WorldWideScience

Sample records for included early substance

  1. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  2. Prenatal substance exposure: What predicts behavioral resilience by early adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Increased Pre- and Early-Adolescent Stress in Youth with a Family History of Substance Use Disorder and Early Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Bray, Bethany C; Ryan, Stacy R; Lake, Sarah L; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (Family History Positive) are more likely to have early-onset substance use (i.e., prior to age 15), which may contribute to their higher rates of substance use disorders. One factor that may differentiate Family History Positive youth who engage in early-onset substance use from other Family History Positive youth is exposure to stressors. The aim of this study was to quantify how exposure to stressors from age 11-15 varies as a function of family history of substance use disorders and early-onset substance use. Self-reported stressors were prospectively compared in a sample of predominately (78.9%) Hispanic youth that included 68 Family History Positive youth (50% female) who initiated substance use by age 15 and demographically matched non-users with (n = 136; 52.9% female) and without (n = 75; 54.7% female) family histories of substance use disorders. Stressors were assessed at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Both the severity of stressors and the degree to which stressors were caused by an individual's own behavior were evaluated. All three groups differed from one another in overall exposure to stressors and rates of increase in stressors over time, with Family History Positive youth who engaged in early-onset substance use reporting the greatest exposure to stressors. Group differences were more pronounced for stressors caused by the participants' behavior. Family History Positive users had higher cumulative severity of stressors of this type, both overall and across time. These results indicate greater exposure to stressors among Family History Positive youth with early-onset substance use, and suggest that higher rates of behavior-dependent stressors may be particularly related to early-onset use.

  4. Early Working Alliance in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: Predicting Substance Use Frequency and Client Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…

  5. Substance use risk profiles and associations with early substance use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity (i.e., revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale) would be related to the lifetime prevalence and age of onset of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and to polydrug use in early adolescence.

  6. Executive functions and substance use: Relations in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; Stallings, Michael C; Corley, Robin P; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2017-02-01

    Poor executive functions (EFs) have been linked to substance use and abuse across multiple substances. However, it is unclear whether these associations are stronger for some EFs over others and/or some stages of substance use over others (e.g., ever using substances vs. dependence). It is also unknown whether such patterns change from adolescence to early adulthood, a transition that is characterized by changes to both EFs and substance use behaviors. In this longitudinal study of approximately 850 twins, we examined the relations between multiple EF abilities (including a common EF factor predicting 9 EF tasks) and measures of general substance use and dependence/abuse in late adolescence (mean age 17 years) and early adulthood (mean age 23 years). At the phenotypic level, common EF in adolescence was negatively related to the number of substances ever used and to last 6-month frequency of use, but not to dependence/abuse vulnerability (i.e., the number of dependence and abuse symptoms endorsed per substance that had been repeatedly used). However, in the same participants in early adulthood, common EF was only weakly related to the number of substances used, and not related to concurrent frequency of use nor dependence/abuse vulnerability. Twin analyses revealed that these associations were primarily genetic in origin, and that the genetic correlations were relatively stable over time. These results suggest that low common EF is a genetic risk factor for increased polysubstance use in late adolescence, but that non-EF factors play a larger role in the progression to substance dependence/abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  8. Peer substance use and homelessness predicting substance abuse from adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Carolyn J; Domoff, Sarah E; Toro, Paul A

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were housed at the baseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age range from 13 to 25. Many participants experienced a recurrence of homelessness during follow-up, with 64.6 % of the baseline homeless group and 22.6 % of the baseline housed group reporting an additional episode of homelessness. Both alcohol abuse and other drug abuse symptoms showed an increase in adolescence followed by slowing in early adulthood. Recent homelessness and friend alcohol use predicted alcohol abuse symptoms, and the strength of the influence of friend use decreased over time. Recent homelessness and friend drug use predicted other drug abuse symptoms. Duration of the initial episode of adolescent homelessness showed no influence on substance abuse over time, or the effects of other predictors, highlighting the importance of conceptualizing the experience of homelessness as a recent stressor rather than an enduring personal characteristic.

  9. Bidirectional Relations Between Dating Violence Victimization and Substance Use in a Diverse Sample of Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N

    2017-09-01

    Substance use and dating violence victimization are common in adolescence and represent significant public health concerns. Although theoretical accounts suggest a bidirectional association between substance use and victimization within dating relationships, this has not been tested during early adolescence. Thus, the current study examined bidirectional associations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of early adolescents. Sex was also examined as a moderator. Participants included two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships in the last 3 months at Wave 1, in the fall of sixth grade, and 6 months later at Wave 2, in the spring of sixth grade ( n = 2,022; 43% female; 55% Black, 17% Latino/a, 16% White, 9% as multiracial, and 3% as another race/ethnicity). Students reported on the frequency of dating violence in the past 3 months and substance use in the past 30 days. Multilevel models, with students at Level 1 and classes (i.e., clusters of students in the same cohort at the same school; n = 74) at Level 2, tested hypotheses that positive reciprocal relations between physical and psychological dating violence victimization and substance use would be found over time, and that relations would be stronger for girls than boys. Sex, race/ethnicity, and family structure variables were included as Level 1 covariates; intervention condition and neighborhood concentrated disadvantage were included as Level 2 covariates. Results showed that higher levels of physical dating violence victimization at Wave 1 predicted increased substance use at Wave 2. Higher levels of substance use at Wave 1 predicted increased physical and psychological dating violence victimization at Wave 2. Findings highlight the importance of prevention efforts for dating violence and substance use early in adolescence.

  10. Sensitive periods of substance abuse: Early risk for the transition to dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe J. Jordan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder (SUD. An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Early substance use interferes with ongoing neurodevelopment to induce neurobiological changes that further augment SUD risk. Although many individuals use drugs recreationally, only a small percentage transition to SUD. Current theories on the etiology of addiction can lend insights into the risk factors that increase vulnerability from early recreational use to addiction. Building on the work of others, we suggest individual risk for SUD emerges from an immature PFC combined with hyper-reactivity of reward salience, habit, and stress systems. Early identification of risk factors is critical to reducing the occurrence of SUD. We suggest preventative interventions for SUD that can be either tailored to individual risk profiles and/or implemented broadly, prior to the sensitive adolescent period, to maximize resilience to developing substance dependence. Recommendations for future research include a focus on the juvenile and adolescent periods as well as on sex differences to better understand early risk and identify the most efficacious preventions for SUD.

  11. School-level substance use: effects on early adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Gaines, Joanna; Su, Wei; Windle, Michael

    2010-07-01

    School-level use of tobacco and alcohol are related to individual students' use in high school, but few studies have examined the effects of school-level substance use in early adolescence. In addition, little is known about factors modifying individuals' vulnerability to school-level influences. This study examined school-wide levels of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in relation to early adolescents' substance use and the role of peer deviance and parenting practices as modifiers of school-level effects. This cross-sectional study included 542 students attending 49 public middle schools in a single metropolitan area. Students reported on their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, and friends' deviant behavior in the last 12 months. Parents provided information about parental nurturance and harsh and inconsistent discipline. School-wide levels of substance use were obtained from the Pride Surveys completed by all students in Grades 6-8 at each school. Multilevel logistic regressions modeled individual use as a function of school-level use for each substance. Interactions of friends' deviance and poor parenting with school-level substance use evaluated differential susceptibility. Among the three substances, only school-level rates of cigarette smoking were associated with individual smoking. The relationships of school-level smoking and alcohol use with individual use were stronger for students whose parents reported poorer parenting practices. Antismoking programs may need to preferentially target middle schools with high rates of cigarette smoking. Students who receive suboptimal parenting may benefit from increased support to deter them from early initiation of smoking and alcohol use, especially in high-risk schools.

  12. Commentary on guidelines for radiation measurement and treatment of substances including naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Naoyuki; Ishiguro, Hideharu

    2007-01-01

    Study group on safety regulation on research reactors in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reported the guidelines of 'Guidelines on radiation measurement and treatment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)' on 6 February 2006. RANDEC made the website contents 'Study on use and safety of the substances including uranium or thorium', based on the contract with MEXT to make theirs contents. This paper describes the outline of the website in MEXT homepage, background and contents of NORM guidelines in order to understand easily and visually the NORM guidelines, adding in some flowcharts and figures. (author)

  13. Peer Substance Use and Homelessness Predicting Substance Abuse from Adolescence Through Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Toro, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents who experience homelessness are at higher risk for abusing substances, and for being exposed to substance-using peers. The current study used a longitudinal design to track substance abuse, affiliation with substance-using peers, and episodes of homelessness among a sample of 223 adolescents who were homeless at thebaseline data collection and 148 adolescents who were housed at baseline. Participants were interviewed at six waves over 6.5 years, covering an age rang...

  14. Preadolescent sensation seeking and early adolescent stress relate to at-risk adolescents' substance use by age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2017-06-01

    Substance use during adolescence can lead to the development of substance use disorders and other psychosocial problems. These negative outcomes are especially likely for individuals who use substances at earlier ages and those who engage in heavier use during adolescence, behaviors which are both more common among youth at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, such as those with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+). Factors such as increased sensation seeking and greater exposure to stressors among FH+ youth may influence these associations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative and unique contributions of sensation seeking during preadolescence and exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence to cumulative substance use by mid-adolescence among FH+ youth. A total of 167 mostly Hispanic FH+ youth (ages 12-15) who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study were included in these analyses. Participants' data from biennial waves covering approximately 2.5years were used. Self-reported sensation seeking, exposure to stressors, and substance use were compared. Higher sensation seeking during preadolescence and greater exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence were both associated with substance use by age 15. These factors differentiated Substance Users from Non-Users, and also related to level of substance use. Elevated sensation seeking and exposure to stressors are both associated with substance use by age 15 among high-risk youth. Additionally, these factors can distinguish youth who develop heavier substance use during this important developmental period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Relation of Early Menarche to Depression, Eating Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Comorbid Psychopathology among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2001-01-01

    Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substance abuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substance abuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…

  16. Early Onset Substance Use in Adolescents with Depressive, Conduct, and Comorbid Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether co-occurring depressive and conduct symptoms in early adolescence are associated with an elevated occurrence of early onset substance. Five hundred twenty-one sixth graders were assessed for depressive symptoms and conduct problems and underwent five substance use assessments during middle school. Logistic…

  17. Prospective 2-Year Study of Emergency Department Patients With Early-Phase Primary Psychosis or Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Robert E.; Caton, Carol L.M.; Xie, Haiyi; Hsu, Eustace; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Samet, Sharon; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors examined treatment utilization and outcomes over 2 years among patients admitted to emergency departments with early-phase primary or substance-induced psychosis. The main hypothesis was that patients with substance-induced psychosis would have a more benign course of illness than those with primary psychosis. Method Using a prospective naturalistic cohort study design, the authors compared 217 patients with early-phase primary psychosis plus substance use and 134 patients with early-phase substance-induced psychosis who presented to psychiatric emergency departments at hospitals in Upper Manhattan. Assessments at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months included psychiatric diagnoses, service use, and institutional outcomes using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders; psychiatric symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; social, vocational, and family functioning using the World Health Organization Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule; and life satisfaction using the Quality of Life Interview. Longitudinal analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations. Results Participants with primary psychosis were more likely to receive antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing medications, undergo hospitalizations, and have out-patient psychiatric visits; those with substance-induced psychosis were more likely to receive addiction treatments. Only a minority of each group received minimally adequate treatments. Both groups improved significantly over time on substance dependence, psychotic symptoms, homelessness, and psychosocial outcomes, and few group-by-time interactions emerged. Conclusions Patients presenting to Upper Manhattan emergency departments with either early-phase primary psychosis or substance-induced psychosis improved steadily over 2 years despite minimal use of mental health and substance abuse services. PMID:21454918

  18. Early maturation and substance use across adolescence and young adulthood: A longitudinal study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gillespie, Nathan; Dick, Danielle M

    2018-02-01

    Early maturation, indexed by pubertal development (PD), has been associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of adolescent substance use, but this relationship may be biased by confounding factors and effects that change across development. Using a population-based Finnish twin sample (N = 3,632 individuals), we conducted twin modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling of the relationship between PD and substance use at ages 12-22. Shared environmental factors contributed to early PD and heavier substance use for females. Biological father absence was associated with early PD for boys but not girls, and did not account for the relationship between PD and substance use. The association between early PD and heavier substance use was partially due to between-family confounds, although early PD appeared to qualitatively alter long-term trajectories for some substances (nicotine), but not others (alcohol). Mediation by peer and parental factors did not explain this relationship within families. However, higher peer substance use and lower parental monitoring were themselves associated with heavier substance use, strengthening the existing evidence for these factors as targets for prevention/intervention efforts. Early maturation was not supported as a robust determinant of alcohol use trajectories in adolescence and young adulthood, but may require longer term follow-up. Subtle effects of early PD on nicotine and illicit drug use trajectories throughout adolescence and adulthood merit further investigation.

  19. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  20. Early adolescent substance use as a risk factor for developing conduct disorder and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M; Baer, John S; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents' risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence.

  1. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  2. C-reactive protein and substance use disorders in adolescence and early adulthood: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, E Jane; Copeland, William E; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol M; Angold, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    Dysregulated immune function and elevated inflammation markers are seen in adults with chronic diseases, including some psychiatric disorders, but evidence on inflammation in the case of drug abuse is conflicting. To test the concurrent and predictive relations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and use and abuse of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis in a longitudinal, population sample of adolescents and young adults, at the period of highest increase in drug use. Data from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (N=1420) were used, covering children in the community assessed at ages 9-16, 19, and 21. Structured interviews were used to assess substance abuse symptoms and DSM-IV substance use disorders. Bloodspots were collected at each assessment and assayed for CRP. CRP levels were higher in the presence of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and nicotine dependence. In prospective analyses, higher CRP levels predicted cannabis use and nicotine dependence, and nicotine use predicted higher CRP levels, once covariates were included in the models. Significant covariates were age, race (American Indian), and obesity. The inter-relationship of CRP and substance abuse has implications for the later health risks associated with early drug and alcohol use and abuse. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  4. Addiction Vulnerability: Exploring Relationships Between Cigarette Smoking, Substance Misuse and Early Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vanessa; Conrad, Agatha M; Lewin, Terry J; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Sly, Ketrina A; Todd, Juanita

    2017-12-20

    thereby as a potential marker for the development of severe mental illness (including psychosis) and associated health problems. Routine evaluations of presenting problems need to incorporate comprehensive assessments of early substance misuse and tobacco smoking. Adjunctive lifestyle interventions promoting smoking cessation, physical health and wellbeing need to be offered, in conjunction with conventional mental health interventions tailored to key presenting problems, recovery and psychological strengthening.

  5. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  6. Air Emissions of Selected Substances from Particular Sectors Including Metallurgy in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargulewicz I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the anthropogenic air emissions of selected substances (CO2, SO2, total suspended particles (TSP, dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, Pb and Cd subject to reporting under the Climate Convention (UNFCCC or the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (UNECE CLRTAP. It also presents the national emissions of these substances in 2014 by the major source categories and defines the share of metal production in these emissions. Analysis is based on national emission inventory reports. Most important source of air emission in case of CO2 and SO2 is 1.A.1 Energy industries category. TSP and PCDD/F are emitted mainly from fuel combustion in small sources (i.a. households. Emission of heavy metals (Pb and Cd is connected mostly with 1.A.2. Manufacturing industries and construction category. Metallurgy is significant source of emission only for lead and cadmium from among all considered substances. The shares of particular sectors in the national emissions of given pollutants are important, in view of the possible reduction measures and the determination in which industries they could bring about tangible results.

  7. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  8. The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and eating-disorder symptomatology among individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    Numerous studies have examined early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and their relationship to psychological disorders, including eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs). However, to date, there are no empirical investigations that have examined the relationship between EMS and EDs among individuals seeking treatment for substance use. In an attempt to further elucidate this relationship, the purpose of the current, exploratory study was to examine the relationship between EMS, ED symptomatology (i.e., bulimia and binge-eating but not anorexia), and substance use and to directly compare EMS among individuals with and without a probable ED diagnosis. Participants were 387 men and 132 women seeking residential treatment for substance use. Results demonstrated that 11 of the 18 EMS were significantly associated with ED. Moreover, patients with a probable ED scored significantly higher than patients without a probable ED on 8 of the 18 EMS. Results suggest that EMS are prevalent among individuals with ED pathology seeking treatment for substance use. Thus treatment programs could potentially benefit from the assessment and treatment of EMS among dually-diagnosed patients. Given the exploratory and preliminary nature of the study, continued research is needed to further examine the relationship between EMS, EDs, and substance use.

  9. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: The substance dependents scored significantly higher than the control group in nine out of fourteen early maladaptive schemas. In terms of coping strategies, the substance dependents scored significantly lower than the control group in positive reinterpretation and growth, seeking social support for instrumental reasons, active coping, and seeking social support for emotional reasons, and significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and alcohol-drug disengagement subscales. Moreover, alcohol-drug disengagement type of coping style was significantly predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, emotional inhibition, enmeshment/dependence, entitlement/ insufficient self-control, abandonment/instability, punitiveness, defectiveness/shame, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness. Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependence problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies.

  10. Substance use progression from adolescence to early adulthood: effortful control in the context of friendship influence and early-onset use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Timothy F; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent substance use and friends' substance use tended to be highly correlated and together were robust predictors of a problematic pattern of usage for all substances in early adulthood. In addition, the adolescent effortful control construct directly predicted progressions to problematic use of tobacco and marijuana, but not for alcohol. In the alcohol model, effortful control interacted with the construct of substance use lifestyle (based on adolescent alcohol use and friends' substance use) when predicting problematic alcohol use in early adulthood. Results held when comparing across genders and across ethnic groups. These findings emphasize the importance of addressing adolescent self-regulation in interventions designed to treat and prevent early-adult substance abuse.

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility ( N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. Hygroscopic growth of common organic aerosol solutes, including humic substances, as derived from water activity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Idania R.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Golden, David M.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that organic matter often constitutes up to 50% by mass of tropospheric aerosols. These organics may considerably affect the water uptake properties of these aerosols, impacting Earth's climate and atmosphere. However, considerable uncertainties still exist about hygroscopic properties of organic carbon (OC) in particles. In this study, we have assembled an apparatus to measure equilibrium water vapor pressure over bulk solutions. We used these results to calculate the hygroscopic growth curve and deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of representative compounds in three OC categories: saccharides, mono/dicarboxylic acids, and HULIS (Humic-Like Substances). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the hygroscopic growth of HULIS by means of a bulk method on representative compounds such as fulvic and humic acids. We also explored the temperature effect on hygroscopic growth within the 0°C-30°C temperature range and found no effect. The DRH and hygroscopic growth obtained were in excellent agreement with published tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA), electrodynamic balance, and bulk data for sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, d-glucose, levoglucosan, succinic acid, and glutaric acid. However, we found a hygroscopic growth factor of 1.0 at a relative humidity of 90% for phthalic, oxalic, humic, and two fulvic acids; these results disagree with various TDMA studies. The TDMA is used widely to study water uptake of organic particles but can be affected by particle microstructural arrangements before the DRH and by the inability to fully dry particles. Thus, in the future it will be important to confirm TDMA data for nondeliquescent organic particles with alternate methods.

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a su...

  14. The elicitation step of nickel allergy is promoted in mice by microbe-related substances, including some from oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Kinbara, Masayuki; Funayama, Hiromi; Takada, Haruhiko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2011-11-01

    Microbial components activate the host's innate immunity via interactions with molecules including TLRs and NODs. We previously reported that in mice (i) Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4 agonist) promotes Ni-allergy even in T-cell-deficient mice, (ii) E. coli LPS reduces the minimum allergy-inducing concentrations of Ni at both the sensitization and elicitation steps, and (iii) various microbe-related substances promote sensitization to Ni. Here, we examined the effects of microbe-related substances at the elicitation step. Mice (except for TLR4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice) were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of NiCl(2) + E. coli LPS. Ten days later their ear-pinnas were challenged with 1 μM NiCl(2) with or without a test substance. Although NiCl(2) alone at this concentration does not induce Ni-allergy, its combination with the following substances induced Ni-allergy in BALB/c mice: LPS preparations from oral gram-negative bacteria (Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis), a mannan preparation from a fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and synthetic NOD2 and TLR2 agonists. The effect of the mannan preparation was small in C3H/HeJ mice (sensitized with NiCl(2) + the P. intermedia preparation). The P. intermedia preparation promoted Ni-allergy in C3H/HeJ and nude mice, but not in mice deficient in either TLR2 or histidine decarboxylase. Intragingival injection of the P. intermedia preparation and later challenge with NiCl(2) alone to ear-pinnas also promoted Ni-allergy. These results indicate that (i) in Ni-allergy, a microbial milieu or innate immunity is important at the elicitation step, too, and (ii) some oral bacteria may promote Ni-allergy via TLR2-stimulant(s) production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélaïde eCOËFFEC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (AUDIT-C, tobacco (HSI and cannabis (CAST. We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG. Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8% and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI and CAST. Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field.

  16. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  17. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikem Haciomeroglu

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependency problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies. [JCBPR 2014; 3(3.000: 162-170

  18. Quantitative bias analysis for epidemiological associations of perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and early onset of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Christopher D; Song, Gina; Yoon, Miyoung; Verner, Marc-André; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2017-02-01

    An association between increased serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and early menopause has been reported (Knox et al., 2011; Taylor et al., 2014). This association may be explained by the fact that women who underwent menopause no longer excrete PFAS through menstruation. Our objective was to assess how much of the epidemiologic association between PFAS and altered timing of menopause might be explained by reverse causality. We extended a published population life-stage physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of PFOS and PFOA characterized by realistic distributions of physiological parameters including age at menopause. We then conducted Monte Carlo simulations to replicate the Taylor population (Taylor et al., 2014) and the Knox population (Knox et al., 2011). The analysis of the simulated data overall showed a pattern of results that was comparable to those reported in epidemiological studies. For example, in the simulated Knox population (ages 42-51) the odds ratio (OR) for menopause in the fifth quintile of PFOA compared to those in the first quintile was 1.33 (95% CI 1.26-1.40), whereas the reported OR was 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8). Using our model structure, a substantial portion of the associations reported can be explained by pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substance Use Progression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Effortful Control in the Context of Friendship Influence and Early-Onset Use

    OpenAIRE

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22–23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent substance use and friends’ substance use tended to be highly correlated and together were robust predictors of a problematic pattern of usage for all substa...

  20. Patient and program costs, and outcomes, of including gender-sensitive services in intensive inpatient programs for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornack, Sarah E; Yates, Brian T

    2017-12-01

    Gender-sensitive services (GSS) attempt to make substance use treatment better for women, but at what cost and with what results? We sought answers to these questions in a federally-funded study by measuring separately the patient and provider costs of adding GSS, outcomes, and cost-outcome relationships for 12 mixed-gender intensive inpatient programs (IIP) that varied in amounts and types of GSS. GSS costs to female inpatients included time devoted to GSS and expenses for care of dependents while in the IIP. GSS costs to providers included time spent with patients, indirect services, treatment facilities, equipment, and materials. Offering more GSS was expected to consume more patient and provider resources. Offering more GSS also was expected to enhance outcomes and cost-outcome relationships. We found that average GSS costs to patients at the IIPs were $585 ($515-$656) per patient. Average GSS costs to providers at the IIPs were $344 ($42-$544) per patient. GSS costs to patients significantly exceeded GSS costs to providers. Contrary to previous research, offering more GSS services to patients did not result in significantly higher costs to patients or providers. IIPs offering more GSS may have delivered fewer traditional services, but this did not significantly affect outcomes, i.e., days until returning to another substance use treatment. In fact, median cost-outcome for these IIPs was a promising 35 treatment-free days, i.e., over a month, per $100 of GSS resources used by patients and providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field. PMID:25972826

  2. Early substance consumption and problematic use of video games in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coëffec, Adélaïde; Romo, Lucia; Cheze, Nathalie; Riazuelo, Hélène; Plantey, Sophie; Kotbagi, Gayatri; Kern, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Substance use as well as use of video games is frequent among young people. The purpose of this research was to study the links between the use of video games and the consumption of various substances such as alcohol, tobacco or cannabis at adolescence. In order to do so, 1423 students from middle and high schools filled an auto-questionnaire that included questions on age, gender, year of study, use of video games and consumptions of alcohol (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Short version, AUDIT-C), tobacco (Heaviness of Smoking Index, HSI), and cannabis (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test, CAST). We found that 92.1% of teens use video games and 17.7% have a problematic use of video games (PUVG). Furthermore, results show that substance consumption seems frequent with 19.8 and 8.3% of participants having hazardous alcohol and cannabis consumptions respectively and 5.2% having a moderate to high tobacco dependence. Video gamers consumed significantly more alcohol and gamers with PUVG started their substance consumption (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) earlier. PUVG was found to be negatively correlated to age at first substance consumption, but positively correlated to the time spent playing video games. However, it was not correlated to risks of substance dependence (scores of AUDIT-C, HSI, and CAST). Finally, our results are consistent with the literature, in regard to frequency of substance use and use of video games in adolescence. These data will allow for a better consideration of prevention strategies and future care in this particular field.

