zuhal Atan; Kayalar, Arzu Ozdemir; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is a hormone and a proinflammatory cytokine secreted from adipocytes, which functions to suppress appetite in healthy persons. Serum leptin levels are significantly elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) primarily due to decreased clearance by the kidneys The consequence of hyperleptinemia in ESRD is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and nutrition/inflammation status in non-obese chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. 65 chronic, anuric, nonobese (body mass index (BMI) nutrition and inflammation status. Patients were classified into the 3 groups according to serum leptin levels; group 1 (low leptin, n = 9), group 2 (normal leptin, n = 31), and group 3 (high leptin, n = 25). Mean age and duration on dialysis of 65 patients (male/female: 34/31) were 51.6 ± 17.8 years and 78.0 ± 67.9 months, respectively. Serum leptin levels increased with older age, female gender, higher BMI and triceps skinfold thickness. Elevated serum leptin levels were significantly associated with good nutritional status parameters, such as higher albumin (p = 0.001), prealbumin (p = 0.033), total iron binding capacity (p = 0.045), total cholesterol (p = 0.041), and lower malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) (p = 0.002). Serum leptin levels remained a negative correlation with MIS after adjustments made for BMI. No correlation was established between leptin and inflammation parameters including ferritin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and tumor necorsis factor alpha (TNF-α). Elevated serum leptin levels seem to be associated with good nutritional status. However, there was no correlation between leptin and inflammatory status.

  15. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  16. Elevated Plasma Level of Leukotrienes in Bronchial Asthma Patients: A Possible Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.

  17. Men with elevated testosterone levels show more affiliative behaviours during interactions with women

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Salvador, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to play a key role in male–male competition and courtship in many vertebrates, but its precise effects are unclear. We explored whether courtship behaviour in humans is modulated and preceded by changes in T. Pairs of healthy male students first competed in a non-physical contest in which their T levels became elevated. Each participant then had a short, informal interaction with either an unfamiliar man or woman. The sex of the stimulus person did not affect the participants' behaviour overall. However, in interactions with women, those men who had experienced a greater T increase during the contest subsequently showed more interest in the woman, engaged in more self-presentation, smiled more and made more eye contact. No such effects were seen in interactions with other men. This is the first study to provide direct evidence that elevating T during male–male competition is followed by increased affiliative behaviour towards women. PMID:21632627

  18. Growth response of Spirulina platensis PCC9108 to elevated CO2 levels and flue gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedmahdi Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because their ability to capture CO2, photosynthetical microorganisms have some advantages to CO2 mitigation from high CO2 streams such as flue gases and they can use CO2 as carbon source. Recently, experts have made efforts to exploit microorganisms intended for recovering CO2 from power plants. Materials and methods: To achieve this purpose, we studied the growth response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis PCC9108 under different concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036% to 10% and flue gas in a bench-scale system. Preparation of different concentrations of CO2 and injection into Erlenmeyer flasks was performed by a system including air compressor, CO2 capsule, pressure gauge and flow meter. Results: The main goal of studying this paper is a survey of organism's potential to grow by generated CO2 from flue gas of power plant. It already had the potential and highest biomass production recorded at 8% CO2 (v/v. Also we proved that S.platensis PCC9108 can be grown under flue gas, although biomass production decreased fairly. Total lipid content of algae interestingly enhanced with elevated CO2 levels from ambient air to 4% and 6% which ranged from 14.5 to 15.8 and 16 dry weight (wt. % respectively. In contrast, total protein content illustrated no difference between all treatment and its value was about 46 wt.%. Discussion and conclusion: The results of present study suggested that understudied S.platensis PCC9108 is appropriate for mitigating CO2 because of its carbon fixation ability. Also due to its high protein content, this cyanobacterium is a good candidate to produce SCP (single cell protein.

  19. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Elevated high-mobility group box 1 levels in patients with cerebral and myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard S; Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Yang, Lihong; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Huston, Jared M; Czura, Christopher J; Lee, David C; Ward, Mae F; Bruchfeld, Annette N; Wang, Haichao; Lesser, Martin L; Church, Adam L; Litroff, Adam H; Sama, Andrew E; Tracey, Kevin J

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral and myocardial ischemia, two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, are associated with inflammation that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. High-mobility group box 1(HMGB1), a recently described mediator of lethal systemic inflammation, has been detected in individuals with severe sepsis and hemorrhagic shock, but its role during ischemic injury in humans is unknown. To determine whether systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated after ischemic injury, a prospective observational study was performed in subjects with a diagnosis of either Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) or cerebral vascular ischemia (transient ischemic attack or cerebral vascular accident). Subjects (n, 16; age [mean], 67+/-16.3 years) were enrolled in the North Shore-LIJ emergency department within 24 h of symptom onset. Blood samples were collected, and HMGB1 levels analyzed by Western blot analysis using previously described methods (Wang et al. Science. 1999). Control samples were obtained from healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers (n, 16; age [mean], 68+/-15.8 years). Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in both myocardial ischemia subjects (myocardial control serum HMGB1, 1.94+/-2.05 ng/mL, vs. myocardial ischemia serum HMGB1, 159+/-54.3 ng/mL; Pischemia subjects (cerebral control serum HMGB1, 16.8+/-10.9 ng/mL, vs. cerebral ischemia serum HMGB1, 218+/-18.8 ng/mL; P<0.001). These results suggest that systemic HMGB1 levels are elevated in human ischemic disease.

  1. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  2. Relation of elevated levels of plasma myeloperoxidase to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Masashi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E.; Ueda, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are related to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion. Moreover, elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Plasma MPO levels were measured in patients with

  3. Fungal and bacterial growth in floor dust at elevated relative humidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, K C; Weschler, C J; Peccia, J

    2017-03-01

    Under sustained, elevated building moisture conditions, bacterial and fungal growth occurs. The goal of this study was to characterize microbial growth in floor dust at variable equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) levels. Floor dust from one home was embedded in coupons cut from a worn medium-pile nylon carpet and incubated at 50%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, and 100% ERH levels. Quantitative PCR and DNA sequencing of ribosomal DNA for bacteria and fungi were used to quantify growth and community shifts. Over a 1-wk period, fungal growth occurred above 80% ERH. Growth rates at 85% and 100% ERH were 1.1 × 10 4 and 1.5 × 10 5 spore equivalents d -1 mg dust -1 , respectively. Bacterial growth occurred only at 100% ERH after 1 wk (9.0 × 10 4 genomes d -1 mg dust -1 ). Growth resulted in significant changes in fungal (Pbacterial community structure (Pbacterial species that were attributable to elevated ERH. Resuspension modeling indicated that more than 50% of airborne microbes could originate from the resuspension of fungi grown at ERH levels of 85% and above. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Elevated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen, Cytokeratin 19 Fragment, and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore whether squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC, cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA are elevated in diabetic nephropathy (DN and the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR and tumor markers in diabetic patients. Methods. Nondialysis patients with diabetes (n=261 and 90 healthy controls were enrolled. DN was defined as an UACR ≥ 30 mg/g in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other renal abnormalities. Results. Patients with DN had significantly higher serum SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA levels than those with normoalbuminuria and healthy controls. The rates of positive SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA significantly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion (all P for trend < 0.001. In contrast, NSE was not affected by DN. SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA were significantly and positively correlated with UACR. In logistic regression, after multivariable adjustment, increased UACR was associated with increased odds ratio of elevated tumor marker levels (all P for trend < 0.05. Conclusions. Serum levels of SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA are markedly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion, which affects the specificity for diagnosis for lung cancer. Appropriate interpretation of tumor markers in diabetic patients is mandatory to avoid unnecessary and even hazardous biopsies.

  5. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  6. Vitamin A intake and elevated serum retinol levels in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Graham-Maar, Rose C; Schall, Joan I; Zemel, Babette S; Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-03-01

    Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) are at risk for fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, including vitamin A. Recent evidence suggests current practices of vitamin A intake results in elevated serum retinol. Serum retinol was assessed in 78 subjects (8 to 25 years old) with CF and PI by high performance liquid chromatography, and compared to the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data of subjects of similar age and gender. Vitamin A intake, anthropometry and FEV(1) were measured, and their relationship to serum retinol status was assessed. Median (range) serum retinol was 80 microg/dL (33 to 208) in subjects with CF; 58% were above the NHANES reference range (30 to 72 microg/dL). Total vitamin A intake from diet and supplements was high (608+431% Recommended Dietary Allowance). Serum retinol was not correlated with vitamin A intake, age or gender, and was inversely correlated with weight and height z scores (r=-0.28, p<0.05) in the subjects with CF. Both vitamin A intake and serum retinol were elevated in subjects with CF and PI, corroborating recent evidence of elevated serum retinol in preadolescent children with CF. These findings indicate the need for further study of dosing and monitoring care practices of vitamin A, to ensure adequacy and to avoid toxicity.

  7. Predictors of Elevated Cardiac Enzyme Levels in Hospitalized Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and No Known Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinales, Karyne L; Najib, Mohammad Q; Marella, Punnaiah C; Katayama, Minako; Chaliki, Hari P

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively studied the predictive capabilities of elevated cardiac enzyme levels in terms of the prognosis of patients who were hospitalized with atrial fibrillation and who had no known coronary artery disease. Among 321 patients with atrial fibrillation, 60 without known coronary artery disease had their cardiac enzyme concentrations measured during hospitalization and underwent stress testing or cardiac catheterization within 12 months before or after hospitalization. We then compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the 20 patients who had elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the 40 patients who had normal levels. Age, sex, and comorbidities did not differ between the groups. In the patients with elevated cardiac enzyme levels, the mean concentrations of troponin T and creatine kinase-MB isoenzymes were 0.08 ± 0.08 ng/mL and 6.49 ± 4.94 ng/mL, respectively. In univariate analyses, only peak heart rate during atrial tachyarrhythmia was predictive of elevated enzyme levels (P <0.0001). Mean heart rate was higher in the elevated-level patients (146 ± 22 vs 117 ± 29 beats/min; P=0.0007). Upon multivariate analysis, heart rate was the only independent predictor of elevated levels. Coronary artery disease was found in only 2 patients who had elevated levels and in one patient who had normal levels (P=0.26). Increased myocardial demand is probably why the presenting heart rate was predictive of elevated cardiac enzyme levels. Most patients with elevated enzyme levels did not have coronary artery disease, and none died of cardiac causes during the 6-month follow-up period. To validate our findings, larger studies are warranted.

  8. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels

  9. Elevated cerebral spinal fluid cytokine levels in boys with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy correlates with MRI severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy C Lund

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD is a metabolic, peroxisomal disease that results from a mutation in the ABCD1 gene. The most severe course of ALD progression is the cerebral inflammatory and demyelinating form of the disease, cALD. To date there is very little information on the cytokine mediators in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF of these boys.Measurement of 23 different cytokines was performed on CSF and serum of boys with cerebral ALD and patients without ALD. Significant elevations in CSF IL-8 (29.3±2.2 vs 12.8±1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.0001, IL-1ra (166±30 vs 8.6±6.5 pg/ml, p = 0.005, MCP-1 (610±47 vs 328±34 pg/ml, p = 0.002, and MIP-1b (14.2±1.3 vs 2.0±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.0001 were found in boys with cALD versus the control group. The only serum cytokine showing an elevation in the ALD group was SDF-1 (2124±155 vs 1175±125 pg/ml, p = 0.0001. The CSF cytokines of IL-8 and MCP-1b correlated with the Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.04 and p = 0.008 respectively, as well as the serum SDF-1 level (p = 0.002. Finally, CSF total protein was also significantly elevated in boys with cALD and correlated with both IL-8, MCP-1b (p = 0.0001 for both, as well as Loes MRI severity score (p = 0.0007.IL-8, IL-1ra, MCP-1, MIP-1b and CSF total protein were significantly elevated in patients with cALD; IL-8, MCP-1b, and CSF total protein levels correlated with disease severity determined by MRI. This is the largest report of CSF cytokine levels in cALD to date, and identification of these key cytokines will provide further insight into disease progression and perhaps lead to improved targeted therapies.

  10. Kynurenine Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia with Elevated Anti-Gliadin Immunoglobulin G Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Fuchs, Dietmar; Reeves, Gloria; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Groer, Maureen; Cook, Thomas; Stearns-Yoder, Kelly A.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Hoisington, Andrew J.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Eaton, William; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several studies have reported an association between non-celiac gluten sensitivity and schizophrenia. Immune and kynurenine pathways have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and certain proinflammatory immune mediators may increase kynurenine (KYN) and reduce tryptophan (TRP) levels. Methods We thus measured serum anti-gliadin IgG, KYN and TRP in 950 patients with schizophrenia. Patients with antibody level at the 90th percentile or higher of control participants (21.9% of all patients) were classified as having elevated anti-gliadin IgG. Independent t-tests and linear regression models were used to compare TRP, KYN and KYN-TRP ratio (indicator of TRP metabolism) between patients with, and those without elevated anti-gliadin IgG. The correlation between anti-gliadin IgG and TRP, KYN and the ratio was also evaluated in the patients. Results KYN and KYN-TRP ratio were higher in patients with elevated anti-gliadin IgG (geometric mean 2.65 mmol/l, SD = 0.25 vs. 2.25mmol/l, SD = 0.23, p < 0.001 and 0.05, SD = 0.26 vs. 0.04, SD = 0.25, p = 0.001 respectively), findings robust to adjustment for potential demographic and clinical confounders. Anti-gliadin IgG correlated with KYN and KYN-TRP ratio in unadjusted analysis (r = 0.12, p < 0.001; r = 0.11, p = 0.002). TRP did not differ between the 2 groups and did not correlate with anti-gliadin IgG. Conclusions Our results connect non-celiac gluten sensitivity with the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in psychotic illness and hint towards potential individualized treatment targets. PMID:27359171

  11. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  12. Stigma-related stress, shame and avoidant coping reactions among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibalski, J V; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Vetter, S; Rodgers, S; Oexle, N; Corrigan, P W; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear whether mental illness stigma affects individuals with subthreshold syndromes outside clinical settings. We therefore investigated the role of different stigma variables, including stigma-related stress and shame reactions, for avoidant stigma coping among members of the general population with elevated symptom levels. Based on a representative population survey, general stress resilience, stigma variables, shame about having a mental illness as well as avoidant stigma coping (secrecy and social withdrawal) were assessed by self-report among 676 participants with elevated symptom levels. Stigma variables and resilience were examined as predictors of avoidant stigma coping in a path model. Increased stigma stress was predicted by lower general stress resilience as well as by higher levels of perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy of discrimination. More shame was associated with higher perceived legitimacy. Lower resilience as well as more perceived stigma, group identification and perceived legitimacy predicted avoidant coping. Stigma stress partly mediated effects of resilience, perceived stigma and group identification on avoidant coping; shame partly mediated effects of perceived legitimacy on coping. Stigma stress and shame were also directly and positively related to avoidant stigma coping. Analyses were adjusted for symptoms, neuroticism and sociodemographic variables. Stigma may affect a larger proportion of the population than previously thought because stigma variables predicted secrecy and withdrawal among members of the general population with elevated, but overall mild symptom levels. Avoidant stigma coping likely has harmful effects, potentially exacerbating pre-existing psychological distress and undermining social networks. This highlights the need to reduce public stigma as well as to support individuals with subthreshold syndromes in their coping with stigma stress and shame reactions. Copyright © 2017

  13. Elevated serum levels of a biliary glycoprotein (BGP I) in patients with liver or biliary tract disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenberg, T.; Wahren, B.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1979-01-01

    Human hepatic bile contains a glycoprotein (Biliary glycoprotein I BGP I) which cross-reacts with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A radioimmunoassay for BGP I was developed. The interference of CEA or 'non-specific cross-reacting antigen' (NCA) was small. The serum levels of BGP I were determined in healthy subjects, in patients with hepato-biliary diseases and in patients with various infections or inflammatory disorders. Healthy individuals, including pregnant women, had a serum BGP I concentration of about 0.5 - 1 mg/l. Diseases of the liver or biliary tract (e.g. hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus Hepatitis, obstructive jaundice or primary biliary cirrhosis) were associated with elevated serum levels of BGP I, as opposed to infectious diseases not affecting the liver mostly showing values within the normal range. Raised levels of serum BGP I activity may reflect biliary obstruction as a results of interference with normal BGP I secretion in the bile. (author)

  14. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  15. IL-10 plasma levels are elevated after LPS injection in splenectomized A/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel B; Vega, Virginia L; Bedri, Mazen; Saad, Daniel; Trentzsch, Heiko; Reeves, Roger H; De Maio, Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Splenectomy is clinically indicated in certain cases of hypersplenism and splenic trauma. However, it is associated with serious complications, in particular, reduced clearance of encapsulated organisms and a high incidence of sepsis, which has been coined overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis (OPSS). In addition to the role of the spleen in the clearance of microorganisms, this organ may be involved in regulation of the inflammatory response. We investigated the effect of splenectomy on the inflammatory process induced by LPS in a murine model that resembles, in part, the pathophysiological aspects of sepsis. Male mice (8-weeks-old) from different inbred strains were randomized into three groups: splenectomized (SPX), sham operated (SHAM), and non-operated controls (NoOp). After 9 days of recovery, mice were injected with LPS (15 mg/kg) and cytokine plasma levels were measured by ELISA at 1.5 or 6 h after injection. Peritoneal macrophages (PMphi) were isolated from the three groups, and cytokine production was evaluated after incubation with LPS in culture conditions. IL-10 plasma levels were elevated in SPX A/J mice (6.7 +/- 0.4 mug/ml) after injection of LPS (15 mg/kg) compared to NoOp A/J mice (4.2 +/- 0.2 mug/ml, P < 0.05). Similar elevation in IL-10 plasma levels was detected in SPX DBA/2J mice as compared to NoOp DBA/2J mice, but not in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, SPX AKR mice displayed lower IL-10 levels than NoOp mice. PMphis from SPX A/J mice produced elevated levels of IL-10 compared to PMphis from SHAM or NoOp A/J mice, mimicking the in vivo observations. Our data suggest that the spleen plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory process induced by LPS, extending beyond passive clearance of encapsulated organisms. In addition, the contribution of the spleen to the inflammatory process may be influenced by the genetic background.

  16. Predictors of elevational biodiversity gradients change from single taxa to the multi-taxa community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marcell K; Hemp, Andreas; Appelhans, Tim; Behler, Christina; Classen, Alice; Detsch, Florian; Ensslin, Andreas; Ferger, Stefan W; Frederiksen, Sara B; Gebert, Friederike; Haas, Michael; Helbig-Bonitz, Maria; Hemp, Claudia; Kindeketa, William J; Mwangomo, Ephraim; Ngereza, Christine; Otte, Insa; Röder, Juliane; Rutten, Gemma; Schellenberger Costa, David; Tardanico, Joseph; Zancolli, Giulia; Deckert, Jürgen; Eardley, Connal D; Peters, Ralph S; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schleuning, Matthias; Ssymank, Axel; Kakengi, Victor; Zhang, Jie; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Brandl, Roland; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kleyer, Michael; Nauss, Thomas; Tschapka, Marco; Fischer, Markus; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-22

    The factors determining gradients of biodiversity are a fundamental yet unresolved topic in ecology. While diversity gradients have been analysed for numerous single taxa, progress towards general explanatory models has been hampered by limitations in the phylogenetic coverage of past studies. By parallel sampling of 25 major plant and animal taxa along a 3.7 km elevational gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro, we quantify cross-taxon consensus in diversity gradients and evaluate predictors of diversity from single taxa to a multi-taxa community level. While single taxa show complex distribution patterns and respond to different environmental factors, scaling up diversity to the community level leads to an unambiguous support for temperature as the main predictor of species richness in both plants and animals. Our findings illuminate the influence of taxonomic coverage for models of diversity gradients and point to the importance of temperature for diversification and species coexistence in plant and animal communities.

  17. Factors associated with elevated serum chromogranin A levels in patients with autoimmune gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Karakaya, Fatih; Soykan, İrfan

    2016-11-01

    Chromogranin A is an important tool in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune disorder marked by hypergastrinemia, which stimulates enterochromaffin-like cell proliferation. Chromogranin A is also elevated in autoimmune gastritis patients with a different level of increase in each patient. The goal of this study is to explore constituents that influence serum chromogranin A levels in autoimmune gastritis patients. One hundred and eighty-eight autoimmune gastritis patients and 20 patients with type I gastric carcinoid tumors were analyzed retrospectively and compared to 110 functional dyspepsia patients in terms of factors that might affect serum chromogranin A levels. The mean serum chromogranin A level was 171.17±67.3 ng/mL in autoimmune gastritis patients (n=62) without enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, and 303.3±102.82 ng/mL in patients (n=126) with enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia (pgastritis were the presence of ECL cell hyperplasia and serum gastrin levels. Serum chromogranin A levels maybe helpful in distinguishing autoimmune gastritis patients and gastric carcinoid type I from the control group, but not useful in the differentiation of individuals with autoimmune gastritis from patients with gastric carcinoids.

  18. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  19. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Nazmul; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Islam, Khairul; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  20. Metabolic syndrome and elevated C-reactive protein levels in elderly patients with newly diagnosed depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyeon; Joo, Yeon Ho; McIntyre, Roger S; Kim, Byungsu

    2014-01-01

    Depression and metabolic syndrome (MeS) are prevalent in elderly people and are associated with adverse outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are a risk factor for depression and chronic medical disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and MeS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of MeS and CRP levels in elderly (>60y) patients with newly-diagnosed major depressive disorder. We enrolled 30 subjects with newly diagnosed depression and 30 age- and sex-matched controls who presented for a health examination at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Sociodemographic, MeS components, and CRP were measured before starting treatment with antidepressants. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics or lifestyle factors between depressive and healthy control patients. The newly-diagnosed depression group showed a significantly increased risk of MeS (odds ratio = 4.75, 95% CI: 1.58-14.25) compared with the control group. Of the 5 MeS components examined, only waist circumference was significantly different between the 2 groups (odds ratio = 4.33, 95% CI: 1.20-15.61). Elevated CRP levels were significantly associated with an increased risk for depression (odds ratio = 4.57, 95% 1.45-14.39). The risks of MeS and elevated CRP levels are higher in elderly patients with depression than in normal subjects. Physicians need to be alert to these cardiovascular risk factors when diagnosing and prescribing antidepressants for depression in the elderly. Clinical investigators are encouraged to assess markers of inflammation and review detailed information on risk factors such as waist circumference for MeS in patients with depression. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dolphin foraging sounds suppress calling and elevate stress hormone levels in a prey species, the Gulf toadfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Nowacek, Douglas P; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-11-01

    The passive listening hypothesis proposes that dolphins and whales detect acoustic signals emitted by prey, including sound-producing (soniferous) fishes. Previous work showed that bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) behaviorally orient toward the sounds of prey, including the advertisement calls of male Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). In addition, soniferous fishes constitute over 80% of Tursiops diet, and toadfishes alone account for approximately 13% of the stomach contents of adult bottlenose dolphins. Here, we used both behavioral (vocalizations) and physiological (plasma cortisol levels) parameters to determine if male Gulf toadfish can, in turn, detect the acoustic signals of bottlenose dolphins. Using underwater playbacks to toadfish in their natural environment, we found that low-frequency dolphin sounds (;pops') within the toadfish's range of hearing dramatically reduce toadfish calling rates by 50%. High frequency dolphin sounds (whistles) and low-frequency snapping shrimp pops (ambient control sounds) each had no effect on toadfish calling rates. Predator sound playbacks also had consequences for circulating stress hormones, as cortisol levels were significantly elevated in male toadfish exposed to dolphin pops compared with snapping shrimp pops. These findings lend strong support to the hypothesis that individuals of a prey species modulate communication behavior in the presence of a predator, and also suggest that short-term glucocorticoid elevation is associated with anti-predator behavior.

  2. Stairs instead of elevators at the workplace decreases PCSK9 levels in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Christel H; Gencer, Baris; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Courvoisier, Delphine; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Meyer, Philippe; Mach, François

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity is recommended to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a healthy population. Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was shown to reduce (LDL-C) levels; however, the impact of physical exercise on PCSK9 levels remains unclear. We used data from 67 healthy hospital employees who participated in a 6-month intervention promoting active use of stairs instead of elevators during 3 months, followed by 3 months without recommendation. We confirmed the degree of physical activity with estimated aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) and measured serum PCSK9 levels at baseline, 3 and 6 month. Using a multilevel regression model, we analysed changes of PCSK9 levels over time adjusting for age, gender, aerobic capacity, baseline LDL-C, and LDL-C and body mass index (BMI) changes. At baseline, PCSK9 levels were associated with higher aerobic capacity (P-value = 0·024). At 3 months, we observed a significant decrease in mean PCSK9 levels from 403·6 to 324·3 ng/mL (P-value = 0·001), as well a significant decrease in mean LDL-C levels from 3·5 to 3·3 mM (P-value = 0·01). During this period, mean aerobic capacity (VO2 max ) increased from 37·0 to 40·4 mL/kg/min (P-value < 0·001). Physical activity was independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels after adjustment for age, gender, baseline aerobic capacity, and LDL-C and BMI changes. Daily physical activity at the work place is independently associated with a decrease in PCSK9 levels over time. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  3. Increased serum levels of hyaluronic acid in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmers, R G; Schütz, E; Diedrich, F; Wehry, B; Krauss, T; Oellerich, M; Kuhn, W

    1998-02-01

    Fifteen percent of patients who later have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome develop initially have nonspecific symptoms. Early diagnosis could ensure adequate obstetric management; however, prognostic biochemical tests are lacking. We hypothesized that elevated hyaluronic acid serum levels might be an early indicator of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome because it is known to be a sensitive marker of liver cell function. Hyaluronic acid in serum was measured in patients with normal pregnancies (n = 109) and in those patients with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 14) or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome (n = 11). A significant increase in hyaluronic acid serum concentrations was observed in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome or with preeclampsia (p hyaluronic acid serum levels in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome correlated with the clinical severity of the individual course of disease as measured by intensive care unit time (r = 0.72; p hyaluronic acid in preeclampsia and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome are significantly elevated and might play an important diagnostic and prognostic role in patients with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome.

  4. Elevated levels of serum sulfite in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, H; Nojima, Y; Mitsuhashi, H; Ueki, K; Tamura, S; Sekihara, T; Wakamatsu, R; Yano, S; Naruse, T

    2000-05-01

    Sulfite, a well known air pollutant, is toxic for humans, especially those with sulfite hypersensitivity. Sulfite is also generated endogenously, during normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Mammalian tissues contain the enzyme sulfite oxidase, which detoxifies both endogenous and exogenous sulfite by oxidation to sulfate. Deficiency of sulfite oxidase in humans is fatal, demonstrating its physiologic importance. Nevertheless, information about serum and tissue levels of sulfite in normal and pathologic conditions is limited. Using a sensitive HPLC assay, it is shown here that sera from patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) contain significantly higher amounts of sulfite than those from healthy subjects. Mean +/- SD of serum sulfite in healthy subjects (n = 20) was 1.55 +/- 0.54 microM, whereas those in patients under maintenance hemodialysis (HD patients; n = 44) and CRF patients before introducing dialysis therapy (pre-HD patients; n = 33) were 3. 23 +/- 1.02 microM (P sulfite was positively correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.714, P sulfite and patient age, gender, or leukocyte counts. Multiple regression analysis revealed serum creatinine as the sole independent predictor of serum sulfite levels. Each HD treatment was associated with approximately 27% reduction in serum sulfite levels, suggesting the presence of a dialyzable form in serum. Thus, these results indicate that reduced glomerular filtration is a factor that determines serum sulfite levels. Chronic elevation in serum sulfite levels might contribute to tissue or organ dysfunction in patients with CRF.

  5. Impairment of extra-high frequency auditory thresholds in subjects with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess whether there is an association between elevated Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG and hearing impairment in Bangladeshi population. A total of 142 subjects (72 with elevated FBG; 70 control were included in the study. The mean auditory thresholds of the control subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 6.35 ± 0.35, 10.07 ± 0.91, 27.57 ± 1.82, 51.28 ± 3.01 dB SPL (decibel sound pressure level, respectively and that of the subjects with elevated FBG were 8.33 ± 0.66, 14.37 ± 1.14, 38.96 ± 2.23, and 71.11 ± 2.96 dB, respectively. The auditory thresholds of the subjects with elevated FBG were significantly (p 10 years showed significantly (p 40 years and younger (≤40 years age groups compared to the respective controls. The binary logistic regression analysis showed a 5.79-fold increase in the odds of extra-high frequency hearing impairment in diabetic subjects after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. This study provides conclusive evidence that auditory threshold at an extra-high frequency could be a sensitive marker for hearing impairment in diabetic subjects.

  6. Follow-up of ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: the value of physical examination in patients with pretreatment elevated CA125 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menczer, Joseph; Chetrit, Angela; Sadetzki, Siegal; Golan, Abraham; Levy, Tally

    2006-10-01

    To assess the value of routine periodic physical examination in the follow-up of ovarian (OvC) and primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) patients with pretreatment elevated CA125 levels. Included were patients who had a pretreatment serum CA125 level above normal limits, had completed initial treatment, were in complete clinical remission on completion of the initial treatment and routinely attended the gynecologic oncology outpatient clinic. Recurrence was diagnosed when at least one of the following criteria was abnormal: symptoms, physical examination or elevated serum CA125 levels. Of 69 patients, a recurrence was diagnosed in 43. Abnormal physical examination for diagnosis of recurrence yielded a sensitivity rate of only 34.9%. The diagnosis of recurrence was based on an abnormal physical examination alone in 2 (4.6%) patients. In OvC and PPC patients with elevated pretreatment CA125 levels, physical examination has a limited impact on the diagnosis of recurrence.

  7. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F 2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2 -/- Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  9. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P ×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Elevated Homocysteine Levels Are Associated With the Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Events in Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, Gianluca; Nait, Francesca; Capobianco, Frine; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and the metabolic syndrome are established cardiovascular risk factors and are frequently associated with hypertension. The relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, however, is debated and studies in hypertensive patients are limited. In this study, we have investigated the association of Hcy with the metabolic syndrome and cerebro- cardiovascular events in hypertension. In 562 essential hypertensive patients who underwent accurate assessment of fasting and postload glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and renal function, we measured plasma levels of Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, and fibrinogen and assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Patients with the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher plasma Hcy levels. After correction for covariates, increasing Hcy levels were associated with an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, and CVD. Plasma Hcy was directly correlated with age, waist circumference, fasting glucose, triglyceride, uric acid, and fibrinogen levels, and homeostatic model assessment index and inversely with creatinine clearance and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin B12, and folate levels. Logistic regression analysis showed an independent association of Hcy levels with age, male gender, vitamin B12 and folate levels, and the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression indicated also an independent association of Hcy with cerebro-cardiovascular disease that was independent of the metabolic syndrome. Elevated plasma Hcy is associated with the metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients. Prevalence of events increases with increasing plasma Hcy levels suggesting a contribution of Hcy to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in these patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. beta-Alanine elevates dopamine levels in the rat nucleus accumbens: antagonism by strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Mia; Clarke, Rhona B C; Chau, PeiPei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) have recently been suggested to be involved in the reinforcing and dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol via a neuronal circuitry involving the VTA. Apart from ethanol, both glycine and taurine have the ability to modulate dopamine output via GlyRs in the same brain region. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether yet another endogenous ligand for the GlyR, beta-alanine, had similar effects. To this end, we monitored dopamine in the nAc by means of in vivo microdialysis and found that local perfusion of beta-alanine increased dopamine output. In line with previous observations investigating ethanol, glycine and taurine, the competitive GlyR antagonist strychnine completely blocked the dopamine elevation. The present results suggest that beta-alanine has the ability to modulate dopamine levels in the nAc via strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, and are consistent with previous studies suggesting the importance of this receptor for modulating dopamine output.

  12. Genetically defined elevated homocysteine levels do not result in widespread changes of DNA methylation in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaviya, Pooja R; Joehanes, Roby; Aïssi, Dylan; Kühnel, Brigitte; Marioni, Riccardo E; Truong, Vinh; Stolk, Lisette; Beekman, Marian; Bonder, Marc Jan; Franke, Lude; Gieger, Christian; Huan, Tianxiao; Ikram, M Arfan; Kunze, Sonja; Liang, Liming; Lindemans, Jan; Liu, Chunyu; McRae, Allan F; Mendelson, Michael M; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Slagboom, P Eline; Starr, John M; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Uitterlinden, André G; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J; van Heemst, Diana; van Iterson, Maarten; Wells, Philip S; Yao, Chen; Deary, Ian J; Gagnon, France; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Levy, Daniel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Waldenberger, Melanie; Heil, Sandra G; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation. Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS) based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation. Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184), while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5. Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.

  13. Genetically defined elevated homocysteine levels do not result in widespread changes of DNA methylation in leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja R Mandaviya

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation.Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation.Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184, while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5.Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.