  3. Parental Messages about Substance Use in Early Adolescence: Extending a Model of Drug-Talk Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Krieger, Janice L; Hecht, Michael L; Graham, John W

    2018-03-01

    This study extends a typology of parent-offspring drug talk styles to early adolescents and investigates associations with adolescent substance use. Data come from a self-report survey associated with a school-based, 7th grade drug prevention curriculum. Mixed methods were used to collect data across four measurement occasions spanning 30 months. Findings highlight the frequencies of various drug-talk styles over time (i.e., situated direct, ongoing direct, situated indirect, ongoing indirect, never talked), messages adolescents hear from parents, and comparisons of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use by drug-talk style. This study advances an understanding of parent-adolescent communication about substances and holds practical implications for drug prevention efforts.

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Resource Allocation in Rural and Frontier Conditions: The Impact of Including Organizational Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minugh, P. Allison; Janke, Susan L.; Lomuto, Nicoletta A.; Galloway, Diane K.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rural and frontier states are significantly affected by substance abuse and poverty. The high rate of substance abuse coupled with high levels of dependence on state-funded treatment systems places a burden on rural treatment systems and makes resource allocation a central planning issue. Purpose: The goal of this study was to combine…

  5. Do Substance Use Risk Personality Dimensions Predict the Onset of Substance Use in Early Adolescence? A Variable- and Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Vermulst, Ad A.; Overbeek, Geertjan; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies found personality to be related to substance use, but little attention is paid to the role of personality risk dimensions with regard to an early onset of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Therefore, the current study used a variable-centered approach to examine whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and…

  6. Do Substance Use Risk Personality Dimensions Predict the Onset of Substance Use in Early Adolescence? A Variable- and Person-Centered Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies found personality to be related to substance use, but little attention is paid to the role of personality risk dimensions with regard to an early onset of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Therefore, the current study used a variable-centered approach to examine whether anxiety

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots ( n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence ( n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  8. Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Robert F.; Jamison, Eric G., II

    2013-01-01

    Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to test the contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e.g., took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something). The…

  9. Replicating and extending a model of effects of universal preventive intervention during early adolescence on young adult substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2016-10-01

    This brief report summarizes a replication and extension of a developmental outcome modeling study, by examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal middle school preventive interventions, reduces problematic use in young adults Ages 25 and 27, up to 14.5 years after baseline. Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10-14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires originally were collected at 11 time points, through Age 22. A subsequent grant allowed for assessments at Ages 25 and 27, including measures of drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarette use, illicit drug use (lifetime and frequency), marijuana use and prescription drug misuse. These outcomes were modeled as variables influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction; risk-related moderation effects were examined and relative reduction rates were calculated for dichotomous variables. Model fits were good. Analyses showed significant or marginally significant indirect intervention effects on all outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors. Intervention × Risk interaction effects favored the higher risk subsample, replicating earlier findings. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed only for cigarette frequency. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher risk subsamples, ranging from 3.9% to 36.2%. Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance misuse and associated problems into young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Experience with Gambling in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Implications for Substance Experimentation Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research among late adolescents suggests an additive association between levels of engagement in gambling and vulnerability to substance use disorder. The aim of our research was to investigate the frequency of gambling experience in childhood and early adolescence and to examine the association between alcohol/cigarette/energy drink consumption and gambling in this young population. A survey called "Pinocchio" was conducted during the 2013 to 2014 school year at primary and secondary schools in Padua (north-eastern Italy) on a sample of 1325 students in sixth to eighth grade (11-13 year olds). Multilevel analysis, taking the school-level variance into account, established an adjusted association between gambling and attitude to risk-taking among early adolescents. Among eighth graders, 45.8% of the boys and 35.4% of the girls reported at least 1 type of gambling. In a fully-adjusted model, having experience of gambling confers a higher likelihood of being consumers (at least once a month) of other substances (alcohol, cigarettes, energy drinks, or marijuana). Gambling behavior is widespread among adolescents. An association with other risk-taking behavior was found in this study, and this provides further evidence of the need for a greater awareness of gambling behavior in early adolescence.

  11. Linking Self-Regulation and Risk Proneness to Risky Sexual Behavior: Pathways through Peer Pressure and Early Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulation in childhood, risk proneness in early adolescence, and risky sexual behavior in mid-adolescence were examined in a cohort of children (N=518) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The possible mediating role of two early adolescent variables (substance use and negative peer pressure) was also…

  12. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-11-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.

  13. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  14. The effects of patient and physician characteristics on early outpatient satisfaction with substance dependence care: results of the SUBUSQOL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourion-Bédès S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stéphanie Bourion-Bédès,1–3 Raymund Schwan,2 Paolo Di Patrizio,2 Guillaume Vlamynck,2 Sarah Viennet,2 Maxime Schvartz,2 Anne Gaunard,2 Alex Bédès,4 Isabelle Clerc-Urmès,5 Cédric Baumann3,5 1Regional Medical and Psychological Service (SMPR, 2CSAPA (Healthcare Center of Accompaniment and Prevention in Addictology, University Hospital of Nancy, 3EA4360 APEMAC, University of Lorraine, Nancy, 4ANPAA 15-CSAPA (Healthcare Center of Accompaniment and Prevention in Addictology, Saint-Flour, Cantal, 5Platform of Clinical Research Facility PARC, Unit MDS, University Hospital of Nancy, Nancy, France Background: Although patient perceptions of health care have increasingly been explored in the literature, little is known about care satisfaction among individuals with substance dependence. This exploratory study assessed the relationships between patient and physician characteristics and early outpatient satisfaction with care for alcohol and opioid dependence. Methods: Satisfaction was assessed using a multidimensional, self-administered and validated questionnaire during the early care process among a prospective outpatient cohort. In addition to measuring satisfaction and obtaining sociodemographic and clinical data, this study collected data on the self-reported health status and physician characteristics at inclusion. Cross-sectional analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to identify the variables associated with satisfaction level. Results: A total of 249 outpatients were included, and 63.8% completed the satisfaction questionnaire. Patients without a history of previous care for substance dependence were more satisfied with the appointment-making process (β=7.2; P=0.029 and with the doctor consultation (β=10.3; P=0.003 than those who had received care previously. Neither sociodemographic characteristics nor self-reported health status was associated with outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion: The factors that affect patients

  15. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were

  16. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  17. Early childhood parenting and child impulsivity as precursors to aggression, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Rochelle F; Shaw, Daniel S; Wang, Ming-Te

    2017-11-20

    The current study utilized a longitudinal design to explore the effect of early child impulsivity and rejecting parenting on the development of problematic behaviors in adolescence and early adulthood. Using a low-income sample of 310 mothers and their sons, we examined the direct and interactive effects of child impulsivity and rejecting parenting at age 2 on aggression and substance use at ages 12, 15, and 22, as well as risky sexual behavior at ages 15 and 22. Results revealed that rejecting parenting at age 2 predicted greater aggression at age 12 and risky sexual behavior at ages 15 and 22. Early impulsivity had few direct effects on later outcomes, with the exception of greater substance use at age 22. Instead, impulsivity emerged as a significant moderator in the link between rejecting parenting and aggression at all three ages and substance use at age 15. Specifically, early rejecting parenting predicted greater aggression and substance use only for children high in impulsivity. Findings highlight the potential for early child and parenting risk factors to have long-term implications for adjustment, with the combination of high impulsivity and rejecting parenting being particularly deleterious for problems of aggression throughout adolescence and into early adulthood.

  18. Early life exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Winkens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic developmental processes during pregnancy, infancy, childhood and adolescence, exposure to PFASs is hypothesized to have the most pronounced negative effects during this period. In this review we critically evaluate the current state of the science regarding human early life exposure processes (until 18 years of age to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs. Efficient placental transfer of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs results in relatively high prenatal exposure compared with many neutral organic contaminants. The few biomonitoring studies that specifically target infants, toddlers and other children suggest relatively high serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA in early life with peak concentrations occurring sometime before the child reaches 20 months. This peak in serum concentrations is most likely explained by exposure via breastfeeding, ingestion of house dust and/or specific contact events with consumer products leading to high body weight normalized estimated daily intakes (EDIs. Although children have higher EDIs of PFASs than adults, these are not always reflected by higher serum levels of PFASs in children in cross-sectional biomonitoring studies due to the confounding effect of age and birth cohort, and different exposure histories due to production changes. Longitudinal exposure studies measuring internal and external exposure (for multiple pathways and PFASs at several time points during early life are strongly encouraged to understand temporal changes in exposure of individual children. A better quantitative understanding of early life exposure processes would help to improve the validity of epidemiological studies and allow informed decisions regarding setting of regulatory thresholds and appropriate mitigation actions.

  19. The relation between antisocial and borderline personality symptoms and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment seeking sample of male substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. Antisocial (ASPD) and Borderline (BPD) personality disorder symptoms are prevalence among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. Early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie the development of ASPD and BPD symptoms, and are also prevalence among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Findings from the current study suggest that specific early maladaptive schema domains predict ASPD and BPD symptoms in a substance abuse treatment seeking sample of adult males. The treatment of ASPD and BPD among men seeking substance use treatment may want to focus on early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Acculturation and Substance Use among Hispanic Early Adolescents: Investigating the Mediating Roles of Acculturative Stress and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Van Tyne, Kathryne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which Hispanic orientation and American orientation are associated with substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana) both directly and indirectly through acculturative stress and self-esteem. Participants were 347 Hispanic early adolescents (50.7% male; mean age = 12.57, SD = 0.92, range 11-15) from two middle…

  1. Substance Use Progression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Effortful Control in the Context of Friendship Influence and Early-Onset Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent…

  2. Effect of adolescent substance use and antisocial behavior on the development of early adulthood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tai Kiu; Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Howard, David; Brown, Sandra A; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Wall, Tamara L

    2016-04-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and frequently comorbid psychiatric disorder. This study evaluates the development of depressive symptoms, MDD diagnosis, and suicidal ideation in a high-risk sample (N=524) diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms as youth and re-assessed approximately 6.5 years later. Dual trajectory classes of both alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and antisocial behavior (ASB), previously identified using latent class growth analyses (LCGA), were used to predict depression outcomes. The Dual Chronic, Increasing AOD/Persistent ASB, and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes had higher past-week depression scores, more past-year MDD symptoms, and were more likely to have past-year MDD than the Resolved class. The Dual Chronic and Decreasing Drugs/Persistent ASB classes also had more past-year MDD symptoms than the Persistent AOD/Adolescent ASB class. Youth at highest risk for developing or maintaining depression in adulthood had the common characteristic of persistent antisocial behavior. This suggests young adulthood depression is associated more with persistent antisocial behavior than with persistent substance use in comorbid youth. As such, interventions targeting high-risk youth, particularly those with persistent antisocial behavior, are needed to help reduce the risk of severe psychosocial consequences (including risk for suicide) in adulthood. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Delineating the psychic structure of substance abuse and addictions: should anxiety, mood and impulse-control dysregulation be included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Maremmani, Icro; Trogu, Emanuela; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Ruiz, Pedro; Akiskal, Hagop Souren

    2010-05-01

    Current "official" nosology (e.g. DSM IV) is largely limited to physical manifestations of addiction that can be objectively observed and are suited to the maintaining of an "atheoretical" perspective. However, addicted subjects display additional psychiatric symptoms that affect their well-being and social functioning and, in accordance with DSM IV, are typically relegated to the domain of psychiatric "comorbidity." We contend that the relationship of these psychiatric symptoms with addiction is very close, as demonstrated by the high frequency of association observed. We further assert that substance use may modify pre-existing psychic structures such as temperament and related subthreshold conditions and lead to addiction as a specific mental disorder, inclusive also of symptoms pertaining to mood/anxiety, or impulse-control dimensions. The present contribution addresses the weaknesses of the current DSM-based nosology of addiction-related mental comorbidity. We highlight the overlap of the biological substrates and the neurophysiology of addictive processes and psychiatric symptoms associated with addiction, and propose the inclusion of specific mood, anxiety, and impulse-control dimensions in the psychopathology of addictive processes. We postulate that addiction reaches beyond the mere result of drug-elicited effects on the brain and cannot be peremptorily equated only with the use of drugs despite the adverse consequences produced. We infer that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation is at the very core of both the origins and clinical manifestations of addiction and should be incorporated into the nosology of the same, emphasising how addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric manifestations play a crucial role. To conclude, addictionology cannot be severed from its psychopathological connotations, in view of the undeniable presence of symptoms, of their manifest contribution to the way addicted patients feel and behave, and to

  4. The Effects of Childhood and Adolescent Adversity on Substance Use Disorders and Poor Health in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9%) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits. PMID:27613006

  5. The Effects of Childhood and Adolescent Adversity on Substance Use Disorders and Poor Health in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Sewart, Amy; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Zinbarg, Richard; Mineka, Susan; Hammen, Constance; Bobova, Lyuba; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent adversity have been shown to predict later mental and physical health outcomes. Understanding which aspects and developmental timings of adversity are important, and the mechanisms by which they have their impact may help guide intervention approaches. A large subset of adolescents (N = 457; Female 68.9 %) from the 10-year longitudinal Youth Emotion Project was examined to better understand the associations among childhood/adolescent adversity, substance use disorder, and later health quality. Adolescent (but not childhood) adversities were associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood, adolescent adversities were associated with subsequent onset of substance use disorder, and adolescent adversities continued to be associated with poorer health in late adolescence/early adulthood after accounting for the variance explained by substance use disorder onset. These associations were observed after statistically accounting for emotional disorders and socioeconomic status. Specific domains of adversity uniquely predicted substance use disorder and poorer health outcomes. In contrast with current recent research, our findings suggest the association between childhood/adolescent adversity and poorer health outcomes in late adolescence and emerging adulthood are not entirely accounted for by substance use disorder, suggesting efforts to curtail family-based adolescent adversity may have downstream health benefits.

  6. The Relationship Between Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, and Generalized Anxiety among Adults Seeking Residential Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maladaptive schemas (EMS) play an important role in substance use, depression, and anxiety. However, few studies have examined the role of EMS within the context of all three concurrently. The goal of this study was to determine the role of EMS in predicting symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) among adults in residential treatment for substance dependence. We used pre-existing patient records of adults diagnosed with a substance use disorder from a residential substance use treatment facility (N=122). The EMS domains of disconnection and rejection and impaired limits were associated with symptoms of MDD and the domain of impaired autonomy and performance was associated with symptoms of GAD, even after controlling for age, gender, years of education, alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of MDD (when predicting GAD) and GAD (when predicting MDD). Findings suggest that EMS may play an important role in comorbid mental health problems among men and women in residential substance use treatment. Continued treatment outcome research is needed to examine whether modification of EMS results in improved mental health and substance use outcomes.

  7. Differential Changes in Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking and the Escalation of Substance Use from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that impulsivity and sensation seeking are not stable risk factors for substance use among adolescents and early adults but rather that they undergo significant developmental maturation and change. Further, developmental trends of both personality facets may vary across individuals. In the current investigation, we used longitudinal data from ages 15-26 on 5,632 individuals drawn from the offspring generation of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) to examine whether inter-individual differences in intra-individual change in impulsivity and sensation seeking predicted the escalation of alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use in adolescence and early adulthood. Latent growth curve models revealed significant individual differences in rates of change in both personality and substance use. Most importantly, age-related changes in personality were positively associated with individual differences in substance use change. Individuals who declined more slowly in impulsivity increased in alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use more rapidly, whereas individuals who declined more slowly in sensation seeking increased more rapidly in alcohol use only. Although risk for substance use across the population may peak during adolescence and early adulthood, this risk may be highest among those who decline more gradually in impulsivity. PMID:22824055

  8. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2017-07-17

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  9. Fate and transport of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances including perfluorooctane sulfonamides in a managed urban water body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung V; Reinhard, Martin; Chen, Huiting; Gin, Karina Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Transport and fate of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in an urban water body that receives mainly urban runoff was investigated. Water, suspended solids, and sediment samples were collected during the monsoon (wet) and inter-monsoon (dry) season at different sites and depths. Samples were analyzed for C7 to C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylate homologues (PFCAs) (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA), perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2FtS, respectively), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), N-ethyl FOSA (sulfluramid), N-ethyl sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), and N-methyl and N-ethyl sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA and N-MeFOSAA, respectively). Concentrations in wet samples were only slightly higher. The sum total PFAS (ΣPFAS) concentrations dissolved in the aqueous phase and sorbed to suspended solids (SS) ranged from 107 to 253 ng/L and 11 to 158 ng/L, respectively. PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFDA contributed most (approximately 90 %) to the dissolved ΣPFASs. N-EtFOSA dominated the particulate PFAS burden in wet samples. K D values of PFOA and PFOS calculated from paired SS and water concentrations varied widely (1.4 to 13.7 and 1.9 to 98.9 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively). Field derived K D was significantly higher than laboratory K D suggesting hydrophobic PFASs sorbed to SS resist desorption. The ΣPFAS concentrations in the top sedimentary layer ranged from 8 to 42 μg/kg and indicated preferential accumulation of the strongly sorbing long-chain PFASs. The occurrence of the metabolites N-MeFOSAA, N-EtFOSAA and FOSA in the water column and sediments may have resulted from biological or photochemical transformations of perfluorooctane sulfonamide precursors while the absence of FOSA, N-EtFOSA and 6:2FtS in sediments was consistent with biotransformation.

  10. My Family-Study, Early-Onset Substance use Prevention Program: An Application of Intervention Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Based on different studies, substance use is one of the health problems in the Iranian society. The prevalence of substance use is on a growing trend; moreover, the age of the onset of substance use has declined to early adolescence and even lower. Regarding this, the present study aimed to develop a family-based early-onset substance use prevention program in children (My Family-Study by using intervention mapping approach. Materials and Methods: This study descirbes the research protocol during which the intervention mapping approach was used as a framework to develop My Family-Study. In this study, six steps of intervention mapping were completed. Interviews with experts and literature review fulfilled the need assessment. In the second step, the change objectivs were rewritten based on the intersection of the performance objectives and the determinants associated in the matrices. After designing the program and planning the implementation of the intervention, the evaluation plan of the program was accomplished. Results: The use of intervention mapping approach facilitated the develop-pment of a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based program. Moreover, this approach was helful in the determination of outcomes, performance and change objectives, determinants, theoretical methods, practical application, intervention, dissemination, and evaluation program. Conclusions: The intervention mapping provided a systematic as well as theory- and evidence-based approach to develop a quality continuing health promotion program.

  11. Nontargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to detect hazardous substances including methanol in unrecorded alcohol from Novosibirsk, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hausler, Thomas; Okaru,  Alex O.; Neufeld, Maria; Rehm, Jürgen; Kuballa, Thomas; Luy, Burkhard; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of alcoholic products in the context of health and safety control. A total of 86 samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in Novosibirsk and nearby cities in Russia. Sampling was based on interviews with alcohol dependent patients, and unrecorded alcohol thus defined included illegally or informally produced alcoholic products (e.g., counterfeit or home-made alcoholic beverages) or surrogate alcohol in the form of c...

  12. Mother-Child Interaction and Early Language Skills in Children Born to Mothers with Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.

  13. The Relationship of Early Adolescent Substance Use to Extracurricular Activities, Peer Influence, and Personal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Assessed 237 seventh and eighth graders for drug/alcohol use, extracurricular activities, peer influence, and personal attitudes. Substance abusers reported little involvement in extracurricular activities, spent more time with friends than with family, and identified friends as using drugs and alcohol. Nonabusing adolescents tended to be highly…

  14. The effect of humic substances on germination and early growth of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Novák, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2011), s. 470-476 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Chenopodium album * growth stimulation * humic substance * lignite * seed germination Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  15. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  16. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included Within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2016-03-01

    The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  17. Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2016-02-01

    Understanding factors that influence risk for mental health and substance use disorders is critical to improve population health and reduce social costs imposed by these disorders. We examine the impact of experiencing a natural disaster-a serious fire, tornado, flood, earthquake, or hurricane-by age five on adult mental health and substance use disorders. The analysis uses data from the 2004 to 2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. The analysis sample includes 27,129 individuals ages 21-64 years. We also exploit information on parenting strategies to study how parents respond to natural disasters encountered by their children. We find that experiencing one or more of these natural disasters by age five increases the risk of mental health disorders in adulthood, particularly anxiety disorders, but not substance use disorders. Parents alter some, but not all, of their parenting strategies following a natural disaster experienced by their children. It is important to provide support, for example through counseling services and financial assistance, to families and children exposed to natural disasters to mitigate future mental health and substance use problems attributable to such exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Problematic cell phone use for text messaging and substance abuse in early adolescence (11- to 13-year-olds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Rabensteiner, Andrea; Vinelli, Angela; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association between problematic cell phone use (PCPU) for text messaging and substance abuse in young adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of an ad hoc questionnaire, during the 2014-2015 school year in a province of the Veneto Region (Italy); it involved a sample of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8 (11 to 13 years old). A self-report scale based on the Short Message Service (SMS) Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ) was administered to assess the sample's PCPU. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PCPU (as the dependent variable) and independent variables. The proportion of students who reported a PCPU increased with age in girls (13.5% in 6th grade, 16.4% in 7th grade, and 19.5% in 8th grade), but not in boys (14.3% in 6th grade, 18.0% in 7th grade, and 14.8% in 8th grade). Logistic regression showed that drunkenness at least once and energy drink consumption raised the odds of PCPU, whereas reading books, higher average school marks, and longer hours of sleep were associated with lower odds of PCPU in early adolescence. our findings confirm a widespread PCPU for text messaging among early adolescents. The odds of PCPU is greater in young people at risk of other substance abuse behavior.

  19. On the early history of field emission including attempts of tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleint, C.

    1993-04-01

    Field emission is certainly one of the oldest surface science techniques, its roots reaching back about 250 years to the time of enlightenment. An account of very early studies and of later work is given but mostly restricted to Leipzig and to pre-Müllerian investigations. Studies of field emission from metal tips were carried out in the 18th century by Johann Heinrich Winkler who used vacuum pumps built by Jacob Leupold, a famous Leipzig mechanic. A short account of the career of Winkler will be given and his field emission experiments are illustrated. Field emission was investigated again in Leipzig much later by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld who worked on the improvement of X-ray tubes. He coined the terms ‘autoelektronische Entladung’ of ‘Äona-Effekt’ in 1922, and developed degassing procedures which are very similar to modern ultra-high vacuum processing. A pre-quantum mechanical explanation of the field emission phenomena was undertaken by Walter Schottky. Cunradi (1926) tried to measure temperature changes during field emission. Franz Rother, in a thesis (1914) suggested by Otto Wiener, dealt with the distance dependence of currents in vacuum between electrodes down to 20 nm. His habilitation in 1926 was an extension of his early work but now with field emission tips as a cathode. We might look at his measurements of the field emission characteristics in dependence on distance as a precursor to modern tunneling spectroscopy as well.

  20. Romantic relationships and substance use in early adulthood: an examination of the influences of relationship type, partner substance use, and relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Charles B; White, Helene R; Catalano, Richard F

    2010-06-01

    This study used longitudinal data from 909 young adults to examine associations between substance use and the status and quality of romantic relationships. Heavy alcohol use, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking, as well as relationship status, relationship quality, partner substance use, and other salient life circumstances were assessed at four time points in the two years after high school. Marriage, cohabiting relationships, and noncohabiting dating relationships were associated with reductions in heavy drinking and marijuana use relative to non-dating, after adjusting for adolescent substance use; marriage compared to not dating was associated with reductions in cigarette smoking. For those in romantic relationships, partner substance use moderated the associations between relationship quality and substance use for heavy drinking and for marijuana use, supporting the hypothesis derived from the Social Development Model that the protective effect of stronger social bonds depends on the use patterns of the partner to whom an individual is bonded.

  1. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  2. Impact of a workplace peer-focused substance abuse prevention and early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2005-04-01

    PeerCare is a workplace peer intervention program that focuses on changing workplace attitudes toward on-the-job substance use and trains workers to recognize, intervene with, and refer coworkers who have a problem. Monthly injuries at the study company (January 1983 through June 1996) were compared to counts at four other companies in the same industry. Using these panel data, fixed-effects negative binomial regression measured the association of the percentage of the workforce covered by PeerCare with the workplace injury rate. For every 1% increase in the workforce covered with PeerCare, the risk of injury declined by 0.9984 (95% confidence interval, 0.9975-0.9994). These findings suggest that, by June 1996, when 86% of the workforce was covered under PeerCare, the program had reduced injury rates by an average 14% per month. The findings support the implementation of peer intervention programs as a means to reduce workplace injuries.

  3. Mothers with substance and alcohol abuse-support through pregnancy and early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfors, Monica; Höjer, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women. The organization of the MBHV-team is a prerequisite for the staff to be able to design support based on an assessment of the mother's whole situation.

  4. Measuring Liability for Substance Use Disorder among College Students: Implications for Screening and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking and illicit drug use among college students has been a longstanding public health concern. Current methods to screen and identify college students at-risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) are somewhat limited. Objectives This study aimed to cross-validate the work by Kirisci et al., (1) who developed the Transmissible Liability Index (TLI), by deriving a set of items that would be potentially useful for characterizing SUD risk across multiple dimensions among college students. We examined: 1) variations in the TLI-college version (TLI-CV) by race, sex, SES, religiosity, and family history of substance use problems; 2) the association between the TLI-CV and alcohol and/or marijuana dependence, both cross-sectionally and prospectively, by race and sex; and, 3) the sensitivity and specificity of the TLI-CV for identifying cases of marijuana and/or alcohol dependence. Methods Data from an ongoing longitudinal study of college students (n=1,253) was used to conduct item response theory (IRT) analyses which resulted TLI-CV, comprised of 33 items. Results The TLI-CV was significantly associated with baseline dependence and significantly higher for non-dependent individuals who later became dependent during the subsequent three years of college. These associations were observed for both sexes, Whites, Blacks/African-Americans, Asians, and other racial minorities. The sensitivity and specificity were sub-optimal. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The TLI-CV advances prior research to identify college students at risk for SUD. This approach holds potential promise to identify and ultimately modify the trajectories of college students who may be at risk for the development of SUD. PMID:20180676

  5. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  6. Prevalence of substance use and abuse in late childhood and early adolescence: What are the implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallimberti

    2015-01-01

    The middle school years should be identified as the first period at risk concerning the use of these drugs. Prevention programs should begin in early adolescence, focusing on delaying the use or abuse of any of the “gateway drugs.”

  7. Including a Client Sexual Health Pathway in a National Youth Mental Health Early Intervention Service--Project Rationale and Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. A.; Britton, M. L.; Jenkins, L.; Rickwood, D. J.; Gillham, K. E.

    2014-01-01

    Young people have higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) than the general population. Research has shown that there is a clear link between emotional distress, depression, substance abuse and sexual risk taking behaviours in young people. "headspace" is a youth mental health early intervention service operating in more…

  8. A Qualitative Study of the Context of Child and Adolescent Substance Use Initiation and Patterns of Use in the First Year for Early and Later Initiators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Kingston

    Full Text Available Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants' first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use and using alone. The data suggest that interventions targeting this population should focus on improving parental monitoring and decreasing positive parental attitudes toward adolescent substance use and efforts to increase identification and intervention by middle school staff to reach youth from high-risk families.

  9. Early adolescent substance use in Mexican origin families: Peer selection, peer influence, and parental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade (10.4 years old at fifth grade) on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased attachment security is related to early therapy drop-out in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchshuber, J; Hiebler-Ragger, M; Ragger, K; Rinner, A; Kapfhammer, H P; Unterrainer, H F

    2018-02-20

    Previous research work suggests a positive association between secure attachment and increased therapy adherence (TA) in different patient groups. However, there is still a strong need for research focusing on the influence of attachment on TA in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Hence, this study attempts to investigate the predictive value of different attachment patterns concerning TA in SUD inpatients. 122 (34 female) SUD inpatients completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) during the entry phase of therapeutic community treatment. After 6 weeks, subjects who remained in therapy (n = 47) completed the ASQ for a second time. In line with the literature, agglomerative Cluster Analysis suggested a two-cluster solution (Cluster I: increased secure attachment pattern; Cluster II: increased insecure attachment pattern). Notably, inpatients in Cluster I were more likely to drop out of treatment within the first 6 weeks (p security for TA in SUD inpatients. This finding probably mirrors a more realistic kind of self-assessment. More generally, the importance of considering attachment styles in SUD treatment is underlined.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A

    2017-11-03

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  13. Scientific writing seminar for early-stage investigators in substance abuse research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.

  14. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent…

  15. [Early drop-outs and retentions in substance abuse outpatient clinics: a cross-sectional comparative study of factors that increase or decrease adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Fran; Carbonell, Xavier; Valero, Ramón; Costa, Jordi; Turró, Oriol; Giralt, Cristina; Ramírez, Marissa

    2017-08-23

    The aim of this study is to define the risk factors associated with early discharge in out-patients clinics. Cross-sectional and observational study. Substance abuse clinics in Girona (Catalonia, Spain). A total of 264 individuals were included in the sample, and 34.8% of them abandoned the process within two months of starting the therapy (n=92). Clinical and socio-demographic variables of the clinical history were compared between participants with/without adherence. The Student t test was used to measure the comparison, and the chi-squared test was used for the analysis of qualitative variables. A binary logistic regression model was adjusted, with adherence as the dependent variable. The results indicated that attending the appointments unaccompanied (OR=3.13), being female (OR=2.44), having cocaine related issues (OR=1.14), and being younger (OR=0.89) are the factors which increase the risk early abandonment. Contrarily, being referred to specialists from a Primary Health Centre reduces the risk (OR=0.28). It is concluded that special attention must be devoted to the patients' families, women, and young patients. Moreover, the appropriate coordination between specialist services and basic services increases adherence to treatment among drug users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal associations of social cognition and substance use in childhood and early adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluharty, Meg E; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R

    2017-10-20

    Substance use is associated with impaired social cognition. Experimental studies have shown that acute intoxication of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis decreases the performance in non-verbal, social communication and theory of mind tasks. However, in epidemiological studies the temporal direction of this association has gone relatively unstudied. We investigated both directions of association within an adolescent birth cohort: the association of social cognition with subsequent substance use, and the association of early substance use with subsequent social cognition. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Logistic regression indicated that poor childhood non-verbal communication was associated with decreased odds of adolescent alcohol (OR 0.70, 95% 0.54-0.91), tobacco (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47-0.83), and cannabis use (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83). Early adolescent substance use was associated with increased odds of poor social communication (alcohol: OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.14; tobacco: OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.33-2.86) and poor social reciprocity (alcohol: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.09; tobacco: OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43-2.58; cannabis: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.05). Overall, the relationship between social cognition and substance use was different in each temporal direction. Poor non-verbal communication in childhood appeared protective against later substance use, while adolescent substance use was associated with decreased social cognitive performance.

  17. Substance P reduces apoptotic cell death possibly by modulating the immune response at the early stage after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei Hua; Lim, Ji Eun; Chi, Guang Fan; Ahn, Woosung; Zhang, Mingzi; Chung, Eunkyung; Son, Youngsook

    2013-10-23

    Previously, we have reported that substance P (SP) enhanced functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI) possibly by the anti-inflammatory modulation associated with the induction of M2-type macrophages at the injured lesion. In this study, we explored the cytokine expression profiles and apoptotic cell death in the lesion site of the SCI after an immediate intravenous injection of SP. SP injection increased the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, and IL-10 at day 1 after the SCI approximately by 2-, 9-, and 10-folds when compared with the control SCI, respectively. On the basis of double immunofluorescence staining with IL-10 and CD11b, activated macrophages or microglia expressing IL-10 appeared in the margin of the lesion site at day 1 only after the SP injection. This SP-mediated alteration in the lesion microenvironment was shown to be associated with the lower cell death of neuronal cells at day 1 and oligodendrocytes at day 5 by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, which was also accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3 activation. These findings suggest that SP may reduce the inflammation-induced secondary cell death, possibly through immune modulation at an early stage after the SCI.

  18. Role of overlapping genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between early adolescent conduct problems and substance use in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Creemers, Hanneke E; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Rose, Richard J; Huizink, Anja C; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-06-01

    To determine (1) the prospective associations of conduct problems during early adolescence with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use in young adulthood and (2) to what extent these associations are due to overlapping genetic versus environmental influences. A prospective twin study using biometric twin modelling. Finland. A total of 1847 Finnish twins (943 males and 904 females) were interviewed in early adolescence, 73% of whom (n = 1353, 640 males and 713 females) were retained in young adulthood. Symptom counts of conduct disorder (CD) criteria were obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in early adolescence [age 14-15 years, mean = 14.2, standard deviation (SD) = 0.15]. Frequency of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in young adulthood (age 19.9-26.6 years, mean = 22.4, SD = 0.7). We found modest to moderate phenotypical correlations (r = 0.16-0.35) between early adolescent CD symptoms and substance use in young adulthood. In males, the phenotypical correlations of CD symptoms with all three substance use variables are explained largely by overlapping genetic influences. In females, overlapping shared environmental influences predominantly explain the phenotypical correlation between CD symptoms and tobacco and cannabis use. Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear to moderately predict substance use in early adulthood. In males, genetic influences seem to be most important in explaining the relationship between conduct disorder symptoms and substance use whereas in females, shared environmental influences seem to be most important. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Investigation of the language tasks to include in a short-language measure for children in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matov, Jessica; Mensah, Fiona; Cook, Fallon; Reilly, Sheena

    2018-02-18

    The inaccurate estimation of language difficulties by teachers suggests the benefit of a short-language measure that could be used to support their decisions about who requires referral to a speech-language therapist. While the literature indicates the potential for the development of a short-language measure, evidence is lacking about which combination of language tasks it should include. To understand the number and nature of components/language tasks that should be included in a short-language measure for children in the early school years. Eight language tasks were administered to participants of the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) at ages 5 (n = 995) and 7 (n = 1217). These included six language tasks measured by an omnibus language measure (which comprised a direction-following, morphological-completion, sentence-recall, sentence-formation, syntactic-understanding and word-association task) and a non-word repetition and a receptive vocabulary task, measured by two task-specific language measures. Scores were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), the Bland and Altman method, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. PCA revealed one main component of language that was assessed by all language tasks. The most effective combination of two tasks that measured this component was a direction-following and a sentence-recall task. It showed the greatest agreement with an omnibus language measure and exceeded the criterion for good discriminant accuracy (sensitivity = 94%, specificity = 91%, accuracy = 91%, at 1 SD (standard deviation) below the mean). Findings support the combination of a direction-following and a sentence-recall task to assess language ability effectively in the early school years. The results could justify the future production of a novel short-language measure comprising a direction-following and a sentence-recall task to use as a screening tool in schools and to assess language ability in research

  20. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and work therapy in the early phase of substance use disorder recovery for older veterans: Neurocognitive and substance use outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Laws, Holly B; Petrakis, Ismene B

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is reported to improve neurocognitive and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes in residential treatments. This National Institute of Drug Abuse funded pilot study reports on CRT as an augmentation to outpatient treatment for SUD. Recovering outpatient veterans were randomized into CRT + Work Therapy (n = 24) or work therapy (n = 24) with treatment-as-usual. Blind assessments of neurocognition and substance use were performed at baseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6-month follow-up. Baseline assessments revealed high rates of cognitive impairment with 87.5% showing significant decline from premorbid IQ on at least 1 measure (median = 3/14 measures). Adherence to treatment was excellent. Follow-up rates were 95.7% at 3 months and 87.5% at 6 months. Mixed effects models of cognitive change over time revealed significant differences favoring CRT + Work Therapy on working memory (WM) and executive function indices. Global index of cognition showed a nonsignificant trend (effect size [ES] = .37) favoring CRT + Work Therapy. SUD outcomes were excellent for both conditions. CRT + Work Therapy had a mean of 97% days of abstinence at 3 months, 94% in the 30 days prior to 6-month follow-up, and 24/26 weeks of total abstinence; differences between conditions were not significant. CRT was well accepted by outpatient veterans with SUDs and led to significant improvements in WM and executive functions beyond that of normal cognitive recovery. No difference between conditions was found for SUD outcomes, perhaps because work therapy obscured the benefits of CRT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Tool to Record and Support the Early Development of Children Including Those with Special Educational Needs or Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early education…

  3. Early pubertal onset and its relationship with sexual risk taking, substance use and anti-social behaviour: a preliminary cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellis Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries age at pubertal onset has declined substantially. Relatively little attention has been paid to how this decline may affect adolescent behaviours such as substance use, violence and unprotected sex and consequently impact on public health. Methods In the UK, two opportunistic samples (aged 16-45 years, paper-based (n = 976 and online (n = 1117, examined factors associated with earlier pubertal onset and whether earlier age of onset predicted sexual risk-taking, substance use and anti-social behaviours during early adolescence. Results Overall, 45.6% of females reported menarche ≤ 12 years and 53.3% of males were categorised as having pubertal onset ≤ 11 years. For both sexes earlier pubertal onset was associated with poorer parental socio-economic status. Other pre-pubertal predictors of early onset were being overweight, more childhood illnesses (females and younger age at time of survey (males. For both sexes earlier puberty predicted having drunk alcohol, been drunk, smoked and used drugs Conclusion Results provide sufficient evidence for changes in age of pubertal onset to be further explored as a potential influence on trends in adolescent risk behaviours. Further insight into the relationship between early puberty and both obesity and socio-economic status may help inform early interventions to tackle the development of risk behaviours and health inequalities during early adolescence.

  4. Effects of self-esteem and academic performance on adolescent decision-making: an examination of early sexual intercourse and illegal substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether higher self-esteem and higher academic performance among youth reduce the likelihood of early sexual intercourse and illegal substance use. Using data from waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender and controlling for known covariates, to examine relationships between self-esteem and academic performance and youth decision-making, specifically self-reported initiation of sexual intercourse and use of illegal substances. Self-esteem was constructed as an ascending scale of 10 Likert-scaled survey items. Academic performance was assessed using the most recent grades from English, Math, Science, and History. Among virginal adolescents, higher self-esteem at baseline had no effect on sexual debut 1 year later. However, higher self-esteem at baseline among females corresponded with a significantly lower likelihood of illegal substance use 1 year later (OR, .96; p = .003). In terms of academic performance at baseline, girls averaging "A" grades as compared with girls averaging "C" grades or lower were significantly less likely to initiate sexual intercourse 1 year later (OR, .52; p = .004). Additionally among girls, being an "A" student or a "B" student was associated with lower odds of illegal substance use, compared with students who averaged "C" grades or lower (p self-esteem and academic performance were not significantly predictive of illegal substance use. This study suggests that bolstering self-esteem and improving academic performance among young girls may have specific benefits in sexual decision-making and substance-related risk-taking. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for an agitated-aggressive syndrome in early-onset psychosis correlated with antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian G; Hochstrasser, Lisa; Meister, Klara; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Lambert, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Agitation, aggression, and violence are increased in psychotic disorders. Additionally, an earlier age at onset may be associated with aggressive behavior. However, the relationship of age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome as measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia - Excited Component (PANSS-EC), and its potential correlates in first-episode psychosis (FEP) has not been studied. This study assessed the association between age at onset, an agitated-aggressive syndrome, and its potential correlates in a prospective sample of 52 FEP patients with early-onset and adult-onset followed up for 12months. Twenty-six patients conformed to the criteria of early-onset psychosis. Early age at onset was associated with antisocial personality disorder (p=0.004; φc=0.39), a history of legal involvement (p=0.005; φc=0.39), and higher rates of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD; p=0.002; φc=0.42). Early-onset patients had significantly higher PANSS-EC scores over the course of observation (F(1,44.4)=5.39; p=0.025; d=0.656), but no significant group differences emerged for the remaining PANSS subscores. PANSS-EC scores were correlated positively with antisocial personality disorder and forensic history at 6weeks, 3months, 6months, and 12months, and with lifetime substance use disorder at 3months and 6months. Patients with early onset psychosis may have increased levels of agitation/aggressiveness, and, more likely, antisocial personality disorder, forensic history, and lifetime substance use disorder. These variables were linked to suicidality, aggressiveness, and involuntary treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-06-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Samira; Kärrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindström, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Course of self-reported symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity in substance abusers during early treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder has been associated with poor outcome in studies of substance use disorders. This study aimed to assess the course of self-reported symptoms of both attention deficit and hyperactivity among adults presenting for treatment for substance use disorders....... A sample of 75 substance abusers were assessed after they were admitted to a centralized intake unit, and followed at 3 and 6 months after intake by independent interviewers (follow-up rate 81%). Symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity were assessed with the Adult Self-report Scale for ADHD (ASRS......). Both types of symptoms declined significantly during follow-up, but attention symptoms had a high intraclass correlation (0.79), and hyperactivity had a moderate intraclass correlation (0.64). Both baseline attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms were associated with worse work and social...

  9. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  10. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    OpenAIRE

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhoo...

  11. The chromosome region including the earliness per se locus Eps-A(m)1 affects the duration of early developmental phases and spikelet number in diploid wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lewis, S.; Faricelli, M. E.; Appendino, M. L.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 13 (2008), s. 3595-3607 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Development * earliness per se * heading time Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2008

  12. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everaert, Nadia; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn

    2017-01-01

    During the prenatal, neonatal and post-weaning periods, the mammalian gastrointestinal tract undergoes various morphological and physiological changes alongside with an expansion of the immune system and microbial ecosystem. This review focuses on the time period before weaning and summarizes...... the current knowledge regarding i) structural and functional aspects ii) the development of the immune system, and iii) the establishment of the gut ecosystem of the porcine intestine. Structural and functional maturation of the gastrointestinal tract gradually progress with age. In the neonatal period...... in digestive function coincides with development in both the adaptive and innate immune system. This secures a balanced immune response to the ingested milk-derived macromolecules, and colonizing bacteria. Husbandry and dietary interventions in early life appear to affect the development of multiple components...

  14. ADHD as a risk factor for early onset and heightened adult problem severity of illicit substance use: an accelerated gateway model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eugene M; Hearn, Lauren E; Rose, Jonathan J; Latimer, William W

    2014-12-01

    The primary aims of the present study were to assess ADHD history as a risk factor for earlier initiation and current use of licit and illicit substances among a sample of drug using adults. It was hypothesized that ADHD history would accelerate the Gateway Theory of drug use. Participants included 941 drug-using African American and Caucasian individuals in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample consisted of 124 (13.2%) participants who reported a history of ADHD and 817 (86.8%) who reported no history of ADHD. The accelerated gateway hypothesis was supported, as a history of self-reported ADHD was significantly associated with younger ages of initiation for alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine use. Participants with a history of ADHD were also more likely to engage in recent HIV-risk behavior, such as injection drug use and needle sharing. This study provides compelling data in support of an accelerated gateway model for substance use related to ADHD history and increased problem severity in adulthood. Targeted substance use prevention and intervention may be beneficial for those with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  16. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  17. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...

  18. Intervention on early-onset conduct problems as indicated prevention for substance use: A seven-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón

    2017-06-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.

  19. Abortion, substance abuse and mental health in early adulthood: Thirteen-year longitudinal evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Paul Sullins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes (birth, abortion, or involuntary pregnancy loss and mental health outcomes for US women during the transition into adulthood to determine the extent of increased risk, if any, associated with exposure to induced abortion. Method: Panel data on pregnancy history and mental health history for a nationally representative cohort of 8005 women at (average ages 15, 22, and 28 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were examined for risk of depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, cannabis abuse, and nicotine dependence by pregnancy outcome (birth, abortion, and involuntary pregnancy loss. Risk ratios were estimated for time-dynamic outcomes from population-averaged longitudinal logistic and Poisson regression models. Results: After extensive adjustment for confounding, other pregnancy outcomes, and sociodemographic differences, abortion was consistently associated with increased risk of mental health disorder. Overall risk was elevated 45% (risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30–1.62; p < 0.0001. Risk of mental health disorder with pregnancy loss was mixed, but also elevated 24% (risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–1.37; p < 0.0001 overall. Birth was weakly associated with reduced mental disorders. One-eleventh (8.7%; 95% confidence interval, 6.0–11.3 of the prevalence of mental disorders examined over the period were attributable to abortion. Conclusion: Evidence from the United States confirms previous findings from Norway and New Zealand that, unlike other pregnancy outcomes, abortion is consistently associated with a moderate increase in risk of mental health disorders during late adolescence and early adulthood.

  20. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity during Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W., Jr.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of…

  1. Early Adolescents and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Maria Pavarin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1300 students (54.3% girls 13–16 years old were interviewed in the urban area of Bologna during 2010. Random effect multiple logistic regression models were used. Results show a reciprocal relationship between alcohol use, tobacco, and cannabis. Most users were offered cannabis, began using at 14 years of age, and do not believe using is very dangerous. They live with only one parent, have more than 50 euros of spending money per month, and abuse alcohol, abuse that increases relative to the intensity of cigarette smoking. Legal/illegal dichotomy seems to overturn, where alcohol becomes a “drug” and the use of tobacco, similar to other drugs, is motivated as a solution to reduce anxiety, combat boredom, relax, and to ease loneliness.

  2. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  3. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  5. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  6. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E.; Huber, A.; Metzger, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  7. Risk of early onset substance use among students with and without mild academic disabilities : Results of a discrete-time survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepper, Annelies; Koning, Ina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Monshouwer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the age of onset of substance use among 536 students with mild academic disabilities and 906 students without academic disabilities, and the extent to which emotional, conduct, and hyperactivity problems explain the differences between these two groups. Using discrete-time

  8. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Archigregarines of the English Channel revisited: New molecular data on Selenidium species including early described and new species and the uncertainties of phylogenetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Rueckert

    Full Text Available Gregarines represent an important transition step from free-living predatory (colpodellids s.l. and/or photosynthetic (Chromera and Vitrella apicomplexan lineages to the most important pathogens, obligate intracellular parasites of humans and domestic animals such as coccidians and haemosporidians (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Babesia, etc.. While dozens of genomes of other apicomplexan groups are available, gregarines are barely entering the molecular age. Among the gregarines, archigregarines possess a unique mixture of ancestral (myzocytosis and derived (lack of apicoplast, presence of subpellicular microtubules features.In this study we revisited five of the early-described species of the genus Selenidium including the type species Selenidium pendula, with special focus on surface ultrastructure and molecular data. We were also able to describe three new species within this genus. All species were characterized at morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy data and molecular (SSU rDNA sequence data levels. Gregarine specimens were isolated from polychaete hosts collected from the English Channel near the Station Biologique de Roscoff, France: Selenidium pendula from Scolelepis squamata, S. hollandei and S. sabellariae from Sabellaria alveolata, S. sabellae from Sabella pavonina, Selenidium fallax from Cirriformia tentaculata, S. spiralis sp. n. and S. antevariabilis sp. n. from Amphitritides gracilis, and S. opheliae sp. n. from Ophelia roscoffensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data showed archigregarines clustering into five separate clades and support previous doubts about their monophyly.Our phylogenies using the extended gregarine sampling show that the archigregarines are indeed not monophyletic with one strongly supported clade of Selenidium sequences around the type species S. pendula. We suggest the revision of the whole archigregarine taxonomy with only the species within this clade remaining in the genus

  10. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  11. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  12. When acute-stage psychosis and substance use co-occur: differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, C L; Samet, S; Hasin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Substances such as alcohol, cocaine, amphetamine, and cannabis can produce psychotic reactions in individuals who are otherwise free of serious mental illness. However, persons with primary psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, who use these substances often present for treatment with signs and symptoms similar to those whose psychosis resulted from the use of drugs alone. While it is often difficult to distinguish substance-induced from primary psychoses, especially early in the course of treatment, this differential diagnosis has important implications for treatment planning. To help clinicians distinguish these two types of presentations, the authors first review the types of psychotic symptoms that can co-occur with substance use. They discuss the prevalence and patterns of substance use that have been found in patients with schizophrenia and other primary psychotic disorders and review the negative outcomes associated with substance use in this population. The prevalence of and types of symptoms and problems associated with psychotic symptoms that occur as a result of substance use alone are also reviewed. The authors describe assessment procedures for differentiating substance-induced and primary psychotic disorders. They stress the importance of accurately establishing the temporal relationship between the substance use and the onset and continuation of psychotic symptoms in making a differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of being familiar with the types of psychological symptoms that can occur with specific substances. The authors review the utility and limitations of a number of diagnostic instruments for assessing patients with co-occurring psychosis and substance use problems, including The Addiction Severity Index, The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and diagnostic interviews such as the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM. They then discuss the

  13. EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis: report of a task force of the European Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics (ESCISIT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, B.; Landewe, R.; Lukas, C.; Bolosiu, H. D.; Breedveld, F.; Dougados, M.; Emery, P.; Ferraccioli, G.; Hazes, J. M. W.; Klareskog, L.; Machold, K.; Martin-Mola, E.; Nielsen, H.; Silman, A.; Smolen, J.; Yazici, H.