  14. The Implication of Combat Stress and PTSD Trajectories in Metabolic Syndrome and Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Zahava; Levin, Yafit; Assayag, Einor Ben; Furman, Orit; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Berliner, Shlomo; Ohry, Avi

    This study sheds light on the importance of long-term follow-up of trauma survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories, and early detection of health risk factors in trauma survivors. The present study prospectively assessed the following over 23 years: (1) the association of psychological and physiologic stress during captivity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension; elevated levels of insulin, triglycerides, and fasting glucose; decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and obesity and (2) the implication of PTSD trajectories in elevated CRP levels and MetS. Measurements were taken in 1991, 2003, 2008, and 2015. Participants were 116 Israeli combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War (of these, 101 were former prisoners of war [ex-POWs] and 15 were comparable controls). The medical assessments relevant for this study were body mass index, fasting blood glucose levels, and diabetes, blood pressure or a diagnosis of hypertension, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and medication intake. In addition, the PTSD Inventory was used to assess PTSD symptoms and trajectories over time according to DSM-IV-TR PTSD criteria. Captivity-in particular, the captivity stressors of weight loss, physical suffering, psychological suffering, and humiliation-was implicated in both elevated CRP levels and MetS, significantly so with elevated CRP levels (P = .01, R² = 0.33). Captivity-induced PTSD, in particular chronic and delayed PTSD trajectories, was associated with elevated CRP levels and MetS, significantly so for MetS (P = .05). Monitoring inflammation using markers like CRP level in trauma survivors can be beneficial, particularly if PTSD is chronic or delayed. Clinicians treating trauma survivors should raise awareness of the importance of such measures in light of long-term health vulnerabilities. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  15. Elevated plasma N-terminal ProBNP levels in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Pierluigi; Minoretti, Piercarlo; Piaggi, Noemi; Brondino, Natascia; Emanuele, Enzo

    2007-05-07

    There is considerable evidence that cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Secretion of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) increases in several cardiac illnesses, making this neurohormone a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of cardiovascular risk. We measured plasma NT-proBNP levels in the following three groups of subjects free of overt cardiovascular disease: unmedicated patients with MDD (n=40), unmedicated patients with schizophrenia (n=44), and normal control subjects (n=42). The severity of depressive symptoms was rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). Plasma NT-proBNP levels were assayed by ELISA. Plasma NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in the MDD group (median: 217.1 pmol/L; interquartile range: 179.4-277.1 pmol/L) than in patients with schizophrenia (175.7 pmol/L [139.0-218.9]; P<0.05) or in the control group (158.9 pmol/L [98.3-212.1]; P<0.001). Among patients with MDD, there was a significant positive correlation (Spearman's rank correlation=0.422, P=0.008) between plasma NT-proBNP and HAMD scores. Altogether, our results indicate that elevated NT-proBNP levels may play a role in linking MDD with increased cardiovascular risk.

  16. [Association of hypercalcemia, elevated levels of calcitriol and tuberculosis in patients on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Díaz Corte, C

    2000-01-01

    Hypercalcemia is associated with numerous chronic granulomatous processes and chronic infections. Increased production of calcitriol by activated macrophages has been shown to be the cause in most cases. In this article, we describe three cases of hypercalcemia associated with inappropriately elevated calcitriol levels and suppressed PTH in hemodialysis. In addition to conventional techniques for tuberculosis diagnosis we used Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) to detect mycobacterial DNA in pleural effusion with acid-fast stain and culture negativity. Antituberculous therapy was associated with a decrease in the levels of calcium, as well as in serum calcitriol concentrations, and a substantial increase in the levels of iPTH. The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 remained unchanged. These findings suggested ectopic production of calcitriol. The discussion reviews the previously reported cases of hypercalcemia and tuberculosis that occurred during hemodialysis, and concludes that ectopic production of calcitriol by tuberculous granulomas is extremely unusual and its demonstration requires a high index of suspicion. Molecular techniques are a potentially useful approach for early and rapid diagnosis of tuberculous infection in dialysis patients.

  17. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ST2 PROTEIN IN DENGUE VIRUS INFECTED PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Aniuska; Warke, Rajas V.; de Bosch, Norma; Rothman, Alan L.; Bosch, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Levels of the soluble form of the interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (IL-1RL-1 / ST2) are elevated in the serum of patients with diseases characterized by an inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of soluble ST2 (sST2) in dengue infected patients during the course of the disease. Twenty four patients with confirmed dengue infection, classified as dengue fever, and eleven patients with other febrile illness (OFI) were evaluated. Levels of sST2 in serum and laboratory variables usually altered during dengue infections were measured. Dengue infected patients had higher serum sST2 levels than OFI at the end of the febrile stage and at defervescence (p=0.0088 and p=0.0004 respectively). Patients with secondary dengue infections had higher serum sST2 levels compared with patients with primary dengue infections (p=0.047 at last day of fever and p=0.030 at defervescence). Furthermore, in dengue infected patients, we found a significant negative correlation of sST2 with platelet and WBC counts, and positive correlation with thrombin time and transaminases activity. We suggest that sST2 could be a potential marker of dengue infection, could be associated with severity or could play a role in the immune response in secondary dengue virus infection. PMID:18226917

  18. Elevated IL-5 levels in pleural fluid of patients with paragonimiasis westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Mukae, H; Matsumoto, N; Tokojima, M; Katoh, S; Matsukura, S; Ogawa, K; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in pleural effusions. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection. In addition, samples from 12 patients with pleural transudates, 16 with tuberculous pleurisy, seven with empyema and 20 with lung cancer were also examined. Eosinophilia was remarkable in peripheral blood (range 4–34%, median 23·4%) and pleural fluid (range 0–95%, median 71%) of paragonimiasis patients. IL-5 concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those in other groups. Although marked elevation of GM-CSF and IFN-γ levels was observed in pleural effusion of empyema and tuberculosis patients, it was marginal in the pleural effusion of paragonimiasis patients. In paragonimiasis patients, IL-5 levels in the pleural effusion correlated well with the percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood and pleural fluid. Such a correlation was not observed between GM-CSF levels in pleural effusion and percentages of eosinophils in pleural fluid or peripheral blood. Our findings suggest that in paragonimiasis IL-5 in the local inflammatory site is particularly important in mediating eosinophilia in peripheral blood and pleural effusion. PMID:11168004

  19. Elevated Systemic Levels of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Maria; Cioffi, Raffaella; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo; Verde, Roberta; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system affect specific mechanisms that are critical to the establishment and development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to measure the systemic levels of endocannabinoids and related mediators in women with and without endometriosis and to investigate whether such levels correlated with endometriosis-associated pain. Plasma and endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis (n = 27) and no endometrial pathology (n = 29). Plasma levels of endocannabinoids (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and related mediators (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA] and N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]), messenger RNA expression of some of their receptors (cannabinoid receptor type 1 [CB1], CB2, transient receptor potential vanilloid type [TRPV1]), and the enzymes involved in the synthesis (N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D [NAPE-PLD]) and degradation (fatty acid amide hydrolase 1 [FAAH]) of AEA, OEA, and PEA were evaluated in endometrial stromal cells. The systemic levels of AEA, 2-AG, and OEA were elevated in endometriosis in the secretory phase compared to controls. The expression of CB1 was higher in secretory phase endometrial stromal cells of controls versus endometriosis. Similar expression levels of CB2, TRPV1, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH were detected in controls and endometriosis. Patients with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia showed higher AEA and PEA levels than those with low-to-moderate pain symptoms, respectively. The association of increased circulating AEA and 2-AG with decreased local CB1 expression in endometriosis suggests a negative feedback loop regulation, which may impair the capability of these mediators to control pain. These preliminary data suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of the action or levels of these mediators may offer an alternative option for the management of endometriosis

  20. Litterfall dynamics and nutrient deposition at different elevation and land use levels on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Pabst, Holger; Mnyonga, James; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    One of the major pathways that connect above- and belowground nutrient and carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is litterfall. Depending on climate, tree species composition and stand structure it varies considerably between different ecosystems. Another driving factor that is known to affect ecosystem cycles is the level of anthropogenic disturbance such as land use. In case of tropical regions this is often present as the transformation from rainforests to plantation economy and sustainable agroforestry. The objective of this study was to quantify and determine patterns of carbon and nutrient deposition via tree litterfall in natural and anthropogenically affected forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Tree litter of three natural (lower montane forest), two sustainably used (home gardens) and one intensively managed (shaded coffee plantation) ecosystem was collected on a biweekly basis from May 2012 to July 2013. Samples were separated into leaves, branches and remaining residues, dried and weighted. Carbon and nutrient content were measured in leave samples. We found that the overall annual pattern of litterfall was closely related to rainfall exhibiting a large peak during the dry season. Albeit visible on all plots, this characteristic decreased with elevation. No consistent patterns were found for other components than leaves. Total annual litter mainly consisted of leaf litter and ranges from 4639 kg/ha to 10673 kg/ha for all vegetation types. Flowers, fruits, etc. make up roughly 20% of total litter. Highest and lowest values occurred at home gardens and could not be significantly related to land use or elevation levels. Chemistry though differed between natural and used forest plots. N, P and K contents increased significantly with usage intensity while Mn decreased and C is more or less unaffected. We conclude that on the southern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro, short term variations in litterfall are related to seasonal climatic

  1. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO(2) levels on metabolism and oxidative stress in two common marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoo, Omera B; Ivanina, Anna V; Ullstad, Claus; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-04-01

    Marine bivalves such as the hard shell clams Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are affected by multiple stressors, including fluctuations in temperature and CO2 levels in estuaries, and these stresses are expected to be exacerbated by ongoing global climate change. Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and temperature stress can affect survival, growth and development of marine bivalves, but the cellular mechanisms of these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress is implicated in cellular responses to elevated temperature and CO2 levels in marine bivalves. We measured the whole-organism standard metabolic rate (SMR), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the muscle tissues of clams and oysters exposed to different temperatures (22 and 27°C) and CO2 levels (the present day conditions of ~400ppm CO2 and 800ppm CO2 predicted by a consensus business-as-usual IPCC emission scenario for the year 2100). SMR was significantly higher and the antioxidant capacity was lower in oysters than in clams. Aerobic metabolism was largely temperature-independent in these two species in the studied temperature range (22-27°C). However, the combined exposure to elevated temperature and hypercapnia led to elevated SMR in clams indicating elevated costs of basal maintenance. No persistent oxidative stress signal (measured by the levels of protein carbonyls, and protein conjugates with malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) was observed during the long-term exposure to moderate warming (+5°C) and hypercapnia (~800ppm CO2). This indicates that long-term exposure to moderately elevated CO2 and temperature minimally affects the cellular redox status in these bivalve species and that the earlier observed negative physiological effects of elevated CO2 and temperature must be explained by other cellular mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vacuum level effects on knee contact force for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-05-24

    The elevated vacuum suspension system (EVSS) has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on knee contact force (KCF) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum levels on KCF for unilateral transtibial amputees (UTA) using the EVSS. Three-dimensional gait was modeled for 9 UTA with five vacuum levels (0-20inHg [67.73kPa], 5inHg [16.93kPa] increments) and 9 non-amputees based on kinematic and ground reaction force data. The results showed that the vacuum level effects were significant for peak axial KCF, which had a relatively large value at 0 and 20inHg (67.73kPa). The intact limb exhibited a comparable peak axial KCF to the non-amputees at 15inHg (50.79kPa). At moderate vacuum levels (5inHg [16.93kPa] to 15inHg [50.79kPa]), co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings at peak axial KCF was similar for the intact limb, but was smaller for the residual limb comparing with the non-amputees. The intact limb showed a similar magnitude of quadriceps and hamstrings force at 15inHg (50.79kPa) to the non-amputees, but the muscle coordination patterns varied between the residual and intact limbs. These findings indicate that a proper vacuum level may partially compensate for the lack of ankle plantarflexor and reduce the knee loading. Of the tested vacuum levels, 15inHg (50.79kPa) appears most favorable, although additional analyses with more amputees are suggested to confirm these results prior to establishing clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High sensitivity to chronically elevated CO2 levels in a eurybathic marine sipunculid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O

    2004-10-18

    CO2 levels are expected to rise (a) in surface waters of the oceans as atmospheric accumulation continues or (b) in the deep sea, once industrial CO2 dumping is implemented. These scenarios suggest that CO2 will become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. The mechanisms of sensitivity to CO2 as well as adaptation capacity of marine animals are insufficiently understood. Here, we present data obtained in Sipunculus nudus, a sediment-dwelling marine worm that is able to undergo drastic metabolic depression to survive regular exposure to elevated CO2 levels within its natural habitat. We investigated animal survival and the proximate biochemical body composition during long-term CO2 exposure. Results indicate an unexpected and pronounced sensitivity characterized by the delayed onset of enhanced mortality at CO2 levels within the natural range of concentrations. Therefore, the present study contrasts the previously assumed high-CO2 tolerance of animals adapted to temporary hypercapnia. As a consequence, we expect future loss of species and, thereby, detrimental effects on marine benthic ecosystems with as yet poorly defined critical thresholds of long-term tolerance to CO2.

  4. Elevated serum bilirubin levels are inversely associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung Joo; Kim, Donghee; Park, Hyo Eun; Chung, Goh Eun; Choi, Seung Ho; Choi, Su-Yeon; Lee, Whal; Kim, Joo Sung; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2013-10-01

    Inverse correlations of high serum bilirubin with metabolic and cardiovascular disease have been suggested. However, anti-atherogenic effects of bilirubin have not been well-established in terms of the presence of plaques and stenosis identified in coronary computed tomography (CT). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2862 men who were free of cardiovascular disease and underwent coronary CT as part of a routine medical screening examination. Coronary stenotic lesions were considered to be incidences of coronary atherosclerosis, and stenosis was classified as stenosis atherosclerosis and stenosis ≥50% in subjects with elevated bilirubin levels (>1.2 mg/dL) were lower than those in subjects with normal bilirubin levels (≤1.2 mg/dL) (19.9% vs. 27.9%, p atherosclerosis (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.94 in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile) and calcified plaque (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53-0.84) were inversely associated with the bilirubin grade in a dose-dependent manner. The serum bilirubin level was inversely associated with coronary atherosclerosis and calcified plaques in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that serum bilirubin could be used as a protective biomarker of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels, Psychological Distress, and Depression in 73 131 Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The pathogenesis of depression is not fully understood, but studies suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to the development of depression. OBJECTIVE To test whether elevated plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with psychological distress...... to 100 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We ascertained psychological distress with 2 single-item self-reports and depression using self-reported antidepressant use, register-based prescription of antidepressants, and register-based hospitalization with depression. RESULTS In cross-sectional analyses......, increasing CRP levels were associated with increasing risk for psychological distress and depression (P = 3 × 10-8 to P = 4 × 10-105 for trend). For self-reported use of antidepressants, the odds ratio was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55) for CRP levels of 1.01 to 3.00 mg/L, 2.02 (1.77-2.30) for 3.01 to 10.00 mg...

  6. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  8. Clinical Relevance and Discriminatory Value of Elevated Liver Aminotransferase Levels for Dengue Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K.; Gan, Victor C.; Lee, Vernon J.; Tan, Adriana S.; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT≥1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT≥1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve = 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57–0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.52–0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Conclusions Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue. PMID:22679523

  9. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Adriana S; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  10. Outcome of Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Including Cilostazol in Elderly Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from the INTERSTELLAR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Jun; Park, Sang-Don; Park, Hyun Woo; Suh, Jon; Oh, Pyung Chun; Moon, Jeonggeun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Kang, Woong Chol; Kwon, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Compared with dual antiplatelet therapy including aspirin and clopidogrel, triple antiplatelet therapy including cilostazol has a mortality benefit in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, whether the mortality benefit persists in elderly patients is not clear. From 2007 to 2014, 1278 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four groups by age (elderly, respectively) and antiplatelet strategy (triple or dual antiplatelet therapy). We compared the mortality rates between the triple and dual antiplatelet therapy groups. There were 1052 (male, 85%; mean age, 56.3 ± 10.4 years) patients in the young group and 241 (male, 52.7%; mean age, 80.3 ± 4.5 years) patients in the elderly group. In the young and elderly groups, 220 (20.9%) and 28 (12.3%) patients were treated with triple antiplatelet therapy. During a 1-year follow-up period, 80 patients died (4.2% in the young group vs. 15.5% in the elderly group). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that triple antiplatelet therapy was associated with a lower mortality rate in the young group (log-rank, p = 0.005). Although there were more angiographic high-risk patients in the elderly group, similar mortality rates were reported (log-rank, p = 0.803) without increased bleeding rates (1 vs. 3.6% in the elderly group, p = 0.217). Triple antiplatelet therapy might be a better antiplatelet regimen than dual antiplatelet therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Although this benefit was strong in patients aged elderly patients (aged ≥75 years).

  11. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Evaluating Elevated Levels of Tumor Markers in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Göktaş

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in the follow-up of breast cancer patients, who underwent a PET/CT scan due to a suspicion of recurrence based on elevated levels of serum tumor markers. Methods: Seventy-seven consecutive patients were included in this study. PET/CT scan results were compared with the final diagnoses that were obtained from histopathological sampling or a minimum 6 months of radiological follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence were calculated. Results: All 77 patients had increased serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels while 37 had increased serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. According to PET/CT scan results, 59 of 77 patients (PET/CT positive had local recurrence and/or distant metastasis while there was no pathological finding in 18 patients (PET/CT negative. In a follow-up of minimum 6 months, tumor recurrence was confirmed in 58 of “PET/CT positive” patients while no tumor recurrence was detected in 16 of “PET/CT negative” patients. According to these results the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT for detecting recurrence on a per-person basis were calculated as 98%, 88%, 96%, 94% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: In case of elevated levels of serum tumor markers, PET/CT has a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting tumor recurrence in patients with breast cancer, and it is an effective modality that can be used in addition to conventional imaging techniques.

  12. Elevated serum levels of heat shock protein 70 can be detected after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Sebastian P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Schmidt, Diethard; Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; von Herbay, Alexandra; Kosan, Bora; Aebert, Hermann; Pereira, Philippe L; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2011-09-01

    Due to their adjuvant effect and their ability to chaperone tumor-associated peptides, heat shock proteins constitute a potent alarm signal for the immune system and can lead to activation of anti-tumor T-cell immunity. Radiofrequency ablation has been reported to induce heat shock protein expression especially that of heat shock protein 70 in sublethally damaged tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum of cancer-bearing patients directly after radiofrequency ablation. Sera of 22 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver, kidney, and lung, as well as control sera of 20 patients undergoing diagnostic liver biopsy were analyzed using a manufactured heat shock protein 70 ELISA. A significant increase in serum levels of heat shock protein 70 was detectable in the patient cohort 1 day after radiofrequency ablation. More than a twofold increase was observed in nine out of 22 patients, which tended to correlate with favorable clinical outcome. No patient of the control group revealed a comparable increase. Radiofrequency ablation can lead to a release of heat shock protein 70 into the serum, which is transiently detectable 1 day after treatment. Elevated heat shock protein 70 serum levels may constitute a biomarker for favorable clinical outcome.

  13. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  14. Nuclear medicine diagnostic experience for 25 patients with parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum PTH level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Li; Huang Chenggang; Niu Wenqiang; Wu Liwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore nuclear medicine diagnostic method for parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Methods: The images of 25 patients with parathyroid disease were obtained by SPECT 99 Tc m -MIBI double-phase parathyroid imaging and 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate ( 99 Tc m -MDP) whole-body static bone imaging. All subject were measured serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Results: (1) Serum PTH level increased to varying degrees in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). (2) PHPT and SHPT showed significant change before and after surgery (t=6.24 and t=6.85, P 99 Tc m -MIBI were above 90%. (4) Whole-body bone imaging results of SHPT patients showed complex and diverse caused by high background, increased uptakes mainly. 99 Tc m -MIBI dual-phase parathyroid imaging showed hyperparathyroidism in varying degree, up to 56% or more. Conclusion: Determination of serum PTH combined SPECT for parathyroid and whole-body bone imaging showed high clinical value in diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease. (authors)

  15. Elevated urine levels of bufotenine in patients with autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Colombo, Roberto; Martinelli, Valentina; Brondino, Natascia; Marini, Mara; Boso, Marianna; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine (N-N-dimethyl-5-idroxytryptamine) may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders. The potential association of bufotenine with the clinical features of autism and schizophrenia is not entirely understood. In this study, we measured urinary levels of bufotenine in subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects free of psychiatric symptoms. We also sought to assess whether urine concentrations of this molecule may be associated with the clinical characteristics of psychiatric patients. Urine bufotenine levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) assay in young adults with severe ASD (n=15), patients with schizophrenia (n=15), and healthy control subjects (n=18). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to measure adaptive behaviors in ASD individuals. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used for patients with schizophrenia. Urine bufotenine levels were significantly higher in ASD subjects (3.30 +/- 0.49 microg/L, p<0.05) and patients with schizophrenia (4.39 +/- 0.43 microg/L, p<0.001) compared with controls (1.53 +/- 0.30 microg/L). Among patients with ASD, there was a significant positive correlation between urine bufotenine and hyperactivity scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (r=0.479, p<0.05). No other associations were detected. Our results indicate that elevated urine levels of the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine may play a role in ASD and schizophrenia, and can be correlated with hyperactivity scores in autism.

  16. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hofmann

    Full Text Available NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic hormone with elevated levels in obese and decreased levels in anorexia nervosa (AN patients. Moreover, a role in the regulation of stress and emotions was suggested by several rodent and preliminary human studies. Since anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in AN, we investigated the association of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 with anxiety, depression and perceived stress in AN.We analyzed circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in 64 female inpatients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (body mass index, BMI; mean±SD, 14.7±2.3 kg/m2. At the same time anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9, stress (PSQ-20 and disordered eating (EDI-2 were measured psychometrically.No correlation was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.70. The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n = 32, GAD-7 scores, mean±SD, 7.5±3.3 and high anxiety (n = 32, 16.0±3.0, p0.05. EDI-2 total score was also higher in the high anxiety group (52.3±14.1 vs. 40.2±16.0, p = 0.02, while no correlations of EDI-2-scores with plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were observed (p>0.05.Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels correlated positively with perceived anxiety, whereas no association with BMI or eating disorder symptoms was observed. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be primarily involved in the modulation of anxiety and subsequently in the regulation of eating habits and body weight in AN.

  17. Is Systemic Inflammation Associated With Elevated PSA Serum Levels In Patients Submitted Chronic Hemodialysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Pereira Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroundː whereas that systemic inflammation (SI affects 40–60% of patients on hemodialysis (HD is characterized by serum C-reactive protein (CRP level elevation or proinflammatory interleukin production or both. We evaluated the association between SI and total (tPSA and free PSA (fPSA in patients on HD with tPSA 6 months. Patients were excluded if they had local infections or SI. Hs-CRP was measured using turbidimetry, and tPSA and fPSA levels using immunochemoluminescence. Overall, 27 patients had inflammation (hs-CRP >5 mg/L and 33 had no inflammation (hs-CRP was ≤5 mg/L. In the control group, hs-CRP was ≤ 1 mg/L. Resultsː there was no significant difference in mean levels among groups 3 and 4 for age (p=0,058, tPSA (p=0,74 and fPSA (p=0,30. The SI did not promote differences between groups 1, 2 and 4 for the levels of tPSA (0,71 ± 0,18  vs   0,67 ± 0,15  vs  0,67 ± 0,11; p=0,69 and fPSA (0,34  ±  0,01  vs  0,34  ±  0,01  vs   0,35  ±  0,01, p= 0,59 . As well as maintained no correlation with tPSA and fPSA (p>0,05. Conclusionː The systemic inflammation in hemodialytic patients without clinically detectable cancer (PSA<4ng/ml is no associated with changes fractions of tPSA and fPSA.

  18. Workplaces with elevated levels of exposure to natural radiation: The situation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Aakerblom, G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the geological conditions with an abundance of granites and pegmatites rich in uranium and thorium together with large areas of uranium-rich alum shale, exposure from natural radiation is not unusual in certain types of industries and other work activities in Sweden. Although no representative survey of radon at regular workplaces has been performed in Sweden, smaller surveys and the high radon concentrations in dwellings indicate that workplaces with elevated radon levels are frequent in Sweden. Very high levels of indoor radon have been found in waterworks. Radon in mines has been regulated in Sweden since 1972 and radon in other workplaces since 1990. The situation in schools and day-care centres was thoroughly investigated in 2000. The estimated number of school and child care buildings with radon concentrations exceeding the action level 400 Bq/m 3 , is 800, about 200 of these have been identified and in about 100 buildings remedial measures have been taken. Regulations for natural radioactivity in building materials (for new buildings) have been in force since 1980. Lightweight concrete produced from uranium-rich alum shale was in use between 1929 and 1975. Almost 400,000 dwellings, 10 percent of the building stock, contain this material. The situation at NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) industries is currently being investigated. Since the beginning of the 1950s it is known that residues from several industrial activities contain enhanced levels of natural radioactivity. Some examples are burnt alum shale from lime burning, radium-rich slag from metal production and waste gypsum from sulphuric acid production. The impact of the exposure from these residues is now being reinvestigated. So far no systematic search for up to now unknown work activities where substantial exposures from natural radiation could occur, has been initiated. For the protection of aircrew from cosmic radiation the responsible Swedish authorities have

  19. Prevalence of Elevated Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors Among Residents Younger Than 6 Years, Puerto Rico--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Timothy; Rivera García, Brenda; De León, Maridali; Curtis, Gerald; Creanga, Andreea A; Azofeifa, Alejandro; OʼNeill, Maureen; Blanton, Curtis; Kennedy, Chinaro; Rullán, Maria; Caldwell, Kathy; Rullán, John; Brown, Mary Jean

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist about blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential exposures among children living in Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Department of Health has no formal blood lead surveillance program. We assessed the prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥5 micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood), evaluated household environmental lead levels, and risk factors for BLL among children younger than 6 years of age living in Puerto Rico in 2010. We used a population-based, cross-sectional sampling strategy to enroll an island-representative sample of Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years. We estimated the island-wide weighted prevalence of elevated BLLs and conducted bivariable and multivariable linear regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for elevated BLLs. The analytic data set included 355 households and 439 children younger than 6 years throughout Puerto Rico. The weighted geometric mean BLL of children younger than 6 years was 1.57 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.88). The weighted prevalence of children younger than 6 years with BLLs of 5 μg/dL or more was 3.18% (95% CI, 0.93-5.43) and for BLLs of 10 μg/dL or more was 0.50% (95% CI, 0-1.31). Higher mean BLLs were significantly associated with data collection during the summer months, a lead-related activity or hobby of anyone in the residence, and maternal education of less than 12 years. Few environmental lead hazards were identified. The prevalence of elevated BLLs among Puerto Rican children younger than 6 years is comparable with the most recent (2007-2010) US national estimate (BLLs ≥5 μg/dL = 2.6% [95% CI = 1.6-4.0]). Our findings suggest that targeted screening of specific higher-risk groups of children younger than 6 years can replace island-wide or insurance-specific policies of mandatory blood lead testing in Puerto Rico.

  20. Elevated Serum PSA is Associated With Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection and Increased Circulating Cytokine Levels in Men From Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Jill D; Karamchandani, Jaideep M; Bonachea, Luis A; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Jenkins, Frank J

    2017-05-01

    Serum-prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels have been used for many years as a biomarker for prostate cancer. This usage is under scrutiny due to the fact that elevated PSA levels can be caused by other conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and infections of or injury to the prostate. As a result, the identification of specific pathogens capable of increasing serum levels of PSA is important. A potential candidate responsible for elevated PSA is human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We have reported previously that HHV-8 is capable of infecting and establishing a latent infection in the prostate. In this current study we test the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with elevated PSA levels. Circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated PSA and controls are also compared. HHV-8 serostatus was determined among men with elevated serum PSA (≥4 ng/ml; n = 168, no prostate cancer on biopsy) and age-matched controls (PSA PSA and 85 controls). Men with an elevated serum PSA were significantly more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive (42.9%) than the age-matched cancer-free men (22.2%; OR 2.51; 95%CI 1.48-4.29, P = 00001). Comparison of circulating cytokine levels between men with elevated serum PSA and controls indicated that elevated serum PSA is associated with a pro-inflammatory response with a mixed Th1/Th2 response while HHV-8 infection was associated with significantly higher levels of IL12p70, IL-10, and IL-13 indicating a Th2 immune response. We found a significant association between HHV-8 infection and increased levels of serum PSA. In an age of patient-centered medicine, men with an elevated serum PSA should be considered for HHV-8 serology testing to determine if HHV-8 is responsible for the elevated PSA. Prostate 77: 617-624, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Risk factors for elevated blood lead levels among children aged 6-36 months living in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitsinou, A; Soldatou, A; Tsitsika, A; Kossiva, L; Tsentidis, Ch; Nisianakis, P; Theocharis, S; Garoufi, A

    2015-11-01

    Childhood lead poisoning remains a critical environmental health concern because even low blood lead levels (BLLs) can result in permanent adverse health effects. Social factors and living conditions have been correlated with BLLs. There is no recent survey about the prevalence of elevated BLLs among children in Greece. The purpose of this study was to assess BLLs among children aged 6-36 months born and living in Greece and to evaluate their association with demographic, socio-economic and housing conditions. In a cross-sectional hospital-based study including 814 randomly selected children aged 6-36 months, BLLs and haematological parameters were evaluated. A questionnaire investigating demographic and socio-economic conditions was completed in all children. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA for Windows v.8.5, and P herbs and/or spices and having a mother with a manual occupation were independent risk factors for elevated BLLs. Lead exposure remains a threat for optimal health especially for toddlers and children of socio-economically disadvantaged families living in Greece. A nationwide survey to assess lead exposure in children is necessary to guide prevention governmental policies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on yield and fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) at two levels of nitrogen application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Mantri, Nitin; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Sun, Dan; Zhu, Yueqing; Dong, Tingting; Lu, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if elevated CO(2) could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on fruit yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka) at different levels of nitrogen and also tested the combined effects of CO(2), temperature and nitrogen on fruit quality of plants cultivated in controlled growth chambers. Results show that elevated CO(2) and high temperature caused a further 12% and 35% decrease in fruit yield at low and high nitrogen, respectively. The fewer inflorescences and smaller umbel size during flower induction caused the reduction of fruit yield at elevated CO(2) and high temperature. Interestingly, nitrogen application has no beneficial effect on fruit yield, and this may be because of decreased sucrose export to the shoot apical meristem at floral transition. Moreover, elevated CO(2) increased the levels of dry matter-content, fructose, glucose, total sugar and sweetness index per dry matter, but decreased fruit nitrogen content, total antioxidant capacity and all antioxidant compounds per dry matter in strawberry fruit. The reduction of fruit nitrogen content and antioxidant activity was mainly caused by the dilution effect of accumulated non-structural carbohydrates sourced from the increased net photosynthetic rate at elevated CO(2). Thus, the quality of strawberry fruit would increase because of the increased sweetness and the similar amount of fruit nitrogen content, antioxidant activity per fresh matter at elevated CO(2). Overall, we found that elevated CO(2) improved the production of strawberry (including yield and quality) at low temperature, but decreased it at high temperature. The dramatic fluctuation in strawberry yield between low and high temperature at elevated CO(2) implies that more attention should be paid to the process of flower induction under climate change, especially in fruits that require winter chilling for reproductive growth.

  3. Northeastern Salt Marshes: Elevation Capital and Resilience to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable tidal salt marshes exist at an elevation that is supra-optimal relative to peak biomass production, which for Spartina alterniflora, and other marsh macrophytes, follows a parabolic distribution as a function of elevation, as a surrogate for inundation frequency. In order...

  4. Meigs' syndrome with elevated serum CA 125 level in a case of ovarian fibrothecoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, M Y; Roh, H J; You, S K; Lee, S H; Cho, H J; Kwon, Y S

    2014-01-01

    Meigs' syndrome is the association of benign ovarian tumor, pleural effusion, and ascites. Meigs' syndrome with marked elevated CA 125 is a rare clinical entity and only 42 cases have been reported. Although there is difficulty in discerning the diagnosis of Meigs' syndrome from that of an ovarian malignancy, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis in postmenopausal patients with an ovarian mass, hydrothorax, ascites, and elevated CA 125. In this report, the authors present the case of a 52-year-old postmenopausal woman with ovarian fibrothecoma, pleural effusion, ascites, and elevated CA 125 (319.2 IU/ml). Exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was ovarian fibrothecoma. After the surgery, the pleural effusion disappeared spontaneously and the CA 125 became normal. The authors also summarized other cases of Meigs' syndrome with elevated CA 125, and reviewed the mechanism of elevation of CA 125, ascites, and pleural effusion.

  5. Brain BDNF levels elevation induced by physical training is reduced after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Van Hoecke, Jacques; Mossiat, Claude M; Marie, Christine

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the contribution of blood flow elevation in the cerebrovasculature to physical training-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels elevation in the brain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels were measured in the motor cortex 24 h after the last session of a forced treadmill walking (30 minutes a day, 18 m/minute for 7 consecutive days). Unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and modulation of exercise intensity (0 versus -10% inclination of the treadmill) were used as strategies to reduce the (normal) elevation of flow in the cerebrovasculature occurring during exercise. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg before each exercise sessions) and genetic hypertension (spontaneously hypertensive rats) were used as approaches to reduce stimulation of nitric oxide production in response to shear stress elevation. Vascular occlusion totally and partially abolished the effect of physical training on BDNF levels in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to occlusion, respectively. BDNF levels were higher after high than low exercise intensity. In addition, both genetic hypertension and L-NAME treatment blunted the effects of physical training on BDNF. From these results, we propose that elevation of brain BDNF levels elicited by physical training involves changes in cerebral hemodynamics.

  6. Inhibition of fatty acid binding proteins elevates brain anandamide levels and produces analgesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaczocha

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics.

  7. Elevated circulating homocyst(e)ine levels in placental vascular disease and associated pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Trudinger, B J; Duarte, N; Wilcken, D E; Wang, X L

    2000-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in the maternal or fetal circulation is associated with placental vascular disease with either the maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia and/or fetal syndrome of growth restriction. Maternal plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly higher in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia, pregnancies with evidence of umbilical placental vascular disease, and pregnancies with both complications compared with the normal pregnancy group. In the fetal circulation mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group compared with the normal group. The results suggest that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia may be a risk marker for placental vascular disease and maternal pre-eclampsia. The elevated fetal plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, found only in the group of pregnancies with pre-eclampsia in the absence of umbilical placental vascular disease, may be due to an effect of placental vascular disease on homocyst(e)ine transfer from the maternal to fetal circulation.

  8. Elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondkar AA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Altaf A Kondkar,1 Taif A Azad,1 Faisal A Almobarak,1 Hatem Kalantan,1 Saleh A Al-Obeidan,1 Khaled K Abu-Amero1,2 1Glaucoma Research Chair, Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which plays a role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Based on the plausible role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEG, we investigated whether there is any relationship between the levels of plasma TNF-α and PEG or any of its clinical indices in comparison to normal controls.Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective analysis. Plasma samples from 49 PEG patients and 88 non-glaucomatous controls were evaluated for TNF-α levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The assay was performed in duplicates on a biochemical/ELISA analyzer.Results: The two study groups were similar in age, sex and systemic disease distribution. The mean TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in the PEG patients (5.54±4.58 pg/mL than in the control subjects (0.93±1.49 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] =3.50–5.72; p=0.000. The overall dose–response trend was significant (χ2=57.07, df=2; p=0.000. A moderate positive and significant correlation was seen between TNF-α level and cup/disc ratio, an important clinical index for PEG. Besides, binary logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of PEG was most significantly affected by TNF-α level as compared to no association with age and sex. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.777 (95% CI =0.682–0.872 and statistically significant (p=0.000.Conclusion: Elevated systemic levels of inflammatory marker, TNF-α, are associated with PEG and may possibly serve as a biomarker for undiagnosed early

  9. Sulfur mustard resistant keratinocytes obtained elevated glutathione levels and other changes in the antioxidative defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmiller, Simone; Schröder, Sarah; Strobelt, Romano; Wolf, Markus; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Xiqian; Worek, Franz; Steinritz, Dirk; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2017-11-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress. For this purpose, glutathione (GSH) and NAD(P)H levels, the effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition as well as activation and expression of Nrf2, GST, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) as well as multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins 1, 3 and 5 were investigated. The HaCaT/SM cells showed not only a better survival after treatment with SM or cytostatic drugs, but also hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). They exhibit more GSH even after SM treatment. Nrf2 levels were significantly lower. Inhibition of GST led to significantly decreased, activation to slightly higher IC 50 values after SM treatment and a lower expression of GST was observed. The cells also expressed less GCLC and GSR. Expression of MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5 was higher under control conditions, but less stimulated by SM treatment. An increased NADP + /NADPH ratio as well as higher NAD + levels were shown. In summary, an improved response of the resistant cell line to oxidative stress was observed. The underlying mechanisms are elevated GSH levels as well as lower expression of Nrf2 and its targets GCLC and GST as well as GSR and MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5. GST is an especially interesting target because its inhibition already induced a significant SM sensitivity. SM resistance also caused redox equivalent level differences. Taken together, these findings provide further insight into the mechanism of SM

  10. Compared to Intermittant Claudication Critical Limb Ischemia Is Associated with Elevated Levels of Cytokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Jalkanen

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the advanced stage of peripheral artery disease (PAD and associated with an extremely poor clinical outcome. In order to understand the possible role of circulating cytokines and poor outcome associated with CLI we compared the circulating cytokine profile of patients with CLI against patients with intermittent claudication (IC. The levels of 48 circulating cytokines were examined in 226 consecutive patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD admitted for elective, non-urgent, invasive treatment of IC or CLI. The PAD patient cohort was evenly distributed between subjects with IC (46.5% and CLI (53.5%. As accustomed in PAD, CLI was associated with higher age, chronic kidney disease and diabetes when compared to IC (P < 0.01 for all. In multivariable linear regression modeling taking into account the baseline differences between IC and CLI groups CLI was independently associated with elevated levels of a large number of cytokines: IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2Rα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (P < 0.01 for all, and IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, bFGF, VEGF, SCGF-β (P < 0.05 for all. The current findings indicate that CLI is associated with a circulating cytokine profile, which resembles serious medical conditions such as severe pancreatitis, sepsis, or even cancer. Compared to IC, CLI is a systemic inflammatory condition, which may explain the extremely poor outcome associated with it.

  11. Endothelin-1 plasma levels are not elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpen, F; Kanne, P; Schulz, E; Hagenah, G; Hasenfuss, G; Andreas, S

    2000-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is released mainly by vascular endothelial cells under the influence of hypoxia and other stimuli. ET-1 is related to endothelial dysfunction, as well as arterial and pulmonary hypertension, all of which are thought to be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study evaluated venous plasma concentrations of ET-1 and noradrenaline and 24-h systemic blood pressure in 29 patients with OSA (age=56.9+/-1.6 yrs; body mass index=29.5+/-0.7 kg x m2 (mean+/-SEM)). Blood samples were taken in the morning, evening and during sleep. In the same way, the patients were assessed during a night of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and after 13.9+/-1.4 months while still on CPAP. ET-1 levels were compared to those of control subjects, who were selected from in- and outpatients and were matched to patients for age, sex, presence of arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. ET-1 plasma levels were not elevated in the patients compared to the controls (41.6+/-2.2 and 44.9+/-1.3 pg x mL(-1), respectively, p=0.20). The ET-1 concentration did not change significantly, neither during sleep nor in the first night on CPAP therapy, nor under long-term treatment with CPAP. ET-1 neither correlated to the severity of OSA nor to that of systemic hypertension. The results suggest that endothelin-1 does not play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

  12. Elevated Levels of Peripheral Kynurenine Decrease Bone Strength in Rats with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Kalaska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD represent a clinical challenge. CKD leads to mineral and bone complications starting early in the course of renal failure. Recently, we have observed the positive relationship between intensified central kynurenine turnover and bone strength in rats with subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between peripheral kynurenine pathway metabolites and bone strength in rats with 5/6 Nx-induced CKD. The animals were sacrificed 1 and 3 months after 5/6 Nx or sham operation. Nephrectomized rats presented higher concentrations of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and parathyroid hormone both 1 and 3 months after nephrectomy. These animals revealed higher concentrations of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine in the serum and higher gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR as a physiological receptor for kynurenine and AhR-dependent cytochrome in the bone tissue. Furthermore, nephrectomy significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in the bone without affecting their resorptive activity measured in serum. These changes were particularly evident in rats 1 month after 5/6 Nx. The main bone biomechanical parameters of the tibia were unchanged between nephrectomized and sham-operated rats but were significantly increased in older compared to younger animals. A similar trend was observed for geometrical parameters measured with calipers, bone mineral density based on Archimedes' method and image of bone microarchitecture obtained from micro-computed tomography analyses of tibial cortical bone. In nephrectomized animals, peripheral kynurenine levels correlated negatively with the main parameters of bone biomechanics, bone geometry, and bone mineral density values. In conclusion, our data suggest that CKD-induced elevated levels of peripheral kynurenine cause pathological changes in bone

  13. SDF-1/CXCL12 and CXCR4 gene variants, and elevated serum SDF-1 levels are associated with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Savas; Bagci, Binnur; Bagci, Gokhan; Sancakdar, Enver; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ozlem; Cetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare the frequencies of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) 3'A and CXCR4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum SDF-1 levels in patients with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 89 women with PE and 89 control women were included in the study. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to measure serum SDF-1 level. For SDF-1 3'A SNP, the frequency of GA genotype, total number of GA and AA genotypes, and the A allele frequency was higher in PE patients than controls (p = 0.04, 0.023, and 0.029, respectively). For CXCR4 SNP, the frequency of CT genotype, total number of CT and TT genotypes, and the T allele frequency were higher in PE patients than controls (p = 0.04, 0.006, and 0.005, respectively). SDF-1 serum level was detected higher in preeclamptic women compared with controls (p = 0.001). In PE patients, there was no significant association between serum SDF-1 levels and genotypes of SDF-1 3'A SNP. SDF-1 level was significantly higher in patients bearing CXCR4 CT genotype than CC genotype (p = 0.001). Furthermore, SDF-1 levels in patients bearing CT+TT genotype were found higher than that of patients with CC genotypes (p = 0.001). Results of our study suggest that SDF-1 3'A and CXCR4 polymorphisms and elevated serum SDF-1 levels may have a role in the development of PE.

  14. Elevated Urinary Methylmalonic Acid/creatinine ratio and Serum Sterol levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivrikaya Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sitosterolemia, defined as phytosterolemia, is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by elevated blood sterol levels. Our aim was to investigate serum plant sterols, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B12, oxidized-LDL and homocysteine levels in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients and healthy subjects. Material and Methods: 50 healthy subjects (without a family history of coronary artery disease and 89 patients hospitalized in the Selcuk University neurology clinic or intensive care unit with a diagnosis of stroke were included in this study. Serum plant sterols, homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, oxidized-LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-Cholesterol and vitamin B12 levels were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, commercially available ELISA kit, spectrophotometry and chemiluminescence methods, respectively. Results: Urinary methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio (p< 0.05, serum β-sitosterol levels and β-sitosterol/ cholesterol ratio were significantly higher (p <0.01 in patients compared to the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum OxLDL- methylmalonic acid, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid /creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid - Urinary methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, serum homocysteine- urinary methylmalonic acid, urinary methylmalonic acid-methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum methylmalonic acid- methylmalonic acid/creatinine ratio, serum beta-sitosterol- beta-sitosterol /cholesterol, total cholesterol-HDL, total cholesterol-LDL (p <0.01 levels and negative correlation between vitamin B12- serum methylmalonic acid (p<0.05, cholesterol-stigmasterol/cholesterol, LDL- stigmasterol/cholesterol (p <0.01 levels in the patient group. Conclusion: Our findings presented that the serum sitosterol levels were significantly higher in stroke patients compared to controls.

  15. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G. [Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2{+-}12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2{+-}34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p<0.001), and 89.9{+-}67.8 pg/ml in 23 patients with renal anemia (p=0.001). VEGF levels in cancer patients were significantly correlated with hemoglobin (hb) levels and platelet counts (each p=0.001), but not with type of tumor, stage, histology or age. Patients with cancers had higher plasma levels of VEGF than patients with non-malignant diseases in case of hb{>=}12 g/dl (33.1{+-}17.5 vs. 16.6{+-}13.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and in case of hb between 11.0 and 11.9 g/dl (56.1{+-}26.4 vs 18.5{+-}14.5 pg/ml, p=0.038). In case of a hb<11 g/dl, plasma VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with and without cancers (67.0{+-}47.5 vs 88.9{+-}68.8 pg/ml, n.s.). In a multivariate model, a significant association between low hb levels and increased plasma levels of VEGF was confirmed. In 16 patients with renal anemia, changes in hb under erythropoietin treatment were inversely correlated with changes in plasma VEGF levels with decreasing VEGF after increase in hb (p=0.01). Conclusions: Anemic patients have elevated levels of VEGF. The data suggest that anemia might impact on the progression of

  16. Elevation of tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shunji; Abe, Arisa; Iida, Yasunori; Inoue, Teruaki; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    West syndrome is an epileptic encephalopathy with a poor developmental outcome. Tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are reported to be markers of axonal damage and neurodegeneration. This study aimed to investigate axonal damage and the effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy on axons in West syndrome, as measured by tau protein levels in CSF. Tau protein levels in CSF before and after ACTH therapy were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 26 children with West syndrome. Of these 26 children, 18 were symptomatic, and 8 had a cryptogenic form of West syndrome. A group of 41 unaffected children was included in the study as a control group. The levels of tau protein in CSF were significantly higher in children with West syndrome than in the control group, and these levels remained high after ACTH therapy. ACTH therapy was effective for 20 of the 26 children with West syndrome, and their CSF tau protein levels were significantly higher after ACTH therapy than before therapy. Our results suggest that axonal damage occurs in West syndrome, as judged by tau protein levels in CSF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Baseline cardiac troponin t levels are elevated in subjects with untreated diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M; Nielsen, M L; Leósdóttir, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac troponins are biomarkers of myocardial injury and serve both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Even mild elevations represent subclinical myocardial damage in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between glucometabolic status...

  18. Retrospective evaluation of patients with elevated digoxin levels at an emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Limon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We investigated the demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes of patients presenting at emergency department (ED with digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml. Materials and methods: The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with serum digoxin levels at or above 1.2 ng/ml admitted to an ED between January 2010 and July 2011 were investigated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Patients with ECG and clinical findings consistent with digoxin toxicity and no additional explanation of their symptoms were evaluated for digoxin toxicity. Results: In this study 137 patients were included, and 68.6% of patients were women with mean age 76.1 ± 12.2. There was no significant difference between gender and digoxin intoxication. The mean age of intoxicated group was significantly higher than the non-intoxicated group (P = 0.03. The most common comorbidities were congestive heart failure (n = 91 and atrial fibrillation (n = 74. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The levels of hospitalization and mortality in this group were significantly higher. Conclusion: Digoxin intoxication must be suspected in patients present in the ED, particularly those with complaints that include nausea and vomiting, as well as new ECG changes; serum digoxin levels must be determined. Keywords: Digoxin, Digoxin level, Intoxication, Emergency department

  19. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  20. Elevated blood lead levels in a riverside population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Fernando; Fillion, Myriam; Lemire, Mélanie; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Philibert, Aline; Guimarães, Jean-Rémy; Mergler, Donna

    2009-07-01

    Lead (Pb) is recognized as one of the most toxic metals. Sources of Pb exposure have been widely documented in North America, and the removal of Pb additives from gasoline was reflected in a dramatic lowering of blood Pb concentration. In Latin America, the removal of Pb from gasoline resulted in decreased exposure, but Pb levels in many areas remain high due to occupational and environmental sources of exposure. While many of the Pb sources have been identified (mining, industries, battery recycling, lead-based paint, ceramics), new ones occasionally crop up. Here we report on blood Pb (B-Pb) levels in remote riverside communities of the Brazilian Amazon. Blood Pb (B-Pb) levels were determined in 448 persons from 12 villages of the Lower Tapajós River Basin, Pará, Brazil. Socio-demographic and dietary information, as well as occupational, residential and medical history was collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. B-Pb, measured by ICP-MS, showed elevated concentrations. Mean B-Pb was 13.1 microg/dL +/- 8.5, median B-Pb was 11.2 microg/dL and ranged from 0.59 to 48.3 microg/dL. Men had higher B-Pb compared to women (median: 15.3 microg/dL vs 7.9 microg/dL respectively). B-Pb increased with age for women, while it decreased for men. For both genders, B-Pb decreased with education. There were significant differences between villages. Exploratory analyses, using linear partition models, showed that for men B-Pb was lower among those who were involved in cattle-raising, and higher among those who hunted, farmed and fished. The distribution profile of B-Pb directed us towards artisanal transformation of manioc to flour (farinha), which requires heating in a large metal pan, with stirring primarily done by young men. In the village with the highest B-Pb, analysis of Pb concentrations (dry weight) of manioc (prior to transformation) and farinha (following transformation) from 6 houses showed a tenfold increase in Pb concentration (mean: 0.017 +/- 0

  1. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, Melanie; Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 μg/g; range: 0.4-158.4 μg/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 μg/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 μg/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 μg/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 μg/g, 1.9-1437 μg/g) and Sr (38.7 μg/g, 3.3-173 μg/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  2. Elevated levels of selenium in the typical diet of Amazonian riverside populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, Melanie, E-mail: lemire.melanie@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Fillion, Myriam [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Barbosa, Fernando [Depto. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee [Instituto de Biofisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mergler, Donna [Centre de recherche interdisciplinaire sur la biologie, la sante, la societe et l' environnement (CINBIOSE), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-09-01

    Selenium (Se) intake is generally from food, whose Se content depends on soil Se and plant accumulation. For humans, adequate Se intake is essential for several selenoenzymes. In the Lower Tapajos region of the Brazilian Amazon, Se status is elevated with large inter-community variability. Se intake in this region, where Hg exposure is among the highest in the world, may be important to counteract mercury (Hg) toxicity. The present study was conducted in 2006 with 155 persons from four communities of the Lower Tapajos. The objectives were: i) to evaluate Se content in their typical diet and drinking water; ii) to compare food Se concentrations with respect to geographic location; and iii) to examine the contribution of consumption of different food items to blood Se. More than 400 local foods and 40 drinking water samples were collected. Participants responded to an interview-administered food frequency questionnaire and provided blood samples. Food, water and blood Se levels were assessed by ICP-MS. Since Brazil nuts may also contain significant levels of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr), these elements were likewise analyzed in nuts. The highest Se concentrations were found in Brazil nuts, but concentrations were highly variable (median: 13.9 {mu}g/g; range: 0.4-158.4 {mu}g/g). Chicken, game meat, eggs and beef also contained considerable levels of Se, with median concentrations from 0.3 to 1.4 {mu}g/g. There was no particular geographic distribution of food Se. Se concentration in drinking water was very low (< 1.4 {mu}g/L). Blood Se covered a (103-1500 {mu}g/L), and was positively related to regular consumption of Brazil nuts, domestic chicken and game meat. Brazil nuts were found to contain highly variable and often very high concentrations of Ba (88.0 {mu}g/g, 1.9-1437 {mu}g/g) and Sr (38.7 {mu}g/g, 3.3-173 {mu}g/g). Further studies should address multiple nutrient/toxic interactions in the diet and related effects on health.

  3. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes reverses elevated MBL levels in association with MBL2 genotype and VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijkerk, Roel; van der Pol, Pieter; Khairoun, Meriem; van Gijlswijk-Jansen, Danielle J; Lievers, Ellen; de Vries, Aiko P J; de Koning, Eelco J; de Fijter, Hans W; Roelen, Dave L; Vossen, Rolf H A M; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; van Kooten, Cees; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2016-04-01

    High levels of circulating mannan-binding lectin (MBL) are associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy and hyperglycaemia-induced vasculopathy. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of glycaemic control on circulating levels of MBL and the relationship of these levels with vascular damage. We assessed MBL levels and corresponding MBL2 genotype, together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels as a marker of vascular damage, in type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy before and after simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation. We included diabetic nephropathy patients (n = 21), SPK patients (n = 37), healthy controls (n = 19), type 1 diabetes patients (n = 15) and diabetic nephropathy patients receiving only a kidney transplant (n = 15). Fourteen diabetic nephropathy patients were followed up for 12 months after SPK. We found elevated circulating MBL levels in diabetic nephropathy patients, and a trend towards elevated circulating MBL levels in type 1 diabetes patients, compared with healthy control individuals. MBL levels in SPK patients completely normalised and our data indicate that this predominantly occurs in patients with a polymorphism in the MBL2 gene. By contrast, MBL levels in kidney transplant only patients remained elevated, suggesting that glycaemic control but not reversal of renal failure is associated with decreased MBL levels. In line, levels of glucose and HbA1c, but not creatinine levels and estimated GFR, were correlated with MBL levels. VEGF levels were associated with levels of MBL and HbA1c in an MBL-polymorphism-dependent manner. Taken together, circulating MBL levels are associated with diabetic nephropathy and are dependent on glycaemic control, possibly in an MBL2-genotype-dependent manner.

  4. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble CD30 (sCD30, a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS, and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI. Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs with mean values of 32.0±12.2 and 24.9±8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P**=0.007, suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P>0.05. Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients.

  5. Low levels of estradiol are associated with elevated conditioned responding during fear extinction and with intrusive memories in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerer, Melanie; Kerschbaum, Hubert; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be conceptualized as a disorder of emotional memory showing strong (conditioned) responses to trauma reminders and intrusive memories among other symptoms. Women are at greater risk of developing PTSD than men. Recent studies have demonstrated an influence of ovarian steroid hormones in both fear conditioning and intrusive memory paradigms. However, although intrusive memories are considered non-extinguished emotional reactions to trauma reminders, none of the previous studies has investigated effects of ovarian hormones on fear conditioning mechanisms and intrusive memories in conjunction. This may have contributed to an overall inconsistent picture of the role of these hormones in emotional learning and memory. To remedy this, we exposed 37 healthy women with a natural menstrual cycle (during early follicular or luteal cycle phase) to a novel conditioned-intrusion paradigm designed to model real-life traumatic experiences. The paradigm included a differential fear conditioning procedure with short violent film clips as unconditioned stimuli. Intrusive memories about the film clips were assessed ambulatorily on subsequent days. Women with lower levels of estradiol displayed elevated differential conditioned skin conductance responding during fear extinction and showed stronger intrusive memories. The inverse relationship between estradiol and intrusive memories was at least partially accounted for by the conditioned responding observed during fear extinction. Progesterone levels were not associated with either fear acquisition/extinction or with intrusive memories. This suggests that lower levels of estradiol might promote stronger symptoms of PTSD through associative processes. PMID:25463649

  6. Coxsackie B5 infection in an adult with fever, truncal rash, diarrhea and splenomegaly with highly elevated ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valestra, Paul K; Fornos, Scarlet Herrarte; Gian, John; Cunha, Burke A

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses most common in children. Coxsackie B viral infections often present with biphasic fever, headache, pharyngitis, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea and a maculopapular rash that spares the palms and soles. These clinical features may be present in other viral infections. We present a case of a hospitalized adult with rash and fever with highly elevated ferritin levels later found to be due to Coxsackie B5. We believe this is the first case of Coxsackie B infection with otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels.

  7. Elevated levels of interleukin 17A and kynurenine in candidemic patients, compared with levels in noncandidemic patients in the intensive care unit and those in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Robert; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Salzer, Helmut J F; Valentin, Thomas; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Prüller, Florian; Raggam, Reinhard; Meinitzer, Andreas; Prattes, Jürgen; Rinner, Beate; Strohmaier, Heimo; Quehenberger, Franz; Strunk, Dirk; Heidrich, Katharina; Buzina, Walter; Hoenigl, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between Candida species and pattern recognition receptors, interleukins, kynurenine, and T cells has been studied in murine and ex vivo human studies, but data are lacking from patients with invasive fungal infections. Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is considered an important component in host defense against Candida infections and is modulated by Candida-induced impairment of tryptophan-kynurenine metabolism. Dectin-1, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 expression; regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages; and interleukin 6, interleukin 10, IL-17A, interleukin 22, interleukin 23, interferon γ, kynurenine, and tryptophan levels were determined in candidemic patients and compared to levels in noncandidemic patients who are in the intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving antibiotic therapy and those in healthy controls, both with and without Candida colonization. Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients, including Candida-colonized ICU patients and healthy controls. Within candidemic patients, time-dependent elevation of IL-17A and kynurenine levels was detected. IL-17A areas under the curve for differentiation between patients with early candidemia and those without candidemia (ICU patients, including Candida-colonized patients, and healthy controls) were between 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], .89-.99) and 0.99 (95% CI, .99-1). Candidemic patients had significantly higher IL-17A and kynurenine levels, compared with noncandidemic patients. The statistically significant association between IL-17A and kynurenine levels and candidemia suggests their potential as biomarkers for anticipation of invasive candidiasis. NCT00786903. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. An elevated level of BNP in plasma is related to the development of good collateral circulation in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wei-Wei; Cheng, Gang; Lv, Shumin; Gao, Qinqin; Bu, Gang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Geng

    2011-12-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was recently demonstrated to be a potential stimulator of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. The correlation between BNP level and collateral formation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been reported. The study included 311 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were divided into three groups according to coronary angiography and collateral formation: normal group (100 patients with normal coronary angiographic findings); poor collateral group (116 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% without visible collateral circulation); and good collateral group (95 patients with at least one coronary stenosis of ≥75% with well-developed collateral circulation). Collateral score was analyzed using the Cohen-Rentrop classification. Plasma BNP levels were 45.77 ± 4.66 pg/ml, 116.40 ± 28.15 pg/ml, and 254.20 ± 42.85 pg/ml for patients in normal, poor collateral, and good collateral groups, respectively. Plasma BNP levels in the latter were significantly higher than in the normal group (p collateral group (p collateral group and poor collateral group when compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dimensions at end diastole (LVEDd), age, severity of angiographic disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors. After adjustment in the multiple ordinal logistic regression model, plasma BNP levels showed a strong independent association with collateral Cohen-Rentrop score (χ(2 )= 5.636, OR = 1.002, 95% CI 1.000-1.004, p = 0.018). An elevated level of BNP in plasma is independently associated with collateral development; patients with good collaterals tend to have a higher BNP level.

  9. A case series of histoplasmosis patients with elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tatsuro; Takazono, Takahiro; Iwata, Kazuma; Senju, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Takaharu; Tashiro, Masato; Saijo, Tomomi; Tanaka, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shigeki; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Kojiro, Maiko; Miyazaki, Taiga; Tsukamoto, Misuzu; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Morimoto, Konosuke; Muraosa, Yasunori; Matsubara, Yuichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Shigeru; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis that is usually asymptomatic but occasionally results in severe illness. Histoplasmosis and its causative agent, Histoplasma capsulatum, are found worldwide but rarely in Japan. In recent years, however, the number of histoplasmosis patients in Japan has increased. In addition, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of increased serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels in patients with histoplasmosis. We report a case series of histoplasmosis in three Japanese temporary workers in Manzanillo, Mexico. All three patients developed a persistent high fever and general fatigue. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein levels and mild liver dysfunction. All patients also showed increased soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in both lung fields. All patients were positive for serum anti-Histoplasma antibodies, and two patients were positive for Histoplasma on polymerase chain reaction tests. After treatment that included antifungals, their conditions gradually improved and laboratory data normalized. Although one patient developed respiratory failure, this patient recovered with antifungal therapy in combination with methylprednisolone. Serum sIL-2R levels in all patients gradually declined to normal levels, indicating their recovery from Histoplasma infection. From our experience with these patients, sIL-2R levels may be a useful biomarker for patients with histoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  11. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    for electrical lighting by 30% compared to the method suggested in this paper, which is based on hourly calculated illuminance levels in a representative point in the workspace. Implementing the suggested method in Be06 would be a better representation of the reality compared to the current method. Furthermore......Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  12. Elevated serum BAFF levels in patients with localized scleroderma in contrast to other organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Yukiyo; Echigo, Takeshi; Wayaku, Takamasa; Horikawa, Mayuka; Ogawa, Fumihide; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shinichi

    2007-02-01

    Serum levels of B-cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF), a potent B-cell survival factor, are elevated in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis (SSc). The objective of this study was to determine serum BAFF levels and relate the results to the clinical features in patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases of the skin, such as localized scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. Serum BAFF levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 44 patients with localized scleroderma, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris/pemphigus foliaceus, 20 with bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy controls. Twenty patients with SSc and 20 with SLE were also examined as disease controls. Serum BAFF levels were elevated in localized scleroderma patients compared with healthy controls. Concerning localized scleroderma subgroups, patients with generalized morphea, the severest form of localized scleroderma, had higher serum BAFF levels than linear scleroderma or morphea patients. The BAFF levels of generalized morphea were comparable with those of SSc or SLE. Furthermore, serum BAFF levels correlated positively with antihistone antibody levels and the severity of skin lesion as well as the number of skin lesions. By contrast, serum BAFF levels were not significantly elevated in patients with pemphigus or pemphigoid. These results suggest that BAFF may be contributing to autoimmunity and disease development in localized scleroderma.

  13. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  14. Evolution of a Greenland Ice sheet Including Shelves and Regional Sea Level Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Sarah; Reerink, Thomas; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Helsen, Michiel; Goelzer, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Observational evidence, including offshore moraines and marine sediment cores infer that at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) grounded out across the Davis Strait into Baffin Bay, with fast flowing ice streams extending out to the continental shelf break along the NW margin. These observations lead to a number of questions as to weather the GIS and Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) coalesced during glacial maximums, and if so, did a significant ice shelf develop across Baffin Bay and how would such a configuration impact on the relative contribution of these ice sheets to eustatic sea level (ESL). Most previous paleo ice sheet modelling simulations of the GIS recreated an ice sheet that either did not extend out onto the continental shelf or utilised a simplified marine ice parameterisation to recreate an extended GIS, and therefore did not fully include ice shelf dynamics. In this study we simulate the evolution of the GIS from 220 kyr BP to present day using IMAU-ice; a 3D thermodynamical ice sheet model which fully accounts for grounded and floating ice, calculates grounding line migration and ice shelf dynamics. As there are few observational estimates of the long-term (yrs) sub marine basal melting rates (mbm) for the GIS, we developed a mbm parameterization within IMAU-ice controlled primarily by changes in paleo water depth. We also investigate the influence of the LIS on the GIS evolution by including relative sea level forcing's derived from a Glacial Isostatic Adjustment model. We will present results of how changes in the mbm directly impacts on the ice sheet dynamics, timing and spatial extent of the GIS at the glacial maximums, but also on the rate of retreat and spatial extent at the Last interglacial (LIG) minimum. Results indicate that with the inclusion of ice shelf dynamics, a larger GIS is generated which is grounded out into Davis strait, up to a water depth of -750 m, but significantly reduces the GIS contribution to Last

  15. Analysis of lidar elevation data for improved identification and delineation of lands vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of sea-level rise in shaping coastal landscapes is well recognized within the earth science community, but as with many natural hazards, communicating the risks associated with sea-level rise remains a challenge. Topography is a key parameter that influences many of the processes involved in coastal change, and thus, up-to-date, high-resolution, high-accuracy elevation data are required to model the coastal environment. Maps of areas subject to potential inundation have great utility to planners and managers concerned with the effects of sea-level rise. However, most of the maps produced to date are simplistic representations derived from older, coarse elevation data. In the last several years, vast amounts of high quality elevation data derived from lidar have become available. Because of their high vertical accuracy and spatial resolution, these lidar data are an excellent source of up-to-date information from which to improve identification and delineation of vulnerable lands. Four elevation datasets of varying resolution and accuracy were processed to demonstrate that the improved quality of lidar data leads to more precise delineation of coastal lands vulnerable to inundation. A key component of the comparison was to calculate and account for the vertical uncertainty of the elevation datasets. This comparison shows that lidar allows for a much more detailed delineation of the potential inundation zone when compared to other types of elevation models. It also shows how the certainty of the delineation of lands vulnerable to a given sea-level rise scenario is much improved when derived from higher resolution lidar data.

  16. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  17. Elevation of cytosolic calcium level triggers calcium antagonist-induced gingival overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshimi; Wang, Pao-Li

    2008-03-31

    Calcium (Ca2+) antagonists induce gingival overgrowth as a side effect but the pathogenic mechanism is still unknown. The Ca2+-channel activator Bay K 8644 elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and enhances the cell proliferation of gingival fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil, an L-type Ca2+-channel blocker, also elevates [Ca2+]i in gingival fibroblasts, but it has no effect on other fibroblasts such as those of the lung, skin, and muscle. Moreover, verapamil enhances the proliferation of fibroblasts of the gingiva but has no effect on the proliferation of those of other tissues. These findings confirm that [Ca2+]i elevation induces the proliferation of gingival fibroblasts.

  18. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  19. Elevated levels of G-quadruplex formation in human stomach and liver cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; Miller, Jodi; Howat, William J; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex DNA secondary structures have recently been visualized in the nuclei of human cultured cells. Here, we show that BG4, a G-quadruplex-specific antibody, can be used to stain DNA G-quadruplex structures in patient-derived tissues using immunohistochemistry. We observe a significantly elevated number of G-quadruplex-positive nuclei in human cancers of the liver and stomach as compared to background non-neoplastic tissue. Our results suggest that G-quadruplex formation can be detected and measured in patient-derived material and that elevated G-quadruplex formation may be a characteristic of some cancers.