    2007-01-01

    To formulate EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis. In accordance with EULAR's "standardised operating procedures", the task force pursued an evidence based approach and an approach based on expert opinion. A steering group comprised of 14 rheumatologists representing 10

  14. Development of potential selective and reversible pyrazoline based MAO-B inhibitors as MAO-B PET tracer precursors and reference substances for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudorfer, Catharina; Shanab, Karem; Jurik, Andreas; Schreiber, Veronika; Neudorfer, Carolina; Vraka, Chrysoula; Schirmer, Eva; Holzer, Wolfgang; Ecker, Gerhard; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Spreitzer, Helmut

    2014-09-15

    Since high MAO-B levels are present in early stages of AD, the MAO-B system can be designated as an appropriate and prospective tracer target of molecular imaging biomarkers for the detection of early AD. According to the preceding investigations of Mishra et al. the aim of this work was the development of a compound library of selective and reversible MAO-B inhibitors by performing bioisosteric modifications of the core structure of 3-(anthracen-9-yl)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles. In conclusion, 13 new pyrazoline based derivatives have been prepared, which will serve as precursor substances for future radiolabeling as well as reference compounds for the investigation of increased MAO-B levels in AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  16. Integrating education and research in illegal substances detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.E.; Tartaglione, A.; Blostein, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to test slow neutron based techniques aimed at detecting and identifying illegal substances, including explosives and war gasses, are carried out at the electron linear accelerator facility in Bariloche, Argentina, as part of graduate student research work. The existing facility is used as a versatile tool to test and eventually develop detection methods apt to be used with smaller accelerators, suitable for field applications. Initial efforts to observe gamma prompt and early decay photons from irradiated samples, at one of the time-of-flight beam extraction tubes, have encouragingly paid off with a discernible signature of most of the substances tested. (author)

  17. Commonly administered BCG strains including an evolutionarily early strain and evolutionarily late strains of disparate genealogy induce comparable protective immunity against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Marcus A; Harth, Günter; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Maslesa-Galić, Sasa

    2009-01-14

    BCG has been administered to over 4 billion persons worldwide, but its efficacy in preventing tuberculosis in adults has been highly variable. One hypothesis for its variability is that different strains of BCG vary in protective efficacy, and moreover, that evolutionarily early strains are more efficacious than the more attenuated evolutionarily late strains, which lack region of deletion 2. To examine this hypothesis, we tested six widely used BCG strains--the evolutionarily early strain BCG Japanese, two evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group III (BCG Danish and Glaxo), and three evolutionarily late strains in DU2 Group IV (BCG Connaught, Pasteur, and Tice)--in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis. With the exception of BCG Glaxo, which had relatively poor efficacy, we found no substantial differences in efficacy between the early strain and the late strains, and only small differences in efficacy among late strains. BCG Tice was the most efficacious BCG vaccine, with significantly fewer Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung and spleen than BCG Danish and BCG Japanese, although absolute differences in the organ burden of M. tuberculosis among these three vaccines were small (Pasteur were not significantly different. rBCG30, a recombinant BCG Tice vaccine overexpressing the M. tuberculosis 30 kDa major secretory protein (Antigen 85B), was more potent than any BCG vaccine (P < 0.0001 for differences in organ burden). Our study shows that late strains are not less potent than an early strain and argues against strain differences as a major factor in the variability of outcomes in BCG vaccine trials.

  18. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-14

    Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12-13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Nonmedical use of prescription ADHD stimulant medications among adults in a substance abuse treatment population: early findings from the NAVIPPRO surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Theresa A; McNaughton, Emily C; Varughese, Sajan; Russo, Leo; Zulueta, Mirella; Butler, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    To examine nonmedical use (NMU) of prescription ADHD stimulants among adults evaluated for substance abuse treatment. 147,816 assessments from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) system (10/01/2009 through 03/31/2012) examined NMU prevalence, routes of administration (ROA), and diversion sources. Past 30-day NMU for prescription stimulants (1.29%) was significantly lower than that of prescription opioids (19.79%) or sedatives (10.62%). For stimulant products, NMU for Adderall was 0.62, followed by Adderall XR (0.42), Ritalin (0.16), Vyvanse (0.12), and Concerta (0.08); product differences likely have limited clinical relevance given the low estimates (Adderall (4.92), Ritalin (4.68), and Adderall XR (3.18) compared with newer formulations (Vyvanse 1.26, Concerta 0.89). Diversion source was mainly family/friends with no differences between products; swallowing whole was the most frequent ROA. Prescription stimulant NMU was low compared with other prescription medications among individuals assessed for substance abuse problems, with little difference among specific products. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  20. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  1. Divisions of the physical world: Concepts of objects and substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Lance J; Hespos, Susan J

    2015-07-01

    Our concepts of the physical world distinguish objects, such as chairs, from substances, such as quantities of wood, that constitute them. A particular chair might consist of a single chunk of wood, yet we think about the chair and the wood in different ways. For example, part of the wood is still wood, but part of the chair is not a chair. In this article we examine the basis of the object/substance distinction. We draw together for the first time relevant experiments widely dispersed in the cognitive literature, and view these findings in the light of theories in linguistics and metaphysics. We outline a framework for the difference between objects and substances, based on earlier ideas about form and matter, describing the psychological evidence surrounding it. The framework suggests that concepts of objects include a relation of unity and organization governing their parts, whereas concepts of substances do not. We propose, as a novel twist on this framework, that unity and organization for objects is a function of causal forces that shape the objects. In agreement with this idea, results on the identification of an item as an object depend on clues about the presence of the shaping relation, clues provided by solidity, repetition of shape, and other factors. We also look at results from human infants about the source of the object/substance distinction and conclude that the data support an early origin for both object and substance knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Factors associated with early adoption of the HPV vaccine in US male adolescents include Hispanic ethnicity and receipt of other vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Kepka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent males' HPV vaccine initiation and completion in the United States is far below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% 3-dose completion among boys. In 2012, less than 7% of males ages 13–17 years had completed the 3-dose series. The Diffusion of Innovations framework guided this investigation of factors related to early adoption of HPV vaccination among male adolescents. Provider-validated data from the 2012 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen for male adolescents ages 13–17 years were analyzed via a multivariable Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios for factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. Adolescent males who are Hispanic and those who are up to date on other recommended adolescent vaccinations were most likely to complete the HPV vaccine. Public health interventions are needed to improve low HPV vaccination rates among adolescent males in the United States. Description of early adopters of the HPV vaccine provides historical context of HPV vaccination acceptance that is needed to inform the design of targeted vaccination interventions to prevent negative HPV-associated outcomes.

  4. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas. PMID:23493841

  5. R5-SHIV induces multiple defects in T cell function during early infection of rhesus macaques including accumulation of T reg cells in lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santosuosso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV infection, immune dysregulation of antigen-specific T-effector cell and regulatory functions would be detectable and that these would be associated or correlated with measurable concentrations of HIV-1gp120 in lymphoid tissues.Rhesus macaques were intravaginally inoculated with a Clade C CCR5-tropic simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipd3N4. HIV-1gp120 levels, antigen-specificity, levels of apoptosis/anergy and frequency and function of Tregs were examined in lymph node and blood derived T cells at 5 and 12 weeks post inoculation.We observed reduced responses to Gag in CD4 and gp120 in CD8 lymph node-derived T cells compared to the peripheral blood at 5 weeks post-inoculation. Reduced antigen-specific responses were associated with higher levels of PD-1 on lymph node-derived CD4 T cells as compared to peripheral blood and uninfected lymph node-derived CD4 T cells. Lymph nodes contained increased numbers of Tregs as compared to peripheral blood, which positively correlated with gp120 levels; T regulatory cell depletion restored CD8 T cell responses to Gag but not to gp120. HIV gp120 was also able to induce T regulatory cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent, CCR5-mediated manner. These studies contribute to our broader understanding of the ways in which HIV-1 dysregulates T cell function and localization during early infection.

  6. Substance Identification Information from EPA's Substance Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the authoritative resource for basic information about substances of interest to the U.S. EPA and its state and tribal...

  7. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  8. Comparative Genomics Including the Early-Diverging Smut Fungus Ceraceosorus bombacis Reveals Signatures of Parallel Evolution within Plant and Animal Pathogens of Fungi and Oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Xia, Xiaojuan; Riess, Kai; Bauer, Robert; Thines, Marco

    2015-08-27

    Ceraceosorus bombacis is an early-diverging lineage of smut fungi and a pathogen of cotton trees (Bombax ceiba). To study the evolutionary genomics of smut fungi in comparison with other fungal and oomycete pathogens, the genome of C. bombacis was sequenced and comparative genomic analyses were performed. The genome of 26.09 Mb encodes for 8,024 proteins, of which 576 are putative-secreted effector proteins (PSEPs). Orthology analysis revealed 30 ortholog PSEPs among six Ustilaginomycotina genomes, the largest groups of which are lytic enzymes, such as aspartic peptidase and glycoside hydrolase. Positive selection analyses revealed the highest percentage of positively selected PSEPs in C. bombacis compared with other Ustilaginomycotina genomes. Metabolic pathway analyses revealed the absence of genes encoding for nitrite and nitrate reductase in the genome of the human skin pathogen Malassezia globosa, but these enzymes are present in the sequenced plant pathogens in smut fungi. Interestingly, these genes are also absent in cultivable oomycete animal pathogens, while nitrate reductase has been lost in cultivable oomycete plant pathogens. Similar patterns were also observed for obligate biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungal and oomycete pathogens. Furthermore, it was found that both fungal and oomycete animal pathogen genomes are lacking cutinases and pectinesterases. Overall, these findings highlight the parallel evolution of certain genomic traits, revealing potential common evolutionary trajectories among fungal and oomycete pathogens, shaping the pathogen genomes according to their lifestyle. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Substance abuse among Iranian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtazi, Saeed; Rawson, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.

  10. On the issue of higher human sensitivity to carcinogenic substances in early childhood; Zur Frage einer hoeheren Empfindlichkeit von Kindern gegenueber krebserzeugenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K. [comp.

    1998-09-01

    Age-dependent carcinogenesis in humans has been proven with high probability for a number of substances investigated within one or several model systems. Sometimes, very high tumor incidence after short exposure time was observed. Extreme differences were found in some models. (A) Vinyl chloride, Maltoni et al.,1981: 6000 ppm, hepatic angiosarcoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 40.5 %, - exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, - exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 22%. Hepatoma incidence: - Exposure for 4 weeks, from day 1: 47.6%, exposure for 4 weeks, from week 13: 0%, exposure for 52 weeks, from week 13: 1.7%. (B) Diethyl nitrosamine, Dyroff et al., 1986: (DEN + phenobarbital), hepatic carcinoma after exposure of rats for 6 weeks: - as from 4 weeks of age: 100% incidence, - as from 8 weeks of age: 0% incidence. (C) Benzopyrene, Vesselinovitch et al., 1975: Hepatic tumor incidence after single, parenteral administration to rats: - at day 1: males: 81%, females: 18%, - at day 42: males: 9%, females: 0%. As is shown by the study on vinyl chloride by Maltoni et al., the same exposure concentration may lead to higher tumor incidence in young animals after short exposure times than it does in long-term experiments with adult animals. Genetic toxicity was detected for all substances, except for saccharin. So it can be assumed that the mechanism of carcinogenesis has an essential influence on the age-dependence. This conclusion agrees well with mechanistic approaches. (orig./CB) [German] Fuer eine Reihe von Schadstoffen ist eine Altersabhaengigkeit der Kanzerogenese mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit in einem oder mehreren Modellsystemen gezeigt worden. Dabei wurden zum Teil bereits nach kurzer Expositionszeit sehr hohe Tumorausbeuten erzielt. Extreme Unterschiede wurden in folgenden Modellen beobachtet. (A) Vinylchlorid, Maltoni et al., 1981: 6000 ppm, Inzidenz Leberangiosarkome: - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab Tag 1: 40,5%, - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab 13

  11. Psychoactive substance use disorder in youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson, B

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-eight consecutive suicides committed between 1984 and 1987 by adolescents and young adults (age 15-29 years) from an urban community were the subject of retrospective investigations through interviews with survivors and analyses of registers and medical records. Psychoactive substance use disorder in accordance with DSM-III-R was present in 47% of the youth suicides investigated, predominantly as alcohol dependence. Substance use disorder often coexisted with a borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia. Secondary depression was a frequent final factor. Dependence had developed in all females and most males. The median duration of substance use was 9 years. Substance use preceded suicidal behaviour by two years. Exposure to parental substance misuse during childhood, early parental divorce and parasuicide in the family were more frequent among subjects with substance use disorder than among other subjects. The social situation was often characterized by unemployment and legal problems. Previous inpatient care was more common than among other subjects.

  12. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  13. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  14. Internalizing Symptoms, Peer Substance Use, and Substance Use Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Widdowson, Alex O.; Woessner, Mathew; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used longitudinal survey and social network data covering sixth through ninth grades to test whether internalizing symptoms make early adolescents more prone to (1) exposure to and (2) influence by substance-using peers. Random effects regressions revealed that increases in symptoms were significantly associated with increases in the proportion of friends who used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; some associations weakened across grades. Event history models revealed that the ef...

  15. Can municipality-based post-discharge follow-up visits including a general practitioner reduce early readmission among the fragile elderly (65+ years old)? A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Fokdal, Sara; Gj?rup, Thomas; Taylor, Rod S.; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate how municipality-based post-discharge follow-up visits including a general practitioner and municipal nurse affect early readmission among high-risk older people discharged from a hospital department of internal medicine. Design and setting. Centrally randomized single-centre pragmatic controlled trial comparing intervention and usual care with investigator-blinded outcome assessment. Intervention. The intervention was home visits with a general practitioner and municip...

  16. Music, substance use, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A; Grube, Joel W; Waiters, Elizabeth D

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N=1056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music and students' alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors. Respondents' age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking were included in the analyses as control variables. Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. In addition, alcohol and illicit-drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables (e.g., sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity) were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. The findings suggest that young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Music listening preference, conversely, may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. There is also the possibility that substance use, aggression, and music preference are independent constructs that share common "third factors".

  17. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  18. Substance Abuse Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test, © 1997 World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence All rights are reserved by the World Health Organization. The document may, however, be freely reviewed, abstracted, ...

  19. Can MDMA play a role in the treatment of substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lisa; Schuster, Shira; Yazar-Klosinski, B Berra

    2013-03-01

    A wider array of treatments are needed for people with substance abuse disorders. Some psychedelic compounds have been assessed as potential substance abuse treatments with promising results. MDMA may also help treat substance abuse based on shared features with psychedelic compounds and recent reports indicating that MDMAassisted psychotherapy can reduce symptoms of PTSD. Narrative reports and data from early investigations found that some people reduced or eliminated their substance use after receiving MDMA, especially in a therapeutic setting. MDMA is a potent monoamine releaser with sympathomimetic effects that may indirectly activate 5-HT2A receptors. It increases interpersonal closeness and prosocial feelings, potentially through oxytocin release. Findings suggest that ecstasy, material represented as containing MDMA, is associated with deleterious long-term effects after heavy lifetime use, including fewer serotonin transporter sites and impaired verbal memory. Animal and human studies demonstrate moderate abuse liability for MDMA, and this effect may be of most concern to those treating substance abuse disorders. However, subjects who received MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in two recent clinical studies were not motivated to seek out ecstasy, and tested negative in random drug tests during follow-up in one study. MDMA could either directly treat neuropharmacological abnormalities associated with addiction, or it could indirectly assist with the therapeutic process or reduce symptoms of comorbid psychiatric conditions, providing a greater opportunity to address problematic substance use. Studies directly testing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in people with active substance abuse disorder may be warranted.

  20. Latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users: Predictors and subsequent substance-related harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien eFallu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is highly prevalent in late adolescence, but not all users experience significant negative consequences. Little information is available to identify the substance use patterns and risk factors of users who are at greater risk of experiencing negative consequences. In this prospective study, we aimed to empirically identify latent classes of substance use in adolescent cannabis users and to examine how these classes relate to antecedent psychosocial predictors and subsequent substance-related outcomes. The sample was recruited from 68 high schools in Quebec and consisted of 1618 participants who reported using cannabis in grade 10. We used latent class analysis (LCA to empirically identify classes of users based on the age of onset, frequency, and typical quantity of cannabis and other substance use, as well as substance mixing behaviors. We then compared classes in terms of a socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors in grades 7-8 and b substance-related consequences in grade 11. Four distinct classes were identified: Late-Light Users (28%; Late-Heavy+Polydrug Users (14%; Early-Moderate Users (33%; Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users (26%. Late-Light Users reported the lowest levels of substance use, while Early-Heavy+Polydrug Users reported the highest levels of substance. Intermediate levels of susbstance use were found in the other two classes. Sex, age, delinquency, peer delinquency, school bonding, parental monitoring, and parental conflict all helped differentiate classes. Class membership predicted substance-related harm, with greater consequences in early- and late-onset heavy using classes. In light of results, in addition to age and sex, screening and intervention for risky cannabis use among adolescents should focus on school bonding in order to target the most risky late-onset adolescents, and on peer delinquency in order to target the most risky early-onset ones.

  1. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Robert A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A

    2010-12-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths' odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement is associated with increased odds of cohabitation and cohabiting at younger ages while substance use is not related to cohabiting during early adulthood. Further analysis indicates that cohabitation is associated with lower reports of substance use. However, cohabitation is not associated with self-reported offending. The results help to unravel the connection between cohabitation experience, offending and substance use, and early adult outcomes.

  2. Adolescents' perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhyas, Layla; Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Adolescents' awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents' awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants' age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent-adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent-adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers' ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and implementing CCTV systems in schools. The study was successful in exploring adolescents

  3. Adolescents’ perception of substance use and factors influencing its use: a qualitative study in Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ozaibi, Naseeba; Elarabi, Hisham; El-Kashef, Ahmed; Wanigaratne, Shamil; Almarzouqi, Amna; Alhosani, Ayesha; Al Ghaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this article is to gain a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of adolescents in the United Arab Emirates regarding substance and to identify factors that, in their view, may influence the risk of substance use and suggest possible interventions. Design This was a qualitative study that used a focus group approach. Setting The study was carried out in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Participants Male and female teenagers aged 13-18 years residing in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Main outcome measures Adolescents’ awareness of substance use, patterns of use and associated harm; Adolescents' perceptions about the factors associated with substance use. Results Six focus groups were carried out, and a total of 41 adolescents (20 males and 21 females) participated. Data analysis identified three main themes: (1) adolescents’ awareness of substance use and associated harm; (2) gender role and image and (3) perceived factors affecting substance use among adolescents. Knowledge of substances and related consequences of use varied between groups but was compatible with participants’ age and school years. Factors that participants believed influenced substance use were classified into: (1) parent–adolescent relationship, (2) peer pressure, (3) substance accessibility, (4) religiosity and (5) others. Many factors were believed to increase the risk of substance use among adolescents such as peer pressure, inadequate knowledge of the harmful consequences of drug use, family-related factors (e.g. low monitoring and poor parent–adolescents relationship), affordability and availability of substances, boredom and affluence. On the other hand, religiosity was as a shield against substance use, especially alcohol. Other identified protective factors included carrying out schools- and communities-based educational campaigns, enhancing social workers’ ability to raise awareness and detect early signs of addiction and

  4. Internalizing Symptoms, Peer Substance Use, and Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E; Widdowson, Alex O; Woessner, Mathew; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-12-01

    This study used longitudinal survey and social network data covering sixth through ninth grades to test whether internalizing symptoms make early adolescents more prone to (1) exposure to and (2) influence by substance-using peers. Random effects regressions revealed that increases in symptoms were significantly associated with increases in the proportion of friends who used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; some associations weakened across grades. Event history models revealed that the effect of friends' smoking on smoking initiation decreased as internalizing symptoms increased; symptoms did not moderate the effects of friends' alcohol and marijuana use on alcohol and marijuana use initiation. These findings counter the influence hypothesis of the co-occurrence of internalizing symptoms with substance use and partly support the exposure hypothesis.

  5. Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

  6. Substance use and mental illness among nurses: workplace warning signs and barriers to seeking assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, Alexa; Pace, Elizabeth; Denious, Jean; Crane, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have examined the prevalence of substance use among nurses, few have assessed substance use in the workplace or early cues for identifying these health conditions. Primary data collected as part of a larger program evaluation were examined with the purpose of better understanding (a) the context and perceived consequences of substance use and mental illness among nurses and (b) barriers and opportunities for earlier identification and treatment of these issues among nurses, their colleagues, and employers. Anonymous surveys were mailed to 441 active and recent participants of a peer health assistance program in the summer of 2010. The survey examined drug-related behaviors in the workplace; behavioral cues that may permit earlier identification of substance use and mental illness; perceptions of barriers to seeking assistance; and strategies for preventing problems and overcoming barriers to seeking assistance. Responses were received from 302 nurses (69%). Nearly half (48%) reported drug or alcohol use at work, and two fifths (40%) felt that their competency level was affected by their use. More than two thirds of respondents thought their problem could have been recognized earlier. The most highly rated barriers to seeking assistance for substance use and mental illness included fear and embarrassment and concerns about losing one's nursing license. Respondents recommended greater attention be paid to early identification of risk factors during nurses' professional training as a prevention strategy. Findings from this study provide preliminary data that can be used by schools of nursing and health care employers to improve early identification of nurses' substance use and mental illness treatment needs. These data also suggest a need for more research to explore the prevention and early identification of co-occurring disorders in health care settings where nurses practice.

  7. National substance use patterns on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Wen Meng

    Full Text Available We examined openly shared substance-related tweets to estimate prevalent sentiment around substance use and identify popular substance use activities. Additionally, we investigated associations between substance-related tweets and business characteristics and demographics at the zip code level.A total of 79,848,992 tweets were collected from 48 states in the continental United States from April 2015-March 2016 through the Twitter API, of which 688,757 were identified as being related to substance use. We implemented a machine learning algorithm (maximum entropy text classifier to estimate sentiment score for each tweet. Zip code level summaries of substance use tweets were created and merged with the 2013 Zip Code Business Patterns and 2010 US Census Data.Quality control analyses with a random subset of tweets yielded excellent agreement rates between computer generated and manually generated labels: 97%, 88%, 86%, 75% for underage engagement in substance use, alcohol, drug, and smoking tweets, respectively. Overall, 34.1% of all substance-related tweets were classified as happy. Alcohol was the most frequently tweeted substance, followed by marijuana. Regression results suggested more convenience stores in a zip code were associated with higher percentages of tweets about alcohol. Larger zip code population size and higher percentages of African Americans and Hispanics were associated with fewer tweets about substance use and underage engagement. Zip code economic disadvantage was associated with fewer alcohol tweets but more drug tweets.The patterns in substance use mentions on Twitter differ by zip code economic and demographic characteristics. Online discussions have great potential to glorify and normalize risky behaviors. Health promotion and underage substance prevention efforts may include interactive social media campaigns to counter the social modeling of risky behaviors.

  8. Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment - focus on low substance data availability and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2004-01-01

    , is addressed by carrying out an inventory of existing ecotoxicity effect indicator approaches, including a qualitative evaluation based on developed performance criteria. Both impact approaches, and damage approaches, which are all at an early development stage, are included. The evaluation of the existing......Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on products or services seem generally to be carried out without a proper inclusion of potential toxic impacts from emissions of chemicals. The first goal of the thesis is to investigate this statement and to clarify whether or not the outcome of an LCA can...... of substance data on known emissions. To be able to characterize the potential toxic impacts on humans and the environment of chemical emissions, substance data on fate and effect are needed. The second goal of this thesis is to investigate how to deal with low substance data availability on especially effect...

  9. Offending, Substance Use, and Cohabitation in Young Adulthood*

    OpenAIRE

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    Over half of young adults have cohabited, but relatively little is known about the role delinquency and substance use play in youths’ odds of cohabiting as well as the implications of cohabitation for early adult offending and substance use. This study focuses on the reciprocal relationship between cohabitation during late adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported offending and substance use. Using longitudinal data, we find that net of traditional predictors delinquency involvement i...