  20. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2′N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived

  1. Impact of elevated H2S on metabolite levels, activity of enzymes and expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemenschneider, A; Nikiforova, V.; Hoefgen, R; De Kok, LJ; Papenbrock, J

    The effects of elevated atmospheric hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mu l l(-1)) have been investigated in a short-term exposure experiment (3-48 h) on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in comparison to untreated control plants. The most pronounced effects of H2S

  2. Serum and peritoneal interleukin-33 levels are elevated in deeply infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel; Borderie, Didier; Streuli, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; de Ziegler, Dominique; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric; Chapron, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in fibrotic disorders. We have analyzed IL-33 levels in the sera and peritoneal fluids of women with various forms of endometriosis and investigated the correlation with disease activity. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2005 and December 2010. Five hundred and ten women with histologically proven endometriosis and 132 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Blood samples and peritoneal fluids were obtained before and during surgical procedures, respectively. IL-33 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera and peritoneal fluids, and the concentrations correlated with the extent and the severity of endometriotic lesions. IL-33 was detectable in 23.1% of serum samples from all 642 women studied and 75.0% of peritoneal fluid samples studied (44 women with endometriosis and 36 controls). Serum IL-33 was higher in deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (median, 104.9 pg/ml; range, 8.0-104.9) than in endometriosis-free women (median, 61.3 pg/ml; range, 7.5-526.0; P = 0.022) or in women affected by superficial endometriosis (median, 36.8 pg/ml; range, 7.5-179.0; P Peritoneal IL-33 was higher in DIE than in endometriosis-free women (median, 642.0 pg/ml; range, 25.9-3350.6 versus median, 194.2 pg/ml; range, 12.7-1818.2, respectively; P = 0.003). We found positive correlations between serum IL-33 concentration and intensity of dysmenorrhea (r = 0.174; P = 0.028) and gastrointestinal symptoms (r = 0.199; P = 0.027), total number of DIE lesions (r = 0.224; P = 0.016) and the worst DIE lesion (r = 0.299; P endometriosis and principally in DIE. Elevated serum IL-33 is correlated with the intensity of preoperative painful symptoms, and with the extent and severity of the DIE. IL-33 may be considered as a novel cytokine involved in the

  3. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular responses to elevated light levels in Fucus spiralis embryos during the first days after fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, S.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Brown, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cellular responses of 1-, 2- and 4-d-old Fucus spiralis embryos subjected to a single dose of elevated photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD), with or without ultraviolet (U-V) radiation, were investigated by measuring the effects on the effective quantum yield of photosystem II

  5. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Attributable to Elevated Levels of Total Cholesterol Among Hypertensives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, Nicole L.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Although cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) among hypertensives, the burden of CHD among hypertensives that may be due to elevated cholesterol has not been well documented. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of incident myocardial infarction

  6. Plasma proteome profiling of atherosclerotic disease manifestations reveals elevated levels of the cytoskeletal protein vinculin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Mickley, Hans

    2014-01-01

    an increased expression profile from group 1 to 4. The top-most elevated protein, vinculin (Vcl) displayed a similar profile. Immunoassays confirmed the expression profile of apo(a) and CRP. A 5-plex SRM-MS assay for Vcl, SAA, CRP, apo(a) and thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) was developed for multiplex verification...

  7. Acceleration levels on board the Space Station and a tethered elevator for micro and variable-gravity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Cosmo, M.; Vetrella, S.; Moccia, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics and acceleration levels of a new tethered system for micro and variable-gravity applications. The system consists of two platforms tethered on opposite sides to the Space Station. A fourth platform, the elevator, is placed in between the Space Station and the upper platform. Variable-g levels on board the elevator are obtained by moving this facility along the upper tether, while micro-g experiments are carried out on board the Space Station. By controlling the length of the lower tether the position of the system CM can be maintained on board the Space Station despite variations of the station's distribution of mass. The paper illustrates the mathematical model, the environmental perturbations and the control techniques which have been adopted for the simulation and control of the system dynamics. Two sets of results from two different simulation runs are shown. The first set shows the system dynamics and the acceleration spectra on board the Space Station and the elevator during station-keeping. The second set of results demonstrates the capability of the elevator to attain a preselected g-level.

  8. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  9. The Global Paleomagnetic Database Should Include Specimen-Level Demagnetization Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Kazansky, A.

    2002-12-01

    In their description of the paleomagnetic database, McElhinny and Smethurst [1] provided a reasonable description of the status quo in terms of compiling and storing a quantitative summary of the results from the past 50 years of paleomagnetic investigation. However, recent developments in science and technology have far outpaced the response of the paleomagnetic community on the issue of data archive and storage, and as a consequence this field risks being left in the dust. It is our opinion that the database should be expanded to include the entire set of specimen-level demagnetization data that go into a paleomagnetic study, along with the interpretation made by the authors. A simple back-of-the-envelope estimate suggests that all the raw paleomagnetic demagnetization data generated in the past 50 years would fit easily on a single hard drive of a personal computer. Other fields are doing precisely this type of the data archiving -- for example, nothing is accepted for publication in the good, peer-reviewed molecular genetics journals until the raw sequence data have been deposited in one of the internationally-accepted genetic databanks. As we feel that geophysics is in no way inferior to genetics, we should have no fear of archiving our data and making it publicly available in a similar fashion. The actual process of measuring and demagnetizing typical paleomagnetic materials has not changed much in the 30 years since the introduction of superconducting magnetometers, with most studies still utilizing some combination of alternating field, thermal, microwave, or chemical demagnetization to isolate the principal magnetic components (although the number of demagnetization steps per specimen has certainly improved with the increasing use of automation). In contrast, techniques for the analysis of paleomagnetic data have improved substantially (e.g., [2,3]). Hence, public access to the archived raw demagnetization data would not only allow independent scrutiny of

  10. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  11. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  12. Triclosan elevates estradiol levels in serum and tissues of cycling and peri-implantation female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tyler; Greville, Lucas J; Tang, Brandon; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial agent added to personal care products, can modulate estrogenic actions. We investigated whether triclosan affects concentrations of exogenous and endogenous estradiol. Female mice were given injections of triclosan followed by 1μCi tritium-labeled estradiol. Mice given daily 2-mg triclosan doses (57.9mg/kg/dose) showed significantly elevated radioactivity in tissues and serum compared to controls. A single dose of 1 or 2mg triclosan increased radioactivity in the uterus in both cycling and peri-implantation females. We also measured natural urinary estradiol at 2-12h following triclosan injection. Unconjugated estradiol was significantly elevated for several hours following 1 or 2mg of triclosan. These data are consistent with evidence that triclosan inhibits sulfonation of estrogens by interacting with sulfotransferases, preventing metabolism of these steroids into biologically inactive forms. Elevation of estrogen concentrations by triclosan is potentially relevant to anti-reproductive and carcinogenic actions of excessive estrogen activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1 is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST and the tail suspension (TST tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  14. The participation of elevated levels of cyclic GMP in the recovery from radiation-induced mitotic delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.W.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP have been measured in Physarum plasmodia before and after treatment with gamma-radiation, 2 mM caffeine, or combinations of the two agents compared to the length of the radiation-induced mitotic delay. Caffeine alone produces a rapid transient elevation of cyclic AMP and a slower delayed elevation of cyclic GMP. Irradiation elicits an immediate transient increase in cyclic AMP and a later cyclic GMP increase which accompanies or precedes the delayed mitosis. A composite pattern is produced by combinations of radiation and caffeine, a distinctive feature of which is an elevated level of cyclic GMP near the time of the radiation-delayed and caffeine-promoted mitosis. With pretreatment by caffeine, the least radiation-induced mitotic delay occurs when plasmodia are irradiated during the caffeine-elicited increase in cyclic GMP. The plasmodium becomes refractory to the reduction of mitotic delay by caffeine at approximately the time it becomes refractory to the further elevation of cyclic GMP by caffeine. The data support a role for cyclic AMP in the onset of and for cyclic GMP in the recovery from mitotic delay induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Cardioprotective Effect of Intermittent Fasting is Associated with an Elevation of Adiponectin Levels in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruiqian; Ahmet, Ismayil; Brown, Martin; Cheng, Aiwu; Kamimura, Naomi; Talan, Mark; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that dietary energy restriction, including intermittent fasting (IF), can protect heart and brain cells against injury and improve functional outcome in animal models of myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we report that IF improves glycemic control and protects the myocardium against ischemia-induced cell damage and inflammation in rats. Echocardiographic analysis of heart structural and functional variables revealed that IF attenuates the growth-related increase in posterior ventricular wall thickness, , end systolic and diastolic volumes, and reduces the ejection fraction. The size of the ischemic infarct 24 hours following permanent ligation of a coronary artery was significantly smaller, and markers of inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes in the area at risk and plasma IL-6 levels) were less, in IF rats compared to rats on the control diet. IF resulted in increased levels of circulating adiponectin prior to and after myocardial infarction. Because recent studies have shown that adiponectin can protect the heart against ischemic injury, our findings suggest a potential role for adiponectin as a mediator of the cardioprotective effect of IF. PMID:19423320

  16. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  17. Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with a better renal prognosis and ameliorate kidney fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Do Hyoung; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Seung Hee; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin has been reported to protect against kidney injury. However, further studies highlighting the beneficial effects of bilirubin on renal fibrosis and chronic renal function decline are necessary. We assessed a prospective cohort with a reference range of total bilirubin levels. The primary outcome was a 30% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline, and the secondary outcome was a doubling of the serum creatinine levels, halving of the eGFR and the initiation of dialysis. In addition, experiments with tubular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice were performed to investigate the protective effects of bilirubin on kidney fibrosis. As a result, 1,080 patients were included in the study cohort. The study group with relative hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 0.8-1.2 mg/dL) showed a better prognosis in terms of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.59, P renal prognosis, and bilirubin treatment induced a beneficial effect on renal fibrosis. Therefore, bilirubin could be a potential therapeutic target to delay fibrosis-related kidney disease progression.

  18. Acute dosing of latrepirdine (Dimebon™, a possible Alzheimer therapeutic, elevates extracellular amyloid-β levels in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano Mary

    2009-12-01

    increases in extracellular Aβx-42 levels (+10%; p = 0.001; of note, however, was the observation that extracellular Aβx-40 levels did not change. Conclusions Here, we report the surprising association of acute latrepirdine dosing with elevated levels of extracellular Aβ as measured in three independent neuron-related or neuron-derived systems, including the hippocampus of freely moving Tg2576 mice. Given the reported association of chronic latrepirdine treatment with improvement in cognitive function, the effects of chronic latrepirdine treatment on extracellular Aβ levels must now be determined.

  19. In vitro fertilization outcome in frozen versus fresh embryo transfer in women with elevated progesterone level on the day of HCG injection: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Aghahosseini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of elevated progesterone level on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG day in in vitro fertilization cycles is controversial. Some suppose that rise in progesterone level seems to have a negative impact on implantation and pregnancy by desynchronizing the endometrium, while others disagree. Objective: To evaluate the superiority of the frozen cycle over fresh cycle on live birth in patients with elevated progesterone level on HCG day. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 72 women undergoing assisted reproductive technology with elevated progesterone level (≥1.8 ng/dl on HCG day were included. The participants were grouped by fresh versus frozen embryo transfer, randomly. Finally, the clinical pregnancy and live birth rate were compared. Results: The implantation rate was 21.51%. The clinical pregnancy rate was 47.22% in fresh embryo transfer group (17/36 and 41.66% in frozen group (15/36 (p=0. 40. The live birth rate was not significantly difference between two groups (p=0.56. Conclusion: None of the fresh and frozen cycles are superior to the other and we recommend individualizing the decision for each patient. The frozen cycle may impose more emotional stress on patients

  20. IL-18 paradox in pancreatic carcinoma: elevated serum levels of free IL-18 are correlated with poor survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Anna; Vizio, Barbara; Novarino, Anna; Mauri, Francesco Angelo; Geuna, Massimo; Robino, Carlo; Brondino, Gabriele; Prati, Adriana; Giacobino, Alice; Campra, Donata; Chiarle, Roberto; Fronda, Gian Ruggero; Ciuffreda, Libero; Bellone, Graziella

    2009-01-01

    The role of the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-18 in cancer progression remains controversial; we thus examined the hypothesis that impaired antitumor immune response in pancreatic carcinoma patients is related to elevated levels of its natural inhibitor IL-18 binding protein (BP) and/or to alteration in the IL-18 receptor complex expression and function. IL-18 and IL-18 binding protein isoform a (BPa) was assessed in pancreatic carcinoma patients at various disease stages, and after surgery/chemotherapy; free bioactive IL-18 concentrations were calculated. IL-18 receptor complex expression in lymphocyte subsets was analyzed and signaling function was assessed versus healthy donors. Carcinoma cells exhibited below normal IL-18BPa expression and above normal IL-18 expression. Circulating IL-18BPa and IL-18 were above controls. Unexpectedly, free unbound IL-18 serum levels were correlated with disease severity and poor survival. IL-18BPa levels were unchanged by surgery but free IL-18 levels were elevated. Gemcitabine with 5-fluorouracil or oxaliplatin, but not alone, increased IL-18 and free IL-18 levels statistically significantly, without affecting IL-18BPa. Spontaneous/induced IL-18 receptor alpha and receptor beta expression in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets from patients with advanced disease were near-normal, although CD4+ and CD8+ cells were fewer in percentage, and fully functional in inducing interferon-gamma. IL-18 is proposed as novel adjuvant cancer therapy, but free IL-18 levels are increased in the blood of pancreatic carcinoma patients, despite elevated IL-18BP levels, and are associated with poor survival; this highlights recent experimental insights into the prometastatic and proangiogenic effects of IL-18, and suggests that careful preclinical studies are needed to determine the proper application of IL-18 in cancer therapy.

  1. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  2. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  3. Metagenomic profiling of the viromes of plasma collected from blood donors with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Rika A; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Yasiui, Kazuta; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-08-01

    In Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centers, blood collected from donors with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of more than 60 U/L are disqualified even if serologically negative for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). To assess potential risks of TTIs in plasma with elevated serum ALT levels in the current donor screening program of the JRC, we conducted a metagenomic analysis (MGA) of virome profiles in the plasma of blood donors with or without elevated serum ALT levels. Based on serum ALT levels, donors were classified into three groups: "high," more than 79 U/L; "middle," 61 to 79 U/L; and "low," less than 61 U/L. We individually analyzed 100 plasma samples from each group by MGA, employing shotgun sequencing. Viral sequences detected using MGA were partly confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Donors with high and middle ALT levels were significantly younger than those with low ALT levels, and more than 90% were males. Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, and Flaviviridae sequences were identified in plasma samples, and their distribution and frequency were not significantly different among the three groups. The serum ALT test may be unsuitable for monitoring for additional risks of TTIs in blood donors who were negative for typical TTIs using serologic and nucleic acid tests. Although MGA is less sensitive than PCR, it remains the best technology to detect known viruses in these donors. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Shift work at young age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; van Kruysbergen, Rulanda G P M; de Jong, Frank H; Koper, Jan W; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome is increased in shift workers. This may be due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the behavioral rhythm. The stress hormone cortisol could play a role in this phenomenon because it is secreted in a circadian rhythm, and long-term elevated cortisol leads to components of the metabolic syndrome. We compared cortisol levels in scalp hair of shift and day workers to study changes in long-term cortisol due to shift work. Hair samples were collected from 33 shift workers and 89 day workers. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol levels were measured using ELISA. Height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Shift workers had higher hair cortisol levels than day workers: 47.32 pg/mg hair [95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.37-58.21] vs. 29.72 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 26.18-33.73) (P cortisol levels were present only in younger shift workers: 48.53 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 36.56-64.29) vs. 26.42 pg/mg hair (95% CI = 22.91-30.55) (P cortisol and BMI were positively correlated (β = 0.262; P = 0.005). Shift work at a young adult age is associated with elevated long-term cortisol levels and increased BMI. Elevated cortisol levels and BMI may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk found in shift workers.

  5. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  6. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Yin, Weiwei; Ou, Rongying; Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao; Zheng, Xiangwu; Xu, Yunsheng; Zhao, Liang

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P  0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels.

  7. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  8. Excretion of arsenic (As) in urine of children, 7--11 years, exposed to elevated levels of As in the city water supply in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, C.J.; Quiroga, V.L.; Acosta, R.T.O.; Mendez, R.O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Alimentacion y Desarrollo, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    Arsenic (As) is a common element in the environment with many industrial uses, but it also can be a contaminant in drinking water and present serious health concerns. Earlier studies on the quality of drinking water in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, showed high levels of As in water from wells located in the northern part of the city. Additionally a high positive correlation between the levels of Fluoride (F) and As in the same wells was found. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the excretion of As in children, 7--11 years of age, that had been exposed to elevated levels of As in their drinking water. Twenty-four-hour urine samples and a water sample taken directly in the home were collected from school age children living in two different areas with known high levels of As in their drinking water. A control group with normal levels of As in their water was also included.

  9. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  10. Elevated homocysteine levels in suction-induced blister fluid of active vitiligo lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level.

  11. Elevated Plasma Long Pentraxin-3 Levels and Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Joshua M.; Lederer, David J.; Kawut, Steven M.; Lee, James; Ahya, Vivek N.; Bellamy, Scarlett; Palmer, Scott M.; Lama, Vibha N.; Bhorade, Sangeeta; Crespo, Maria; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Sonett, Joshua; Wille, Keith; Orens, Jonathan; Shah, Pali D.; Weinacker, Ann; Weill, David; Kohl, Benjamin A.; Deutschman, Clifford C.; Arcasoy, Selim; Shah, Ashish S.; Belperio, John A.; Wilkes, David; Reynolds, John M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplantation may result from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The innate immune response to IRI may be mediated by Toll-like receptor and IL-1-induced long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) release. We hypothesized that elevated PTX3 levels were associated with PGD. We performed a nested case control study of lung transplant recipients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) from the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. PTX3 levels were measured pre-transplant, and 6 and 24 hours post reperfusion. Cases were subjects with grade 3 PGD within 72 of transplantation and controls were those without grade 3 PGD. Generalized estimating equations and multivariable logistic regression was used for analysis. We selected 40 PGD cases and 79 non-PGD controls. Plasma PTX3 level was associated with PGD in IPF but not COPD recipients (p for interaction<0.03). Among patients with IPF, PTX3 levels at 6 and 24 hours were associated with PGD (OR=1.6, p=0.02 at 6hrs; OR=1.4, p=0.008 at 24hrs). Elevated PTX3 levels were associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation in IPF patients. Future studies evaluating the role of innate immune activation in IPF and PGD are warranted. PMID:21883907

  12. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J; Kirwan, Matthew L; Stagg, Camille L; Nestlerode, Janet A; Russell, Marc J; From, Andrew S; Spivak, Amanda C; Dantin, Darrin D; Harvey, James E; Almario, Alejandro E

    2017-04-21

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr -1 ), with surface elevation change of 4.2-11.0 mm yr -1 compared with 1.5-7.2 mm yr -1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  13. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, P; Kronborg, G; Weis, N

    2004-01-01

    .05). In multivariate analysis, only suPAR remained a significant predictor of death (mortality rate of 13 for suPAR levels of > 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.1-158). The increase in suPAR levels may reflect increased expression by vascular or inflammatory cells in the setting of pneumococcal sepsis. This plasma protein may......This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were...... increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors...

  14. Created mangrove wetlands store belowground carbon and surface elevation change enables them to adjust to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Cormier, Nicole; Osland, Michael J.; Kirwan, Matthew L.; Stagg, Camille L.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Russell, Marc J.; From, Andrew; Spivak, Amanda C.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; Almario, Alejandro E.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove wetlands provide ecosystem services for millions of people, most prominently by providing storm protection, food and fodder. Mangrove wetlands are also valuable ecosystems for promoting carbon (C) sequestration and storage. However, loss of mangrove wetlands and these ecosystem services are a global concern, prompting the restoration and creation of mangrove wetlands as a potential solution. Here, we investigate soil surface elevation change, and its components, in created mangrove wetlands over a 25 year developmental gradient. All created mangrove wetlands were exceeding current relative sea-level rise rates (2.6 mm yr−1), with surface elevation change of 4.2–11.0 mm yr−1 compared with 1.5–7.2 mm yr−1 for nearby reference mangroves. While mangrove wetlands store C persistently in roots/soils, storage capacity is most valuable if maintained with future sea-level rise. Through empirical modeling, we discovered that properly designed creation projects may not only yield enhanced C storage, but also can facilitate wetland persistence perennially under current rates of sea-level rise and, for most sites, for over a century with projected medium accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 6.0). Only the fastest projected accelerations in sea-level rise (IPCC RCP 8.5) led to widespread submergence and potential loss of stored C for created mangrove wetlands before 2100.

  15. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  16. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  17. Investigating the response of tropical maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars against elevated levels of O3 at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya Abha; Agrawal, S B; Shahi, J P; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-10-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations are rising in Indo-Gangetic plains of India, causing potential threat to agricultural productivity. Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important staple crop at global level after rice and wheat. Two high yielding cultivars of Indian maize (HQPM1-quality protein maize and DHM117-normal/non quality protein maize) were exposed to two levels of elevated O3 above the ambient level (NFC) viz. NFC + 15 ppb O3 (NFC + 15) and NFC + 30 ppb O3 (NFC + 30) using open top chambers under field conditions. The study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical responses of two cultivars at different developmental stages leading to change in yield responses. Initially at lower O3 dose, photosynthetic pigments showed an increase but reduction at later stage, while higher dose caused a decline at both the stages of sampling. Levels of superoxide radical (O2 (-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly increased and contributed to lipid peroxidation at elevated O3. Histochemical localization assay of O2 (-) and H2O2 showed that guard cells of stomata and cells around trichomes took deeper stain at elevated O3 reflecting more formation of reactive oxygen species. Secondary metabolites like total phenol, flavonoids and anthocyanin pigments also increased in plants under O3 stress. Enzymatic antioxidants were triggered in both the cultivars due to elevated O3, while induction of non-enzymatic antioxidants was more in HQPM1. Native PAGE analysis also showed that SOD, POX, CAT, APX and GPX were stimulated at elevated O3 concentrations compared to NFC. SDS-PAGE showed reductions of major photosynthetic proteins with higher decrease in DHM117. Principal Component Analysis showed that both the cultivars showed differential response against O3 at two developmental stages. HQPM1 maintained the analogous defense strategy at both the sampling stages while DHM117 showed variable response. Overall metabolic induction of antioxidants related to defense was

  18. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide. Field studies of plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    In the present study, CO{sub 2} enrichment has been applied to sweet potatoes and cowpeas in order to investigate its effect on their growth, physiology, and yield under field condition. Objectives were: (1) to establish at Tuskegee Institute the facilities for growing crops in the field under enriched CO{sub 2} atmospheric conditions; (2) to obtain field data on the morphological, physiological, biochemical, growth and yield responses of sweet potatoes and cowpeas to elevated levels of CO{sub 2}; (3) to determine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} in the rate of nitrogen fixation of cowpeas; (4) to provide data for a generalized crop growth model for predicting yield of both sweet potatoes and cowpeas as a function of atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment.

  19. Evaluation of the vitreous matrices to include high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Pasquali, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Programme considers a fuel cycle with Pu recycle. This will generate high-level liquid wastes, that should be safely eliminated. With this purpose, primary glasses utilizing three prototipe compositions were prepared. Simulated wastes oxides in the rate of about 10% were added to the vitreous matrices. The mixture was melted in ceramic melting pots in a muffle furnace at 1 100 deg C during 8 hours. Resistance leaching tests were made following an adaptation of the DIN 12 111 standard. Quantitative analysis of the leaching solutions were made to evaluate the solubility of the different elements. Glasses were observed with optical microscopy scanning before and after leaching. In the first, glasses, bubbles and crystalline-phase appear; in the second ones, puncture and embrittlement were detected. By means of differential thermoanalysis, endo and exothermal peaks were identified in glasses supporting gradual heating. X ray diffraction analysis were made in samples with and without wastes. The degree of crystallization of samples was evaluated by photographic and diffractometric techniques. Leaching studies showed the existance of a direct relation between leaching and glass alkaline content. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...

  1. Maternal levels of free fetal DNA are elevated in pregnancies with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference in the ffDNA levels between the fetuses of normal growth and those with FGR from other causes. Conclusion. The level of ffDNA in maternal plasma is increased in pregnancies complicated by FGR secondary to placental dysfunction but not in those with small fetuses with normal placental ...

  2. Kidney fibroblast growth factor 23 does not contribute to elevation of its circulating levels in uremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mace, Maria L.; Gravesen, Eva; Nordholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to normal rats. Removal of the remnant kidney had no effect on plasma FGF23 levels. Well-known regulators of FGF23 expression in bone, such as parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and inhibition of the FGF receptor by PD173074, had no impact on kidney expression of FGF23. Thus, the only direct contribution......Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secreted by osteocytes is a circulating factor essential for phosphate homeostasis. High plasma FGF23 levels are associated with cardiovascular complications and mortality. Increases of plasma FGF23 in uremia antedate high levels of phosphate, suggesting...... of the injured kidney to circulating FGF23 levels in uremia appears to be reduced renal extraction of bone-derived FGF23. Kidney-derived FGF23 does not generate high plasma FGF23 levels in uremia and is regulated differently than the corresponding regulation of FGF23 gene expression in bone....

  3. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol for 30 min at 37/sup 0/C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05% Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t/sub 50%/). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t/sub 50%/ values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt/sub 50%/) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  4. Resistance of human erythrocytes containing elevated levels of vitamin E to radiation-induced hemolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    Human erythrocytes were isolated from the blood of healthy donors and then incubated in the presence of suspensions of alpha-tocopherol for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Unabsorbed tocopherol was removed by centrifugation using several washes of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Washed erythrocytes were resuspended to 0.05%. Hct and exposed to hemolyzing doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and hemolysis was monitored continuously by light scattering at 700 nm in a recording spectrophotometer. The extent of hemolysis with time was sigmoid and data analysis was carried out on the time taken for 50% hemolysis to occur (t50%). The vitamin E content of erythrocytes was significantly elevated by the incubation procedure and resulted in the cells exhibiting a significantly increased resistance to hemolysis as reflected by the extended t50% values. Oral supplementation of 500 IU of vitamin E per day to eight normal human subjects for a period of 16 days also resulted in their washed erythrocytes exhibiting a significant increase in resistance to radiation-induced hemolysis. When comparing vitamin E incubated cells with control cells, both the dose-reducing factor (DRF) and the time for 50% hemolysis quotient (Qt50%) were observed to increase with increasing radiation dose.

  5. Elevated lead levels from e-waste exposure are linked to decreased olfactory memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huo, Xia; Xu, Long; Cheng, Zhiheng; Cong, Xiaowei; Lu, Xueling; Xu, Xijin

    2017-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant and can cause abnormal development of the nervous system in children. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on child olfactory memory by correlating the blood Pb levels of children in Guiyu with olfactory memory tests. We recruited 61 preschool children, 4- to 7-years of age, from Guiyu and 57 children from Haojiang. The mean blood Pb level of Guiyu children was 9.40 μg/dL, significantly higher than the 5.04 μg/dL mean blood Pb level of Haojiang children. In addition, approximately 23% of Guiyu children had blood Pb levels exceeding 10.00 μg/dL. The correlation analysis showed that blood Pb levels in children highly correlated with e-waste contact (r s  = 0.393). Moreover, the mean concentration of serum BDNF in Guiyu children (35.91 ng/ml) was higher than for Haojiang (28.10 ng/ml) and was positively correlated with blood Pb levels. Both item and source olfactory memory tests at 15 min, 5 h and 24 h after odor exposure showed that scores were lower in Guiyu children indicative of reduced olfactory memory in Guiyu children. Olfactory memory tests scores negatively correlated with blood Pb and serum BDNF levels, but were positively associated with parental education levels. At the same time, scores of both tests on children in the high blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels > 5.00 μg/dL) were lower than those in the low blood Pb level group (blood Pb levels ≤ 5.00 μg/dL), implying that Pb exposure decreases olfactory memory in children. Our findings suggest that Pb exposure in e-waste recycling and dismantling areas could result in an increase in serum BDNF level and a decrease in child olfactory memory, in addition, BDNF might be involved in olfactory memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level Increased the Risk of Early Renal Impairment in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjuan; Li, Guode; Xu, Zuohang; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Xie, Haiqun; Shao, Yan; Peng, Lingmei; Lu, Jiancong; Yuan, Dahua

    2017-11-01

    Renal insufficiency is associated with the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. This study investigated the association between plasma Hcy levels and renal insufficiency in patients with AIS. A total of 987 patients with AIS who had been treated at the First People's Hospital of Foshan between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively studied. Based on their cystatin C (Cys C) levels, the patients were divided into the normal renal function group (Cys C ≤ 1.25 mg/L) or the renal impairment group (Cys C > 1.25 mg/L). Multivariate regression analysis was applied to reveal the association between hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and renal impairment. The renal impairment group showed more advanced age of onset, higher percentage of prior stroke and hypertension, higher baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and higher Hcy levels compared with the normal renal function group. A multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between early renal impairment and Hcy levels: an increase of Hcy by 1 μmol/L was associated with an increase of 12-18% of the risk of renal impairment among patients with AIS and HHcy. Patients with AIS and HHcy had a 2.42-3.51 fold increase of the risk of renal impairment compared with patients with normal Hcy level (P renal impairment.

  7. Influence of the individual DPOAE growth behavior on DPOAE level variations caused by conductive hearing loss and elevated intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Christoph; Kummer, Peter; Gürkov, Robert; Olzowy, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Minor conductive hearing loss (CHL) can compromise the evaluation of the inner ear function with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Elevation of the intracranial pressure (ICP) is also expected to alter the middle ear (ME) sound transmission. An impaired ME sound transmission leads to an attenuation of the DPOAE primary tone levels (L1 and L2) during forward transmission and of DPOAE levels (LDP) during backward transmission. The effect of the attenuation of L1 and L2 is complex and might have unexpected effects on DPOAE levels. In this work, CHL- and ICP-induced alterations of LDP versus L1 growth functions (constant L2 and increasing L1) are investigated. The first aim of this study is to explain how alterations of ME sound transmission can affect DPOAEs and to characterize the dependency of DPOAE level alterations on L2,L1 combinations and on the individual shape of LDP versus L1 growth functions. The second aim is to identify analogies between CHL- and ICP-induced alterations of DPOAEs and to discuss implications for a potential noninvasive ICP monitoring. This study focuses on general theoretical considerations, supported by selected experimental observations in different species and simulations. DPOAEs were measured in guinea pigs before and after induction of a CHL (1 ear) and during increased ICP (1 ear), and in humans during changes of the postural position to alter the ICP (4 ears). In both CHL and elevated ICP, DPOAE levels are not only reduced, but LDP versus L1 growth functions exhibit a shift to higher L1. The absolute DPOAE level alterations strongly depend on the L2,L1 combinations and the individual shape of the LDP versus L1 growth functions. In steeper LDP versus L1 growth functions, the DPOAE level alterations exhibit a larger variation. DPOAE levels can even increase. The largest variation can be found in ears with a nonmonotonic DPOAE growth behavior. An example of a guinea pig ear is presented with a nonmonotonic DPOAE growth

  8. Elevated guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate level inhibits bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Iida, Ken-Ichiro; Shiota, Susumu; Nakayama, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-Ichi

    2015-12-01

    FtsZ, a protein essential for prokaryotic cell division, forms a ring structure known as the Z-ring at the division site. FtsZ has a GTP binding site and is assembled into linear structures in a GTP-dependent manner in vitro. We assessed whether guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp), a global regulator of gene expression in starved bacteria, affects cell division in Salmonella Paratyphi A. Elevation of intracellular ppGpp levels by using the relA expression vector induced repression of bacterial growth and incorrect FtsZ assembly. We found that FtsZ forms helical structures in the presence of ppGpp by using the GTP binding site; however, ppGpp levels required to form helical structures were at least 20-fold higher than the required GTP levels in vitro. Furthermore, once formed, helical structures did not change to the straight form even after GTP addition. Our data indicate that elevation of the ppGpp level leads to inhibition of bacterial growth and interferes with FtsZ assembly. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Osteoprotegerin levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal profile and association with myocardial injury and left ventricular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetelig, Christian; Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Eritsland, Jan; Hoffmann, Pavel; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Gran, Jon Michael; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Andersen, Geir Øystein

    2017-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with adverse outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the role of OPG in myocardial injury and adverse remodeling in STEMI patients remains unclear. The aims of this observational cohort study were to evaluate: 1) the temporal profile of OPG during STEMI, 2) possible associations between OPG measured acutely and after 4 months, with infarct size, adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and myocardial salvage and 3) the effect of heparin administration on OPG levels. Methods Blood samples were drawn repeatedly from 272 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed in the acute phase and after 4 months. The effect of heparin administration on OPG levels was studied in 20 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Results OPG levels measured acutely were significantly higher than Day 1 and during follow-up. OPG levels were correlated with age. No association was found between early OPG levels and CMR measurements at 4 months. Patients with >median OPG levels measured at Day 1 had larger final infarct size, lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) at 4 months and higher frequency of MVO. There were no associations between OPG and change in end-diastolic volume or myocardial salvage. OPG remained associated with infarct size and LVEF after adjustment for relevant covariates, except peak troponin T and CRP. A 77% increase in OPG levels following heparin administration was found in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. Conclusions OPG was found to be associated with myocardial injury, but not with LV remodeling or myocardial salvage. The use of OPG as a biomarker in STEMI patients seems to be limited by a strong association with age, confounding effect of heparin administration, and little additive value to established biomarkers. PMID

  10. Predominant role of the 9-hydroxy metabolite of risperidone in elevating blood prolactin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, R; Baselmans, P; Castelein, S; Bosker, F; Bruggeman, R; van den Bosch, RJ

    Objective: The atypical antipsychotic risperidone significantly raises plasma prolactin levels in patients, but clozapine, olanzapine, and quetiapine do not. The differences in neuroendocrine response may be connected with the metabolism of the medications. The authors examined the contributory role

  11. Elevated levels of cell-free circulating DNA in patients with acute dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Ha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apoptosis is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe dengue and the release of cell-free DNA into the circulatory system in several medical conditions. Therefore, we investigated circulating DNA as a potential biomarker for severe dengue. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A direct fluorometric degradation assay using PicoGreen was performed to quantify cell-free DNA from patient plasma. Circulating DNA levels were significantly higher in patients with dengue virus infection than with other febrile illnesses and healthy controls. Remarkably, the increase of DNA levels correlated with the severity of dengue. Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating DNA levels independently correlated with dengue shock syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating DNA levels were increased in dengue patients and correlated with dengue severity. Additional studies are required to show the benefits of this biomarker in early dengue diagnosis and for the prognosis of shock complication.

  12. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cognitive impairments among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian Nan; Yin, Guang Zhong; Yin, Xiao Li; Wu, Jing Qin; Du, Xiang Dong; Zhu, Hong Liang; Liu, Jia Hong; Wang, Xiao Qiong; Xu, Dong Wu; Tang, Wen Jie; Hui, Li

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive deficits have been identified as one of core clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence indicated that triglycerides (TG) might be associated with MDD and cognitive decline. This study examined whether patients with MDD had poorer cognitive functions than healthy controls, and further investigate whether TG levels were involved in MDD, and its cognitive impairments in a Han Chinese population. 115 patients with MDD and 119 healthy controls were enrolled. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and serum TG levels were examined using enzymatic colorimetry. TG levels were higher in patients with MDD than healthy controls after controlling for the variables. Cognitive test scores were lower in patients with MDD than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index after controlling for the variables. TG levels were negatively correlated with visuospatial/constructional score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Further multivariate regression analysis showed that TG levels were negatively associated with visuospatial/constructional score, attention score, delayed memory score and RBANS total score of MDD. Our findings supported that serum TG levels might be involved in MDD, and play an important role in cognitive impairments of MDD, especially in delayed memory. Moreover, patients with MDD experienced greater cognitive impairments than healthy controls except for visuospatial/constructional index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or β-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or β-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and β-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further

  15. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  16. Elevated Angiopoietin-1 Serum Levels in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schreitmüller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and by massive neuronal loss in the brain. There is epidemiologic and pathologic evidence that AD is associated with vascular risk factors and vascular diseases, contributing to cerebral hypoperfusion with consecutive stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of proangiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1. Methods. In the present study, we measured Ang-1 serum levels in 42 patients with AD, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and in 40 healthy elderly controls by ELISA. Results. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control subjects (P=0.003. There was no significant difference between MCI patients and healthy controls (P=0.553 or between AD and MCI patients (P=0.054. The degree of cognitive impairment as measured by the mini-mental status examination (MMSE score was significantly correlated with the Ang-1 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. Conclusions. We found significantly increased Ang-1 serum levels in AD patients. We could also show an association between Ang-1 serum levels and the cognitive status in all patients and healthy controls. Thus, serum Ang-1 could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis.

  17. Elevated levels of interleukin-23 in sera of patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouralibaba, Firouz; Babaloo, Zohreh; Pakdel, Farzaneh; Abdollahian, Tahmoores; Pourzare, Solmaz

    2012-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris, a chronic mucocutaneous disease, is the most prevalent type of pemphigus which manifests with development of bullae and erosions on skin and mucosal membranes. To investigate the potential role of IL-23 in pemphigus vulgaris. In this study, 30 patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 30 healthy individuals were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Measurement of IL-23 serum levels in blood samples was conducted by ELISA. Data was analyzed using Student's t-test for comparison of IL-23 levels between the two groups. Mean serum levels of IL-23 in patients with pemphigus and healthy controls were 25.1 ± 4.2 and 17.9 ± 4.7 pg/ml, respectively (ppemphigus in comparison to healthy individuals with no clinical significance.

  18. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case......-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3...... patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors...

  19. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  20. Elevated dioxin levels in chloracne cases twenty years after the Seveso, Italy accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, A.; Pesatori, A.C.; Consonni, D.; Bonzini, M.; Giacomini, S.M.; Bertazzi, P.A. [EPOCA Research Center, Univ. of Milan (Italy); Mocarelli, P. [Dept. of Lab. Medicine, Univ. of Milan-Bicocca, Desio (Italy); Patterson, D.G. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Caporaso, N.E.; Landi, M.T. [Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Inst., NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In July 1976, an industrial accident contaminated a residential area surrounding Seveso, Italy, with high levels of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The exposure was acute, relatively pure, and affected more than 45,000 men, women, and children. By February 1978, 193 chloracne cases, mostly children, had been identified in the exposed population. Twenty years after, we conducted a case-control study on subjects diagnosed with chloracne and control subjects, who had not developed chloracne after the accident, to evaluate their TCDD plasma levels, as well as the exposure-response relationship and possible determinants of susceptibility to TCDD effects in this population.

  1. The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level), recently deglaciated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S K; Reed, Sasha C; Nemergut, Diana R; Grandy, A Stuart; Cleveland, Cory C; Weintraub, Michael N; Hill, Andrew W; Costello, Elizabeth K; Meyer, A F; Neff, J C; Martin, A M

    2008-12-22

    Global climate change has accelerated the pace of glacial retreat in high-latitude and high-elevation environments, exposing lands that remain devoid of vegetation for many years. The exposure of 'new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level) in the Peruvian Andes, where extreme environmental conditions hinder plant colonization. Nonetheless, these seemingly barren soils contain a diverse microbial community; yet the biogeochemical role of micro-organisms at these extreme elevations remains unknown. Using biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we investigated the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession in soils along a high-Andean chronosequence. We found that recently glaciated soils were colonized by a diverse community of cyanobacteria during the first 4-5 years following glacial retreat. This significant increase in cyanobacterial diversity corresponded with equally dramatic increases in soil stability, heterotrophic microbial biomass, soil enzyme activity and the presence and abundance of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments. Furthermore, we found that soil nitrogen-fixation rates increased almost two orders of magnitude during the first 4-5 years of succession, many years before the establishment of mosses, lichens or vascular plants. Carbon analyses (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) of soil organic matter suggested that soil carbon along the chronosequence was of microbial origin. This indicates that inputs of nutrients and organic matter during early ecosystem development at these sites are dominated by microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation. Overall, our results indicate that photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria play important roles in acquiring nutrients and facilitating ecological succession in soils near some of the highest elevation receding glaciers on the Earth.

  2. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  3. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  4. Elevated levels of homocysteine increase IL-6 production in monocytic Mono Mac 6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, B. E.; Jansen, J.; van Deventer, S. J.; Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if exposure of monocytic cells to increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) induces the accumulation of inflammatory mediators. Interleukin (IL)-6 production by monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6

  5. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  6. Plasma serotonin levels are elevated in pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Caypinar, Sema Suzen; Kanawati, Ammar; Yildiz, Sukru; Ekin, Murat

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between serotonin and hyperemesis gravidarum. Plasma samples of 87 women in their first trimester pregnancies with HG (n = 28), morning sickness of pregnancy (n = 30) and control (n = 29) groups were obtained. Plasma levels of serotonin were compared between the groups, and the correlations with severity of symptoms using modified PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis) scoring, BMI, E2, hCG and TSH were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to serotonin levels, the group with hyperemesis gravidarum was found to have significantly higher serotonin levels (p = 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the serotonin level and the PUQE score in all study subjects (r = 0.578, p = 0.0001). A serotonin threshold of >277.58 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 72.4%, negative predictive value of 87.9%, and a likelihood ratio of 5.53 (p = 0.0001). Our findings support the possible role of serotonin in the pathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  7. Elevated salivary dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal cortisol levels in medicated depressed patients: preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, Johanna; Visser, Ieke; Nicolson, Nancy A.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Wekking, Elisabeth M.; Huyser, Jochanan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Schene, Aart H.

    2004-01-01

    Major depression is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In contrast to cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) has been less extensively studied in depressed patients. This study examined salivary morning and evening levels of cortisol and

  8. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  9. Factors associated with elevated blood lead levels in inner ·city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out to determine risk factors for childhood lead exposure. Blood lead levels of inner-city Sub A coloured children living in Woodstock were examined in relation to information obtained by questionnaire on environmental and social factors. The mean blood lead concentration of ...

  10. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  11. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  12. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  13. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Weis, Nina Margrethe

    2004-01-01

    increased significantly (median 5.5; range 2.4-21.0 ng/mL) in 141 patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia, compared to 31 healthy controls (median 2.6, range 1.5-4.0 ng/mL, p 0.001). Furthermore, suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients who died from the infection (n = 24) compared to survivors...... (n = 117; p hypotension, renal failure, cerebral symptoms and high serum concentrations of protein YKL-40 and suPAR were associated significantly with mortality (p

  14. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  15. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  16. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt/sub 2/ cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ..mu..M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ..mu..m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of (/sup 14/C)-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis.

  17. Elevated BLyS levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Associated factors and responses to belimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D A; Thompson, A; Tang, Y; Hammer, A E; Molta, C T; Gordon, D

    2016-04-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels ≥ 2 ng/mL are at increased risk of flare. A regression analysis was undertaken to identify routine clinical measures that correlate with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL. Efficacy and safety of belimumab 10 mg/kg were examined in patients with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL and BLISS-52 and -76 (N = 1684) were pooled post hoc. A univariate logistic regression was employed to identify factors predictive of baseline BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL. Factors significant at the 0.05 level then entered a stepwise logistic regression as covariates. Efficacy endpoints included SLE responder index (SRI), ≥ 4-point reduction in Safety of Estrogens in Lupus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) and risk of severe flare over 52 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) were analyzed for each treatment arm and BLyS subgroup. Baseline predictors of BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL included positive anti-Smith (≥ 15 U/mL), low complement (C) 3 (point reduction in SELENA-SLEDAI. Risk of severe flare over 52 weeks was significantly reduced with belimumab 10 mg/kg versus placebo in the BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL group (p = 0.0002). AEs were similar across treatment arms and BLyS subgroups. Positive anti-Smith, low C3, anti-dsDNA ≥ 80 IU/mL, immunosuppressant usage, proteinuria, elevated CRP, and low total lymphocyte count were predictors of BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL. Monitoring these factors could identify patients with BLyS ≥ 2 ng/mL who are at risk of flare. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Reduction of elevated IGF-1 levels in coincident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEREIRA, ERLICK A. C.; TURNER, MARTIN R.; WASS, JOHN A. H.; TALBOT, KEVIN

    2011-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with ALS in whom acromegaly was later confirmed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been tried in the treatment of ALS and despite equivocal results from clinical trials, efforts have continued to try to harness the significant positive effects on motor neuron growth observed in vitro and in survival of mouse models of the disease. One subsequent study has reported an association between higher circulating serum IGF-1 levels and longer disease duration in ALS patients. Concern therefore arose in our case that treatment of the acromegaly with a somatostatin analogue might adversely affect the natural course of his ALS through lowering of potentially beneficial IGF-1 levels. Through clinical observation and prognostic modelling we suggest that this concern was unfounded. The potential interaction of these two rarely coincident disorders in our patient is discussed. PMID:19634028

  19. Anemia and elevated systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Becker, A.; Lautenschlaeger, C.; Markau, S.; Becker, H.; Fischer, K.; Haensgen, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tissue hypoxia is a major stimulus for the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anemia might theoretically impact on angiogenesis via impairment of tissue oxygenation. We have investigated this hypothesis in patients with solid cancers and benign diseases. Patients and methods: 49 patients with untreated locoregionally confined solid cancers of the head and neck, cervix, rectum and lung and 59 additional patients with non-malignant diseases (36 normemic patients without serious diseases and 23 patients with renal anemia) were enrolled and the impact of anemia on plasma VEGF levels were determined. VEGF was measured with a commercially available sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Plasma levels of VEGF were 16.2±12.7 pg/ml in 36 normemic patients without malignant disease, 49,2±34.5 pg/ml in 49 patients with cancers (p [de

  20. Muscle cramps and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase levels induced by beta-adrenoceptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Y; Watanabe, N; Hashimoto, J; Nishiyama, A; Sakuma, H; Sekino, H; Omata, K; Abe, K

    1995-01-01

    We have assessed the propensity of beta-adrenoceptor blockers to cause muscle cramps and to raise the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) level in 78 patients with essential hypertension. After a control period, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA; propranolol, metoprolol or arotinolol) was administered for three months. Thereafter, the patients were randomised to receive a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with ISA (pindolol or carteolol) for three months or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker without ISA for a further three months. This pattern was continued until all beta-adrenoceptor blockers had been given. At the end of each period, CPK and CPK-MB levels were measured. Of the 78 subjects, muscle cramps occurred in 27 during treatment with pindolol and 32 during treatment with carteolol. No complaints were made by subjects treated with propranolol and arotinolol, but muscle cramps were reported in 2 treated with metoprolol. While muscle cramps were caused both by pindolol and carteolol in 16 subjects, they were caused by either of these drugs in the remainder of the subjects. Muscle cramp occurred mainly in the calves when the patients were in bed at night. Serum CPK and CPK-MB levels increased significantly during treatment with pindolol (control period vs pindolol, CPK = 96 vs 133 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 14 vs 18 IU.ml-1) or carteolol (CPK = 117 IU.ml-1, CPK-MB = 18 IU.ml-1) while the levels during treatment with propranolol, arotinolol and metoprolol did not change from those in the control period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Responses to Elevated c-di-GMP Levels in Mutualistic and Pathogenic Plant-Interacting Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mendoza, Daniel; Aragón, Isabel M.; Prada-Ramírez, Harold A.; Romero-Jiménez, Lorena; Ramos, Cayo; Gallegos, María-Trinidad; Sanjuán, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Despite a recent burst of research, knowledge on c-di-GMP signaling pathways remains largely fragmentary and molecular mechanisms of regulation and even c-di-GMP targets are yet unknown for most bacteria. Besides genomics or bioinformatics, accompanying alternative approaches are necessary to reveal c-di-GMP regulation in bacteria with complex lifestyles. We have approached this study by artificially altering the c-di-GMP economy of diverse pathogenic and mutualistic plant-interacting bacteria and examining the effects on the interaction with their respective host plants. Phytopathogenic Pseudomonas and symbiotic Rhizobium strains with enhanced levels of intracellular c-di-GMP displayed common free-living responses: reduction of motility, increased production of extracellular polysaccharides and enhanced biofilm formation. Regarding the interaction with the host plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi cells containing high c-di-GMP levels formed larger knots on olive plants which, however, displayed reduced necrosis. In contrast, development of disease symptoms in P. syringae-tomato or P. syringae-bean interactions did not seem significantly affected by high c-di-GMP. On the other hand, increasing c-di-GMP levels in symbiotic R. etli and R. leguminosarum strains favoured the early stages of the interaction since enhanced adhesion to plant roots, but decreased symbiotic efficiency as plant growth and nitrogen contents were reduced. Our results remark the importance of c-di-GMP economy for plant-interacting bacteria and show the usefulness of our approach to reveal particular stages during plant-bacteria associations which are sensitive to changes in c-di-GMP levels. PMID:24626229

  2. Enhanced abundance of tintinnids under elevated CO2 level from coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Gadi, S.D.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Priyan, R.K.; Manjari, D.T.; DileepKumar, M.

    College of Arts, Science and Commerce for Women, Nuvem, Goa – 403 601, India 3 National Institute of Oceanography, Doan Paula, Goa 43004, India Address for correspondence: Dr. Haimanti Biswas, Regional Center, National Institute of Oceanography, 176... group. The present study was conducted to understand the responses of microzooplankton and phytoplankton community and their interactive effects under future predicted CO 2 level. Methods Between May 20 th and June 1 st 2010 surface seawater...

  3. Effects of pH and elevated glucose levels on the electrochemical behavior of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Evsen; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-04-01

    Implant failure is more likely to occur in persons with medically compromising systemic conditions, such as diabetes related to high blood glucose levels and inflammatory diseases related to pH levels lower than those in healthy people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lower pH level and simulated- hyperglycemia on implant corrosion as these effects are critical to biocompatibility and osseointegration. The electrochemical corrosion properties of titanium implants were studied in four different solutions: Ringer's physiological solution at pH = 7.0 and pH = 5.5 and Ringer's physiological solution containing 15 mM dextrose at pH = 7 and pH = 5.5. Corrosion behaviors of dental implants were determined by cyclic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Surface alterations were studied using a scanning electron microscope. All test electrolytes led to apparent differences in corrosion behavior of the implants. The implants under conditions of test exhibited statistically significant increases in I(corr) from 0.2372 to 1.007 μAcm(-2), corrosion rates from 1.904 to 8.085 mpy, and a decrease in polarization resistances from 304 to 74 Ω. Implants in dextrose-containing solutions were more prone to corrosion than those in Ringer's solutions alone. Increasing the acidity also yielded greater corrosion rates for the dextrose-containing solutions and the solutions without dextrose.

  4. Elevated serum levels of interferon-regulated chemokines are biomarkers for active human systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Bauer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a serious systemic autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by unpredictable flares of disease. Recent evidence indicates a role for type I interferon (IFN in SLE pathogenesis; however, the downstream effects of IFN pathway activation are not well understood. Here we test the hypothesis that type I IFN-regulated proteins are present in the serum of SLE patients and correlate with disease activity.We performed a comprehensive survey of the serologic proteome in human SLE and identified dysregulated levels of 30 cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and soluble receptors. Particularly striking was the highly coordinated up-regulation of 12 inflammatory and/or homeostatic chemokines, molecules that direct the movement of leukocytes in the body. Most of the identified chemokines were inducible by type I IFN, and their levels correlated strongly with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity.These data suggest that severely disrupted chemokine gradients may contribute to the systemic autoimmunity observed in human SLE. Furthermore, the levels of serum chemokines may serve as convenient biomarkers for disease activity in lupus.

  5. Elevated levels of circulating microRNA-200 family members correlate with serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Casina WS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a critical need for improved diagnostic markers for high grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (SEOC. MicroRNAs are stable in the circulation and may have utility as biomarkers of malignancy. We investigated whether levels of serum microRNA could discriminate women with high-grade SEOC from age matched healthy volunteers. Methods To identify microRNA of interest, microRNA expression profiling was performed on 4 SEOC cell lines and normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. Total RNA was extracted from 500 μL aliquots of serum collected from patients with SEOC (n = 28 and age-matched healthy donors (n = 28. Serum microRNA levels were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR following preamplification. Results microRNA (miR-182, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were highly overexpressed in the SEOC cell lines relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells and were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate biomarkers. miR-103, miR-92a and miR -638 had relatively invariant expression across all ovarian cell lines, and with small-nucleolar C/D box 48 (RNU48 were assessed in RNA extracted from serum as candidate endogenous normalizers. No correlation between serum levels and age were observed (age range 30-79 years for any of these microRNA or RNU48. Individually, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c normalized to serum volume and miR-103 were significantly higher in serum of the SEOC cohort (P  Conclusions We identified serum microRNAs able to discriminate patients with high grade SEOC from age-matched healthy controls. The addition of these microRNAs to current testing regimes may improve diagnosis for women with SEOC.

  6. Roles of elevated intravitreal IL-1β and IL-10 levels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Chunjie; Yan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the roles of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 in the vitreous of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Materials and Methods: Vitreous samples were obtained from 26 eyes of 26 patients with PDR and from eight eyes of eight cases without PDR. The IL-1β and IL-10 concentration in the vitreous was measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Levels of IL-1β and IL-10 in vitreous were higher in PDR patients compared with control group. And there ...

  7. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Powel H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. Methods We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic, TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt. Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. Results TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65. Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23. There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands

  8. Serum level of YKL-40 is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and is associated with the outcome of the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Gitte; Ostergaard, Christian; Weis, Nina

    2002-01-01

    YKL40 is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum YKL-40 levels in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia...... and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age-matched healthy subjects...... (44 microg/l; 20-184; p treatment of hypotension (p

  9. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  10. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  11. Radon level in China and elevated indoor exposure in carbon brick and cave dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1992-01-01

    A nation wide survey of Chinese houses was conducted to determine the average annual effective dose to Chinese population from exposure to radon and its daughter products. The indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its daughters were measured using scintillation flask, two filter and carbon canister methods, as well as modified Tsivoglou methods for Rn daughters. Average Rn concentrations are 26.2Bqm -3 and 13.5Bqm -3 for indoor and outdoor environment, respectively. Potential alpha energy concentration, indoor is 744 x 10 -10 Jm -3 , outdoor is 511 x 10 -10 Jm -3 . Equilibrium Factor of Rn daughters are 0.49 (indoor) and 0.61 (outdoor). Occupancy Factor is 0.77 and 0.23. Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose to Chinese population is 0.967 mSv. And also, the indoor Rn concentration and gamma dose rate were surveyed in two rural Provinces: Gansu and Jianxi. The fact was found that lung cancer mortality of population lived in high Rn level dwellings is higher than in control groups. An epidemiological retrospective case-control study is recommended in houses with high Rn level. (author)

  12. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Bodeau-Livinec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0 and 46.6 (36.5–60.1 µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  13. Elevated circulating nitric oxide levels correlates with enhanced oxidative stress in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyazit, Fatma; Türkön, Hakan; Pek, Eren; Ozturk, Filiz Halici; Ünsal, Mesut

    2018-02-01

    Since the biochemical and molecular mechanisms responsible for ongoing oxidative stress in hyperemesis gravidarum (HEG) patients have not yet been fully elucidated, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and other oxidative stress markers in the disease pathophysiology. Moreover, the relation between oxidative stress markers and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was also investigated. Women with pregnancies complicated by HEG (n = 33) were compared with pregnant women without HEG (n = 30) and with healthy non-pregnant women (n = 31). Serum NO, MDA, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and H. pylori infection status were determined for each subject. Serum NO levels and OSI index were found to be increased (p = .001 and .013, respectively) and TAS levels were decreased (p Hyperemesis gravidarum is an oxidative stress condition, as reflected by increased nitric oxide (NO) and decreased total antioxidant status activity, regardless of H. Pylori infection. What are the implications for clinical practice and/or further research? Full disclosure of the association between circulating NO and hyperemesis gravidarum would shed light on underlying biological mechanisms and could help clinical management of similar pregnancy-associated morbidity states.

  14. Elevated PCDD/F levels and distinctive PCDD/F congener profiles in free range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chen, Chun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2010-07-14

    Chicken eggs are one of the most important foods in the human diet all over the world, and the demand for eggs from free range hens has steadily increased. Congener-specific analyses of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were performed on 6 free range and 12 caged chicken egg samples collected in Taiwan. The mean level of PCDD/Fs in the free range egg samples was 5.7 (1.79/0.314) times higher than those in the caged egg samples. Principle component analysis revealed that at least three characteristic patterns of PCDD/F congener were observed among the 18 egg samples. The different PCDD/F congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples may reflect distinctive exposure scenarios among the free range and caged hens. We suggest that the differences of PCDD/F levels and congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples give rise to the issues related to the safety of eating free range chicken eggs. The present data may provide useful information for further investigation of the possible PCDD/F sources in the contaminated free range eggs.

  15. Elevated lipocalin-2 level in aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Yaran; Sahin, Seda; Boy, Fatih; Kara, Fatih

    2018-03-23

    To assess the concentrations of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in the serum and the aqueous humor of patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The concentrations of LCN2 in the serum and aqueous humor of 16 cataract patients and 16 patients with CRVO with macular edema were compared. Collection of aqueous samples was conducted in the operating theater under sterile conditions and just prior to intravitreal ranibizumab injection or cataract surgery. LCN2 levels in serum and aqueous humor samples were measured using a commercial kit (human lipocalin-2/NGAL PicoKine ELISA Kit, MyBioSource Inc., USA; Catalog No: MBS175829) based on standard sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technology. The concentrations of LCN2 in the aqueous humors of the CRVO group were higher than those of the control group (p = 0.021). There was no significant difference in serum LCN2 level between the two groups (p = 0.463). Concentrations of LCN2 in aqueous humor are increased in CRVO. LCN2 may be part of a pro-catabolic phenotype, and it may play an important role in the dreaded complications of CRVO, such as macular edema, macular ischemia, and neovascularization, which lead to blindness.

  16. Elevated baseline plasma IL-8 levels are an independent predictor of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Erdal; Marmur, Jonathan D; Yanamadala, Sunitha; Chopra, Vineet; Hegde, Sudhanva; Nazli, Anila; Singh, Kamal Preet; Zhang, Ming; Eng, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the long-term prognostic significance of baseline plasma IL-8 levels in a group of well-characterized male patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. IL-8 is a cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Elevated plasma levels have been reported in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Baseline plasma IL-8 levels were measured in 180 male patients with acute coronary syndrome who were referred for coronary angiography and followed prospectively for the development of all-cause mortality for 5 years. In a multivariate model that included a wide variety of baseline clinical, laboratory and angiographic parameters in the selection process, baseline plasma IL-8 levels (analyzed as a continuous variable) emerged as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; p = 0.0123). Furthermore, in 3 additional multivariate models that also included in the selection process a number of contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy in ACS (i.e., NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hemoglobin and RDW), IL-8 remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 5 years. Elevated baseline plasma levels of IL-8 are associated with an increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Furthermore, this association is independent of a variety of clinical, laboratory and angiographic variables, including contemporary biomarkers with established prognostic efficacy in acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels of circulating MMP-7 degraded elastin are elevated in pulmonary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.H.; Larsen, L.; Dasgupta, B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Elastin is a signature protein of the lungs. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) is important in lung defence mechanisms and degrades elastin. However, MMP-7 activity in regard to elastin degradation has never been quantified serologically in patients with lung diseases. An assay...... for the quantification of MMP-7 generated elastin fragments (ELM7) was therefore developed to investigate MMP-7 derived elastin degradation in pulmonary disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung cancer. Design and methods:  Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) were raised against eight carefully selected...... MMP-7 cleavage sites on elastin. After characterisation and validation of the mABs, one mAB targeting the ELM7 fragment was chosen. ELM7 fragment levels were assessed in serum samples from patients diagnosed with IPF (n = 123, baseline samples, CTgov reg. NCT00786201), and lung cancer (n = 40...

  18. Elevated lead levels and adverse effects on natural killer cells in children from an electronic waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huo, Xia; Cao, Junjun; Yang, Tian; Xu, Long; Xu, Xijin

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) has been proved to exert immunotoxicity to influence immune homeostasis in humans. To monitor the internal Pb level and evaluate its effect on natural killer (NK) cells and cytokine/chemokine concentrations, we recruited 285 preschool children from Guiyu, one of the largest electronic waste (e-waste) destinations and recycling areas in the world, and known to have high concentrations of Pb in the air, soil, water, sediment and plants. A total of 126 preschool children were selected from Haojiang as a reference group. Results showed that children in Guiyu, the exposed area, had higher blood Pb levels and lower percentages of NK cells than children from the reference area. A significantly negative association was found between the percentage of NK cells and increasing Pb levels. Moreover, children in Guiyu area had higher platelet counts and IL-1β concentrations, and lower levels of IL-2, IL-27, MIP-1α and MIP-1β were observed in the exposed children. These changes might not be conducive to the development and differentiation of NK cells. Taken together, the elevated Pb levels result in the lower percentages of NK cells, but also alter the levels of platelets, IL-1β and IL-27, which might be unconducive to the activity and function of NK cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and malic enzyme (ME, in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule.

  20. Genetic predisposition to elevated levels of C-reactive protein is associated with a decreased risk for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Cassandra N; Smith, Caitlin J; Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Bjonnes, Andrew; Keating, Brendan J; Saxena, Richa; Breheny, Patrick J; Dewan, Andrew T; Robinson, Jennifer G; Hoh, Josephine; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2017-02-01

    To examine the association between genetic predisposition to elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)and risk for preeclampsia using validated genetic loci for C-reactive protein. Preeclampsia cases (n = 177) and normotensive controls (n = 116) were selected from live birth certificates to nulliparous Iowa women during the period August 2002-May 2005. Disease status was verified by the medical chart review. Genetic predisposition to CRP was estimated by a genetic risk score on the basis of established loci for CRP levels. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationships between the genotype score and preeclampsia. Replication analyses were performed in an independent, US population of preeclampsia cases (n = 516) and controls (n = 1,097) of European ancestry. The genetic risk score (GRS) related to higher levels of CRP demonstrated a significantly decreased risk of preeclampsia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). When the GRS was analyzed by quartile, an inverse linear trend was observed (p = 0.0006). The results were similar after adjustments for the body mass index (BMI), smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. In the independent replication population, the association with the CRP GRS was also marginally significant (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.02). Meta-analysis of the two studies was statistically significant (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90, 0.99). Our data suggest an inverse, counterintuitive association between the genetic predisposition to elevated levels of CRP and a decreased risk of preeclampsia. This suggests that the blood CRP level is a marker of preeclampsia, but it does not appear to be a factor on the causal pathway.

  1. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  2. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spitzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD, 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD, 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable, and 16 nondemented subjects (ND were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau, phosphorylated Tau (pTau, and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42. CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42.

  3. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. (Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  4. Elevated Tribbles homolog 2–specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Maret, Stéphanie; Pradervand, Sylvain; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lecendreux, Michel; Lammers, Gert-Jan; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Du Pasquier, Renaud A.; Pfister, Corinne; Petit, Brice; Hor, Hyun; Mühlethaler, Michel; Tafti, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy). Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, paralleled by a dramatic loss in hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons. It is believed that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, although definitive proof of this, such as the presence of autoantibodies, is still lacking. We engineered a transgenic mouse model to identify peptides enriched within hypocretin-producing neurons that could serve as potential autoimmune targets. Initial analysis indicated that the transcript encoding Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), previously identified as an autoantigen in autoimmune uveitis, was enriched in hypocretin neurons in these mice. ELISA analysis showed that sera from narcolepsy patients with cataplexy had higher Trib2-specific antibody titers compared with either normal controls or patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, multiple sclerosis, or other inflammatory neurological disorders. Trib2-specific antibody titers were highest early after narcolepsy onset, sharply decreased within 2–3 years, and then stabilized at levels substantially higher than that of controls for up to 30 years. High Trib2-specific antibody titers correlated with the severity of cataplexy. Serum of a patient showed specific immunoreactivity with over 86% of hypocretin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus. Thus, we have identified reactive autoantibodies in human narcolepsy, providing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. PMID:20160349

  5. Evidence for Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid ERK1/2 Levels in Alzheimer Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Philipp; Schieb, Heinke; Kamrowski-Kruck, Heike; Otto, Markus; Chiasserini, Davide; Parnetti, Lucilla; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 33 patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment who converted to AD during followup (MCI-AD), 25 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI-stable), and 16 nondemented subjects (ND) were analyzed with a chemiluminescence immunoassay to assess the levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results were evaluated in relation to total Tau (tTau), phosphorylated Tau (pTau), and beta-amyloid 42 peptide (Aβ42). CSF-ERK1/2 was significantly increased in the AD group as compared to stable MCI patients and the ND group. Western blot analysis of a pooled cerebrospinal fluid sample revealed that both isoforms, ERK1 and ERK2, and low amounts of doubly phosphorylated ERK2 were detectable. As a predictive diagnostic AD biomarker, CSF-ERK1/2 was inferior to tTau, pTau, and Aβ42. PMID:22145083

  6. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide level: A fungal endophyte and grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, S. [Winthrop Univ., Rock Hill, SC (United States); Lincoln, D.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects commonly consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. However, lepidoteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which product toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but also suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to understand how these 2 factors may interact to affect larval consumption and growth in fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., were grown under CO{sub 2} concentrations, but was not influenced by infection. As expected, larvae had significantly reduced efficiency of conversion of ingested food. These 2 factors also interacted so that the lowest efficiency of conversion of ingested food was seen when both infection and an enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} environment were present. As global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels continue to increase, it appears that fungal endophytes will continue to be important in turfgrasses as protection against insect herbivores and may lead to increased fitness for infected plant genotypes. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  8. Effects of elevated temperatures and rising sea level on Arctic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Peter W.

    1990-01-01

    Ice is a major agent on the inner shelf, gouging the bottom, increasing hydraulic scour, transporting sediment, and influencing river flood patterns. Rapid coastal retreat is common and low barrier islands and beaches are constantly changing due to the influence of permafrost, ice-push, waves, and currents. Coastal processes are presently a balance between the influence of ice and the action of waves and currents. Quantitative values for processes are poorly known, however our qualitative understanding is nearly complete. Climatic warming and rising sea levels would decrease the temporal and aerial extent of coastal ice thereby expanding the role of waves and currents. As a result, shoreline retreat rates would increase, producing a transgressive erosional surface on the low coastal plain. With increased wave activity, beaches and barrier islands presently nourished by ice push processes would decay and disappear. Increased sediment supply from a deeply thawed, active layer would release more sediments to rivers and coasts. Additional research should be focused on permafrost and sea ice processes active during freeze up and breakup; the two seasons of most vigorous activity and change.