  10. Radioactive Substances Act 1948

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1948-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive substances and radiation producing devices in the United Kingdom. It provides for the control of import, export, sale, supply etc. of such substances and devices and lays down the safety regulations to be complied with when dealing with them. (NEA) [fr

  11. EFFECT OF SUBSTANCE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students in universities and colleges commonly use khat, cigarette, coffee and other substances to get mental alertness. The objective of this ... substance use and its effect on academic achievement of students in Jimma University. METHODS: A cross ... cannabis or marihuana and khat (2, 3). Reports showed that these ...

  12. A study to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in suburban area of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Thankam Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in New Delhi. One hundred and ten adolescents were conveniently selected from Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Adolescents aged more than 11 years and able to read and write Hindi or English were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for demographic variables was developed by researchers. To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use, a structured questionnaire was prepared with the reliability coefficient of 0.94 (test-retest reliability with a content validity index of 0.90 between the experts. Data were collected from the subjects after getting their written consent. Data analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The study findings revealed that nearly more than half (55.6% of the male adolescents reported the use of one or more substances in their lifetime. About 44.26% of the adolescents started to use substances before 13 years of age. Most common reason specified by the subjects to take substance were to be liked by friends (57.38%, to feel like an adult (24.6%, and few of them reported: “like the feeling of substances” (13.11% as reason for taking substances. Common substances used by the subjects were any kind of tobacco (77.05%, inhalants (26.23%, and alcohol (11.47%. Most of the subjects were getting substances from their friends (85.25% and only a few (14.75% by themselves. Association analyses revealed that adolescents who studied less than 10th standard reported more usage of any kind of substances than who studied more than 10th standard. More prevalence of substance use was seen among adolescents who were from nuclear family. Subjects who had less than two siblings reported more substance

  13. Structural features of apple pectic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pectic substances from unripe and ripe apples were extracted, purified and fractionated. The sugar composition (including types of glycosidic linkages) and the degree of esterification of the fractions were determined. Degradation with purified pectolytic enzymes and fractionation of the resulting

  14. Adolescent-onset substance use disorders predict young adult mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined whether adolescent-onset substance use disorders (SUDs) prospectively predicted early mortality. Among 870 adolescents, 21 young adulthood deaths were observed. Adolescent SUDs, as well as gender, ethnic group, hazardous substance use, and drug trafficking, predicted these deaths. Among African American males with SUDs, 23% died by age 25. PMID:18486875

  15. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  16. Supervisory Turnover in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Danica K.; Broome, Kirk M.; Edwards, Jennifer R.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from ...

  17. [Homicide, schizophrenia and substance abuse: a complex interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, S; Bouyer-Richard, A I; Jollant, F; Mondoloni, A; Voyer, M; Senon, J-L

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of homicide perpetrators with a diagnosis of schizophrenia is 6% in Western countries populations. The relationship between schizophrenia and homicide is complex and cannot be reduced to a simple causal link. The aim of this systematic review was to clarify the role of substance abuse in the commission of murder in people suffering from schizophrenia. A systematic English-French Medline and EMBASE literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and transversal studies published between January 2001 and December 2011 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "schizophrenia", "psychotic disorders", "homicide", "violence", "substance use disorder", and the TIAB term "alcohol". Abstract selection was based on the STROBE and PRISMA checklist for observational studies and systematic and meta-analysis studies, respectively. Of the 471 selected studies, eight prospective studies and six systematic reviews and meta-analysis studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. Homicide committed by a schizophrenic person is associated with socio-demographic (young age, male gender, low socioeconomic status), historical (history of violence against others), contextual (a stressful event in the year prior to the homicide), and clinical risk factors (severe psychotic symptoms, long duration of untreated psychosis, poor adherence to medication). In comparison to the general population, the risk of homicide is increased 8-fold in schizophrenics with a substance abuse disorder (mainly alcohol abuse) and 2-fold in schizophrenics without any comorbidities. A co-diagnosis of substance abuse allows us to divide the violent schizophrenics into "early-starters" and "late-starters" according to the age of onset of their antisocial and violent behavior. The violence of the "early-starters" is unplanned, usually affects an acquaintance and is not necessarily associated with the schizophrenic symptoms. Substance abuse is frequent and plays an

  18. Using Humor in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: Worthy of Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canha, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the literature, humor has demonstrated positive effects on memory and learning, as well as physiological and psychological well being. Research has described improvements in communication and trust through the use of humor in the nurse-patient relationship. The utilization of humor with certain populations, including those with anxiety disorders, cancer patients and mood disorders has also been widely described in the literature but little research has been conducted with humor use in patients' recovery from substance use disorders. This population might benefit from the thoughtful applications of humor to promote laughter and mirth as well as learning recovery principles. A review of the humor theories, theoretical processes and humor styles are discussed for their use in individuals with substance use disorders, in particularly for early recovery engagement in 12 step programs and other recover support social networks. The application of humor in efforts to support recovery with substance use disorder patients is worth investigating further.

  19. [Immunotoxicity and environmental substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A well functioning immune system is essential in maintaining integrity of the organism, and malfunction may have severe health consequences. Environmental substances may pose direct toxicity to components of the immune system, often leading to immunosuppression and resulting reduced resistance to infections and tumors. Alternatively, such substances may be recognized by the immune system in a specific fashion, which may result in allergy and autoimmunity. A proper risk assessment of environmental substances in terms of immunotoxicity is necessary. In this manuscript, I reviewed recent three topics about immunotoxicity: (1) IPCS/WHO Guidance for immunotoxicity risk assessment for chemicals, (2) Intestinal immunotoxicity, and (3) Epicutaneous sensitization of food proteins.

  20. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  1. Substance use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental problem. A stressful or chaotic lifestyle and low self-esteem are also common. Children who grow up seeing their parents using drugs may have a high risk of developing substance use problem later in ...

  2. Continuum mechanics of single-substance bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    1975-01-01

    Continuum Physics, Volume II: Continuum Mechanics of Single-Substance Bodies discusses the continuum mechanics of bodies constituted by a single substance, providing a thorough and precise presentation of exact theories that have evolved during the past years. This book consists of three parts-basic principles, constitutive equations for simple materials, and methods of solution. Part I of this publication is devoted to a discussion of basic principles irrespective of material geometry and constitution that are valid for all kinds of substances, including composites. The geometrical notions, k

  3. Ergogenic and ergolytic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M H

    1992-09-01

    Genetic endowment and proper training are the major factors contributing to athletic success in endurance and ultraendurance events. Proper nutrition, primarily adequate carbohydrate and fluid, prior to and during the event is also critical. Endurance athletes often utilize other nutritional substances or practices, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to obtain a competitive edge by enhancing energy utilization and delaying the onset of fatigue. Numerous nutritional ergogenics have been used in attempts to enhance endurance performance, but with several exceptions most have been shown to be ineffective, including bee pollen, L-carnitine, CoQ10, inosine, amino acids, alkaline salts, and vitamin E at sea level. Research findings are equivocal relative to the ergogenicity of caffeine, phosphate salts, and vitamin E at altitude. Loss of excess body fat, a nutritional practice, may be an effective ergogenic. Conversely, some agents such as alcohol may impair performance, an ergolytic effect. Additional research is necessary to support the efficacy of several nutritional ergogenics to enhance prolonged endurance performance, such as caffeine, phosphates, specific amino acids, and various commercial products. Such research should involve exercise tasks comparable in intensity and duration to that experienced in the marathon and similar endurance events.

  4. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S

    2013-03-01

    Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. College students rarely seek help despite serious substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Sharma, Eva; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E; Wish, Eric D; Arria, Amelia M

    2009-12-01

    The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) and aspects of the help-seeking process among a high-risk sample of 946 students at one large public university were assessed in personal interviews during the first 3 years of college. After statistically adjusting for purposive sampling, an estimated 46.8%(wt) of all third-year students met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for SUD involving alcohol and/or marijuana at least once. Of 548 SUD cases, 3.6% perceived a need for help with substance use problems; 16.4% were encouraged by someone else to seek help. Help-seeking was rare among SUD cases (8.8%) but significantly elevated among individuals who perceived a need (90.0%) or experienced social pressures from parents (32.5%), friends (34.2%), or another person (58.3%). Resources accessed for help included educational programs (37.8%), health professionals (27.0%), and 12-step programs (18.9%). College students have high rates of substance use problems but rarely recognize a need for treatment or seek help. Results highlight the opportunity for early intervention with college students with SUD.

  6. College Students Rarely Seek Help Despite Serious Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Sharma, Eva; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) and aspects of the help-seeking process among a high-risk sample of 946 students at one large public university were assessed in personal interviews during the first three years of college. After statistically adjusting for purposive sampling, an estimated 46.8%wt of all third-year students met DSM-IV criteria for SUD involving alcohol and/or marijuana at least once. Of 548 SUD cases, 3.6% perceived a need for help with substance use problems; 16.4% were encouraged by someone else to seek help. Help-seeking was rare among SUD cases (8.8%), but significantly elevated among individuals who perceived a need (90.0%) or experienced social pressures from parents (32.5%), friends (34.2%), or another person (58.3%). Resources accessed for help included educational programs (38%), health professionals (27%), and twelve-step programs (19%). College students have high rates of substance use problems but rarely recognize a need for treatment or seek help. Results highlight the opportunity for early intervention with college students with SUD. PMID:19553064

  7. Can municipality-based post-discharge follow-up visits including a general practitioner reduce early readmission among the fragile elderly (65+ years old)? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Fokdal, Sara; Gjørup, Thomas; Taylor, Rod S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate how municipality-based post-discharge follow-up visits including a general practitioner and municipal nurse affect early readmission among high-risk older people discharged from a hospital department of internal medicine. Centrally randomized single-centre pragmatic controlled trial comparing intervention and usual care with investigator-blinded outcome assessment. The intervention was home visits with a general practitioner and municipal nurse within seven days of discharge focusing on medication, rehabilitation plan, functional level, and need for further health care initiatives. The visit was concluded by planning one or two further visits. Controls received standard health care services. People aged 65 + years discharged from Holbæk University Hospital, Denmark, in 2012 considered at high risk of readmission. The primary outcome was readmission within 30 days. Secondary outcomes at 30 and 180 days included readmission, primary health care, and municipal services. Outcomes were register-based and analysis used the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 270 and 261 patients were randomized to intervention and control groups, respectively. The groups were similar in baseline characteristics. In all 149 planned discharge follow-up visits were carried out (55%). Within 30 days, 24% of the intervention group and 23% of the control group were readmitted (p = 0.93). No significant differences were found for any other secondary outcomes except that the intervention group received more municipal nursing services. This municipality-based follow-up intervention was only feasible in half the planned visits. The intervention as delivered had no effect on readmission or subsequent use of primary or secondary health care services.

  8. Workplace managed care: collaboration for substance abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, D M

    2000-05-01

    This article describes the history, purpose, and overall methodology of the Workplace Managed Care (WMC) study sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). This study was initiated to discern best practices for workplaces and managed care organizations integrating their substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs, strategies, and activities for employees and their families. CSAP funded nine WMC grants to study their retrospective and prospective data. Results of the WMC study suggested the addition of substance abuse prevention material to existing workplace health promotion offerings that resulted in improved substance abuse attitudes without jeopardizing existing health promotion programs. Stress management programming was successful at improving substance abuse attitudes indirectly. This study provides a platform for multidisciplinary research in workplace and managed care settings.

  9. Producing, Importing, and Exporting Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides links to information on producing, importing, and exporting ozone-depleting substances, including information about the HCFC allowance system, importing, labeling, recordkeeping and reporting.

  10. A Longitudinal Analysis of Friendships and Substance Use: Bidirectional Influence from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Owen, Lee D.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between deviant friendships and substance use from early adolescence (age 13-14) to young adulthood (age 22-23). Multivariate modeling revealed that substance use in young adulthood is a joint outcome of friendship influences and selection processes. Substance use appears to affect friend selection in late…

  11. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-03

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective.

  12. Substance misuse in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1998-01-01

    Australia's Aborigines lived in isolation from the rest of humanity as successful hunter-gatherers for tens of thousands of years. That isolation ended abruptly with British colonization in the late 18th century and was followed by a traumatic 200 years for Aborigines who are now seriously disadvantaged, socio-economically and in terms of their health standards. It has often been assumed that the Aborigines had no access to psychotropic substances before permanent European contact but several pieces of evidence dispute this view. The history of Aboriginal contact with and usage of intoxicating substances, including alcohol, is extremely complex and affected by a maze of restrictive government policies. These interact with a wide range of other Federal and State policies which have changed rapidly since the late 1960s when Aborigines were first granted the franchise; access to unrestricted drinking followed soon afterwards. Today Aborigines suffer disproportionately to other Australians from the physical and social consequences of excess alcohol consumption, tobacco usage, petrol and other solvent sniffing, usage of marijuana, amphetamines, cocaine and heroin, as well as other drugs. The Aboriginal population is dispersed in cities, towns, fringe settlements, rural and remote areas over this vast continent and there are different patterns of drug usage from place to place. This review attempts to synthesize some of this information in order to give an overview to the history, background, current status of substance misuse by Aborigines as well as some strategies being used to try to overcome this serious problem.

  13. Longitudinal Associations Between Substance Use and Violence in Adolescence Through Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, JUNE Y.; LUI, CAMILLIA K.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence are interrelated behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data, this study examined the longitudinal relationships between (a) alcohol and violence perpetration, (b) marijuana and perpetration, (c) alcohol and victimization, and (d) marijuana and victimization. Cross-lagged structural equation models showed that longitudinal patterns of violence and substance use vary somewhat and that the ways preceding stages of violence and substance use are associated with subsequent violence, and substance use differ by violence, substance type, and transitional stage. Our findings call for primary and secondary prevention strategies targeting early adulthood. PMID:27366116

  14. Electrophysiological Evaluation of People With Volatile Substance Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Uzun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Scientific BACKGROUND: There is an increase in addiction of volatile substances in recent years. Miscellaneous electrophysiological pathological findings are determined in volatile substance abusers. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to examine the neurologic effects of these substances by electrophysiologic methods. METHODS: Cases and METHOD: Twenty-three patients from Bakirkoy Psychiatry Hospital, Alcohol and Substance Addiction Research and Treatment Center were included in this study. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies, somatosensorial, visual and auditory evoked potentials (SEP, VEP, BAEP as well as electroencephalography (EEG were studied in all 23 patients. The results were compared with the published data and the values of age matched 19 normal controls. RESULTS: RESULTS: In nerve conduction studies, there were pathological findings in 14 (60.9% cases, in three (13% mild sensorimotor polyneuropathy was determined. Tibial nerve motor distal latencies as well as median nerve sensorial and sural nerve distal latencies were longer in patients compared to controls (p<0.05. SEP findings were pathological in six (26.1% cases, VEP in two (8.7% cases and BAEP in eight (34.8% cases. Scalp SEP distal latency by tibial nerve stimulation as well as distal latencies of right and left V. wave, left III-V interpeak latency, right and left interpeak latencies and I-V interaural latency difference in BAEP were longer in abusers (p<0.05. Although it was not statistically significant, the ratio of pathological findings was higher if the exposure time was over 2 years. EEG was found to be normal in all patients. CONCLUSION: YORUM: Our results showed that toluene results in slowly progressive multifocal central nervous system damage and subclinical damage could be determined in early stages by electrophysiologic methods

  15. Prevalence of psychotic symptoms in substance users: a comparison across substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Murray, Robin M; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) are reported to be increased among persons using illicit substances, but little is known about the comparative frequency with which the symptoms occur with abuse of different substances. To establish this, we interviewed individuals who had wide experience of commonly used drugs. Four hundred seventy-six intravenous drug users, crack-cocaine users, and heroin snorters recruited via street outreach were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Model to assess dependence on a number of substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. As a part of this assessment, we assessed a history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. From 27.8% to 79.6% users of amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, dependence for that specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (5.2%-100%), cannabis (12.4%-80.0%), cocaine (6.7%-80.7%), and opiates (6.7%-58.2%). The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (odds ratio [OR], 12.2) or had mild (OR, 17.1), moderate (OR, 47.0), or severe dependence (OR, 114.0) on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. Most users dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the substance use disorders for all 4 substances. These findings emphasize the importance of developing services to target this population as they are at a heightened risk for developing psychotic symptoms.

  16. Sleep and substance use disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Deirdre A; Arnedt, J Todd

    2014-10-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and individuals who suffer from them are prone to relapse. One of the most common consequences of the use of and withdrawal from substances of abuse is sleep disturbance. Substances of abuse affect sleep physiology, including the neurotransmitter systems that regulate the sleep-wake system. Emerging research now highlights an interactive effect between sleep disorders and substance use. New findings in alcohol and sleep research have utilized sophisticated research designs and expanded the scope of EEG and circadian rhythm analyses. Research on marijuana and sleep has progressed with findings on the effects of marijuana withdrawal on objective and subjective measures of sleep. Treatment studies have focused primarily on sleep in alcohol use disorders. Therapies for insomnia in cannabis disorders are needed. Future research is poised to further address mechanisms of sleep disturbance in alcoholics and the effect of medical marijuana on sleep and daytime functioning.

  17. Motivational interviewing for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedslund, Geir; Berg, Rigmor C; Hammerstrøm, Karianne T; Steiro, Asbjørn; Leiknes, Kari A; Dahl, Helene M; Karlsen, Kjetil

    2011-05-11

    There are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide and 15.3 million with drug use disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, semi-directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. The intervention is used widely, and therefore it is important to find out whether it helps, harms or is ineffective. To assess the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for substance abuse on drug use, retention in treatment, readiness to change, and number of repeat convictions. We searched 18 electronic databases, 5 web sites, 4 mailing lists, and reference lists from included studies and reviews. Search dates were November 30, 2010 for Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and PsychINFO. Randomized controlled trials with persons dependent or abusing substance. Interventions were MI or motivational enhancement therapy. The outcomes were extent of substance abuse, retention in treatment, motivation for change, repeat conviction. Three authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and two authors extracted data. Results were categorized into (1) MI versus no-treatment control, (2) MI versus treatment as usual, (3) MI versus assessment and feedback, and (4) MI versus other active treatment. Within each category, we computed meta-analyses separately for post-intervention, short, medium and long follow-ups. We included 59 studies with a total of 13,342 participants. Compared to no treatment control MI showed a significant effect on substance use which was strongest at post-intervention SMD 0.79, (95% CI 0.48 to 1.09) and weaker at short SMD 0.17 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.26], and medium follow-up SMD 0.15 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.25]). For long follow-up, the effect was not significant SMD 0.06 (95% CI-0.16 to 0.28). There were no significant differences between MI and treatment as usual for either follow-up post-intervention, short and medium follow up. MI did better than assessment and feedback for medium

  18. Influence of Parent-Youth Relationship, Parental Monitoring, and Parent Substance Use on Adolescent Substance Use Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C; Light, John M; Crowley, Ryann; Westling, Erika

    2018-01-04

    The quality of parent-child relationships likely influences many decisions and behaviors made by early adolescents, including their alcohol and marijuana use. We examined how parent-youth relationship quality, parental monitoring, and parent substance use were associated with initiation of alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use by 400 adolescents by the spring of 8th grade (ages 13-14), and changes in initiation through 9th grade (assessed 3 times; fall, winter, and spring). We measured both parent and adolescent report of parent-youth relationship quality and parental monitoring, expecting that both perspectives would uniquely contribute. Discrete Time Survival models showed that youth report of both a poorer parent-youth relationship and lower parental monitoring were associated with alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use onset. Parent binge drinking also predicted youth alcohol onset and parent report of poor quality relationship predicted marijuana onset. Youth report of a poor relationship with parents was a stronger predictor for girls than boys on their alcohol use onset, and youth report of parental monitoring was more protective for girls than boys for both alcohol and marijuana use onset. Implications for preventing use of these substances during early and mid-adolescence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Pneumonia, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Early Immune-Modulator Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Yil Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is caused by infectious insults, such as pneumonia from various pathogens or related to other noninfectious events. Clinical and histopathologic characteristics are similar across severely affected patients, suggesting that a common mode of immune reaction may be involved in the immunopathogenesis of ARDS. There may be etiologic substances that have an affinity for respiratory cells and induce lung cell injury in cases of ARDS. These substances originate not only from pathogens, but also from injured host cells. At the molecular level, these substances have various sizes and biochemical characteristics, classifying them as protein substances and non-protein substances. Immune cells and immune proteins may recognize and act on these substances, including pathogenic proteins and peptides, depending upon the size and biochemical properties of the substances (this theory is known as the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis. The severity or chronicity of ARDS depends on the amount of etiologic substances with corresponding immune reactions, the duration of the appearance of specific immune cells, or the repertoire of specific immune cells that control the substances. Therefore, treatment with early systemic immune modulators (corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulin as soon as possible may reduce aberrant immune responses in the potential stage of ARDS.

  20. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability of... a workplace free of substance abuse through implementation of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5) of...

  1. [Consumption of psychoactive substances by caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    Prescribed medication, self-medication or doping the use of psychoactive substances by caregivers is varied. Doping behaviour in the care environment is under-estimated and trivialised. It is often difficult to spot at an early stage and yet this consumption is not without consequences on the quality and safety of work. Gérard-Marchant general hospital in Toulouse integrates this issue into its professional risk management policy.

  2. Public awareness on cancerous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufranic, Jasmin; Popovic, Himzo; Stefanov, Sonja; Biocanin, Rade

    2014-04-01

    The public can be defined as a mosaic consisting of various ethnic, religious and other social groups, hence the definition of public includes each individual persona. Public opinion is the voice of such public and is, therefore, considered a worthy element in political and economic discourse. Media can do much in providing education necessary for informing the public about cancerous substances in the environment. The purpose of this study is to inform the public about issues that truly matter instead of following the current trend and focus on the topics and issues of less importance.

  3. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Impact of rurality and substance use on young people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Halpin, Sean A; Baker, Amanda L; Startup, Mike; Carr, Vaughan J; Schall, Ulrich; Crittenden, Kylie; Clark, Vanessa; Lewin, Terry J; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-07-26

    Longitudinal research into early intervention for youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis demonstrates beneficial outcomes including increased treatment compliance and greater participation in education and the workforce. Despite known barriers for rural youth accessing mental health services, research comparing urban and rural UHR youth is lacking. The study included an examination of the impact of substance use on functioning of UHR youth. Youth aged 12 to 25 years were recruited from the urban area of Newcastle or the rural area of Orange, New South Wales, Australia, and identified as UHR by the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States. Rural and urban youth were compared on clinical profiles, social and occupational functioning and substance use. The rural youth showed different help-seeking behaviours and had greater functional impairment than urban youth. Substance use was common across the sample of 57 youth (mean age 16.5 years, 56% female) and a history of hazardous substance use was associated with higher levels of depression. Rural youth (n = 32) were more likely than urban youth to be taking antidepressants at baseline (44% compared with 16%). Different patterns of help seeking by rural UHR youth suggest a need for greater access to psychosis informed primary care early intervention services. Interventions should target functional decline to prevent adverse outcomes such as reduced community participation and unemployment. In addition, interventions for substance use should be a priority for UHR youth, who should also be screened and monitored for depressive symptoms and treated for depression if indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. SUBSTANCE-ABUSING PREGNANT WOMEN: PRENATAL INTERVENTION USING ULTRASOUND CONSULTATION AND MENTALIZATION TO ENHANCE THE MOTHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP AND REDUCE SUBSTANCE USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajulo, Helena; Pajulo, Marjukka; Jussila, Heidi; Ekholm, Eeva

    2016-07-01

    Substance-abusing pregnant and parenting women are considered one of the most challenging, but important, target groups for developing early parenting interventions. Some valuable efforts to develop such interventions have been made in the organizational sector in Finland. However, there is a great need for new ways of work that would simultaneously concentrate in substance-abuse treatment and enhance parenting in public healthcare settings. The present article describes the background, content, and protocol of a new prenatal intervention developed for substance-abusing pregnant women in a hospital setting in public healthcare. The intervention includes two new elements and pathways aimed to enhance the mothers' curiosity toward her developing child and provide motivation to stay abstinent from substance use. The pathways are interactive ultrasound consultation and a new pregnancy diary, both using a parental mentalization focus. The intervention elements, experiences from running the intervention, evaluation protocol, and general characteristics of the study sample gained (n = 90) are described and discussed. Two case vignettes from the study sample are presented, and the applicability of this prenatal work with other groups and settings is considered. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Employment services and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherba, R Thomas; Coxe, Kathryn A; Gersper, Beth E; Linley, Jessica V

    2018-04-01

    This qualitative study of over 800 participants focused on the employment experiences of consumers of substance abuse treatment programs to provide a better understanding of what employment services are offered and what needs treatment agencies have in the area of employment services, examining barriers and facilitators from both the consumer and provider perspectives. Data were collected via a mixed research methodology of focus groups and surveys from July 2015 through June 2016 in a large Midwestern U.S. state. Employment is a challenge for persons with substance use disorders. Only a quarter of this study's large sample of substance abuse treatment consumers reported being cur-rently employed; and of those consumers who reported no current employment, greater than half reported that their current unemployment was due to their substance use. Persons receiving substance abuse treatment face many challenges in obtaining and maintaining employment. Treatment providers identified several barriers to implementation of employment services. They named an array of resources as needed, including increased funding for supportive employment programs and staff appropriate to the delivery of employment services. Some providers believed employment services to fall outside of their scope of practice. Data generated through this study may inform policy to invest resources in employment services within substance abuse treatment settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleeping At The Wheel And Psychoactive Substance Use Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prevent sleeping at the wheel psychoactive substance used included marijuana, caffeine, and alcohol. Factors associated with high prevalence of sleeping at the wheel included long hours of driving =40 hours per week, types of substance use to prevent sleep, and previous use of alcohol. Conclusion: There would be ...