  9. Elevated levels of serum alpha(2) macroglobulin in wild black bears during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Chauhan, Ved; Tsiouris, John A; Mehta, Pankaj D; Burguess, Kelcey; Fenko, Michael D; Spivack, Warren; Vaughan, Michael; Malik, Mazhar

    2003-10-01

    Bear serum alpha(2) macroglobulin (alpha(2)M) was purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and partially characterized by tryptic digestion of alpha(2)M and analysis of the peptides by peptide mass fingerprinting. The molecular weight of bear serum alpha(2)M was 181 kDa, same as for human serum alpha(2)M, on SDS-PAGE. However, the MALDI mass spectrum of the tryptic digested bear serum alpha(2)M showed that it is different from human alpha(2)M or other data bank proteins. Liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS of the proteolytic products of bear serum alpha(2)M showed eight peptides that had similarities to human alpha(2)M suggesting that the protein of interest was indeed alpha(2)M of bear. The polyclonal antibody against bear serum alpha(2)M recognized only one protein from the western blot of bear serum proteins. It also recognized human alpha(2)M. The levels of serum alpha(2)M were significantly increased during hibernating state as compared to active state of bears indicating its protective role from the consequences of the metabolic depression during hibernation.

  10. Coastal climate is associated with elevated solar irradiance and higher 25(OH)D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, M P C; Wheeler, B W; White, M P; Sarran, C E; Osborne, N J

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that populations living close to the coast have improved health and wellbeing. Coastal environments are linked to promotion of physical activity through provision of safe, opportune, aesthetic and accessible spaces for recreation. Exposure to coastal environments may also reduce stress and induce positive mood. We hypothesised that coastal climate may influence the vitamin D status of residents and thus partly explain benefits to health. Ecological and cross-sectional analyses were designed to elucidate the connection between coastal residence and vitamin D status. We divided residential data, from developed land use areas and the Lower Super Output Areas or Data Zones (Scotland) of the 1958 Birth Cohort participants, into the following coastal bands: 50 km. This relationship was modified by latitude with settlements at a lower latitude exhibiting a greater effect. Individuals living closer to the coast in England had higher vitamin D levels than those inland, particularly in autumn. Geographic location may influence biochemistry and health outcomes due to environmental factors. This can provide benefits in terms of vitamin D status but may also pose a risk due to higher skin cancer risk. We provide further evidence in support of the claim that coastal environments can provide opportunities for health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.

  12. Porphyromonas Gingivalis Elevated High-Mobility Group Box 1 Levels After Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwantha, Rungtiwa; Shiheido, Yuka; Aoyama, Norio; Sato, Hiroki; Kure, Keitetsu; Laosrisin, Narongsak; Izumi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-10-21

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein released from necrotic cells, inducing inflammatory responses. Epidemiological studies suggested a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Due to tissue damage and necrosis of cardiac cells following myocardial infarction (MI), HMGB1 is released, activating an inflammatory reaction. However, it remains unclear whether periodontitis is also involved in myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) after MI in mice.C57BL/6J wild type mice in post-MI were inoculated with P.g. in the infected group (P.g.-inoculated MI group) and with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) in the control group (PBS-injected MI group). Plasma samples and twelve tissue samples from mice hearts after MI were obtained. We determined the expression of HMGB1 by ELISA and immunohistochemistry.The level of HMGB1 protein in the P.g.-inoculated MI group was significantly higher than in the PBS-injected MI group on day 5, but not on day 14. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that HMGB1 was mainly expressed in cardiomyocytes, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the PBS-injected MI group, while HMGB1 was seen broadly in degenerated cardiomyocytes, extracellular fields, immune cells, and vascular endothelial cells in the P.g.-inoculated MI group. A significant increase in the number of HMGB1 positive cells was observed in the P.g.-inoculated MI group compared to the PBS-injected MI group.Infection with P.g. after MI enhanced myocardial HMGB1 expression. There is a possible relationship between periodontitis and post-infarction myocardial inflammation through HMGB-1.

  13. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  14. Elevated Serum Level of CA125 Is a Biomarker That Can Be Used to Alter Prognosis Determined by BRCA Mutation and Family History in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiling; Wang, Zhizhong; Ma, Jie; Hou, Yangyang; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Dong, Bing; Tu, Shichun; Wang, Li; Guo, Yongjun

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we determined whether serum tumor markers (STMs), including CA125, are associated with BRCA mutation status and if they can be used prognostically in sporadic ovarian cancer (SOC) and familial ovarian cancer (FOC). BRCA gene mutations were screened using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 31 FOC and 66 SOC patients enrolled between 2013 and 2014. The serum levels of STM CEA, CA125, CA199, and HE4 were also measured in these patients to determine the prognostic potential of these markers and their association with BRCA mutations. Elevated levels of CA125, but not the other three STMs, were associated with FOC and BRCA mutations. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer in patients with FOC, higher CA125 expression (>2000 U/mL), and BRCA mutation. Strikingly, the median PFS was not reached in either BRCA+/higher CA125 or FOC/higher CA125 patient groups and these patients had significantly longer PFS than those in other groups. As reported previously, we also detected more BRCA mutations in FOC than in SOC. No significant differences were observed in onset age, menopausal status, tumor stage, and distant metastasis between FOC and SOC patients or between BRCA+ and BRCA- patients. Elevated levels of serum CA125 are associated with FOC and BRCA mutations, which can be further exploited as a prognostic marker in OC.

  15. Empiric antibiotics for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a randomised, prospective, controlled multi-institutional trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggener, Scott E; Large, Michael C; Gerber, Glenn S; Pettus, Joseph; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Smith, Norm D; Kundu, Shilajit; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Zorn, Kevin; Raman, Jay D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the impact of empiric antibiotics on men with an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Men of any age with a PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination undergoing their first prostate biopsy were recruited from five medical centres. Patients with previous biopsy, prostate cancer, urinary tract infection (UTI) or prostatitis within the prior year, antibiotic use within 1 month, 5α-reductase inhibitor use, allergy to fluoroquinolones or clinical suspicion of UTI were excluded. Men were randomised to 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin or no antibiotic. A PSA measurement was obtained 21-45 days after randomisation immediately before prostate biopsy. The primary endpoint was the change in PSA level between baseline and immediately before biopsy. Complete data were available for 77 men with a mean (interquartile range) age of 60.6 (53-66) years. In the control group of men not receiving antibiotic (39 men), the mean baseline and pre-biopsy PSA levels were 6.5 and 6.9 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.8). In men receiving ciprofloxacin (38 men), the mean baseline PSA level was 7.6 ng/mL and after 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin was 8.5 ng/mL (P = 0.7). Compared with controls not receiving antibiotic, use of ciprofloxacin was not associated with a statistically significant change in PSA level (P = 0.33). Prostate cancer was detected in 36 (47%) men, 23 (59%) in the control group and 13 (34%) in the antibiotic group (P = 0.04). Detection rates were not significantly associated with the change in PSA level between baseline and biopsy. The primary limitation of the study is early stoppage due to an interim futility analysis and poor accrual. Despite not meeting the target accrual goal, empiric use of antibiotics for asymptomatic men with an elevated PSA level does not appear to be of clinical benefit. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  16. [Metabolic complications of obesity during adolescence, particularly regarding elevated uric acid levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ságodi, László; Fehér, Viktória; Kiss-Tóth, Emőke; Almási, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-05-31

    Obesity is a social problem worldwide that leads to several diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. It is known that hyperuricemia in adults may be associated with these disorders. The aim of the authors was to investigate the frequency of metabolic syndrome and hyperuricemia and their relationship among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study. The authors analysed the data of 162 overweight or obese adolescents (100 boys and 62 girls) who were previously investigated in a paediatric endocrinology consultation. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in all subjects. Healthy, age-matched, non obese girls (n = 20) and boys (n = 26) were used as controls. The age of overweight or obese boys was: 12 ± 2.1 and overweight or obese girls was 11 ± 2.5 years. In the control group the age of boys was 12.9 ± 2.5 years and the age of girls was 13.2 ± 1.6 years. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations between uric acid and clinical and laboratory findings associated with metabolic syndrome. Obese or overweight subjects had greater BMI SDS (boys, 3.4 ± 1.3 vs 0.05 ± 0.4 in controls, pobese adolescents.

  17. The effect of serum potassium level on in-hospital and long-term mortality in ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Kaya, Adnan; Tatlısu, Mustafa Adem; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Uzman, Osman; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Çinier, Göksel; Çakıllı, Yasin; Yaylak, Barış; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-10-15

    Current studies evaluating the effect of serum potassium levels on mortality in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking. We analyzed retrospectively 3760 patients diagnosed with STEMI. Mean serum potassium levels were categorized accordingly: <3.0, 3.0 to <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.0 to <4.5, 4.5 to <5.0, 5.0 to <5.5, and ≥5.5mEq/L. The lowest mortality was determined in patients with serum potassium level of 4 to <4.5mEq/L whereas mortality was higher in patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5.0 and <3.5mEq/L. In a multivariable Cox-proportional regression analysis, the mortality risk was higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≥5mEq/L [hazard ratio (HR), 2.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-4.74 and HR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.08-8.23, for patients with potassium levels of 5 to <5.5mEq/L and ≥5.5mEq/L, respectively]. In-hospital and long-term mortality risks were also higher for patients with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L. Conversely, ventricular arrhythmias were higher only for patients with serum potassium level of ≤3.5mEq/L. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the patient with serum potassium levels of ≤3.5mEq/L and ventricular arrhythmias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  19. Sulfur-rich geothermal emissions elevate acid aerosol levels in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Mao, I-Fang; Tsai, Pei-Hsien; Chuang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that millions of people globally are potentially exposed to volcanic gases. Hydrogen sulfide is a typical gas in volcanic and geothermal areas. The gas is toxic at high concentrations that predominantly affects the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. The WHO air quality guideline for hydrogen sulfide is 150 microg m(-3) (105 ppb). The northwest part of Taipei is surrounded by sulfur-rich geothermal and hot springs. Active fumaroles and bubbling springs around the geothermal area emit acidic gases. In combination with automobile emissions, the pollution of acid aerosols is characteristic of the metropolis. This study considered sulfur-rich geothermal, suburban and downtown locations of this metropolis to evaluate geothermally emitted acid aerosol and H(2)S pollution. Acid aerosols were collected using a honeycomb denuder filter pack sampling system (HDS), and then analyzed by ion chromatography (IC). Results indicated that long-term geothermal emissions, automobile emissions and photochemical reactions have led to significant variations in air pollution among regions of metropolitan Taipei. The highest H(2)S concentration was 1705 ppb in the geothermal area with low traffic density and the mean concentration was 404.06 ppb, which was higher than WHO guideline and might cause eye irritation. The SO(2) concentrations were relatively low (mean concentration was 3.9 ppb) in this area. It may partially result from the chemical reduction reaction in the geothermal emission, which converted the SO(2) gas into SO(4)(2-) and H(2)S. Consequently, very high sulfate concentrations (mean concentration higher than 25.0 microg m(-3)) were also observed in the area. The geothermal areas also emitted relatively high levels of aerosol acidity, Cl(-), F(-), PO(4)(3-), and N-containing aerosols. As a result, concentrations of HNO(3), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-) in metropolitan Taipei are significantly higher than those in other

  20. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  1. Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Vacuole-Targeted Thermotoga maritima BglB Related to Elevated Levels of Liberated Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Lee, Dae-Seok; Jung, Jakyun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The hyperthermostable β-glucosidase BglB of Thermotoga maritima was modified by adding a short C-terminal tetrapeptide (AFVY, which transports phaseolin to the vacuole, to its C-terminal sequence). The modified β-glucosidase BglB was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. We observed a range of significant phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants compared to the wild-type (WT) plants. The transgenic plants had faster stem growth, earlier flowering, enhanced root systems development, an increased biomass biosynthesis rate, and higher salt stress tolerance in young plants compared to WT. In addition, programed cell death was enhanced in mature plants. Furthermore, the C-terminal AFVY tetrapeptide efficiently sorted T. maritima BglB into the vacuole, which was maintained in an active form and could perform its glycoside hydrolysis function on hormone conjugates, leading to elevated hormone [abscisic acid (ABA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin] levels that likely contributed to the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants. The elevation of cytokinin led to upregulation of the transcription factor WUSCHELL, a homeodomain factor that regulates the development, division, and reproduction of stem cells in the shoot apical meristems. Elevation of IAA led to enhanced root development, and the elevation of ABA contributed to enhanced tolerance to salt stress and programed cell death. These results suggest that overexpressing vacuole-targeted T. maritima BglB may have several advantages for molecular farming technology to improve multiple targets, including enhanced production of the β-glucosidase BglB, increased biomass, and shortened developmental stages, that could play pivotal roles in bioenergy and biofuel production. PMID:26618153

  2. Elevated plasma levels of copeptin linked to diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2017-02-15

    The arginine vasopressin (AVP) system has been postulated to play a role in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in human and animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of plasma copeptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined in 281 patients with T2DM. At baseline, demographic and clinical information including presence of DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR) was collected. The relationship between copeptin and DR or VTDR was investigated using logistic regression. T2DM participants with DR or VTDR had significantly higher plasma copeptin concentrations on admission (P predict DR and VDTR demonstrated areas under the curve for copeptin of 0.784 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.724-0.844) and 0.834 (95% CI 0.781-0.904), respectively, which were superior to those for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (DR AUC 0.736, 95% CI 0.676-0.797; VTDR AUC 0.754, 95% CI 0.703-0.828; P 3rd quartile) to be an independent marker of DR (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.04-6.79; P < 0.0001) and VTDR (OR 4.32, 95% CI 2.12-8.14; P < 0.0001). We found that increased plasma copeptin concentrations were an independent marker of DR and VDTR in Chinese patients with T2DM, suggesting a possible role of copeptin in the pathogenesis of DR complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated phosphodiester and T2levels can be measured in the absence of fat infiltration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmans, M T; Niks, E H; Burakiewicz, J; Verschuuren, J J G M; Webb, A G; Kan, H E

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative MRI and MRS are increasingly important as non-invasive outcome measures in therapy development for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Many studies have focussed on individual measures such as fat fraction and metabolite levels in relation to age and functionality, but much less attention has been given to how these indices relate to each other. Here, we assessed spatially resolved metabolic changes in leg muscles of DMD patients, and classified muscles according to the degree of fat replacement compared with healthy controls. Quantitative MRI (three-point Dixon and multi-spin echo without fat suppression and a tri-exponential fit) and 2D-CSI 31 P MRS scans were obtained from 18 DMD patients and 12 healthy controls using a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner. Metabolite levels, T 2 values and fat fraction were individually assessed for five lower leg muscles. In muscles with extensive fat replacement, phosphodiester over adenosine triphosphate (PDE/ATP), inorganic phosphate over phosphocreatine, intracellular tissue pH and T 2 were significantly increased compared with healthy controls. In contrast, in muscles without extensive fat replacement, only PDE/ATP and T 2 values were significantly elevated. Overall, our results show that PDE levels and T 2 values increase prior to the occurrence of fat replacement and remain elevated in later stages of the disease. This suggests that these individual measures could not only function as early markers for muscle damage but also reflect potentially reversible pathology in the more advanced stages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  5. Elevated levels of FOXA1 facilitate androgen receptor chromatin binding resulting in a CRPC-like phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jessica L.L.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Warren, Anne Y.; Vowler, Sarah L.; Carroll, Tom; Lamb, Alastair D.; Papoutsoglou, Nikolaos; Neal, David E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Carroll, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) continues to pose a significant clinical challenge with new generation second line hormonal therapies affording limited improvement in disease outcome. As the androgen receptor (AR) remains a critical driver in CRPC, understanding the determinants of its transcriptional activity is important for developing new AR targeted therapies. FOXA1 is a key component of the AR transcriptional complex yet its role in prostate cancer progression and the relationship between AR and FOXA1 are not completely resolved. It is well established that FOXA1 levels are elevated in advanced prostate cancer and metastases. We mimicked these conditions by over-expressing FOXA1 in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line and observed a significant increase in AR genomic binding at novel regions that possess increased chromatin accessibility. High levels of FOXA1 resulted in increased proliferation at both sub-optimal and high 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations. Immunohistochemical staining for FOXA1 in a clinical prostate cancer cohort revealed that high FOXA1 expression is associated with shorter time to biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (HR 5.0, 95% CI 1.2-21.1, p=0.028), positive surgical margins and higher stage disease at diagnosis. The gene expression program that results from FOXA1 over-expression is enriched for PTEN, Wnt and other pathways typically represented in CRPC gene signatures. Together these results suggest that in an androgen-depleted state, elevated levels of FOXA1 enhance AR binding at genomic regions not normally occupied by AR, which in turn facilitates prostate cancer cell growth. PMID:24292680

  6. Divergent responses of methanogenic archaeal communities in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Tang, Haoye; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi

    2016-06-01

    Inhibitive effect of elevated ground-level ozone (O3) on paddy methane (CH4) emission varies with rice cultivars. However, little information is available on its microbial mechanism. For this purpose, the responses of methane-metabolizing microorganisms, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic bacteria to O3 pollution were investigated in the O3-tolerant (YD6) and the O3-sensitive (IIY084) cultivars at two rice growth stages in Free Air Concentration Elevation of O3 (O3-FACE) system of China. It was found that O3 pollution didn't change the abundances of Type I and Type II methanotrophic bacteria at two rice stages. For methanogenic archaea, their abundances in both cultivars were decreased by O3 pollution at the tillering stage. Furthermore, a greater negative influence on methanogenic archaeal community was observed on IIY084 than on YD6: at tillering stage, the alpha diversity indices of methanogenic archaeal community in IIY084 was decreased to a greater extent than in YD6; IIY084 shifted methanogenic archaeal community composition and decreased the abundances and the diversities of Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae as well as the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, while the diversity of Methanocellaceae were increased in YD6. These findings indicate that the variations in the responses of paddy CH4 emission to O3 pollution between cultivars could result from the divergent responses of their methanogenic archaea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy and safety of deferasirox in non-thalassemic patients with elevated ferritin levels after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, N; Lieder, K; Albrecht, S; Leismann, O; Hubert, K; Bug, G; Kröger, N; Platzbecker, U; Stadler, M; de Haas, K; Altamura, S; Muckenthaler, M U; Niederwieser, D; Al-Ali, H K

    2016-01-01

    Elevated serum ferritin contributes to treatment-related morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The multicenter DE02 trial assessed the safety, efficacy and impact of deferasirox on iron homeostasis after allogeneic HSCT. Deferasirox was administered at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg per day to 76 recipients of allogeneic HSCT, with subsequent dose adjustments based on efficacy and safety. Deferasirox was initiated at a median of 168 days after HSCT, with 84% of patients still on immunosuppression. Baseline serum ferritin declined from 2045 to 957 ng/mL. Deferasirox induced a negative iron balance in 84% of patients. Hemoglobin increased in the first 3 months, and trough serum cyclosporine levels were stable. Median exposure was 330 days, with a median compliance rate of >80%. The most common investigator-reported drug-related adverse events (AEs) were increased blood creatinine (26.5%), nausea (9.0%) and abdominal discomfort (8.3%). Fifty-four (71.1%) patients experienced drug-related AEs, which occasionally resulted in discontinuation (gastrointestinal (n=6), skin (n=3), elevated transaminases (n=1) and creatinine (n=1)). The incidence of AEs appeared to be dose related, with 7.5 mg/kg per day being the best-tolerated dose. Low-dose deferasirox is an effective chelation therapy after allogeneic HSCT, with a manageable safety profile, even in patients receiving cyclosporine.

  8. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed.

  9. Elevated Surfactant Protein Levels and Increased Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Weiß, Alexander; Surov, Alexey; Dieckow, Julia; Richter, Cindy; Pirlich, Mandy; Horvath-Rizea, Diana; Härtig, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Krause, Matthias; Quäschling, Ulf

    2017-12-27

    Surfactant proteins (SPs) are a multifunctional group of proteins, responsible for the regulation of rheological properties of body fluids, host defense, and cellular waste clearance. Their concentrations are changed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from communicating hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalic conditions are accompanied by altered CSF flow dynamics; however, the association of CSF-SP concentrations and CSF flow has not yet been investigated. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SP concentrations in the CSF and marked CSF flow phenomena at different anatomical landmarks of CSF spaces. Sixty-one individuals (15 healthy subjects and 46 hydrocephalus patients) were included in this study. CSF specimens were analyzed for SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D concentrations by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). CSF flow was evaluated in axial T2_turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM)-weighted and sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sections using a 4-grade scale (1-no flow, 2-subtle flow, 3-moderate flow, and 4-strong flow). CSF-SP concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) of the overall collective were as follows: SP-A = 0.73 ± 0.58 ng/ml, SP-B = 0.17 ± 0.93 ng/ml, SP-C = 0.95 ± 0.75 ng/ml, and SP-D = 7.43 ± 5.17 ng/ml. The difference between healthy controls and hydrocephalic patients regarding CSF concentrations of SP-A (0.34 ± 0.22 vs. 0.81 ± 0.59 ng/ml) and SP-C (0.48 ± 0.29 vs. 1.10 ± 0.79 ng/ml) revealed to be statistically significant as calculated by means of ANOVA (p values of 0.022 and 0.007, respectively). CSF flow voids were detectable at all investigated landmarks of the CSF spaces (foramina of Monro, third ventricle, mesencephalic aqueduct, prepontine cistern, fourth ventricle, cisterna magna, and craniocervical junction). CSF flow voids, reported as mean ± standard deviation, revealed to be significantly increased

  10. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  11. Relationship between pulmonary function and elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in health checkups: A cross-sectional observational study in Japanese participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saigo Baba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulin resistance has been associated with cytokines, including interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha soluble receptor, both of which are elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Few studies have investigated the relationship between pulmonary function tests using spirometry (PFT and fasting plasma glucose (FPG or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in Japanese participants. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between PFT in Japanese people who had health checkups and their FPG or HbA1c levels. In the context of preventative medicine, we intend to connect early detection of COPD to an index of blood sugar. Methods: From August 2013 through March 2014, 1019 participants underwent health checkups. PFT, FPG, and HbA1c measurements were conducted. HbA1c levels were measured according to National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program guidelines. Results: Participants with FPG ≥100 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥5.6% showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s:forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC compared to participants with lower FPG and Hb1Ac levels. Prevalence of FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT differed significantly depending on sex, age, body mass index, FPG, HbA1c, and smoking habits. Age (≥60 years, HbA1c (≥5.6%, and current or former smoking were associated with FEV1/FVC values <70%. Conclusion: In Japan, HbA1c levels were higher in participants with FEV1/FVC values <70% in PFT than in those with FEV1/FVC ≥70%. In preventive medicine, PFT by spirometry should be performed in elderly participants with elevated HbA1c levels who are current or former smokers.

  12. Curcumin elevates sirtuin level but does not postpone in vitro senescence of human cells building the vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Wioleta; Suszek, Małgorzata; Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Wasiak, Emilia; Sikora, Ewa; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It is believed that curcumin, a component of the turmeric that belongs to hormetins, possesses anti-aging propensity. This property of curcumin can be partially explained by its influence on the level of sirtuins. Previously, we have shown that relatively high (2.5-10 μM) doses of curcumin induce senescence of cancer cells and cells building the vasculature. In the present study we examined whether curcumin at low doses (0.1 and 1 μM) is able to delay cell senescence and upregulate the level of sirtuins in human cells building the vasculature, namely vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) and endothelial (EC) cells. To this end we used cells senescing in a replicative and premature manner. We showed that low doses of curcumin in case of VSMC neither postponed the replicative senescence nor protected from premature senescence induced by doxorubicin. Moreover, curcumin slightly accelerated replicative senescence of EC. Despite some fluctuations, a clear increasing tendency in the level of sirtuins was observed in curcumin-treated young, senescing or already senescent cells. Sirtuin activation could be caused by the activation of AMPK resulting from superoxide elevation and ATP reduction. Our results show that curcumin at low doses can increase the level of sirtuins without delaying senescence of VSMC. PMID:27034011

  13. Elevated levels of circulating histones indicate disease activity in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhui; Li, Qin; Li, Junhong; Li, Ying; Chen, Yuping; Lv, Aiping; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Jianbo; Von Maltzan, Kristine; Wen, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD. We measured plasma levels of histones, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytokines in HFMD patients (n = 126) and compared the results with those of a control group (n = 30). Circulating histone levels were significantly increased in HFMD patients (3.794 ± 0.156 μg/ml) compared with healthy controls (0.238 ± 0.023 μg/ml, p histones correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-10, whereas in severe HFMD, histones were associated with elevated IL-6 and TNF-ɑ levels. These data demonstrate that circulating histones are excessively released in patients with HFMD, which may indicate disease severity and contribute to systemic inflammation by promoting cytokine production (e.g. IL-6). We suggest that in mild HFMD, circulating histones may originate largely from neutrophil activation, whereas in severe HFMD, dying tissue cells and neutrophil activation may be synergistically involved in the increased levels of histones.

  14. Elevated serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in patients with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Guo, Gong-Liang; Yang, Li-Li; Sun, Li-Qun

    2017-04-01

    The levels of ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are considered biological markers of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in children with (CHD). Chinese and English scientific literature databases were searched to retrieve published studies relevant to ghrelin, TNF-α and CHD. Manual search was additionally employed to identify other relevant studies from cross-references. The retrieved studies were screened on the basis of our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria to select high quality case-control studies for meta-analysis. We initially retrieved 108 published studies (20 in Chinese and 88 in English) from database searches. Finally, 6 case-control studies (5 in English and 1 in Chinese) were enrolled in our meta-analysis, and contained a total of 160 cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) patients and 215 acyanotic congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients, along with 162 healthy controls. The results of meta-analysis showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in CCHD or ACHD children were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α are elevated in children with CHD, and could be used as effective biologic markers in early diagnosis of CHD.

  15. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from sputum is associated with elevated airborne levels in homes of patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairs, A; Agbetile, J; Bourne, M; Hargadon, B; Monteiro, W R; Morley, J P; Edwards, R E; Wardlaw, A J; Pashley, C H

    2013-08-01

    Indoor bioaerosols, such as mold spores, have been associated with respiratory symptoms in patients with asthma; however, dose-response relationships and guidelines on acceptable levels are lacking. Furthermore, a causal link between mold exposure and respiratory infections or asthma remains to be established. The aim of this study was to determine indoor concentrations of Aspergillus fumigatus and a subset of clinically relevant fungi in homes of people with asthma, in relation to markers of airways colonization and sensitization. Air and dust samples were collected from the living room of 58 properties. Fungal concentrations were quantified using mold-specific quantitative PCR and compared with traditional microscopic analysis of air samples. Isolation of A. fumigatus from sputum was associated with higher airborne concentrations of the fungus in patient homes (P = 0.04), and a similar trend was shown with Aspergillus/Penicillium-type concentrations analyzed by microscopy (P = 0.058). No association was found between airborne levels of A. fumigatus and sensitization to this fungus, or dustborne levels of A. fumigatus and either isolation from sputum or sensitization. The results of this study suggest that the home environment should be considered as a potential source of fungal exposure, and elevated home levels may predispose people with asthma to airways colonization. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Insulin elevates leptin secretion and mRNA levels via cyclic AMP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes deprived of glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Tsubai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Insulin alone stimulates leptin secretion and elevates leptin mRNA levels via cAMP under the lack of glucose metabolism, while glucose is a significant and ambivalent effector on the insulin effects of leptin.

  17. Clinical Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in papillary thyroid cancer with negative radioiodine scan and elevated thyroglobulin level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sun Seong; Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Seok Mo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, along with a negative radioiodine scan, present a clinical problem for the diagnosis of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for PTC patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and (2) the effect of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (ETS) on detecting recurrence in these circumstances. Eighty-four patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb under ETS were included. Correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence, detectability of FDG PET/CT and cut-off value of serum Tg for recurrence in PTC patients with these circumstance were assessed. In addition, detectability of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS and suppression were compared. In Cox regression analysis, only serum Tg level was significantly associated with recurrence (P<0.001, HR  = 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.061–1.208). The cut-off level of Tg was 21.5 ng/mL (AUC, 0.919; P < 0.001) for discriminating the recurrence in the patients with positive PET/CT finding. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were 64 %, 94 %, 86 %, 81 %, and 83 %. In the analysis of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy was 64 %, 94 %, 88 %, 81 % and 83 %. Those under TSH suppression were 67 %, 92 %, 80 %, 85 % and 83 %. F-18 FDG PET/CT, although less sensitive, showed high specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy and therefore can be useful for the patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb. In addition, FDG PET/CT under ETS does not seem to have an additive role in detecting recurrence in these patients.

  18. Elevated Serum Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Severe Dengue Virus Infection at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, Bali - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Dian Sukmawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus - infected dendritic cells along with cytokines overproduction trigger endothelial barrier dysfunction and plasma leakage through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 over production. The event is responsible for more severe dengue virus infection’s manifestation. The study objective is to measure the association of MMP-9 serum level with disease severity of dengue virus infection. Prospective study of 70 participants hospitalized in Internal Medicine ward of Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during 1 July 2011 – 31 December 2011 and diagnosed as dengue virus infection were followed during their hospital stay. Baseline demographic were obtained on admission, serum level of MMP-9 was measured once at third – fifth day from fever onset. Independent-samples t test was used to compare the MMP 9 levels among diagnosis groups and exploration of variables were using logistic regression analysis.  There was significant higher level of MMP-9 serum level on DHF (median [range] compared to DF (367.78 ng/mL [81.16 – 797.79] vs. 128.67 ng/mL [41.79 – 327.32]; p < 0.0001. After adjusted with baseline hematocrit, for every 10 ng/mL elevation of MMP-9 serum contributes to 1.159 increased risk of DHF with optimal threshold MMP-9 level is 330 ng/mL (100 % sensitivity, 64% specificity.MMP-9 level is associated with dengue severity. The measurement was able to predict the DHF among those infected with dengue virus infection. This may lead to a novel marker of dengue hemorrhagic fever predictor.

  19. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  20. [Elevation of proinflammatory cytokines level at early age as the risk factor of neurological and mental pathology development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, O E; Klimenko, V M

    2011-10-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 (IL-1, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), the key mediators of neuroimmune interactions, are the common pathogenic part of various kinds of the perinatal pathology leading to severe neurological and mental diseases. In the review, features of expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in the brain at early age under normal and pathological conditions, their influence on processes of maturing of the CNS cells are described, the data of experimental and clinical researches of disturbances of the mental functions arising in adults owing to elevation of the IL-1, IL-6 levels and TNFalpha in early ontogenesis are cited. The role of the cytokines in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, a syndrome of attention deficiency, autism and a Parkinsonism is discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  2. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  3. Elevated plasma levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor correlated with inflammation and lung function in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2015-03-01

    diagnose COPD patients and we also analyzed the correlation between PEDF and lung function.Results: First, we found that the expression of PEDF in cigarette smoke extract-treated cells increased 16.2-fold when compared with the control group. Next, we confirmed that 4 weeks’ exposure to cigarette smoke can upregulate PEDF levels in rat lung tissues. We also discovered that plasma PEDF in COPD patients was significantly increased when compared with either healthy nonsmoking or smoking subjects. Furthermore, circulating PEDF was correlated with inflammatory cytokine and blood neutrophil numbers, but it was reversely associated with a decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted.Conclusion: Our findings provide a novel link between PEDF and COPD. Elevated PEDF levels may be involved in promoting the development of COPD by performing proinflammatory functions. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pigment epithelium-derived factor, cigarette smoke, inflammation

  4. Elevated ammonium levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Novak, Ivana; MacAulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Increased ammonium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3)) in the brain is a significant factor in the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, which involves altered glutamatergic neurotransmission. In glial cell cultures and brain slices, glutamate uptake either decreases or increases following acute ammonium expos...

  5. Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 levels on energy metabolism and biomineralization of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanina, Anna V; Dickinson, Gary H; Matoo, Omera B; Bagwe, Rita; Dickinson, Ashley; Beniash, Elia; Sokolova, Inna M

    2013-09-01

    The continuing increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere leads to increases in global temperatures and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) in surface waters, causing ocean acidification. These changes are especially pronounced in shallow coastal and estuarine waters and are expected to significantly affect marine calcifiers including bivalves that are ecosystem engineers in estuarine and coastal communities. To elucidate potential effects of higher temperatures and PCO2 on physiology and biomineralization of marine bivalves, we exposed two bivalve species, the eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and the hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria to different combinations of PCO2 (~400 and 800μatm) and temperatures (22 and 27°C) for 15weeks. Survival, bioenergetic traits (tissue levels of lipids, glycogen, glucose and high energy phosphates) and biomineralization parameters (mechanical properties of the shells and activity of carbonic anhydrase, CA) were determined in clams and oysters under different temperature and PCO2 regimes. Our analysis showed major inter-species differences in shell mechanical traits and bioenergetics parameters. Elevated temperature led to the depletion of tissue energy reserves indicating energy deficiency in both species and resulted in higher mortality in oysters. Interestingly, while elevated PCO2 had a small effect on the physiology and metabolism of both species, it improved survival in oysters. At the same time, a combination of high temperature and elevated PCO2 lead to a significant decrease in shell hardness in both species, suggesting major changes in their biomineralization processes. Overall, these studies show that global climate change and ocean acidification might have complex interactive effects on physiology, metabolism and biomineralization in coastal and estuarine marine bivalves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  7. Elevated levels of MYB30 in the phloem accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis through the regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyu Liu

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of flowering locus T (FT, which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO, the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, twin sister of FT (TSF is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time.