  8. Callous-Unemotional Traits Trajectories Interact with Earlier Conduct Problems and Executive Control to Predict Violence and Substance Use Among High Risk Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-11-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.

  9. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  10. An agenda to combat substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.

  11. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their ......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... prioritized in 2) There is a lack of physical chemical data, analystical reference substances, human and environmental occurrence and toxicology data, as well as market information regarding PFCs other than PFOA and PFOS and the current legislation cannot enforce disclosure of specific PFC substance...

  12. DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Auriacombe, Marc; Borges, Guilherme; Bucholz, Kathleen; Budney, Alan; Compton, Wilson M.; Crowley, Thomas; Ling, Walter; Petry, Nancy M.; Schuckit, Marc; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to retain the division into two main disorders (dependence and abuse), whether substance use disorder criteria should be added or removed, and whether an appropriate substance use disorder severity indicator could be identified. Specific issues included possible addition of withdrawal syndromes for several substances, alignment of nicotine criteria with those for other substances, addition of biomarkers, and inclusion of nonsubstance, behavioral addictions. This article presents the major issues and evidence considered by the work group, which included literature reviews and extensive new data analyses. The work group recommendations for DSM-5 revisions included combining abuse and dependence criteria into a single substance use disorder based on consistent findings from over 200,000 study participants, dropping legal problems and adding craving as criteria, adding cannabis and caffeine withdrawal syndromes, aligning tobacco use disorder criteria with other substance use disorders, and moving gambling disorders to the chapter formerly reserved for substance-related disorders. The proposed changes overcome many problems, while further studies will be needed to address issues for which less data were available. PMID:23903334

  13. Substance Use among Muslim Students in Aceh, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inda Mariana Harahap

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illicit substance use is a serious social problem faced by adolescents worldwide, including adolescents in Aceh and has many negative consequences. In addition, illicit substance use does not fit with the values of Islamic teaching, and is strictly prohibited in Islam. Purpose: The aims of this paper are to determine the prevalence of illicit substance use, the stages of substance use, and types of substance used among Muslim students in senior high schools in Aceh, Indonesia. Method: Four hundred and twenty six students who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from four senior high schools in Banda Aceh by using simple random sampling, and of these, 290 returned a completed questionnaire. A self reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Result: The mean age of the subjects was 15.9 years old and the majority of them were female (68.6%. The study found that the prevalence of substance use was 2.4%with a higher number of females than males who had used illicit substances. The common substances that were used by the students were marijuana and dextromethorphon, as well as intentionally inhaled substances. Lastly, out of the students who had used illegal substances the majority was in the regular use stage (1.4%. Conclusion: This study found that substance use among Muslim students in Aceh exists, although prevalence was low. Thus, several preventive programs may be needed in Aceh not only for Muslims students who have used substances but also for students who have not use illegal substances. Keywords: Adolescents, Substance use, Muslim students, Indonesia.

  14. Adolescent substance use disorders and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Deborah R

    2002-04-01

    It is imperative to know what risk factors are more likely to appear during specific developmental stages so that identification and interventions can be used to decrease the risk for future SUD. Continued surveying of risk factors that can occur at any stage in childhood are important to ensure that other risk factors are anticipated and intervened upon as well. Multiple risk factors increase the magnitude of the risk for SUD, and therefore all risk factors should be detected to convert these to protective factors. Screening instruments that can assess risk factors found to increase the risk for substance abuse can be found in examples, such as the Drug Usage Screening Instrument [81] and the Problem-Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers. The detection of risk factors by primary care providers is becoming increasingly important. However, other professionals are beginning to recognize that early recognition and treatment can enable a youth to go on to a productive life in other arenas as well. Drug courts and diversion programs are beginning to treat first-time offenders and their families rather than taking the punitive approach. These have proven to be very successful. Primary care physicians also should become familiar with motivational enhancement therapy when confronting a youth with a suspected substance abuse problem [57]. This method has proven to be more effective in getting youth into treatment than the direct, confrontational style, which often puts the youth in a defensive mode. Motivational enhancement therapy includes interventions that are delivered in a neutral and empathetic way. The six components of motivational enhancement therapy (also called FRAMES) include: Feedback on personal impairment Emphasis on personal responsibility Clear advice to change Menu of alternative options Empathy as a counseling style Self-efficacy In this way, a clinician can elicit pros and cons, give advice, provide choices, practice empathy, clarify goals, and

  15. Individual Differences in Cognitive Control Circuit Anatomy Link Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinshead, Marisa O.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals vary widely in their tendency to seek stimulation and act impulsively, early developing traits with genetic origins. Failures to regulate these behaviors increase risk for maladaptive outcomes including substance abuse. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus (n = 1015). These associations generalized to self-reported motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group (n = 219), and correlated with heightened alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine use. Critically, the relations between sensation seeking and brain structure were evident in participants without a history of alcohol or tobacco use, suggesting that observed associations with anatomy are not solely a consequence of substance use. These results demonstrate that individual differences in the tendency to seek stimulation, act on impulse, and engage in substance use are correlated with the anatomical structure of cognitive control circuitry. Our findings suggest that, in healthy populations, covariation across these complex multidimensional behaviors may in part originate from a common underlying biology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impaired cognitive control may result in a tendency to seek stimulation impulsively and an increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, including substance abuse. Here, we examined the structural correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in a large cohort of healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus. The observed associations generalized to motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group

  16. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  17. PTSD and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Utley, PhD (a postdoctoral fellow of Dr. Najavits). Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Partial Hospitalization Program & Addiction ...Center for Responsible Gaming , Boston, MA (formerly Kansas City, MO) 2010 Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre, Toronto, Canada 10/11 NIDA, SBIR...Group ZRG1 HDM W 10 6/14 Chair, NIH SBIR Scientific Review Group ZRG1 RPHB-R (12) B 6/14 NIH, Review on Social Media and Substance Use and Addiction

  18. Sensory processing disorders among substance dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 To compare sensory processing patterns as expressed in daily life between substance dependents and typical controls; (2 profile the prevalence of sensory processing disorders (SPD among substance dependents; and (3 examine gender effect on SPD within and between groups. Methods: Two hundred ninety people aged 19-64 participated in this study. The study group included 145 individuals who lived in the community or took part in an outpatient program because of addiction to drugs/alcohol and had been clean for over three months. The control group included 145 individuals who were not exposed to drugs or alcohol on a regular basis and did not suffer from addictive behavior. All participants filled a demographic questionnaire. Those who met the inclusion criteria completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP so that their sensory processing patterns could be assessed. Results: When comparing both groups, the study group showed greater sensory sensitivity and significantly higher prevalence of SPD. Significant group/gender interaction was found in regard to sensation seeking. Discussion: SPD among substance dependents may be expressed in daily life by either hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. The behavioral outcomes reflected by the AASP support neurophysiological manifestations about SPD of substance dependents. The evaluation process of substance dependents should refer to their sensory processing abilities. In case SPD is diagnosed, Occupational Therapy and specific sensory–based interventions should be considered in order to fit the specific needs of individuals and enhance their performance, meaningful participation, and quality of life.

  19. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Conversion From Schizotypal Disorder to Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Albert, Nikolai; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-04-25

    Understanding the role of substance use disorders in conversion from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia may provide physicians and psychiatrists with important tools for prevention or early detection of schizophrenia. To investigate whether substance use disorders, in particular cannabis use disorder, are associated with conversion to schizophrenia in individuals with schizotypal disorder. This prospective cohort study included a population-based sample of all individuals born in Denmark from January 1, 1981, through August 10, 2014, with an incident diagnosis of schizotypal disorder and without a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia. Follow-up was completed on August 10, 2014, and data were analyzed from March 10, 2017, through February 15, 2018. Information on substance use disorders combined from 5 different registers. Cox proportional hazards regression using time-varying information on substance use disorders and receipt of antipsychotics and adjusted for parental history of mental disorders, sex, birth year, and calendar year were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for conversion to schizophrenia. A total of 2539 participants with incident schizotypal disorder were identified (1448 men [57.0%] and 1091 women [43.0%]; mean [SD] age, 20.9 [4.4] years). After 2 years, 16.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-17.8%) experienced conversion to schizophrenia. After 20 years, the conversion rate was 33.1% (95% CI, 29.3%-37.3%) overall and 58.2% (95% CI, 44.8%-72.2%) among those with cannabis use disorders. In fully adjusted models, any substance use disorder was associated with conversion to schizophrenia (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63). When data were stratified by substance, cannabis use disorders (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68), amphetamine use disorders (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.17), and opioid use disorders (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.38-5.45) were associated with conversion to schizophrenia. These associations were not explained by concurrent use of antipsychotics, functional

  20. Leibniz on Corporeal Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Müürsepp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an idealist, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz could not recognize anything corporeal as substantial. However, under the influence of Cartesian terminology, he devoted considerable effort to analysing the corporeal world, while not recognizing its real substantiality of course. Leibniz took the concept of substance from Plato, Aristotle and the scholastics, but developed it in two ways. It is a well-known fact that Leibniz introduced the term ‘corporeal substance’ in his letter to Antoine Arnauld dated to October 1687. In the letter, Leibniz understands an object of nature, like an animal or a plant, as ‘corporeal substance’. In the very same letter, Leibniz introduces the terms ‘indivisibility’ and ‘phenomenon’. Every corporeal substance can be real only as a unity, i.e. by being indivisible. Such entity must have a soul or at least an entelechy. In an opposite case, that entity would not be a real unity but just a phenomenon. No corporeal entity is indivisible and therefore not a substance. The paper aims at introducing Leibniz’s distinction between substances and phenomena and taking a closer look at the historicalphilosophical influences Leibniz experienced while developing his views of the corporeal world. Aristotle and Descartes will receive most of the attention, of course, as the concepts of ‘entelechy’ and ‘hylomorphism’ were introduced by the former, and the understanding of corporeal substance as determined by extension alone is part of the latter. The core of the original critique by Leibniz takes off from the properties of the continuum as well as the nature of shape, motion and extension. The case of continuum will receive special attention. It is analysed with the help of the novel approaches by Samuel Levey and Vassil Vidinsky. Leibniz was critical about our poor understanding of the continuum but his own interpretation of it was not fully consistent either. Although the new developments enable us to take a

  1. The Relationship Between Controlled Substances and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Choksy, Seema; Wintemute, Garen J

    2016-01-01

    A causal relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence has been widely assumed in the United States, and federal law prohibits individuals who are "unlawful users of or addicted to any controlled substance" from purchasing or possessing firearms (68 FR 3750. 2003. Codified at 27 CFR §478.11). However, the law does a poor job of defining "unlawful users," resulting in recent calls for a revised, actionable definition. Such a definition should be informed by research evidence, but to date the epidemiologic research on the relationship between controlled substances and violence has not been comprehensively reviewed. The initial goal of this review was to summarize the best available evidence on the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence, but only 1 study specific to firearm violence was identified. We therefore reviewed studies of this relationship using broader measures of interpersonal violence and suicide, all of which included but were not limited to firearm violence, and measures of illicit firearm carrying. Prospective longitudinal studies (n = 22) from 1990 to 2014 were identified by using searches of online databases and citation tracking. Information was extracted from each study by using a standardized protocol. Quality of evidence was independently assessed by 2 reviewers. Aggregate measures of controlled substance use were associated with increased interpersonal violence and suicide, but evidence regarding the relationship between specific substances and violence was mixed. Involvement in illegal drug sales was consistently associated with interpersonal violence. To effectively revise extant federal law and delineate appropriate prohibiting criteria, more research is needed to understand the relationship between controlled substances and firearm violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions

  2. Psychiatric consultation and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although the results are encouraging in that individuals

  3. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data

  4. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Specker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives: 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method: Consecutive one-year referrals (524 to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results: Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs. Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions: These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in

  5. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany.

  6. Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and relationship to substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-09-01

    Although categorized as an impulse control disorder, kleptomania has many features in common with substance use disorders. This paper sought to examine the mounting evidence supporting the phenomenological, clinical, epidemiological, and biological links between kleptomania and substance addictions. A review of the literature examining family history, genetics, comorbid psychiatric conditions, neuroimaging, and phenomenology was utilized to examine the relationship of kleptomania to substance addiction. Kleptomania and substance addiction share common core qualities, including similar treatment successes, as well as etiologic and phenomenological similarities. Future research investigating the relationship between kleptomania and substance use disorders holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general. Research investigating kleptomania (and other behavioral addictions) and its relationship to substance addiction holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general.

  7. Brain potentials predict substance abuse treatment completion in a prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Brandi C; Steele, Vaughn R; Maurer, Michael J; Fede, Samantha J; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-08-01

    National estimates suggest that up to 80% of prison inmates meet diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder. Because more substance abuse treatment while incarcerated is associated with better post-release outcomes, including a reduced risk of accidental overdose death, the stakes are high in developing novel predictors of substance abuse treatment completion in inmate populations. Using electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated stimulus-locked ERP components elicited by distractor stimuli in three tasks (VO-Distinct, VO-Repeated, Go/NoGo) as a predictor of treatment discontinuation in a sample of male and female prison inmates. We predicted that those who discontinued treatment early would exhibit a less positive P3a amplitude elicited by distractor stimuli. Our predictions regarding ERP components were partially supported. Those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a less positive P3a amplitude and a less positive PC4 in the VO-D task. In the VO-R task, however, those who discontinued treatment early exhibited a more negative N200 amplitude rather than the hypothesized less positive P3a amplitude. The discontinuation group also displayed less positive PC4 amplitude. Surprisingly, there were no time-domain or principle component differences among the groups in the Go/NoGo task. Support Vector Machine (SVM) models of the three tasks accurately classified individuals who discontinued treatment with the best model accurately classifying 75% of inmates. PCA techniques were more sensitive in differentiating groups than the classic time-domain windowed approach. Our pattern of findings are consistent with the context-updating theory of P300 and may help identify subtypes of ultrahigh-risk substance abusers who need specialized treatment programs.

  8. Reforming Dutch substance abuse treatment services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Gerard M.; Schramade, Mark; Walburg, Jan A.

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch substance abuse treatment system is in the middle of a major reorganization. The goal is to improve outcomes by redesigning all major primary treatment processes and by implementing a system of regular monitoring and feedback of clinical outcome data. The new program includes implementing

  9. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  10. Substance misuse prevention as corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radacsi, Gergely; Hardi, Peter

    2014-03-01

    All sectors of society should be involved in reducing substance misuse, including businesses. However, the business sector is typically involved only to the extent that their products compel them to be (e.g., alcohol producers promoting responsible alcohol consumption). This article examines why business participation has been limited and how embedding prevention within a framework of health promotion could increase participation. It reviews both Hungarian and international cases, concluding that although corporate social responsibility (CSR) offers a framework to approach substance misuse reduction, a different perception of the role of the business sector is necessary to make it viable.

  11. Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E

    2011-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychosocial consequences of VSM, including emerging public health threats, and (5) etiological and contextual considerations of VSM use. Implications for future research and practice with volatile substance misusers in the United States are identified.

  12. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  13. Substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients entering substance abuse treatment: Comparisons to heterosexual clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated whether sexual orientation-specific differences in substance use behaviors exist among adults entering substance abuse treatment. Admissions records (July 2007-December 2009) were examined for treatment programs in San Francisco, California receiving government funding. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (n = 1,441) were compared to heterosexual persons (n = 11,770) separately by sex, examining primary problem substance of abuse, route of administration, age of first use, and frequency of use prior to treatment. Regarding bisexual males, the only significant finding of note was greater prevalence of methamphetamine as the primary substance of abuse. When compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men evidenced greater rates of primary problem methamphetamine use (44.5% and 21.8%, respectively, vs. 7.7%, adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 6.43 and 2.94), and there was lower primary heroin use among gay men (9.3% vs. 25.8%, OR 0.35). Among LGB individuals, race and ethnicity did not predict primary problem substance, except that among LGB men and women, a non-White race predicted cocaine use (OR 4.83 and 6.40, respectively), and among lesbian and bisexual women, Hispanic ethnicity predicted lower odds of primary cocaine use (OR 0.24). When compared to heterosexual men, gay men were more likely to smoke their primary problem substance (OR 1.61), first used this substance at an older age (M = 23.16 vs. M = 18.55, p substance fewer days prior to treatment (M = 8.75 vs. M = 11.41, p substance use for gay and bisexual men entering substance abuse treatment, but women did not evidence differences. Gay men evidenced unique factors that may reflect less severity of use when entering treatment including fewer days of use and a later age of initiation of their primary problem substances. The results underscore the importance of being sensitive to differences between gay, bisexual, and heterosexual males when considering substance use disorders. (Psyc

  14. Substance Use and Mental Health Stigma in Veterans With Co-Occurring Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Autumn; Corrigan, Patrick; Byrne, Thomas; Pinals, Debra A; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Smelson, David

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether substance use or mental illness was more stigmatizing among individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems. This study included 48 individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems enrolled in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services funded treatment program. Subjects received a baseline assessment that included addiction, mental health, and stigma measures. The sample consisted primarily of White males with an average age of 38 years. Substance abuse was found to be more stigmatizing than mental illness, F(1, 47) = 14.213, p co-occurring disorders with a greater focus on substance abuse.

  15. Paternal Psychopathology: Relationship to Adolescent Substance Abuse and Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Research has documented the genetic contribution of paternal alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder as risk factors for adolescent deviant behavior, including substance abuse. Teens (n=147) between the ages of 12 and 19 years and their parents participated in the study. The sample consisted of 74 substance abusing teens/families drawn from…

  16. Commercial 'Sex Work' and substance abuse among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial 'Sex Work' and substance abuse among adolescent street children of Harare Central Business District. ... These child rights violations are seen when children including street children engage in substance abuse and commerical sex work. This paper is part of the author's doctoral degree study that adopted a ...

  17. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with maternal khat chewing, cigarette and narghile (shisha) smoking including passive smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, we recommend health professionals working in antenatal care service, be aware, on counseling of mothers for banning or lowering use of substance during pregnancy. Key word: Substance use, ...

  18. Substance Use and Health and Safety among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; Bowen, Sarah; Baer, John S.; Peterson, Peggy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use is associated with the health and safety of homeless youth using cross-sectional, self-report data from 285 homeless adolescents. Path models were used to examine concurrent relationships between youth's substance use and multiple aspects of their health and safety, including measures of psychological…

  19. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental... processing the deletion notice. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not include required...

  20. 76 FR 65424 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... cause. 21 U.S.C. 812. The initial schedules of controlled substances by statute are found at 21 U.S.C... substances such as alprazolam can range from mild dysphoria and insomnia to a major syndrome including...

  1. 78 FR 16612 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ..., Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Superfund, Water pollution control, Water supply. Dated: March 11... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; Revision To Increase Public Availability of the... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) to broaden the technology, to include computer...

  2. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  3. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  4. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  5. Gender differences in treatment retention among individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam; Adams, Susie M; Morse, Siobhan A; MacMaster, Sam

    2015-04-01

    A significant number of individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders do not engage, stay, and/or complete residential treatment. Although prior research indicates that women and men differ in their substance abuse treatment experiences, our knowledge of individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders as well as those attending private residential treatment is limited. The purpose of this study is to examine gender differences on treatment retention for individuals with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders who participate in private residential treatment. The participants were 1,317 individuals (539 women and 778 men) with co-occurring substance abuse and mental health disorders receiving treatment at three private residential treatment centers. Bivariate analyses, life tables, and Cox regression (survival analyses) were utilized to examine gender effects on treatment retention, and identify factors that predict treatment retention for men and women. This study found that women with co-occurring disorders were more likely to stay longer in treatment when compared to men. The findings indicate the factors influencing length of stay differ for each gender, and include: type of substance used prior to admission; Addiction Severity Index Composite scores; and Readiness to Change/URICA scores. Age at admission was a factor for men only. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These findings can be incorporated to develop and initiate program interventions to minimize early attrition and increase overall retention in private residential treatment for individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders.

  6. BRIEF INTERVENTIONS IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence fo...

  7. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  8. Treatment of substance use disorders in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Catalano, Lauren T

    2017-07-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) represent a great barrier to functional recovery for individuals with schizophrenia. It is important to use research on treatment of SUDs in schizophrenia to guide treatment recommendations and program planning. We review studies of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat SUDs in individuals with schizophrenia. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion are (1) the percentage of the sample with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis is at least 25%; (2) participants have a comorbid SUD or problem use of substances; (3) an intervention for SUD is provided; (4) a substance use-related outcome is measured; and (5) the study design enabled examination of pre-post outcome measures including open label trials, nonrandomized evaluations (quasi-experimental designs, nonrandom assignment to groups), or randomized controlled trials. There are few psychopharmacology outcomes studies. Most have examined use of antipsychotic medications to treat SUDs in schizophrenia. Several trials have yielded positive findings for naltrexone in reducing drinking compared to placebo in this population. Motivational and cognitive-behavioral interventions are associated with decreased substance use in several trials. Treatment for SUDs is feasible within a range of settings and acceptable to many individuals with schizophrenia. All individuals with schizophrenia should be offered brief or more extended psychosocial interventions that incorporate discussion of personal reasons to change and training in cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce use, cope with cravings and stress, and avoid relapse. Future research must include larger samples, longitudinal designs, and similar outcome measures across studies.

  9. Factors associated with substance use in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Andrea P; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Capra, Lauren; Labuschagne, Zandre; Karnik, Niranjan S; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with substance use in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs). This cross-sectional study included 290 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who presented for an initial ED evaluation at The Eating Disorders Program at the University of Chicago Medicine between 2001 and 2012. Several factors including DSM-5 diagnosis, diagnostic scores, and demographic characteristics were examined. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test associations between several factors and patterns of drug use for alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and any other substance. Lifetime prevalence of any substance use was found to be 24.6% in those with anorexia nervosa, 48.7% in bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28.6% in ED not otherwise specified. Regular substance use (monthly, daily, and bingeing behaviors) or a substance use disorder was found in 27.9% of all patients. Older age was the only factor associated with regular use of any substance in the final multinomial model. Older age and non-white race was associated with greater alcohol and cannabis use. Although binge-purge frequency and bulimia nervosa diagnosis were associated with regular substance use in bivariate analyses, gender, race, and age were more robustly associated with substance use in the final multinomial models. Co-morbid substance use in adolescents with EDs is an important issue. Interventions targeting high-risk groups reporting regular substance use or substance use disorders are needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emotion regulation and substance use frequency in women with substance dependence and borderline personality disorder receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Seth R; Perepletchikova, Francheska; Holtzman, Kevin; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) identifies emotion dysregulation as central to the dangerous impulsivity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) including substance use disorders, and DBT targets improved emotion regulation as a primary mechanism of change. However, improved emotion regulation with DBT and associations between such improvement and behavioral outcomes such as substance use has not been previously reported. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess for improvement in emotion regulation and to examine the relationship between improvements in the emotion regulation and substance use problems following DBT treatment. Emotion regulation as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, depressed mood as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and their associations with substance use frequency were investigated in 27 women with substance dependence and BPD receiving 20 weeks of DBT in an academic community outpatient substance abuse treatment program. Results indicated improved emotion regulation, improved mood, and decreased substance use frequency. Further, emotion regulation improvement, but not improved mood, explained the variance of decreased substance use frequency. This is the first study to demonstrate improved emotion regulation in BPD patients treated with DBT and to show that improved emotion regulation can account for increased behavioral control in BPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: Emotion regulation assessment is recommended for future studies to further clarify the etiology and maintenance of disorders associated with emotional dysregulation such as BPD and substance dependence and to further explore emotion regulation as a potential mechanism of change for clinical interventions.