  8. Vascular lesions in patient with Takayasu arteritis and massive elevated lipoprotein(a) levels. Residual involvement or premature aterosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón García, José Carlos; Rodríguez Suárez, Santiago; Muñiz Grijalvo, Ovidio; García Morillo, Salvador

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a lipoprotein defined by presenting a specific apolipoprotein, ApoA, linked to the ApoB-100 by different types of chemical bonds, including a disulfide bridge. Despite their atherogenic mechanism is not fully understood, its importance has been demonstrated in the development of premature aterosclerosis. Multiple studies have shown its role as a cardiovascular risk factor associated with heart disease and stroke. We report the case of a patient with a diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis in which a massive elevation of Lp(a) was detected. We emphasize its diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The usefulness of point-of-care (POC) tests in screening elevated glucose and ketone body levels postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walta, Anna-Mari; Keltanen, Terhi; Lindroos, Katarina; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the performance of point-of-care (POC) tests in detecting glucose and ketone bodies in postmortem (PM) samples and to assess the usefulness of POC tests in sample screening for more precise analyses. Glucose and ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), were measured from vitreous humor (VH) in 52 autopsy cases with a POC blood glucose monitoring device (BGMD). In addition glucose and ketone bodies, acetone (Ac) and acetoacetate (AcAc), were measured from urine samples in another set of 59 cases with semi-quantitative stick tests. The results were compared to the concentration in VH measured with validated methods (values ≥ 7mmol/l indicate possible hyperglycemia and total ketone body levels ≥ 3mmol/l ketoacidosis). The sensitivity for glucose with the BGMD was 1.0 and specificity 0.94 when the threshold value for the meter to predict elevated glucose was set to ≥ 10mmol/l. The correlation between the BGMD and the validated method was strong (R(2)=0.89). For detecting ketoacidosis, the BGMD had a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.73, when the threshold value was set to 2.5mmol/l. The urine stick test presented a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.90 for detecting elevated VH glucose concentration. The sensitivity and specificity for the stick test to detect cases with possible ketoacidosis were 0.84 and 0.68, respectively. According to the results, BGMD can be reliably applied for sample screening, although more samples need to be analyzed for delineating the correct threshold values. In the case of glucose, the urine stick tests could be indicative in detecting cases with VH glucose ≥ 10mmol/l. For predicting possible ketoacidosis with elevated VH total ketone bodies, the stick test is not reliable as the test presented both false-positive and -negative results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enduring, Sexually Dimorphic Impact of In Utero Exposure to Elevated Levels of Glucocorticoids on Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda E. Gillies

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life. In order to understand the underlying neural processes, particular interest has focused on the midbrain dopaminergic systems, which are critical regulators of normal adaptive behaviours, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. Specifically, using a rodent model of GC exposure in late gestation (approximating human brain development at late second/early third trimester, we demonstrated enduring effects on the shape and volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc (origins of the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways on the topographical organisation and size of the dopaminergic neuronal populations and astrocytes within these nuclei and on target innervation density and neurochemical markers of dopaminergic transmission (receptors, transporters, basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release at striatal and prefrontal cortical sites that impact on the adult brain. The effects of antenatal GC treatment (AGT were both profound and sexually-dimorphic, not only in terms of quantitative change but also qualitatively, with several parameters affected in the opposite direction in males and females. Although such substantial neurobiological changes might presage marked

  11. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  12. Elevated levels of the complement activation product C4d in bronchial fluids for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajona

    Full Text Available Molecular markers in bronchial fluids may contribute to the diagnosis of lung cancer. We previously observed a significant increase of C4d-containing complement degradation fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL supernatants from lung cancer patients in a cohort of 50 cases and 22 controls (CUN cohort. The present study was designed to determine the diagnostic performance of these complement fragments (hereinafter jointly referred as C4d in bronchial fluids. C4d levels were determined in BAL supernatants from two independent cohorts: the CU cohort (25 cases and 26 controls and the HUVR cohort (60 cases and 98 controls. A series of spontaneous sputum samples from 68 patients with lung cancer and 10 controls was also used (LCCCIO cohort. Total protein content, complement C4, complement C5a, and CYFRA 21-1 were also measured in all cohorts. C4d levels were significantly increased in BAL samples from lung cancer patients. The area under the ROC curve was 0.82 (95%CI = 0.71-0.94 and 0.67 (95%CI = 0.58-0.76 for the CU and HUVR cohorts, respectively. In addition, unlike the other markers, C4d levels in BAL samples were highly consistent across the CUN, CU and HUVR cohorts. Interestingly, C4d test markedly increased the sensitivity of bronchoscopy in the two cohorts in which cytological data were available (CUN and HUVR cohorts. Finally, in the LCCCIO cohort, C4d levels were higher in sputum supernatants from patients with lung cancer (area under the ROC curve: 0.7; 95%CI = 0.56-0.83. In conclusion, C4d is consistently elevated in bronchial fluids from lung cancer patients and may be used to improve the diagnosis of the disease.

  13. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  14. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  15. THE PREVALENCE OF ELEVATED LEVELS OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH TRADITIONAL RISK FACTORS AND MORBIDITY AMONG RESIDENTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (ACCORDING TO THE ESSE-RF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Evstifeeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP level with socio-demographic, behavioral and traditional risk factors in different regions of the Russian Federation (RF.Material and methods. Data of the multicenter epidemiological study of cardiovascular disease in different regions of the Russian Federation (ESSE-RF were used. Representative sample of the unorganized male and female population aged 25-64 from 6 regions of the Russian Federation was drown. 3407 men and 6354 women (n=9761 were included into the study. Standard questionnaire was applied in all subjects. Gender, age, level of education, place of residence and region of residence, traditional risk factors and diseases were analyzed. HsCRP level (level ≥3.0 mg/l was defined as elevated one was evaluated to detect of indolent inflammation.Results. HsCRP levels in women was significantly higher compared to males (p<0.005. The average prevalence of elevated hsCRP in the regions was 24.2%, for men - 21.4%, and for women - 25.7% (p<0.005. Significant age-related dynamics of hsCRP (p<0.0001 was found. The average level of hsCRP was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in a cohort of persons with higher education against these with lower level of education. Level of hsCRP as well as prevalence of elevated hsCRP level were higher in villagers than this in the urban population (p<0.05. Prevalence of elevated hsCRP in patients with traditional risk factors after adjustment for sex, age, and region of residence showed that the elevated hsCRP was mostly associated with metabolic factors and diseases that were characterized by systemic inflammation.Conclusion. Elevated level of hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/l was significantly associated with female gender, with an older, less educated, and smoking population of Russians. After the multivariate adjustment there remained significant associations (p<0.0001 of elevated hsCRP level with obesity, including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia

  16. Elevated Levels of Interferon-γ Are Associated with High Levels of Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in Patients with the Intestinal Type of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cárdenas-Mondragón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory response directed against Helicobacter pylori (HP is believed to be one of the main triggers of the appearance of gastric lesions and their progression to gastric cancer (GC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been found responsible for about 10% of all GCs, but the inflammatory response has not been studied in GC patients with evidence of high levels of EBV reactivation. Objective. To determine the relationship between inflammation and antibodies against EBV reactivation antigens, HP, and the bacterium virulence factor CagA in patients with GC. Methods. 127 GC patients, 46 gastritis patients, and 197 healthy subjects were studied. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, MCP-1, and IFN-γ levels were measured in serum or plasma and compared against the antibody titers of VCA-IgG, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA. Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Significant ORs and positive trends were found between VCA-IgG and IFN-γ, specifically for patients with GC of intestinal type (OR: 6.4, 95% C.I. 1.2–35.4 (p<0.044. Conclusions. We confirmed a positive association between a marker of EBV reactivation and intestinal gastric cancer and present evidence of a correlation with elevated serum levels of IFN-γ, but not with the other cytokines.

  17. A Literature Study on Usage of and Satisfaction Levels with Combined Treatment Including Oriental and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Jung-Hun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to summarize and analyze the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine. Methods: We searched studies on the usage of and the satisfaction levels with combined treatment including Oriental and Western medicine over the past 10 yrs (2001-2011 from 3 Korean databases (National Assembly Library, Research Information Service System, and National Discovery for Science Leaders. The reviewers also conducted a summarizing analysis by sampling the literature according to the type of study, study period, region, study subjects, sample size, type of sampling, research method, data analysis, study instruments, main results, etc. Results: When the main results of six studies on combined treatment usage and satisfaction levels were considered together, the most important decisive factor in determining the usage of combined treatment was the illness of the patient, followed by the patient’s occupation, sex, age, education, marital status, religion, treatment cost, and treatment results. In addition, the most important factor that determined satisfaction levels with combined treatment was age, followed by education, religion, income, health status, treatment procedures, staff attitude, and cleanliness. Conclusions: Elderly patients with musculoskeletal, cerebro-vascular, and circulatory system illnesses are more likely to prefer combined treatment over independent Oriental or Western treatment and are more likely to request specialized, adjusted medical care.

  18. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  20. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Anderson, Phil; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels ( 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10 µg/dL. • High precision lead isotopic ratios in blood, house dust wipes, soil, water, paint. • Associations for isotopic measures of blood and dust, blood and

  1. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) secretion. To clarify the effect of ingested fatty acid composition on glucose levels, we conducted an intervention study to investigate the insulin and plasma GIP responses in 11 healthy women, including a dietary control. Subjects were provided daily...... and FB-30 or F-30. However, insulin levels were higher after the FB-30 than after the F-20 (P incremental GIP between FB-30 and F-30 correlated significantly and positively...

  2. Elevated D-dimer level is a risk factor for coronary artery lesions accompanying intravenous immunoglobulin-unresponsive Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Yuko; Mori, Masaaki; Hara, Takuma; Inaba, Aya; Oba, Mari S; Yokota, Shumpei

    2015-04-01

    Although there are many reports on the resistance of Kawasaki disease (KD) to initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy, risk factors for coronary artery lesions in such cases remain to be established. The objective of this study was to explore when additional therapies should be administered and to identify factors helpful for selecting a therapeutic option. Based on their written clinical records, we performed a retrospective review of KD patients who did not respond to initial IVIg therapy and who therefore then underwent plasma exchange (PE) therapy. This was a case-control study to compare the presence or absence of acute coronary lesions in patients treated by PE for IVIg-unresponsive KD at Yokohama City University Hospital or at Yokohama City University Medical Center. Fifteen of 44 patients had acute coronary artery lesions (CAL) correlating with high levels of white blood cells (WBC) (P = 0.045), D-dimer (P = 0.008), and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (P = 0.009) and lower levels of fibrinogen (P = 0.013) prior to PE therapy. There was a strong correlation between pre-PE levels of albumin and D-dimer (Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.610). Multivariate analyses revealed that the odds ratio for CAL when D-dimer was ≥ 4.5 μg/mL was 25.06 (95% CI, 2.56-244.91, P = 0.006). D-dimer elevation and albumin decline in IVIg-unresponsive KD patients could be risk factors for acute CAL, suggesting the possibility that angitis has spread throughout the arterial system, as far as the coronary artery. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  3. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days' irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs

  4. Elevated levels of plasminogen activators in the pathogenesis of delayed radiation damage in rat cervical spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawaya, R.; Rayford, A.; Kono, S.; Rao, J.S.; Ang, K.K.; Feng, Y.; Stephens, L.C. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The pathophysiology of the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white-matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. Preliminary data suggest that tissue damage is partly mediated through changes in the proteolytic enzymes. In this study, we irradiated rat cervical spinal cords with single doses of 24 Gy of 18 MV photons or 20 MeV electrons and measured the levels of plasminogen activators at days 2, 7, 30, 60, 90, 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation, using appropriate controls at each time. Fibrin zymography revealed fibrinolytic bands representing molecular weights of 68,000 and 48,000 in controls and irradiated samples; these bands increased significantly at days 120, 130 and 145 after irradiation. Inhibition of these enzymatic bands with specific antibodies against tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and amiloride, an inhibitor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), confirmed that these bands were tPA and uPA. Enzymatic levels quantified by densitometry showed a twofold elevation in the levels of tPA and more than a tenfold increase in uPA after 120 days` irradiation. Activity of uPA was increased threefold by day 2 and increased steadily with time compared to nonirradiated control samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed a threefold increase in the tPA content in the extracts of irradiated rat cervical spinal cords at days 120, 130 and 145. This study adds additional information to the proposed role of plasminogen activators in the pathogenic pathways of radiation damage in the CNS. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Association of testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with elevated serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin-like material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    1996-01-01

    Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (s-beta-hCG) is a widely used tumor marker in patients with testicular neoplasia. When elevated in patients with an enlarged testis it is considered as a strong indication of a germ cell tumor. Elevation of S-hCG-like material (S-hCG-1) has been reported in...

  6. Elevated CO2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO 2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO 2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO 2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO 2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO 2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO 2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO 2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO 2 levels.

  7. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  8. Elevated Lipoprotein(a) Levels, LPA Risk Genotypes, and Increased Risk of Heart Failure in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sough to test whether elevated lipoprotein(a) levels and corresponding LPA risk genotypes (low number of kringle IV type 2 repeats, rs3798220 and rs10455872, minor allele carriers) are associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein.......87) for the 91st to 99th percentiles (68 to 153 mg/dl), and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.73) for levels >99th percentile (>153 mg/dl) versus levels 9%. By combining all LPA risk genotypes, instrumental variable analysis...

  9. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  10. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries Blokzijl

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder.To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo.In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes.The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically.We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically.

  11. Study of Biochemical Changes and Elevated Levels of Enzymes in Salmonella typhi Infected Patients in Pakistani Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Shamim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever causes significant biochemical changes and hepatic complications. As many studies have indicated several biochemical parameters that are involved in developing the risk of typhoid fever. The current study was designed to evaluate these risk factors in general Pakistani population. Serum biochemistry and liver enzymes were studied to investigate the relationship of these risk factors to Typhoid fever. Total 100 subjects were studied, 50 healthy individuals and 50 typhoid patients. Blood samples were collected from Allied and National Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. In this study, Nested PCR was used to test the samples. Elevated level of ALT (P<0.0001 and AST (P<0.0001 were observed in typhoid patients. Typhoid patients had significantly higher concentrations of Triglyceride (P=0.0044, Globulin (P=0.0004 and Total protein (P=0.0978 while LDL (P=0.0197, Albumin (P<0.0001, Glucose (P=0.0006, HDL-cholesterol (P<0.0001 and Cholesterol (P=0.04 were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals. This study appears to be ample evidence based on the physiological and biochemical parameters in typhoid patients to explain influence of typhoid morbidity. Extensive research in this field would enable us to make modern drugs to treat typhoid fever patients.

  12. Elevated level of peripheral CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes are an independent predictor of progression-free survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer during the course of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohong; Wang, Xiaoli; Jia, Jun; Yuan, Yanhua; Wan, Fengling; Zhou, Xinna; Yang, Huabing; Ren, Jun; Gu, Jiezhun; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2013-06-01

    Suppression of cellular immunity resulting from tumorigenesis and/or therapy might promote cancer cells' growth, progression and invasion. Here, we explored whether T lymphocyte subtypes from peripheral blood of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) female patients could be used as alternative surrogate markers for cancer progress. Additionally, plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1 were quantitated from MBC and healthy volunteers. This study included 89 female MBC patients during the post-salvage chemotherapy follow-up and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers as control. The percentages of T lymphocyte subpopulations from peripheral blood and plasma levels of cytokines were measured. Both CD8(+)CD28(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) were elevated in MBC patients compared to the control cohort (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD3(+) and CD8(+)CD28(+)cells were significantly lower in MBC patients (P < 0.0001, P = 0.045, respectively). MBC patients had elevated levels of immunosuppressive cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. Patients with elevated CD8(+)CD28(-) and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells showed increased levels of IL-6, and only patients with elevated CD8(+)CD28(-) had decreased interferon-γ. Univariate analysis indicated increased CD3(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+)CD28(+)correlated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS), while elevated CD8(+)CD28(-)associated with shorten PFS. The percent of CD8(+)CD28(-) T lymphocytes is an independent predictor for PFS through multivariate analysis. This study suggests that progressive elevated levels of CD8(+)CD28(-) suppressor T lymphocytes represent a novel independent predictor of PFS during post-chemotherapy follow-up.

  13. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Similarity of muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb including the deep muscles between level and uphill treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Tomita, Aya; Ando, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kohei; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine muscle synergies involving the deeper muscles of the lower limb during level and uphill treadmill walking. Seven men and five women walked on a treadmill at three speeds (60, 80, and 100m/min) and two grades (level and 10% grade). Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 10 muscles of the lower limb, including vastus intermedius, adductor magnus, and adductor longus. Muscle synergies were extracted applying non-negative matrix factorization, and the relative co-activation across muscles and the temporal information of synergy recruitment were identified by the muscle synergy vector and synergy activation coefficient, respectively. Correlation coefficients between a pair of synergy vectors during level and uphill walking were analyzed as a similarity index, with the similarity criterion at r=0.76. Changes in synergy activation coefficients between the walking conditions were evaluated by cross-correlation analysis. The mean number of synergies ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 across all conditions, and they were not significantly different between level and uphill walking conditions. Similarity between walking conditions was high (r>0.76) for three muscle synergies, but not for one synergy that mainly consisted of the quadriceps femoris. The inter-condition similarity of the synergy activation coefficients was high for the four synergies, and a significant lag time for synergy 2, which consisted mainly of the activity of medial gastrocnemius, was found at 60 and 80m/min. The muscle synergies extracted from the lower limb involving the deeper muscles appear to be consistent during level and uphill treadmill walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new simulation model estimates micronutrient levels to include in fortified blended foods used in food aid programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Lisa E; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2010-02-01

    Current micronutrient levels in Public Law 480 fortified blended foods (FBF) may not be appropriate for all food aid beneficiaries, particularly infants and/or young children and pregnant and/or lactating women. A simulation model was developed to determine the micronutrient fortification levels to include in FBF for food aid programs with the goal of reducing the risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes without exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for any recipient group. For each micronutrient, the age and gender group with the highest daily Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) relative to energy requirement was identified and the effect of providing different percentages of that RNI (66, 75, and 100%) was simulated. In this modeling exercise, we also examined consumption of the FBF at 25 (the usual level), 50, and 100% of daily energy requirement. Results indicated that 2 FBF products are needed: a complementary food for age 6-36 mo and a supplementary food for the older groups. Both of the FBF could be fortified to supply at least 75% of the RNI to all groups, without exceeding the UL for most nutrients, if consumed at 25% of the energy requirement. Even if consumed at 50% of energy requirements, mean intakes of most micronutrients would not exceed the UL, although at 100% of the energy requirement, several micronutrients were undesirably high. We conclude that fortifying an FBF to provide 75% of the RNI would be appropriate for most micronutrients, but this level of fortification would not be appropriate for long-term consumption of the FBF at 100% of the energy requirements.

  16. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  17. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  18. Short report: elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis A in the context of a pediatric malaria vaccine trial in a village in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ruth D; Dicko, Alassane; Sagara, Issaka; Kamate, Beh; Guindo, Ousmane; Niambele, Mohamed Balla; Sogoba, Moussa; Doumbo, Ogobara

    2008-12-01

    A Phase 1 study of the apical membrane antigen malaria vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel was conducted in 2-3-year-old children in a village in Mali. A high frequency of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) caused by hepatitis A was seen, with 8 of 36 children diagnosed by specific IgM antibody over the course of the study. Hepatitis A is a common cause of asymptomatic elevations of ALT levels in children, particularly in less-developed settings. Investigators should be aware of the frequency of hepatitis A in this age group to guard against inadvertently facilitating transmission at study facilities and to properly evaluate symptomatic or asymptomatic elevations of ALT levels.

  19. RIP Input Tables From WAPDEG for LA Design Selection: Repository Horizon Elevation - 2-Level AML 50% and Near Maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the WAPDEG version 3.09 (CRWMS M and O 1998b). Software Routine Report for WAPDEG (Version 3.09) simulations used to analyze waste package degradation and failure under the repository exposure conditions characterized by a two-tier thermal loading repository design. Also documented is the post-processing of these results into tables of waste-package-degradation-time histories suitable for use as input into the Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems (RIP) version 5.19.01 (Golder Associates 1998) computer program. Specifically, the WAPDEG simulations discussed in this calculation correspond to waste package emplacement conditions (repository environment and design) as defined in the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (CRWMS M and O 1998a). Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) Analyses Technical Basis Document--Chapter 5, Waste Package Degradation Modeling And Abstraction, pp. 5-27 to 5-29, with the exception that a two-tier thermal loading design feature as specified in the License Application Design Selection (LADS) study was analyzed. The particular design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the repository horizon elevation and layout within the Topopah Springs Member of Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the modification consists of adding a second level, 50-m above the base case repository layout. Two options were considered, representing two variations in thermal loading. In Design Feature 25e (designated DF25e), each level has an Areal Mass Loading (AML) of 42.5 MTU/acre (i.e., half the VA base case). In Design Feature 25f (designated DF25), each level has an AML of 64MTU/acre. As a result of the change in waste package placement relative to the TSPA-VA base-case design, different temperature and relative humidity time histories at the waste package surface are calculated (input to the WAPDEG simulations), and consequently

  20. Degree and distribution of left ventricular hypertrophy as a determining factor for elevated natriuretic peptide levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: insights from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Rang; Choi, Jin-Oh; Han, Hye Jin; Chang, Sung-A; Park, Sung-Ji; Lee, Sang-Chol; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Oh, Jae K

    2012-04-01

    Whether the left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI) and LV volumetric parameters are associated independently with natriuretic peptide levels is unclear in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Therefore, we investigated which parameters have an independent relationship with N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels in HCM patients using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). A total of 103 patients with HCM (82 men, age 53 ± 12 years) were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluations included left atrial volume index (LAVI) and early diastolic mitral inflow E velocity to early annular Ea velocity ratio (E/Ea). LVMI, maximal wall thickness and LV volumetric parameters were measured using CMR. The median value of NT-proBNP level was 387.0 pg/ml. The mean NT-proBNP level in patients with non-apical HCM (n = 69; 36 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy, 11 with diffuse, and 22 with mixed type) was significantly higher than in those with apical HCM (n = 34, P < 0.001). NT-proBNP level was negatively correlated with LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (r = -0.263, P = 0.007) and positively with LVMI (r = 0.225, P = 0.022) and maximal wall thickness (r = 0.495, P < 0.001). Among the echocardiographic variables, LAVI (r = 0.492, P < 0.001) and E/Ea (r = 0.432, P < 0.001) were correlated with NT-proBNP. On multivariable analysis, non-apical HCM, increased maximal wall thickness and LAVI were independently related with NT-proBNP. Severity of LV hypertrophy and diastolic parameters might be important in the elevation of NT-proBNP level in HCM. Therefore, further evaluation of these parameters in HCM might be warranted.

  1. Serum hyaluronic acid levels are elevated in arthritis patients, but normal and not associated with clinical data in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Egon; Jäkel, Hans-Peter; Müller, Annette; Fischer, Heinrich; Fiehn, Walter; Eich, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a disease with widespread chronic pain and many nonspecific symptoms. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a disputed marker for the diagnosis of FM. The aim of the study is to clarify the discrepant results reported so far. Serum concentrations of HA were measured with a radiometric assay (Pharmacia & Upjohn, Sweden) in 41 patients with FM (38 females), 48 with arthritis (35 females) and 31 control subjects (28 females). Correlations of HA levels with clinical parameters (duration of disease, age, gender, medication) and scores of disease severity (e.g. depression and pain) were calculated. If appropriate, partial correlations and analysis of covariance adjusted for confounding variables (e.g. age) were used. HA levels were confirmed to be age-related in the whole study group (r(s) = 0.54; P subgroup. Association between HA levels and gender, drug therapy, clinical or psychometric data could not be demonstrated in patients suffering from FM. Analyzing all study participants, HA levels were correlated with the pain disability index (PDI) (r(tau) = 0.27; P < 0.02) and, in arthritis patients only, with duration of disease (r(tau) = 0.82; P < 0.001). Moreover, analysis of covariance revealed that patients with FM had normal HA values as compared with control subjects and only patients with arthritis had significantly higher levels than both other groups. The present study with a quite large cohort including patients with arthritis and FM demonstrates that serum levels of HA in FM are neither elevated nor associated with any relevant clinical data of this disease and, therefore, have no diagnostic or prognostic value in Germans.

  2. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Botezatu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as ‘ladybug taint’. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers—one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based—applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP, sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS. The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs (SPME-MDGCMS was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm2/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  3. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  4. Elevated Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA in the Pericardial Fluid of Cardiac Patients Correlate with Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nemeth

    between plasma ADMA and RV area (r = 0.453, p = 0.011; PF ADMA and end-diastolic (r = 0.434, p = 0.015 and systolic diameter of LV (r = 0.487, p = 0.007; and negative correlation between PF ADMA and LV ejection fraction (r = -0.445, p = 0.013 in VR.We suggest that elevated levels of ADMA in the PF of patients indicate upregulated RAS and reduced bioavailability of NO, which can contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  6. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Elevated Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels in Patients with Neurological Remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Moghaddam

    Full Text Available After traumatic spinal cord injury, an acute phase triggered by trauma is followed by a subacute phase involving inflammatory processes. We previously demonstrated that peripheral serum cytokine expression changes depend on neurological outcome after spinal cord injury. In a subsequent intermediate phase, repair and remodeling takes place under the mediation of growth factors such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1. IGF-1 is a promising growth factor which is thought to act as a neuroprotective agent. Since previous findings were taken from animal studies, our aim was to investigate this hypothesis in humans based on peripheral blood serum. Forty-five patients after traumatic spinal cord injury were investigated over a period of three months after trauma. Blood samples were taken according to a fixed schema and IGF-1 levels were determined. Clinical data including AIS scores at admission to the hospital and at discharge were collected and compared with IGF-1 levels. In our study, we could observe distinct patterns in the expression of IGF-1 in peripheral blood serum after traumatic spinal cord injury regardless of the degree of plegia. All patients showed a marked increase of levels seven days after injury. IGF-1 serum levels were significantly different from initial measurements at four and nine hours and seven and 14 days after injury, as well as one, two and three months after injury. We did not detect a significant correlation between fracture and the IGF-1 serum level nor between the quantity of operations performed after trauma and the IGF-1 serum level. Patients with clinically documented neurological remission showed consistently higher IGF-1 levels than patients without neurological remission. This data could be the base for the establishment of animal models for further and much needed research in the field of spinal cord injury.

  8. Elevated levels of circulating cell-free DNA and neutrophil proteins are associated with neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in immature mice, pigs and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Stensballe, Allan; Lai, Jacqueline C.Y.

    2017-01-01

    and IL-1β and plasma levels of cfDNA, neutrophil-associated proteins, and proteins involved in platelet-neutrophil interaction during systemic inflammation. The abundance of neutrophil-associated proteins highly correlated with cfDNA levels. Further, Staphylococcus epidermidis challenge of neonatal mice...... not been investigated in preterm neonates. We explored the relation of circulating neutrophil-associated proteins and cfDNA to LOS and/or NEC. Using a clinically relevant preterm pig model of spontaneous LOS and NEC development, we investigated neutrophil-associated proteins and cfDNA in plasma, together...... and preterm pigs increased plasma cfDNA levels and bacterial accumulation in the spleen. In infants, plasma cfDNA levels were elevated at LOS diagnosis and 1-6 d before NEC. In conclusion, elevated levels of plasma cfDNA and neutrophil proteins are associated with LOS and NEC diagnosis....

  9. Elevated serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction; correlation with coronary angiographic and echocardiographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaji Hadi AR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the relationship between serial serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI who received thrombolysis and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary reperfusion, echocardiographic findings, and clinical outcome. 51 consecutive patients presenting with AMI were studied. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Serial serum leptin levels at the time of admission and subsequently at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60 hours afterwards were obtained. Coronary angiography was performed in 34 patients; the relation between serum leptin levels and evidence of coronary reperfusion as well as the extent of coronary atherosclerosis according to the coronary artery surgery study classification (CASS were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. 36 matched patients were enrolled as control group who had serum leptin level 9.4 ± 6.5 ng/ml. Results The patients mean age was 50.5 ± 10.6 years. There were 47 males and 3 females. 37.1% were diabetics, 23.5% were hypertensive, 21.6% were dyslipidemic and 22.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30. Leptin concentrations (ng/ml increased and peaked at the 4th sample (36 hrs after admission (mean ± SD sample (1 =9.55 ± 7.4, sample (2 =12.9 ± 8.4, sample (3 =13.8 ± 10.4, sample (4 =18.9 ± 18.1, sample (5 =11.4 ± 6.5, sample (6 =10.8 ± 8.9 ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between serum leptin and BMI (r = 0.342; p = 0.03. Leptin levels correlated significantly to creatine kinase level on the second day (r = 0.43, p ≤ 0.01. Significant correlation of mean serum leptin with the ejection fraction (P p = 0.8. There was a trend for an increase in the mean serum leptin levels with increasing number of diseased vessels. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and outcome neither during the

  10. Elevated levels of procoagulant microparticles in a patient with myocardial infarction, antiphospholipid antibodies and multifocal cardiac thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesel L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Circulating procoagulant microparticles (MP are pathogenic markers of enhanced coagulability associated to a variety of disorders and released from stimulated vascular cells. When derived from endothelial cells, MP were found characteristic of thrombotic propensity in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. The prothrombotic status of a patient with antiphospholipid antibodies (APL, a past history of mesenteric vein thrombosis and presenting myocardial infarction and extensive intracardiac thrombosis was examined by measurement of circulating procoagulant MP. MP of platelet and endothelial origins were highly elevated with respect to values detectable in patients with myocardial infarction and no history of APS (6- and 3-fold elevation, respectively or in healthy volunteers (13- and 25-fold elevation, respectively. In this particular patient, with moderate APL titer, a drastic release of procoagulant MP could have contributed to thrombus growth and the development of extensive intracardiac thrombosis.

  11. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Svensson, Elisabeth; Rungby, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and >50 IU/L for men) and calculated prevalence ratios associated with clinical and lifestyle factors using Poisson regression. We examined the association with other biomarkers by linear regression. RESULTS: The median value of ALT was 24 IU/L (interquartile range: 18-32 IU/L) in women and 30 IU....../L (interquartile range: 22-41 IU/L) in men. Elevated ALT was found in 16% of incident T2DM patients. The risk of elevated ALT was increased in patients who were 14...

  13. Elevated levels of IgG and IgG4 to Malassezia allergens in atopic eczema patients with IgE reactivity to Malassezia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, Catharina; Tengvall Linder, Maria; Aalberse, Rob C.; Scheynius, Annika

    2004-01-01

    The opportunistic yeast Malassezia is considered to be one of the factors that can contribute to atopic eczema (AE). Elevated serum IgE levels, T-cell proliferation and positive skin prick test (SPT) and atopy patch test (APT) reactions to Malassezia are found among AE patients. Sera from 127 AE

  14. Skin autofluorescence is elevated in patients with stable coronary artery disease and is associated with serum levels of neopterin and the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; van Haelst, Paul L.; Gross, Sascha; de Leeuw, Karina; Bijzet, Johannes; Graaff, Reindert; Gans, Rijk O.; Zijlstra, Felix; Smit, Andries J.

    Aims: To investigate whether skin autofluorescence (AF), a non-invasive marker for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is elevated in stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) and to investigate its relationship with serum levels of the soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), neopterin and C-reactive

  15. Effect of intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin on cardiovascular outcomes in coronary heart disease patients with mild-to-moderate baseline elevations in alanine aminotransferase levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikkanen, Matti J.; Fayyad, Rana; Faergeman, Ole; Olsson, Anders G.; Wun, Chuan-Chuan; Laskey, Rachel; Kastelein, John J.; Holme, Ingar; Pedersen, Terje R.

    2013-01-01

    Statins may reduce cardiovascular (CV) morbidity in patients with mild-to-moderate elevations in liver enzyme levels. This post-hoc analysis of the IDEAL study compared intensive versus moderate statin therapy for the prevention of CV events in coronary heart disease patients with normal and

  16. Global atmospheric change and herbivory: Effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature on boreal woody plants and their herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteli, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280- 320 nm), atmospheric CO 2 , temperature and soil nitrogen level on the growth and chemical quality of boreal deciduous woody plants and on performance of the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Eggs and larvae of Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) were subjected to elevated UV-B radiation in the laboratory. Two willow species, Salix phylicifolia L. (Salicaceae) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., were grown in an UV-B irradiation field where the responses of both plants and their herbivorous insects were monitored. S. myrsinifolia, Betula pendula Ehrh. (Betulaceae) and B. pubescens Roth. were subjected to elevated CO 2 and temperature and different fertilisation levels in closed-top climatic chambers. To assess the indirect effects of the different treatments, the leaves of experimental willows and birches were fed to larvae of Phratora vitellinae (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and adults of Agellastica alni L. in the laboratory. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased the survival and performance of eggs and larvae of O. brumata. It also increased concentrations of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, while the low-UV-B- absorbing phenolics, e. g. condensed tannins, gallic acid derivatives and salicylates, either decreased or remained unaffected. Both the height growth and biomass of one S. phylicifolia clone was sensitive to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Abundance of adults and larvae of a willow- feeding leaf beetle, P. vitellinae, was increased under elevated UV-B; but this did not lead to increased leaf damage on the host plants. There were no significant differences in performance of the larvae feeding on differentially treated willow leaves, but adult A. alni preferred UV-B-treated leaves to ambient control leaves. Elevated CO 2 and temperature significantly increased the height growth of S

  17. Longitudinal association of obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes with risk of elevated aminotransferase levels in a cohort of Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N; Auslander, Allyn; Crespi, Catherine M; Rodriguez, Michael; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Durazo, Francisco; Salmerón, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    In Mexico, chronic liver disease have been increasingly found along with the rapidly growing prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between these three factors and risk of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (>40 U/L), a marker for liver damage, in a cohort of Mexican adults. Data were obtained from two separate waves of the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study: Wave 1 (2004-2006) and Wave 2 (2011-2013). Unconditional logistic regression models were employed to determine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between these risk factors and elevated ALT levels. The prevalence of elevated ALT was significantly higher among men, individuals aged under 60 years, those who were overweight or obese, diabetic, with MS or heavy/binge drinkers. The longitudinal results indicated that weight gain between waves that resulted in a change in body mass index, along with remaining overweight or obese, were significantly associated with an increased risk of elevated ALT levels. A significantly increased risk of developing elevated ALT was also observed among those who acquired diabetes or MS from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Weight gain and acquiring diabetes or MS are associated with a significant risk of having elevated ALT. These results, within the context of the rapid increase in global obesity rates, call urgently for programs to help to prevent chronic liver disease. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Effect of roasting conditions on color and volatile profile including HMF level in sweet almonds (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl

    2012-04-01

    Microwave, oven, and oil roasting of almonds were used to promote almond flavor and color formation. Raw pasteurized almonds were roasted in a microwave for 1 to 3 min, in an oven at 177 °C for 5, 10, 15, and 20 min; and at 135 and 163 °C for 20 min, and in oil at 135, 163, and 177 °C for 5 min and 177 °C for 10 min. Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of ground almonds, both raw and roasted, by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. Strong correlations were found between L value, chroma, and 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural; and were independent of roasting method. Raw almonds had lower concentrations of most volatiles than roasted almonds. Conditions that produced color equivalent to commercial samples were 2 min in the microwave, 5 min at 177 °C in the oven, and 5 min at 135 °C in oil. Microwave heating produced higher levels of most volatiles than oven and oil roasting at commercial color. Sensory evaluation indicated that microwave-roasted almonds had the strongest aroma and were the most preferred. Oil-roasted almonds showed significantly lower levels of volatiles than other methods, likely due to loss of these volatiles into the oil. Alcohols such as benzyl alcohols and strecker aldehydes including benzaldehyde and methional were at higher concentrations than other volatiles in roasted almonds. The oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as nonanal and degradation of sugars to form furan type compounds was also observed. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of more of the total volatiles in almonds than the lipid oxidation reaction. The level of 5-(hydroxy methyl)-2- furfural (HMF), color, volatile profile, and sensory perception can be used to develop the best roasting method, time, and temperature for almonds. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ under different roasting conditions. Based on the color, volatile, and sensory assessments of the 3 almonds, the use of microwave technology

  19. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are elevated and associated with complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lyngbaek, S; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS......: From 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 nondiabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The investigated diabetic...... of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity ≥10 m s(-1) ). Analyses were adjusted for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, UAER, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), total cholesterol, body mass index, C-reactive protein, antihypertensive treatment and smoking. RESULTS: Soluble...

  20. Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, and plays a role in vascular calcification. We evaluated the relationship between osteoprotegerin levels and inflammatory markers, atherosclerosis, and mortality in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. A total of 145 subjects (median age 61 years, 61% men; 36 patients on hemodialysis, 55 patients on peritoneal dialysis, and 54 patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease were studied. Clinical characteristics, markers of mineral metabolism (including fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23] and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], and the intima-media thickness (IMT in the common carotid arteries were measured at baseline. Cardiac function was assessed by color tissue Doppler echocardiography. After 36 months follow-up, the survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was significantly different according to OPG levels (χ 2=14.33; P=0.002. Increased OPG levels were positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.38, P<0.001, FGF-23 (r=0.26, P<0.001 and hsCRP (r=0.0.24, P=0.003. In addition, OPG was positively associated with troponin I (r=0.54, P<0.001 and IMT (r=0.39, P<0.0001. Finally, in Cox analysis, only OPG (HR=1.07, 95%CI=1.02-1.13 and hsCRP (HR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04 were independently associated with increased risk of death. These results suggested that elevated levels of serum OPG might be associated with atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. The role of FDG-PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer patients with negative iodine-131 whole-body scan and elevated anti-Tg level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sertac; Aksoy, Sabire Yılmaz; Vatankulu, Betül; Aliyev, Anar; Uslu, Lebriz; Ozhan, Meftune; Sager, Sait; Halac, Metin; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2014-12-01

    In the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after a successful total-near total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg) may be persistently or progressively increased in the patients with an undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level. In these cases, further investigation was performed to search for recurrence/metastases. The aim of our study was clarifying the role of FDG-PET/CT in detecting recurrence/metastasis in patients with DTC with negative serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level. A total of 40 patients (32 female, 8 male; mean age: 43.15 years (22-65); mean age at diagnosis: 39.08 (16-64)) with DTC who had undetectable serum Tg and elevated anti-Tg level after a successful initial therapy were included in the study. All of the patients had serum anti-Tg of >40 IU/ml and underwent FDG-PET/CT to search for recurrence/metastasis. Twenty patients (50 %) had recurrence/metastasis on FDG-PET/CT while the other 20 had no pathologic findings. Of the 20 patients who had positive FDG-PET/CT, 12 had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11 were true positive (TP) and 1 was false positive (FP). On the other hand, 16 of the 40 patients had a histopathological final diagnosis of which 11/16 had TP, 1/16 FP, 3/16 false negative (FN) and 1/16 true negative (TN) findings by PET/CT. The final diagnosis was made by clinical follow-up in the remaining 24 patients. Of these, 8 patients were PET positive, and in 1 (12.5 %) of 8 patients a decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 2 (25 %) patients a saw-toothed pattern and in 5 (62.5 %) a progressive increase in the serum anti-Tg level were noted during the follow-up. Of the 16 of 24 patients who were diagnosed by clinical follow-up, in 8 a (50 %) decrease in serum anti-Tg level, in 6 (37.5 %) a saw-toothed pattern, and in 2 (12.5 %) a progressively increased anti-Tg level was seen. Of the 40 patients, 14 (35 %) had a diagnosis of recurrence/metastasis finally, with

  2. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Andrzej; Al-Busaidi, Fikra; Al-Wahaibi, Adil

    2004-01-01

    during pregnancy or in labor. 40 patients dropped out from the study due to insufficient information on the course of their pregnancies or they developed more than one complication and were excluded from statistical analysis. This includes 2 cases of stillbirth and 3 patients who delivered before term. The maternal serum b-HCG and HPL levels of the patients from both groups were compared. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to establish significant difference between the 2 groups. To compare the means individually with the control, the student-Newman-Keuls test was used. Details of association between different levels of b-HCG and adverse pregnancy outcomes are presented in Table 1. b-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were significantly higher among women who developed PIH in later stages of pregnancy. The infants of mothers with elevated levels of b-HCG developed IUGR more frequently and were delivered with lower Apgar score in comparison to the babies from the control group. The differences are statistically significant. Women who developed antepartum hemorrhage, polyhydramnios, gestational diabetes and whose labor ended up with emergency cesarean section had lower levels of b-HCG in early pregnancy, although these differences are not proven statistically. There was no significant difference in the levels of HPL between women with evaluated complications of pregnancies and the control group in our study. We have found that elevated b-HCG levels in our study were associated with pre-eclampsia. This finding is consistent with the reports of Yaron et al2 and appears to support the theory that vascular changes within the placenta, which may ultimately lead to pre-eclampsia, begin in early pregnancy.3 These early placental changes result in hypoperfusion of placental villi and an increase in b-HCG production. Lieppman et al4 found that an unexplained increased level of b-HCG is associated with risk of preterm delivery and delivery of a low birth weight baby

  3. The association of elevated reactive oxygen species levels from neutrophils with low-grade inflammation in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Katsuhiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including free radicals, oxygen ions, and peroxides, are implicated in cell damage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the spontaneous production of ROS from neutrophils changes with age and is associated with the conventional inflammatory markers. Results Thirty-seven elderly subjects (median age, 87, range 70–95 years and 22 young subjects (median age, 26, range 21–37 years participated in this study. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and heat shock protein (HSP70 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated ROS of neutrophils were quantified by flow cytometry. Both spontaneous ROS production and circulating levels of inflammatory markers were higher in the elderly group than in the younger group. In addition, spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils was negatively associated with HSP70 in plasma. We could not find the association between spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils and the other inflammatory markers including cytokines. Conclusion The results suggest that spontaneous ROS production from neutrophils may increase with age and represent the different aspect of age-associated immune dysregulation.

  4. Regulation of S-like ribonuclease levels in Arabidopsis. Antisense inhibition of RNS1 or RNS2 elevates anthocyanin accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bariola, P.A.; MacIntosh, G.C.; Green, P.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Plant Research Lab.

    1999-01-01

    The S-like ribonucleases (RNases) RNS1 and RNS2 of Arabidopsis are members of the widespread T{sub 2} ribonuclease family, whose members also include the S-RNases, involved in gametophytic self-incompatibility in plants. Both RNS1 and RNS2 mRNAs have been shown previously to be induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation. In this study the authors examined this regulation at the protein level and determined the effects of diminishing RNS1 and RNS2 expression using antisense techniques. The Pi-starvation control of RNS1 and RNS2 was confirmed using antibodies specific for each protein. These specific antibodies also demonstrated that RNS1 is secreted, whereas RNS2 is intracellular. By introducing antisense constructs, mRNA accumulation was inhibited by up to 90% for RNS1 and up to 65% for NS2. These plants contained abnormally high levels of anthocyanins, the production of which is often associated with several forms of stress, including Pi starvation. This effect demonstrates that diminishing the amounts of either RNS1 or RNS2 leads to effects that cannot be compensated for by the actions of other RNases, even though Arabidopsis contains a large number of different RNase activities. These results, together with the differential localization of the proteins, imply that RNS1 and RNS2 have distinct functions in the plant.

  5. Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)]|[Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

  6. Co-inheritance of α0 -thalassemia elevates Hb A2 level in homozygous Hb E: Diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K; Srivorakun, H; Fucharoen, G; Fucharoen, S

    2017-10-01

    Differentiation of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) E with and without α 0 -thalassemia is subtle on routine hematological ground. We examined in a large cohort of homozygous Hb E if the level of Hb A 2 is helpful. A total of 592 subjects with homozygous Hb E were recruited from ongoing thalassemia screening program. Additionally, five couples at risk of having fetuses with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis who were homozygous Hb E were also investigated. Hb analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis system. Globin genotypes were defined by DNA analysis. Subjects were classified into four groups including pure homozygous Hb E (n=532), homozygous Hb E/α 0 -thalassemia (n=48), Hb Constant Spring EE Bart's disease (n=8), and Hb EE Bart's disease (n=4). The levels of Hb A 2 were found, respectively, to be 4.97±0.69, 6.64±1.02, 4.86±0.87, and 7.60±1.04%. Among five couples at risk, α 0 -thalassemia was identified in three subjects with Hb A 2 >6.0%. Increased Hb A 2 level is a useful marker for differentiation of homozygous Hb E with and without α 0 -thalassemia. This should lead to a significant reduction in number of referral cases of homozygous Hb E for molecular testing of α 0 -thalassemia in routine practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  8. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L. infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease.Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals.Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum.

  9. Contextualization of Holocene beach ridge systems for relative sea-level reconstruction using the SRTM elevation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Raniolo, Luís Ariél; Alberdi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    research are the consistent definition and confidence of information on surface elevation of the beach ridge deposits. In most parts of the world, the availability of high-resolution geodata is very limited. The measurement of e.g. high-precision GPS (Global Positioning System) data is costly, time...... for the WGS84 ellipsoid. On a beach ridge plain at Caleta de los Loros, Río Negro, Argentina, we observed a good correlation of GPS-RTK (GPS-Real Time Kinematic) measurements (estimated vertical accuracy: ...,96 m (SD: 0,48m) between the SRTM and the GPS-RTK-based elevations was determined for mostof the beach ridge transect (79% of length). Larger errors (maximum average error: 2,78 m, SD: 1,88 m) can be explained by eolian deposition and dune migration during the approx. 13 years between the date of SRTM...

  10. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  11. Gender differences in presentation, management and inhospital outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: data from 5000 patients included in the ORBI prospective French regional registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurent, Guillaume; Garlantézec, Ronan; Auffret, Vincent; Hacot, Jean Philippe; Coudert, Isabelle; Filippi, Emmanuelle; Rialan, Antoine; Moquet, Benoît; Rouault, Gilles; Gilard, Martine; Castellant, Philippe; Druelles, Philippe; Boulanger, Bertrand; Treuil, Josiane; Avez, Bertrand; Bedossa, Marc; Boulmier, Dominique; Le Guellec, Marielle; Le Breton, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Gender differences in presentation, management and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been reported. To determine whether female gender is associated with higher inhospital mortality. Data from ORBI, a regional STEMI registry of 5 years' standing, were analysed. The main data on presentation, management, inhospital outcome and prescription at discharge were compared between genders. Various adjusted hazard ratios were then calculated for inhospital mortality (women versus men). The analysis included 5000 patients (mean age 62.6±13 years), with 1174 women (23.5%). Women were on average 8 years older than men, with more frequent co-morbidities. Median ischaemia time was 215 minutes (26 minutes longer in women; Ppresentation, revascularization time and reperfusion strategy (hazard ratio for women 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.76; P=0.04). One in four patients admitted for STEMI was female, with significant differences in presentation. Female gender was associated with less-optimal treatment, both in the acute-phase and at discharge. Efforts should be made to reduce these differences, especially as female gender was independently associated with an elevated risk of inhospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking social environment and stress physiology in feral mares (Equus caballus): group transfers elevate fecal cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Cassandra M V; Adelman, James S; Smith, Jessica; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Rubenstein, Daniel I

    2014-01-15

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) have a complex social structure, the stability of which is important to their overall health. Behavioral and demographic research has shown that decreases in group (or band) stability reduce female fitness, but the potential effects on the physiological stress response have not been demonstrated. To fully understand how band stability affects group-member fitness, we need to understand not only behavioral and demographic, but also physiological consequences of decreases to that stability. We studied group changes in feral mares (an activity that induces instability, including both male and female aggression) on Shackleford Banks, NC. We found that mares in the midst of changing groups exhibit increased fecal cortisol levels. In addition, mares making more group transfers show higher levels of cortisol two weeks post-behavior. These results offer insights into how social instability is integrated into an animal's physiological phenotype. In addition, our results have important implications for feral horse management. On Shackleford Banks, mares contracepted with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) make approximately 10 times as many group changes as do untreated mares. Such animals may therefore be at higher risk of chronic stress. These results support the growing consensus that links between behavior and physiological stress must be taken into account when managing for healthy, functional populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated levels of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) in pleural effusion samples from patients infested with Paragonimus westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, N; Mukae, H; Nakamura-Uchiyama, F; Ashitani, J-I; Abe, K; Katoh, S; Kohno, S; Nawa, Y; Matsukura, S

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of eosinophilic pleural effusion in patients with paragonimiasis, we measured the levels of various chemokines including thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), eotaxin, RANTES and IL-8 in pleural effusion samples. Samples were obtained from 11 patients with Paragonimus westermani infection, six patients with pleural transudate, eight with tuberculous pleurisy and five with empyema. High percentages of eosinophils were detected in pleural fluid (range 9–100%, median 81%) of patients with paragonimiasis. TARC concentrations in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis were markedly higher than those of other groups. Eotaxin levels were also higher in pleural effusions of paragonimiasis patients, although significant difference was noted only against transudate samples. There was a significant correlation between TARC concentrations and percentages of eosinophils, and between TARC and eotaxin concentrations in pleural effusion. There were also significant correlations between TARC concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG and between eotaxin concentration and the titre of anti-P. westermani IgG. Our findings suggest that TARC contributes to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic pleural effusion in paragonimiasis. PMID:12390321

  14. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchevers, Anne; Glorennec, Philippe; Le Strat, Yann; Lecoffre, Camille; Bretin, Philippe; Le Tertre, Alain

    2015-12-03

    The decline in children's Blood Lead Levels (BLL) raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008-2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L) were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75) and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70). The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child's address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria.

  15. Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children: Assessment of Criteria and a Proposal for New Ones in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Etchevers

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline in children’s Blood Lead Levels (BLL raises questions about the ability of current lead poisoning screening criteria to identify those children most exposed. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the performance of current screening criteria in identifying children with blood lead levels higher than 50 µg/L in France, and to propose new criteria. Data from a national French survey, conducted among 3831 children aged 6 months to 6 years in 2008–2009 were used. The sensitivity and specificity of the current criteria in predicting blood lead levels higher than or equal to 50 µg/L were evaluated. Two predictive models of BLL above 44 µg/L (for lack of sufficient sample size at 50 µg/L were built: the first using current criteria, and the second using newly identified risk factors. For each model, performance was studied by calculating the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. The sensitivity of current criteria for detecting BLL higher than or equal to 50 µg/L was 0.51 (0.26; 0.75 and specificity was 0.66 (0.62; 0.70. The new model included the following criteria: foreign child newly arrived in France, mother born abroad, consumption of tap water in the presence of lead pipes, pre-1949 housing, period of construction of housing unknown, presence of peeling paint, parental smoking at home, occupancy rates for housing and child’s address in a cadastral municipality or census block comprising more than 6% of housing that is potentially unfit and built pre-1949. The area under the ROC curve was 0.86 for the new model, versus 0.76 for the current one. The lead poisoning screening criteria should be updated. The risk of industrial, occupational and hobby-related exposure could not be assessed in this study, but should be kept as screening criteria.

  16. Developmental differences in megakaryocytopoiesis are associated with up-regulated TPO signaling through mTOR and elevated GATA-1 levels in neonatal megakaryocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Italiano, Joseph; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Gutti, Ravi; Bailey, Matthew; Poterjoy, Brandon; Rimsza, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Multiple observations support the existence of developmental differences in megakaryocytopoiesis. We have previously shown that neonatal megakaryocyte (MK) progenitors are hyperproliferative and give rise to MKs smaller and of lower ploidy than adult MKs. Based on these characteristics, neonatal MKs have been considered immature. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear, but contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders of neonatal megakaryocytopoiesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that low-ploidy neonatal MKs, contrary to traditional belief, are more mature than adult low-ploidy MKs. These mature MKs are generated at a 10-fold higher rate than adult MKs, and result from a developmental uncoupling of proliferation, polyploidization, and terminal differentiation. This pattern is associated with up-regulated thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and elevated levels of full-length GATA-1 and its targets. Blocking of mTOR with rapamycin suppressed the maturation of neonatal MKs without affecting ploidy, in contrast to the synchronous inhibition of polyploidization and cytoplasmic maturation in adult MKs. We propose that these mechanisms allow fetuses/neonates to populate their rapidly expanding bone marrow and intravascular spaces while maintaining normal platelet counts, but also set the stage for disorders restricted to fetal/neonatal MK progenitors, including the Down syndrome–transient myeloproliferative disorder and the thrombocytopenia absent radius syndrome. PMID:21304100

  17. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors.

  18. Relationship between elevated triglyceride levels with the increase of HOMA-IR and HOMA-β in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodriguez-Morán, Martha; Aradillas-García, Celia; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7%) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.

  19. Rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation impact plant and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 on a Chesapeake Bay wetland: review of a 28-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bert G

    2014-11-01

    An ongoing field study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on a brackish wetland on Chesapeake Bay, started in 1987, is unique as the longest continually running investigation of the effects of elevated CO2 on an ecosystem. Since the beginning of the study, atmospheric CO2 increased 18%, sea level rose 20 cm, and growing season temperature varied with approximately the same range as predicted for global warming in the 21st century. This review looks back at this study for clues about how the effects of rising sea level, temperature, and precipitation interact with high atmospheric CO2 to alter the physiology of C3 and C4 photosynthetic species, carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration, plant and ecosystem nitrogen, and distribution of plant communities in this brackish wetland. Rising sea level caused a shift to higher elevations in the Scirpus olneyi C3 populations on the wetland, displacing the Spartina patens C4 populations. Elevated CO2 stimulated carbon assimilation in the Scirpus C3 species measured by increased shoot and root density and biomass, net ecosystem production, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, and methane production. But elevated CO2 also decreased biomass of the grass, S. patens C4. The elevated CO2 treatment reduced tissue nitrogen concentration in shoots, roots, and total canopy nitrogen, which was associated with reduced ecosystem respiration. Net ecosystem production was mediated by precipitation through soil salinity: high salinity reduced the CO2 effect on net ecosystem production, which was zero in years of severe drought. The elevated CO2 stimulation of shoot density in the Scirpus C3 species was sustained throughout the 28 years of the study. Results from this study suggest that rising CO2 can add substantial amounts of carbon to ecosystems through stimulation of carbon assimilation, increased root exudates to supply nitrogen fixation, reduced dark respiration, and improved water and nitrogen use efficiency. Published

  20. Elevated pontine and putamenal GABA levels in mild-moderate Parkinson disease detected by 7 tesla proton MRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzay E Emir

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is characterized by the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, postmortem evidence indicates that the pathology of lower brainstem regions, such as the pons and medulla, precedes nigral involvement. Consistently, pontomedullary damage was implicated by structural and PET imaging in early PD. Neurochemical correlates of this early pathological involvement in PD are unknown.To map biochemical alterations in the brains of individuals with mild-moderate PD we quantified neurochemical profiles of the pons, putamen and substantia nigra by 7 tesla (T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thirteen individuals with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage 2 and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in the study. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in the pons and putamen were significantly higher in patients (N = 11, off medications than controls (N = 11, p<0.001 for pons and p<0.05 for putamen. The GABA elevation was more pronounced in the pons (64% than in the putamen (32%. No other neurochemical differences were observed between patients and controls.The GABA elevation in the putamen is consistent with prior postmortem findings in patients with PD, as well as with in vivo observations in a rodent model of PD, while the GABA finding in the pons is novel. The more significant GABA elevation in the pons relative to the putamen is consistent with earlier pathological involvement of the lower brainstem. This study provides in vivo evidence for an alteration in the GABAergic tone in the lower brainstem and striatum in early-moderate PD, which may underlie disease pathogenesis and may provide a biomarker for disease staging.

  1. A Rare Cause of Fatty Liver and Elevated Aminotransferase Levels: Chanarin-Dorfman Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdal Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder of neutral lipid storage characterized by ichthyosis, lipid vacuoles in leukocytes, and involvement of several internal organs, mostly the liver. Since the initial case was reported by Dorfman in 1974, nearly 50 cases have been reported, and the majority were from Middle East countries. Here, we report a 20-year-old patient with ichthyosis from Turkey, diagnosed as Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome presented with asypmtomatic elevated transaminases and hepatosteatosis, and also briefly review the updated clinical implications and management of this rarely seen syndrome. Prompt diagnosis of this syndrome avoids further unnecessary investigations in patients with ichthyosis

  2. Impact of ambient and elevated levels of ozone on growth, reproductive development and yield of two cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S. B.; Abhijit, S.

    2009-07-01

    Tow locally grown high yielding varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L. var Malviya dhan 36 and var shivani), were transplanted within the open top chambers (OTCs) at the age of 20 days. five different experimental plots were designed as open plot (OP), non-filtered chamber (NFCs), NFCs with 10 ppb ozone (O{sub 3}), NFCs with 30 ppb O{sub 3} and filtered chamber (FCs) to assess the impact of ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3} on rice. Twelve hourly monitoring of O{sub 3} and measurements of meteorological variables were done at experimental site during the growth period of rice plants. Morphological, reproductive, physico logical and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the responses of rice cultivars to ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3}. (Author)

  3. Effect of uncertainty in surface mass balance–elevation feedback on projections of the future sea level contribution of the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Régional: Fettweis, 2007 climate projections are for 2000–2199, forced by the ECHAM5 and HadCM3 global climate models (GCMs under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. The additional sea level contribution due to the SMB–elevation feedback averaged over five ISM projections for ECHAM5 and three for HadCM3 is 4.3% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 1.8–6.9% at 2100, and 9.6% (best estimate; 95% credibility interval 3.6–16.0% at 2200. In all results the elevation feedback is significantly positive, amplifying the GrIS sea level contribution relative to the MAR projections in which the ice sheet topography is fixed: the lower bounds of our 95% credibility intervals (CIs for sea level contributions are larger than the "no feedback" case for all ISMs and GCMs. Our method is novel in sea level projections because we propagate three types of modelling uncertainty – GCM and ISM structural uncertainties, and elevation feedback parameterisation uncertainty – along the causal chain, from SRES scenario to sea level, within a coherent experimental design and statistical framework. The relative contributions to uncertainty depend on the timescale of interest. At 2100, the GCM uncertainty is largest, but by 2200 both the ISM and parameterisation uncertainties are larger. We also perform a perturbed parameter ensemble with one ISM to estimate the shape of the projected sea level probability distribution; our results indicate that the probability density is slightly skewed towards higher sea level contributions.

  4. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  5. 77 FR 22790 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... practice, and other public or private nonprofit health or education entities to assist the disadvantaged to... who live together. A ``household'' may be only one person. Most HRSA programs use the income of the... for the 48 Contiguous States and the District of Columbia Income Size of parents' family* level** 1...

  6. 76 FR 14417 - ``Low Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs Included in Titles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... adjusts the low-income levels based on the Department's poverty guidelines and makes them available to... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration ``Low Income... to identify a ``low-income family'' for the purpose of determining eligibility for programs that...

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide levels are elevated in persons with tetraplegia and comparable to that in mild asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Miroslav; Schilero, Gregory J; Wecht, Jill M; La Fountaine, Michael; Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Bauman, William A

    2010-06-01

    The role of airway inflammation in mediating airflow obstruction in persons with chronic traumatic tetraplegia is unknown. Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) affords a validated noninvasive technique for gauging the airway inflammatory response in asthma, although it has never been assessed in persons with tetraplegia. This study was designed to determine the FeNO in individuals with chronic tetraplegia compared with that in patients with mild asthma and healthy able-bodied individuals. Nine subjects with chronic tetraplegia, seven subjects with mild asthma, and seven matched healthy able-bodied controls were included in this prospective, observational, pilot study. All subjects were nonsmokers and clinically stable at the time of study. Spirometry was performed on all participants at baseline. FENO was determined online by a commercially available closed circuit, chemiluminescence method, using a single-breath technique. Subjects with tetraplegia had significantly higher values of FeNO than controls (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 10.37 +/- 4.9 ppb; P tetraplegia and those with asthma (17.72 +/- 3.9 ppb vs. 20.23 +/- 4.64 ppb, P tetraplegia have FeNO levels that are comparable to that seen in mild asthmatics and higher than that in healthy able-bodied controls. The clinical relevance of this observation has yet to be determined.

  8. Elevated Levels of Endocannabinoids in Chronic Hepatitis C May Modulate Cellular Immune Response and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Patsenker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid (EC system is implicated in many chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis C viral (HCV infection. Cannabis consumption is associated with fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC, however, the role of ECs in the development of CHC has never been explored. To study this question, anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG were quantified in samples of HCV patients and healthy controls by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and monoaclyglycerol lipase (MAGL activity was assessed by [3H]AEA and [3H]2-AG hydrolysis, respectively. Gene expression and cytokine release were assayed by TaqMan PCR and ELISpot, respectively. AEA and 2-AG levels were increased in plasma of HCV patients, but not in liver tissues. Hepatic FAAH and MAGL activity was not changed. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, ECs inhibited IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 secretion. Inhibition of IL-2 by endogenous AEA was stronger in PBMC from HCV patients. In hepatocytes, 2-AG induced the expression of IL-6, -17A, -32 and COX-2, and enhanced activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC co-cultivated with PBMC from subjects with CHC. In conclusion, ECs are increased in plasma of patients with CHC and might reveal immunosuppressive and profibrogenic effects.

  9. Elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c are associated with cerebral white matter disease in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Michal; Richter, Tobias B; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Fiebach, Jochen B; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association of cerebral white matter disease (WMD) on MRI with vascular risk factors and laboratory findings in consecutive first acute ischemic stroke patients. Acute ischemic stroke patients underwent MRI ≤24 hours after stroke onset and follow-up on day 2. WMD was scored on fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI according to the Wahlund score. Vascular risk factors and laboratory parameters were assessed during hospital stay. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. We included 512 patients with first acute ischemic stroke (mean age, 68.5 [SD, 13.2] years; 192 women (37.5%); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission, 3 [interquartile range, 1-6]; and median Wahlund score, 4 [interquartile range, 2-9]). WMD was present in 460 (89.8%) patients. In univariate analysis, age, arterial hypertension, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, diabetes mellitus, and female sex were associated with the presence of WMD (Pstroke patients. This may suggest that chronic disturbance of glycemia measured by HbA1c plays a role in the pathophysiology of WMD. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00715533.

  10. Consequences of elevated temperature and pCO2 on insect folivory at the ecosystem level: perspectives from the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currano, Ellen D; Laker, Rachel; Flynn, Andrew G; Fogt, Kari K; Stradtman, Hillary; Wing, Scott L

    2016-07-01

    Paleoecological studies document the net effects of atmospheric and climate change in a natural laboratory over timescales not accessible to laboratory or ecological studies. Insect feeding damage is visible on well-preserved fossil leaves, and changes in leaf damage through time can be compared to environmental changes. We measured percent leaf area damaged on four fossil leaf assemblages from the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, that range in age from 56.1 to 52.65 million years (Ma). We also include similar published data from three US sites 49.4 to ~45 Ma in our analyses. Regional climate was subtropical or warmer throughout this period, and the second oldest assemblage (56 Ma) was deposited during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a geologically abrupt global warming event caused by massive release of carbon into the atmosphere. Total and leaf-chewing damage are highest during the PETM, whether considering percent area damaged on the bulk flora, the average of individual host plants, or a single plant host that occurs at multiple sites. Another fossil assemblage in our study, the 52.65 Ma Fifteenmile Creek paleoflora, also lived during a period of globally high temperature and pCO 2, but does not have elevated herbivory. Comparison of these two sites, as well as regression analyses conducted on the entire dataset, demonstrates that, over long timescales, temperature and pCO 2 are uncorrelated with total insect consumption at the ecosystem level. Rather, the most important factor affecting herbivory is the relative abundance of plants with nitrogen-fixing symbionts. Legumes dominate the PETM site; their prevalence would have decreased nitrogen limitation across the ecosystem, buffering generalist herbivore populations against decreased leaf nutritional quality that commonly occurs at high pCO 2. We hypothesize that nitrogen concentration regulates the opposing effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 on insect abundance and thereby total insect consumption

  11. Physiological, biochemical, and genome-wide transcriptional analysis reveals that elevated CO2 mitigates the impact of combined heat wave and drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana at multiple organizational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Domagalska, Malgorzata A; Vergauwen, Lucia; Knapen, Dries; Nijs, Ivan; Janssens, Ivan A; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han

    2014-12-01

    Climate changes increasingly threaten plant growth and productivity. Such changes are complex and involve multiple environmental factors, including rising CO2 levels and climate extreme events. As the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying plant responses to realistic future climate extreme conditions are still poorly understood, a multiple organizational level analysis (i.e. eco-physiological, biochemical, and transcriptional) was performed, using Arabidopsis exposed to incremental heat wave and water deficit under ambient and elevated CO2 . The climate extreme resulted in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, and considerable increases in stress parameters. Photosynthesis was a major target as demonstrated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. In contrast, the climate extreme treatment induced a protective effect on oxidative membrane damage, most likely as a result of strongly increased lipophilic antioxidants and membrane-protecting enzymes. Elevated CO2 significantly mitigated the negative impact of a combined heat and drought, as apparent in biomass reduction, photosynthesis inhibition, chlorophyll fluorescence decline, H2 O2 production, and protein oxidation. Analysis of enzymatic and molecular antioxidants revealed that the stress-mitigating CO2 effect operates through up-regulation of antioxidant defense metabolism, as well as by reduced photorespiration resulting in lowered oxidative pressure. Therefore, exposure to future climate extreme episodes will negatively impact plant growth and production, but elevated CO2 is likely to mitigate this effect. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inventory of forest resources (including water) by multi-level sampling. [nine northern Virginia coastal plain counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Dana, R. W.; Roberts, E. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A stratified random sample using LANDSAT band 5 and 7 panchromatic prints resulted in estimates of water in counties with sampling errors less than + or - 9% (67% probability level). A forest inventory using a four band LANDSAT color composite resulted in estimates of forest area by counties that were within + or - 6.7% and + or - 3.7% respectively (67% probability level). Estimates of forest area for counties by computer assisted techniques were within