  11. Soldiering with Substance: Substance and Steroid Use among Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The military provides a unique social environment given the organization and culture of the institution. Understanding substance use by those inside this institution provides insight into both the population as well as substance use in general. Using data collected from in-depth interviews, this article explores the nature and extent of substance…

  12. Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance use among adolescents in Botswana. The study was a cross-sectional study in which a random sample of 3,763 students aged 10 to 19 years. A survey questionnaire was self-administered using a ...

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury and Delayed Sequelae: A Review - Traumatic Brain Injury and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion are Precursors to Later-Onset Brain Disorders, Including Early-Onset Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Kiraly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injuries are too common. Most people are unaware of the incidence of and horrendous consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI. Research and the advent of sophisticated imaging have led to progression in the understanding of brain pathophysiology following TBI. Seminal evidence from animal and human experiments demonstrate links between TBI and the subsequent onset of premature, psychiatric syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Objectives of this summary are, therefore, to instill appreciation regarding the importance of brain injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, and to increase awareness regarding the long-term delayed consequences following TBI.

  14. Substance-induced psychoses: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Alessio; Volonteri, Lucia Sara; Dragogna, Filippo; Rovera, Chiara; Maffini, Michele; Mauri, Massimo Carlo; Altamura, Carlo A

    2011-12-01

    Substances with psychotomimetic properties such as cocaine, amphetamines, hallucinogens and cannabis are widespread, and their use or abuse can provoke psychotic reactions resembling a primary psychotic disease. The recent escalating use of methamphetamine throughout the world and its association with psychotic symptoms in regular users has fuelled concerns. The use of cannabis and cocaine by young people has considerably increased over recent years, and age at first use has dramatically decreased. There is some evidence that cannabis is now on the market in a more potent form than in previous decades. Furthermore, a large number of studies have reported a link between adolescent cannabis use and the development of stable psychosis in early adulthood. The situation is further complicated by the high rates of concomitant substance use by subjects with a psychotic illness which, especially in young users with an early-phase psychotic disorder, can make diagnosis difficult. This paper reviews the literature concerning the properties of psychotogenic substances and the psychotic symptoms they can give rise to, and discusses the association between substance abuse and psychosis with particular emphasis on the differential diagnosis of a primary and substance-induced psychotic disorder. The findings of this review indicate that psychosis due to substance abuse is commonly observed in clinical practice. The propensity to develop psychosis seems to be a function of the severity of use and dependence. From a phenomenological point of view, it is possible to identify some elements that may help clinicians involved in differential diagnoses between primary and substance-induced psychoses. There remains a striking paucity of information on the outcomes, treatments, and best practices of substance-induced psychotic episodes.

  15. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  16. Childhood Neglect, Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Substance Use: Does the Neighborhood Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Erinn B; Oshri, Assaf; Caughy, Margaret O

    2017-07-01

    Childhood neglect is associated with risk behaviors in adolescence, including substance use. There is evidence that internalizing behaviors may serve as a mechanism linking childhood neglect and substance use; however, further research is needed to examine this developmental pathway. According to developmental and ecological approaches, the neighborhood context and the developmental timing of maltreatment should both be considered when examining the sequelae of childhood neglect. Hence, the present study uses a longitudinal sample of youth (N = 965, 49.1% female, 59.2% African-American) to examine the influence of timing in the relationship between childhood neglect and adolescent psychopathology, and to examine the indirect effects of child neglect on substance use via internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Furthermore, the role of neighborhood disorder in this indirect effect was tested. Five data collection time points were used: Time 1(M age  = 4.557, SD age  = .701), Time 2 (M age  = 6.422, SD age  = .518), Time 3 (M age  = 12.370, SD age  = .443), Time 4 (M age  = 14.359, SD age  = .452), and Time 5 (M age  = 16.316, SD age  = .615). The findings showed that internalizing problems mediated the link between the severity of neglect in early childhood and adolescent substance use, and this pathway was moderated by neighborhood disorder. These results have implications for preventative interventions aimed toward reducing substance use for at-risk adolescents.

  17. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  18. Adolescent Substance Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…

  19. Substance Misuse in the Psychiatric Emergency Service; A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chaput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse is frequently encountered in the psychiatric emergency service (PES and may take many forms, ranging from formal DSM-IV diagnoses to less obvious entities such as hazardous consumption. Detecting such patients using traditional screening instruments has proved problematic. We therefore undertook this study to more fully characterize substance misuse in the PES and to determine whether certain variables might help better screen these patients. We used a prospectively acquired database of over 18,000 visits made to four PESs during a 2-year period in the province of Quebec, Canada. One of the variables acquired was a subjective rating by the nursing staff as to whether substance misuse was a contributing factor to the visit (graded as direct, indirect, or not at all. Substance misuse accounted for 21% of all diagnoses and alcohol was the most frequent substance used. Patients were divided into those with primary (PSM, comorbid (CSM or no substance misuse (NSM. Depressive disorders were the most frequent primary diagnoses in CSM, whereas personality and substance misuse disorders were frequent secondary diagnoses in PSM. Although many variables significantly differentiated the three groups, few were sufficiently detailed to be used as potential screening tools. Those situations that did have sufficient details included those with a previous history of substance misuse, substance misuse within 48 hours of the visit, and visits graded by the nursing staff as being directly and/or indirectly related to substance misuse. Variables related to substance misuse itself were the primary predictors of PSM and, less significantly, CSM. The nursing staff rating, although promising, was obtained in less than 30% of all visits, rendering its practical use difficult to assess.

  20. Why Do Adolescents Use Substances (Drugs/Alcohol)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Zigmond A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)

  1. Bioremediation of toxic substances by mercury resistant marine bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Sarkar, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    Bioremediation of toxic substances includes microbe-mediated enzymatic transformation of toxicants to non-toxic, often assimilable, forms. Mercury-resistant marine bacteria are found to be very promising in dealing with mercury, and a host of other...

  2. Determinants of psychoactive substance use among incarcerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of any substance. Being sexually active and substance use before incarceration significantly (P<0.05) predicted current use of illicit substances while high self esteem and being the first born was protective. Since substance use prevalence is high among incarcerated delinquents, the incorporation of substance abuse ...

  3. Prospective Relationships Between Sleep Problems and Substance Use, Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Burk, W.J.; Vorst, H. van der; Dahl, R.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use,

  4. Prospective relationships between sleep problems and substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Burk, W.J.; van der Vorst, H.; Dahl, R.E.; Wiers, R.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    While research has shown that sleep problems and substance use are reciprocally associated in adults, much less is known about this association in early adolescence. The main aim of the current longitudinal study was to explore bidirectional relationships between sleep problems, substance use,

  5. 75 FR 44929 - Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... workplace substance abuse program, including drug testing. Currently, the Department is considering more... Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy Contractors AGENCY: Office..., 1992, on DOE contractor workplace substance abuse programs (57 FR 32652). The rule established minimum...

  6. What do high school students say when they talk to their friends about substance use? Exploring the content of substance-use-specific communication with friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A; Krieger, Janice L; Basinger, Erin D; Figueroa-Caballero, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the content of adolescents' conversations with their friends about substance use, adolescents' reactions to such conversations, and reasons why some adolescents did not engage in such conversations. Based on 25 semistructured interviews with high school students, we identified three themes: informational, persuasive, and relational messages. Informational messages included discussing how many peers use substances and clarifying rumors about a friend's substance use. Persuasive messages involved direct anti-substance-use messages (e.g., warning), direct pro-substance-use messages (e.g., legalizing marijuana), indirect anti-substance-use messages (e.g., disliking their substance-use experience), and indirect pro-substance-use messages (e.g., intentions to use substances). Relational messages included joking about substance use and establishing code words for use. Adolescents reacted to their conversations in several ways, such as shock and increased relational closeness. When adolescents did not talk about substance use with their friend, they offered several reasons, including low response efficacy and fear of ruining the friendship.

  7. Patterns of substance abuse among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausch, Otto

    2003-12-01

    Substance abuse patterns were reviewed for a group of patients admitted to the Gambling Treatment Program at the Brecksville Veterans Administration Medical Center. A retrospective chart review of 113 consecutively admitted patients between September 2000 and September 2001 found that 66.4% of pathological gamblers had a lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence at some point in their lives. A history of substance abuse or dependence was less common among gamblers aged 60 and above. In the year prior to admission, 58.1% of those with a history of substance abuse or dependence were actively using substances. Alcohol was the most commonly used substance, followed by marijuana and cocaine. In most gamblers with comorbid disorders, the onset of substance dependence preceded the onset of problem gambling. Pathological gamblers engaged in multiple impulsive and dysfunctional behaviors including suicide attempts, compulsive shopping and spending, and compulsive sexual behavior, and the presence of comorbid substance abuse disorders may influence the degree to which pathological gamblers engage in these additional problematic behaviors. These factors have important implications for treatment and prevention of relapse, as well as for theories of addictions.

  8. The behavioral economics of young adult substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A

    2016-11-01

    Alcohol and drug use peaks during young adulthood and can interfere with critical developmental tasks and set the stage for chronic substance misuse and associated social, educational, and health-related outcomes. There is a need for novel, theory-based approaches to guide substance abuse prevention efforts during this critical developmental period. This paper discusses the particular relevance of behavioral economic theory to young adult alcohol and drug misuse, and reviews of available literature on prevention and intervention strategies that are consistent with behavioral economic theory. Behavioral economic theory predicts that decisions to use drugs and alcohol are related to the relative availability and price of both alcohol and substance-free alternative activities, and the extent to which reinforcement from delayed substance-free outcomes is devalued relative to the immediate reinforcement associated with drugs. Behavioral economic measures of motivation for substance use are based on relative levels of behavioral and economic resource allocation towards drug versus alternatives, and have been shown to predict change in substance use over time. Policy and individual level prevention approaches that are consistent with behavioral economic theory are discussed, including brief interventions that increase future orientation and engagement in rewarding alternatives to substance use. Prevention approaches that increase engagement in constructive future-oriented activities among young adults (e.g., educational/vocational success) have the potential to reduce future health disparities associated with both substance abuse and poor educational/vocational outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  10. A review of implicit and explicit substance self-concept as a predictor of alcohol and tobacco use and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Gasser, Melissa L; Ramirez, Jason J; Cvencek, Dario

    2017-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the self-concept as it relates to substance use. Self-concept has a long history in psychological theory and research; however, substance self-concept (e.g., viewing one's self as a drinker or smoker) is an understudied area of research with the potential to expand existing conceptualizations of substance use, addiction, and prevention and treatment efforts, and should receive greater research attention. First, we review and provide a theoretical framework of substance self-concept that draws from dual process models and distinguishes between implicit and explicit self-concept. Next, we summarize key findings related to substance use in the extant literature, focusing on alcohol and tobacco (smoking). Across both substances, there is converging evidence that substance self-concept is associated with substance use outcomes, including quantity and frequency of use and problems associated with use, and that change in substance self-concept is associated with recovery from substance misuse. Recommendations for the substance self-concept research agenda include routine assessment of substance self-concept, expanded use of implicit measures, investigation of moderators of substance self-concept, and targeting substance self-concept directly in prevention and intervention efforts. Ultimately, we suggest that substance self-concept is a promising, but understudied, construct. Greater research attention to substance self-concept could clarify its potential as an important risk factor for hazardous use and addiction as well as its utility as a prevention and treatment target.

  11. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  12. The Comparison of Body Image, Quality of Sleep and Marital Satisfaction among Substance Abuser and Non-substance Abuser Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The previous research has demonstrated that addiction treatment services for women need to be based on knowledge of female psychological needs. Therefore, the aim of current study is to compare body image, quality of sleep and marital satisfaction among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive comparative research. 200 women including 100 substance abuser women and 100 non-substance abuser women were chosen through convenience method in Arak in 2015. The measuring instruments were Fisher body image scale (1970, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (1989 and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (1989. Data was analyzed utilizing t independent.Results: The results showed that there is the significant difference between marital satisfaction (P=0.001 and quality of sleep (P=0.001 among substance abuser and non-substance abuser women. Additionally, the significant difference was not observed between body image (P= 0.31 among these two groups.Conclusion: These findings emphasized that substance use decreases the quality of sleep and marital satisfaction in women. Hence, it should be considered these factors in process of therapeutic intervention in substance abuser women.

  13. Isolation of haloorganic groundwater humic substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, M.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Humic substances were isolated from groundwater according to a revised method designed to avoid organohalogen artefacts. The prepared humic substances exhibited lower halogen contents than humic substances isolated according to the conventionally used method. Excessive oxidation or hydrolysis...

  14. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  15. Relative contributions of parent substance use and childhood maltreatment to chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems among homeless women: mediating roles of self-esteem and abuse in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Judith A; Leslie, Michelle Burden; Nyamathi, Adeline

    2002-10-01

    This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substance abuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substance abuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes. The sample consists of 581 homeless women residing in shelters or sober living centers in Los Angeles (54% African-American, 23% Latina, 22% White, mean age=33.5 years). Multiple-indicator latent variables served as predictors and outcomes in structural models. Childhood abuse was indicated by sexual, physical, and verbal abuse. Childhood abuse directly predicted later physical abuse, chronic homelessness, depression, and less self-esteem. Parent substance use directly predicted later substance use problems among the women. Recent physical abuse predicted chronic homelessness, depression, and substance use problems. Greater self-esteem predicted less depression and fewer substance use problems. Childhood abuse also had significant indirect effects on depression, chronic homelessness, and drug and alcohol problems mediated through later physical abuse and self-esteem. Although there was a strong relationship between childhood abuse and parent drug use, childhood abuse was the more pervasive and devastating predictor of dysfunctional outcomes. Childhood abuse predicted a wider range of problems including lower self-esteem, more victimization, more depression, and chronic homelessness, and indirectly predicted drug and alcohol problems. The mediating roles of recent physical abuse and self-esteem suggest salient leverage points for change through empowerment training and self-esteem enhancement in homeless women.

  16. Alcohol & drug abuse: Revisiting employee assistance programs and substance use problems in the workplace: key issues and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda that includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs' effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures.

  17. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  18. A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Clark, Duncan B; Ahonen, Lia; FitzGerald, Douglas; Trucco, Elisa M; Zucker, Robert A

    2018-04-07

    To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths' risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking. To focus the analyses on a single target substance use outcome pertinent to the stated goals of the ABCD Study, early-onset marijuana use was selected. Utilizing data collected prior to the initiation of the ABCD Study, four longitudinal data sets were used in nine secondary data analyses to test, replicate and validate a brief screening assessment for boys and girls to identify those at risk for early-onset marijuana use by ages 14-15. The combination of child externalizing problems reported by the parent (4 items: destroys things belonging to his/her family or others; disobedience at school; lying or cheating; steals outside the home) and parent smoking (1 item) proved to be the optimal screen. This was largely replicated across the four data sets. Indicators of predictive efficiency were modest in magnitude and statistically significant in 8 out of the 9 analyses. The results informed the screen's optimal threshold for identifying children at risk for early-onset marijuana use. The addition of child internalizing problems did not improve these predictions. Further analyses showed the predictive utility of the screen for several other substance use outcomes at ages 15 to 18, including alcohol and nicotine use. The results support the use of a short screening assessment to identify youth at risk for early-onset substance use in the ABCD Study and other research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ["I'll tell you if you ask me"; screening young people for substance use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Germond-Burquier, V; Haller, D M; Narring, F

    2010-06-16

    Substance use among young people is an important issue for educational, social and medical providers. More than 75% young people have had a medical visit in the last 12 months, making primary care settings ideal for screening and early intervention programs. The prevalence of substance misuse was assessed with the DEP-ADO screen test among young patients attending the primary care consultation of Geneva University Hospitals. The screen was well accepted by both patients and providers and only took about 10 minutes to complete. One in five screened positive for problematic substance use, supporting the current guidelines recommending annual screening for substance misuse in adolescent primary care outpatients.

  20. Use of psychoactive substances in students at a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Luci da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of psychoactive substances by the student population has been the object of various studies in Brazil. Objective: To determine the prevalence of substance use among students. Methods: Quantitative study with a closed questionnaire based on standardized assessment instruments was developed. It consists of questions related to types of psychoactive substance use, abuse, frequency and duration of use, self-criticism regarding the use, consequences of use in relation to health, and misdemeanors committed under the influence of psychoactive substances. The sample included the participation of 268 students. A total of 183 (68.3% questionnaires were analyzed, and only those with positive result for substance abuse at some point in life, the remainder, 85 (31% questionnaires, had negative responses to psychoactive substances. Results: Students’ responses to the two years surveyed indicated that the first psychoactive substance used was alcohol (77.9%, followed by tobacco use (10.9%, and marijuana (7.6%. Of the students surveyed, 145 (79.2% answered that still make use of psychoactive substances, and the current frequency of use varies from one or more times per week. When asked about the possibility of being or becoming drug addicts, 169 (92.3% responded that they are not or will not become dependent. Conclusion: The results indicate the high rate of substance use among college students surveyed, and point to their contradiction to consider such psychoactive substances harmful to their health.

  1. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount

  2. Implementation of a nationwide health economic consultation service to assist substance use researchers: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M; Leff, Jared A; Linas, Benjamin P; Morgan, Jake R; McCollister, Kathryn; Schackman, Bruce R

    2018-03-20

    Health economic evaluation findings assist stakeholders in improving the quality, availability, scalability, and sustainability of evidence-based services, and in maximizing the efficiency of service delivery. The Center for Health Economics of Treatment Interventions for Substance Use Disorders, HCV, and HIV (CHERISH) is a NIDA-funded multi-institutional center of excellence whose mission is to develop and disseminate health-economic research on healthcare utilization, health outcomes, and health-related behaviors that informs substance use disorder treatment policy, and HCV and HIV care of people who use substances. We designed a consultation service that is free to researchers whose work aligns with CHERISH's mission. The service includes up to six hours of consulting time. After prospective consultees submit their request online, they receive a screening call from the consultation service director, who connects them with a consultant with relevant expertise. Consultees and consultants complete web-based evaluations following the consultation; consultees also complete a six-month follow-up. We report on the status of the service from its inception in July 2015 through June 2017. We have received 28 consultation requests (54% Early Stage Investigators, 57% MD or equivalent, 28% PhD, 61% women) on projects typically related to planning a study or grant application (93%); 71% were HIV/AIDS-related. Leading topics included cost-effectiveness (43%), statistical-analysis/econometrics (36%), cost (32%), cost-benefit (21%), and quality-of-life (18%). All consultees were satisfied with their overall experience, and felt that consultation expectations and objectives were clearly defined and the consultant's expertise was matched appropriately with their needs. Results were similar for consultants, who spent a median of 3 hours on consultations. There is a need for health-economic methodological guidance among substance use, HCV, and HIV researchers. Lessons learned

  3. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K

    2017-10-01

    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (preduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Housing First: exploring participants' early support needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; O'Campo, Patricia; Holtby, Alixandra R; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Tsemberis, Sam

    2014-04-13

    Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants' early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrollment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This study used a pre-post design to compare quantitative 6-month outcome data to baseline values in key domains and multivariate regression to identify baseline demographic, clinical or service use variables associated with observed changes in these domains. In addition, qualitative data exploring participant and service provider perspectives and experiences was collected via stakeholder interviews and focus groups, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The majority (60 to 72%) of participants followed the expected trajectory of improvement, with the remaining experiencing difficulties in community integration, mental health symptom severity, substance use, community functioning and quality of life 6 months after program enrollment. Diagnosis of psychotic disorder was associated with a reduction in quality of life from baseline to 6-months, while substance use disorders were associated with reduced mental illness symptoms and substance use related problems and an improvement in quality of life. Participants housed in independent housing at 6-months had greater improvements in community integration and quality of life, and greater reduction in mental illness symptoms, compared to those not independently housed. The quality of the working alliance was positively associated with improvements in physical and psychological community integration and quality of life. Qualitative data provided a unique window into the loneliness and isolation experienced by Housing First participants, as well as problems

  5. Housing First: exploring participants’ early support needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Housing First has become a popular treatment model for homeless adults with mental illness, yet little is known about program participants’ early experiences or trajectories. This study used a mixed methods design to examine participant changes in selected domains 6 months after enrolment in a Canadian field trial of Housing First. Methods The study sample included 301 participants receiving the Housing First intervention at the Toronto site of the At Home/Chez Soi project. This study used a pre-post design to compare quantitative 6-month outcome data to baseline values in key domains and multivariate regression to identify baseline demographic, clinical or service use variables associated with observed changes in these domains. In addition, qualitative data exploring participant and service provider perspectives and experiences was collected via stakeholder interviews and focus groups, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The majority (60 to 72%) of participants followed the expected trajectory of improvement, with the remaining experiencing difficulties in community integration, mental health symptom severity, substance use, community functioning and quality of life 6 months after program enrolment. Diagnosis of psychotic disorder was associated with a reduction in quality of life from baseline to 6-months, while substance use disorders were associated with reduced mental illness symptoms and substance use related problems and an improvement in quality of life. Participants housed in independent housing at 6-months had greater improvements in community integration and quality of life, and greater reduction in mental illness symptoms, compared to those not independently housed. The quality of the working alliance was positively associated with improvements in physical and psychological community integration and quality of life. Qualitative data provided a unique window into the loneliness and isolation experienced by Housing First

  6. New York hazardous substances emergency events surveillance: learning from hazardous substances releases to improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welles, Wanda Lizak; Wilburn, Rebecca E.; Ehrlich, Jenny K.; Floridia, Christina M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the New York State Department of Health, funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, has collected data about non-petroleum hazardous substances releases through the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (NYHSEES) project. This study investigates risk factors for hazardous substances releases that may result in public health consequences such as injury or reported health effects. The 6428 qualifying events that occurred during the 10-year-period of 1993-2002 involved 8838 hazardous substances, 842 evacuations, more than 75,419 people evacuated, and more than 3120 people decontaminated. These events occurred both at fixed facilities (79%) and during transport (21%). The causative factors most frequently contributing to reported events were equipment failure (39%) and human error (33%). Five of the 10 chemicals most frequently associated with injuries were also among the 10 chemicals most frequently involved in reported events: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, and carbon monoxide. The chemical categories most frequently associated with events, and with events with adverse health effects were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and solvents, and acids. Events with releases of hazardous substances were associated with injuries to 3089 people including employees (37%), responders (12%), the general public (29%) and students (22%). The most frequently reported adverse health effects were respiratory irritation, headache, and nausea or vomiting. Most of the injured were transported to the hospital, treated, and released (55%) or treated at the scene (29%). These data have been used for emergency response training, planning, and prevention activities to reduce morbidity and mortality from future events

  7. Affiliation with substance-using peers: Examining gene-environment correlations among parent monitoring, polygenic risk, and children's impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K; Chassin, Laurie; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Pandika, Danielle; Wang, Frances L; Bountress, Kaitlin; Dick, Danielle; Agrawal, Arpana

    2017-07-01

    Parental monitoring can buffer the effect of deviant peers on adolescents' substance use by reducing affiliation with substance-using peers. However, children's genetic predispositions may evoke poorer monitoring, contributing to negative child outcomes. We examined evocative genotype-environment correlations underlying children's genetic predisposition for behavioral undercontrol and parental monitoring in early adolescence via children's impulsivity in middle childhood, and the influence of parental monitoring on affiliation with substance-using peers a year and a half later (n = 359). Genetic predisposition for behavioral undercontrol was captured using a polygenic risk score, and a portion of passive rGE was controlled by including parents' polygenic risk scores. Children's polygenic risk predicted poorer parental monitoring via greater children's impulsivity, indicating evocative rGE, controlling for a portion of passive rGE. Poorer parental monitoring predicted greater children's affiliation with substance-using peers a year and a half later. Results are discussed with respect to gene-environment correlations within developmental cascades. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Integrating HIV and substance use services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, Victoria; Cervero-Liceras, Francisco; Chuah, Fiona Lh; Ong, Suan Ee; Murphy, Georgina; Sigfrid, Louise; Watt, Nicola; Balabanova, Dina; Hogarth, Sue; Maimaris, Will; Buse, Kent; Piot, Peter; McKee, Martin; Perel, Pablo; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2017-05-30

    Substance use is an important risk factor for HIV, with both concentrated in certain vulnerable and marginalized populations. Although their management differs, there may be opportunities to integrate services for substance use and HIV. In this paper we systematically review evidence from studies that sought to integrate care for people living with HIV and substance use problems. Studies were included if they evaluated service integration for substance use and HIV. We searched multiple databases from inception until October 2015. Articles were screened independently by two reviewers and assessed for risk of bias. 11,057 records were identified, with 7616 after removal of duplicates. After screening titles and abstracts, 51 met the inclusion criteria. Integration models were categorized by location (HIV, substance use and other facilities), level of integration from mirco (integrated care delivered to individuals) to macro (system level integrations) and degree of integration from least (screening and counselling only) to most (care for HIV, substance use and/or other illnesses at the same facility). Most reported descriptive or cohort studies; in four randomized control trials integrated activities improved patient outcomes. There is potential for integrating services at all facility types, including mobile health services. While services offering screening only can achieve synergies, there are benefits from delivering integrated treatment for HIV and substance use, including ease of referral to other mental health and social services. Our review used a wide range of databases and conference archives to increase representation of papers from low- and middle-income countries. Limitations include the overrepresentation of studies from the United States, and the descriptive nature of the majority of papers. The evidence reviewed shows that greater integration offers important benefits in both patient and service outcomes but further research and outcome reporting is

  9. Personnel-General: Army Substance Abuse Program Civilian Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-15

    healthful, and secure workplace . To achieve this goal, it is Army policy that: a. DA recognizes alcoholism and drug abuse as a preventable and treatable...operation. (2) Types, effects, signs of substance or drug use, and the hazards/effects of alcohol and other drug abuse on performance and conduct. (3...alcohol and drug prevention education and awareness education (including substance abuse related to a Health Promotion Program), unit ASAP training

  10. Substance use - LSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is available in powder, liquid, tablet, or capsule form. LSD is usually taken by mouth. Some people inhale it through the nose (snort) or inject it into a vein (shooting up). Street names for LSD include acid, blotter, ...

  11. Substance use -- phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for PCP include angel dust, embalming fluid, hog, killer weed, love boat, ozone, peace pill, rocket fuel, ... or anxiety can develop. This can lead to suicide attempts. A very large dose, usually from taking ...

  12. Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emerging adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; McClernon, F Joseph; Kollins, Scott H; Prybol, Kevin; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2013-11-01

    To examine the influence of childhood economic strains on substance use in young adulthood and to assess the mediating roles of self-control as well as positive parenting during adolescence in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. The study included data from participants (n = 1,285) in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, and Transition to Adult. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among risk factors during childhood and adolescence that predicted substance use in early adulthood. Conditions of economic strains, especially poverty, during childhood were associated with an increased likelihood of regular smoking in adulthood, which was partially mediated by poorer self-control during adolescence. Self-control is negatively affected by economic strains and serves as a mediator between poverty and risk of regular smoking. Additional research is needed to better understand how economic strains effect the development of self-control.

  13. Policy statement--children, adolescents, substance abuse, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-10-01

    The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.

  14. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Substance use and predictors of substance dependence in homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2011-11-01

    To examine lifetime and current prevalence rates of substance use disorders and the demographic and clinical correlates of current drug dependence in a sample of homeless women. A cross-sectional study of 196 homeless women in three Canadian cities was done. Each subject was assessed using structured clinical interviews. A multivariate regression model was applied to determine predictors of substance use. The mean age of the sample was 35.3 years, 54.4% identified as Aboriginal, 46.4% lived on the street Crack cocaine (58%) was the most common substance used, followed by alcohol (53%), cannabis (41%), and heroin (30%). Overall, 82.4% of the sample had at least one type of current substance use disorder, of which 70.5% had drug dependence and 37.8% had alcohol dependence. 58.3% had concurrent substance use and mental health disorders. 76.7% of those individuals with current alcohol dependence had concurrent drug dependence. Only 24.6% of those who had recovered from alcohol dependence had no current substance use disorder. Multivariate analyses showed that younger age, living on the street, engaging in sex work, and having ever attempted suicide were associated with current drug dependence. Prevalence rates for alcohol and especially drug dependence were exceptionally high in this sample. Innovative programs need to be developed which are accessible and tailored to meet the needs of this specific population, accounting for high problem severity, polysubstance dependence, and high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  17. Neurochemical Profiles of some novel psychoactive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Les; Gibbons, Simon; Treble, Ric; Setola, Vincent; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen substances from the class of drugs sometimes known as “legal highs” were screened against a battery of human receptors in binding assays, and their potencies as inhibitors of monoamine uptake determined in functional in vitro assays. Thirteen of the test substances acted as inhibitors of monoamine uptake at submicromolar concentrations, including 9 potent inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT), 12 potent inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) and 4 potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Seven compounds acted as submicromolar inhibitors of both DAT and NET, and three substances 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine (5-APB),1-naphthalen-2-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“naphyrone”) and 1-naphthalen-1-yl-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylpentan-1-one hydrochloride, (“1-naphyrone”) were submicromolar inhibitors of all three monoamine transporters. There was a lack of correlation between results of functional uptake experiments and in vitro binding assays for the monoamine transporters. There was also no correlation between the human behavioural effects of the substances and the results of bindings assays for a range of receptor targets, although 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)propan-2-amine(5-APB), 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)propan-2-amine hydrochloride(6-APB) and 5-iodo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-amine hydrochloride,(5-iodo-aminoindane) exhibited 5HT2B and α2C receptors. Functional assays revealed that 5-APB and 6-APB were potent full agonists at 5HT2B receptors. PMID:23261499

  18. Substance abuse treatment programs' data management capacity: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Ford, James H; Wise, Meg; Mackey, Deirdre; Green, Carla A

    2011-04-01

    Despite treatment improvement and performance management imperatives, little research describes the data management capacity of substance abuse treatment programs, and useful metrics are not available to gauge capacity. This exploratory study evaluates clinical and administrative data management at eight substance abuse treatment programs in four US states to identify factors for developing an appropriate metric. Findings indicate that programs tend to manage data inefficiently and have few protocols guiding information management. Barriers to better data management included lack of integrated information technology (IT) systems; limited funding, time, and staff for developing and implementing IT-related changes; and divergent staff skills in and attitudes toward IT. This snapshot of substance abuse treatment programs' data management capabilities suggests a need for a metric to examine data management capability in these settings. Infusion of expertise, training, and funding are needed to improve substance abuse treatment programs' IT-related systems and data management processes.

  19. Substance use during pregnancy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Forray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. There are few existing treatments for prenatal substance use and these mainly comprise behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Contingency management has been shown to be the most efficacious of these. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the prenatal use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, including the effects of these on maternal and fetal health and the current therapeutic options.

  20. Brief interventions in substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Malhotra, A

    2000-04-01

    Brief interventions in substance abuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority.

  1. [Substance-related and addictive disorders in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasius, Rainer; Sack, Peter-Michael; Strittmatter, Esther; Kaess, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper concerns the revised classification of Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). In DSM-5, substance use disorders are diagnosed on a continuum of severity specified by explicit operationalized diagnostic criteria. "Gambling disorder" is the only behavioral addiction added to the DSM. Furthermore, preliminary criteria for "Caffeine Use Disorder" and "Internet Gaming Disorder" have now been defined in the manual. Adopting the DSM-5 criteria catalogue within the German treatment system for children and adolescents with substance use disorders or at risk for developing substance use disorders would be of great significance. Since the diagnostic threshold is lower, more patients would be eligible for treatment. Thus, early intervention in the area of substance use disorders should be strengthened, a development that appears to be highly desirable from the perspective of child and adolescent psychiatry. The current Section III diagnoses, with their now comprehensive diagnostic criteria, facilitate more internationally compatible research.

  2. Negative attributions towards people with substance use disorders in South Africa: Variation across substances and by gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorsdahl Katherine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has examined attitudes towards people who use substances in low and middle income countries (LMIC. Therefore, the present study examined the attributions made by the general South African population about people who use substances and whether these attributions differ by the type of substance being used, the gender of the person using the substance, or the characteristics of the person making the attribution. Method A convenience sample of 868 members of the general public was obtained through street-intercept methods. One of 8 vignettes portraying alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine or heroin, with either a male or female as the protagonist was presented to each respondent. Respondents’ attitudes towards the specific cases were investigated. Results Respondents held equally negative views of the presented substances, with the exception of the cannabis vignette which was considered significantly less “dangerous” than the alcohol vignette. Respondents were more likely to offer “help” to women who use alcohol, but more likely to suggest “coercion into treatment” for men. Individuals who scored higher on the ASSIST were more likely to hold negative attitudes towards substance users and black African respondents were more likely to offer help to individuals who use substances. Conclusion The stigma associated with substance use in South Africa is high and not necessarily dependent on the drug of choice. However, a range of factors, including gender of the substance user, and ethnicity of the rater, may impact on stigma. Interventions designed to strengthen mental health literacy and gender-focused anti-stigma campaigns may have the potential to increase treatment seeking behaviour.

  3. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A parallel process growth mixture model of conduct problems and substance use with risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2010-10-01

    Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  6. Aligning the ICD-11 classification of disorders due to substance use with global service needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznyak, V; Reed, G M; Medina-Mora, M E

    2017-12-04

    The use of psychoactive, potentially dependence-producing substances is highly prevalent around the world, and contributes substantially to global disease burden. There is a major gap between the need for treatment for substance use disorders. Changes proposed for the classification of substance use disorders in the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, based on a public health approach, have important implications for the conceptualisation, structure and availability of services. These include: (1) an updated and expanded range of substance classes; (2) greater specification of different harmful patterns of substance use, which may be continuous or episodic and recurrent; (3) a new category to denote single episodes of harmful use; (4) a category describing hazardous use of substances; and (5) simplification of diagnostic guidelines for substance dependence. This paper describes these changes and the opportunities they present for improved prevention, treatment, monitoring and health policy.

  7. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  8. Substance use and teen pregnancy in the United States: evidence from the NSDUH 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Ugalde, Jenny; Todic, Jelena

    2015-06-01

    Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the relationship between substance use and teen pregnancy using population-based samples. We aim to provide a comprehensive examination of substance use among pregnant adolescents in the United States. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2012 (n=97,850), we examine the prevalence of the past 12-month and the past 30-day substance use and substance use disorders among pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents (ages 12-17). We also examine psychosocial and pregnancy-related correlates of current substance use among the subsample of pregnant adolescents (n=810). Pregnant teens were significantly more likely to have experimented with a variety of substances and meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=1.65, 95% CI=1.26-2.17), cannabis (AOR=2.29, 95% CI=1.72-3.04), and other illicit drug use disorders (AOR=2.84, 95% CI=1.92-4.19). Pregnant early adolescents (ages 12-14; AOR=4.34, 95% CI=2.28-8.26) were significantly more likely and pregnant late adolescents (ages 15-17; AOR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56-0.90) significantly less likely than their non-pregnant counterparts to be current substance users. Study findings point not only to a relationship between pregnancy and prior substance use, but also suggest that substance use continues for many teens during pregnancy. We found that substance use is particularly problematic among early adolescents and that the prevalence of substance use attenuates dramatically as youth progress from the first to the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Blackowicz, Michael; Liu, Yangyang; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A; Turyk, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is thought to be consumption of seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, using a representative sample of the U.S. Data on PFAS levels and self-reported fish consumption over the past 30 days were collected from the 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twelve different PFAS were measured in serum samples from participants. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with serum PFAS concentrations. Additional models were further adjusted for other potential exposures including military service and consumption of ready-to-eat and fast foods. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were examined in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, MPAH, PFNA, PFUA). The PFAS with the highest concentrations were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 8.3, 2.7, 1.5 and 1.0ng/mL). Fish consumption was generally low, with a median of 1.2 fish meals and 0.14 shellfish meals, reported over the past 30 days. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, total fish consumption was associated with reduced MPAH, and with elevated PFDE, PFNA and PFuDA. Shellfish consumption was associated with elevations of all PFAS examined except MPAH. Certain specific fish and shellfish types were also associated with specific PFAS. Adjustment for additional exposure variables resulted in little to no change in effect estimates for seafood variables. PFAS are emerging

  10. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  11. Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Saez Ribas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyfluorinated alkylated substances have recently gainedscientific interest because they have been found to be present in appreciable concentrations in human serum, in surface waters, and in tissues of wildlife from remote areas. The developments in analytical chemistry of these mainly neutral or

  12. Observations on Substance Abuse Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Howard J.

    1986-01-01

    Applies a philosophy of science perspective to substance abuse theory to clarify these theories in general and peer cluster theory in particular. Examines the natural history of an illicit drug from a macroscopic level of analysis to illuminate some of the social-psychological factors that influence drug use and abuse patterns. (Author/KS)

  13. Substance Use as Impression Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark J.; Getz, J. Greg

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of substance use as an impression management tactic. Introductory psychology students (n=377) responded to a survey instrument measuring self-monitoring, perceived success in impression management, interaction anxiety, and self-esteem. Results suggest that alcohol use may serve an impression management function. (JPS)

  14. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identification and determination of prohibited substances in very low concentrations, mainly liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, are also addressed. Of concern is the anticipation that the .... to detect prohibited drugs in biological fluids, rapid improvements in mass spectrometry (MS) have allowed accredited ...

  15. Breaking the Cycle: Using a Relational Approach to Address the Impact of Maternal Substance Use on Regulation and Attachment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Mary; Leslie, Margaret; DeMarchi, Gina

    2007-01-01

    Breaking the Cycle (BTC), founded in 1995, is an early identification, prevention, and treatment program for pregnant and parenting women who abuse substances. The authors explore the impact of substance abuse on early attachment relationships and on infant regulatory functioning. BTC focuses on building and enhancing the mother's relationships,…

  16. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  17. Psychotic-like Experiences and Substance Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-03-02

    Psychotic disorders, as well as psychotic-like experiences and substance use, have been found to be associated. The main goal of the present study was to analyse the relationship between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in college students. The simple comprised a total of 660 participants (M = 20.3 years, SD = 2.6). The results showed that 96% of the sample reported some delusional experience, while 20.3% reported at least one positive psychotic-like experience. Some substance use was reported by 41.1% of the sample, differing in terms of gender. Substance users reported more psychoticlike experiences than non-users, especially in the positive dimension. Also, alcohol consumption predicted in most cases extreme scores on measures of delusional ideation and psychotic experiences. The association between these two variables showed a differentiated pattern, with a stronger relationship between substance use and cognitive-perceptual psychotic-like experiences. To some extent, these findings support the dimensional models of the psychosis phenotype and contribute a better understanding of the links between psychoticlike experiences and substance use in young adults. Future studies should further explore the role of different risk factors for psychotic disorders and include models of the gene-environment interaction.

  18. [Co-occuring mood and substance use disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adida, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M

    2014-12-01

    Mood and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, yet there is little evidence-based research to guide the pharmacologic management of these comorbid disorders. The authors review the existing empirical findings including current clinical pharmacotherapy practices for treating co-occurring mood and substance use disorders and call into question current clinical practices. The specific mood disorders reviewed are bipolar and major depressive disorders (either one co-occurring with a substance use disorder). The authors also highlight knowledge gaps that may serve as a basis for future research. Findings from the relatively small amount of available data indicate that pharmacotherapy for managing mood symptoms might be effective in patients with substance dependence, although results have not been consistent across all studies. In most studies, medications for managing mood symptoms did not appear to have an impact on the substance use disorder. Research has only begun to address optimal pharmacologic management of co-occurring disorders. In addition, current clinical treatment for drug dependence often exclude new pharmacotherapies approved by the French Haute Autorité de Santé for treating certain types of addiction. With new data becoming available, it appears that we need to revisit current practice in the pharmacological management of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  19. An Overview of Outpatient Treatment of Adolescent Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc; Glickman, Linda; Singer, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on ambulatory substance abuse treatment for adolescents, including brief intervention, Twelve-Step-based outpatient treatment, family-based treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacologic treatment. An overview of socially and culturally specific strategies is also included. The diversity of settings…

  20. Glial and neuroinflammatory targets for treating substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtell, Ryan K; Jones, Jermaine D; Heinzerling, Keith G; Beardsley, Patrick M; Comer, Sandra D

    2017-11-01

    The plenary session at the 2016 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry: Translational Research in Addiction Conference focused on glia as potential players in the development, persistence and treatment of substance use disorders. Glia partake in various functions that are important for healthy brain activity. Drugs of abuse alter glial cell activity producing several perturbations in brain function that are thought to contribute to behavioral changes associated with substance use disorders. Consequently, drug-induced changes in glia-driven processes in the brain represent potential targets for pharmacotherapeutics treating substance use disorders. Four speakers presented preclinical and clinical research illustrating the effects that glial modulators have on abuse-related behavioral effects of psychostimulants and opioids. This review highlights some of these findings and expands its focus to include other research focused on drug-induced glia abnormalities and glia-focused treatment approaches in substance use disorders. Preclinical findings show that drugs of abuse induce neuroinflammatory signals and disrupt glutamate homeostasis through their interaction with microglia and astrocytes. Preclinical and clinical studies testing the effects of glial modulators show general effectiveness in reducing behaviors associated with substance use disorders. The contribution of drug-induced glial activity continues to emerge as an intriguing target for substance use disorder treatments. Clinical investigations of glial modulators have yielded promising results on substance use measures and indicate that they are generally safe and well-tolerated. However, results have not been entirely positive and more questions remain for continued exploration in the development and testing of glial-directed treatments for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood Psychiatric Disorders as Risk Factor for Subsequent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenman, Annabeth P; Janssen, Tieme W P; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prospective risk of developing substance-related disorders after childhood mental health disorders (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD], anxiety disorder, and depression) using meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo were searched for relevant longitudinal studies that described childhood (drug-related disorders or substance use disorders (SUDs) published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language from 1986 to May 2016. Two researchers conducted all review stages. Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were followed. Thirty-seven studies including more than 762,187 participants were identified for quantitative analyses. These studies included 22,029 participants with ADHD, 434 participants with ODD or CD, 1,433 participants with anxiety disorder, and 2,451 participants with depression. Ninety-seven effects sizes were extracted for analyses. Meta-analysis showed a significantly increased risk for addiction in ADHD (n = 23, odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% CI 1.98-3.67; OR alcohol 2.15, 95% CI 1.56-2.97; OR drugs 1.52, 95% CI 1.52-5.27; OR nicotine 2.52, 95% CI 2.01-3.15; OR SUDs 2.61, 95% CI 1.77-3.84), ODD or CD (n = 8, OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.97-5.80; OR alcohol 1.73, 95% CI 1.51-2.00; OR drugs 4.24, 95% CI 1.3.21.5.59; OR nicotine 4.22, 95% CI 3.21-5.55; OR SUDs 4.86, 95% CI 3.09-7.56), and depression (n = 13, OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.47-2.81; OR alcohol 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19; OR nicotine 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.48; OR SUDs 2.20, 95% CI 1.41-3.43), but not for anxiety disorders (n = 15, OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.90-1.55, not significant). Childhood ADHD, ODD, CD, and depression increase the risk of developing substance-related disorders. Anxiety disorders do not seem to increase the risk for future substance-related disorders, although the findings are highly heterogeneous. These findings emphasize the need for early detection and intervention to

  2. Best Practices in Community-Based Prevention for Youth Substance Reduction: Towards Strengths-Based Positive Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jeong Woong

    2008-01-01

    Substance use among youth remains a major public health and safety concern. One fundamental way to address youth substance use prevention is to keep young people on a positive trajectory by engaging them in positive activities from early years of their childhood. In this article, the author offers a best practice analysis of systematic review…

  3. The Covariation and Factor Structure of Substance Use and Other Health-Related Behaviors in Two Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron; And Others

    Research has revealed relationships among a wide range of substance use behaviors, including smoking, alcohol use, and drug use. To investigate whether a substance use factor emerges when different indicators of substance use, different samples, and three health related issues, (i.e., meal regularity, exercise and hours of sleep) are examined, the…

  4. A Comparison of Opioid and Nonopioid Substance Users in Residential Treatment for Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E; Macmaster, Samuel A; Morse, Siobhan A; Watson, Cayce M; Choi, Sam; Seiters, John

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen a marked increase in the illicit use of opioids, as well as a doubling of the percentage of individuals seeking treatment for opioid use disorders. However, little is known about the differences between opioid users and nonopioid users in residential treatment. Further, no studies have been published that compare opioid users and nonopioid users in treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. To address this gap, this study examined differences between opioid and nonopioid substance users in residential treatment for co-occurring disorders. Data was drawn from 1,972 individuals treated between 2009 and 2011 at one of three private residential treatment centers that provide integrated treatment for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. Data was collected at program intake, and 1- and 6-month postdischarge using the Addiction Severity Index and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment. To examine within-group changes in substance use, addiction severity, and mental health across time, linear mixed-model analyses were conducted with facility, year, age, gender, and race included as covariates. The authors found more similarities than differences between the two groups on baseline characteristics, treatment motivation, length of stay, and outcomes on measures of substance use, addiction severity, and mental health. The results demonstrate that though opioid users entered treatment with higher levels of substance use-related impairment, they were just as successful in treatment outcomes as their non-opioid-using peers.

  5. Intense, Passionate Romantic Love: A natural addiction? How the fields that investigate romance and substance abuse can inform each other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eFisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by four million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain’s reward system, specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that self expanding experiences like romance and expanding one’s knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative state experienced by almost all

  6. Intense, Passionate, Romantic Love: A Natural Addiction? How the Fields That Investigate Romance and Substance Abuse Can Inform Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Xu, Xiaomeng; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the early stage of intense romantic love show many symptoms of substance and non-substance or behavioral addictions, including euphoria, craving, tolerance, emotional and physical dependence, withdrawal and relapse. We have proposed that romantic love is a natural (and often positive) addiction that evolved from mammalian antecedents by 4 million years ago as a survival mechanism to encourage hominin pair-bonding and reproduction, seen cross-culturally today in Homo sapiens. Brain scanning studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging support this view: feelings of intense romantic love engage regions of the brain's "reward system," specifically dopamine-rich regions, including the ventral tegmental area, also activated during drug and/or behavioral addiction. Thus, because the experience of romantic love shares reward pathways with a range of substance and behavioral addictions, it may influence the drug and/or behavioral addiction response. Indeed, a study of overnight abstinent smokers has shown that feelings of intense romantic love attenuate brain activity associated with cigarette cue-reactivity. Could socially rewarding experiences be therapeutic for drug and/or behavioral addictions? We suggest that "self expanding" experiences like romance and expanding one's knowledge, experience and self-perception, may also affect drug and/or behavioral addiction behaviors. Further, because feelings of romantic love can progress into feelings of calm attachment, and because attachment engages more plastic forebrain regions, there is a rationale for therapies that may help substance and/or behavioral addiction by promoting activation of these forebrain systems through long-term, calm, positive attachments to others, including group therapies. Addiction is considered a negative (harmful) disorder that appears in a population subset; while romantic love is often a positive (as well as negative) state experienced by almost all humans. Thus, researchers

  7. Alcohol Detoxification Completion, Acceptance of Referral to Substance Abuse Treatment, and Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment Among Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843

  8. Design considerations for laboratory robotics systems handling toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelting, K.M.; Rollheiser, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses design issues pertinent to development of reliable robotic systems for handling toxic substances, using examples from Midwest Research Institute's experience with the full range of materials selected by the federal government for toxicology testing. This includes laboratory work with substances known to have adverse toxicological effects (e.g., known carcinogens) as well as chemicals selected for evaluation of their toxic potential. Chemicals under evaluation include pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, solvents, pesticides, and a variety of other chemicals, solvents, pesticides, and a variety of other chemicals to which the populace is exposed in the workplace or in their daily lives

  9. The Use of Exposure-Based Treatment Among Individuals With PTSD and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorders: Clinical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, Therese K.; Back, Sudie E.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Integrative treatments for co-occurring posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and substance use disorders have been shown to be safe and effective. Improvement in PTSD symptoms can positively impact substance use outcomes. Interventions that include exposure-based techniques, which are considered the treatment of choice for PTSD, have not been well studied in substance abusing populations. Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders with Prolonged Exposure (COPE) is a manualized psychother...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.125 - What information must agencies include in the title report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 373, took place on the property. Hazardous substance activity includes situations where any hazardous substance was stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed of on the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must...

  11. The Starting Early Starting Smart Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey Family Programs, Seattle, WA.

    Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) is an early childhood public/private initiative designed to identify new, empirical knowledge about the effectiveness of integrating substance abuse prevention, addictions treatment, and mental health services with primary health care and childcare service settings (e.g., Head Start, day care, preschool) to…

  12. Substance use among Dutch homeless people, a follow-up study: prevalence, pattern and housing status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that substance use among homeless people is a prevalent problem that is associated with longer durations of homelessness. Most studies of substance use among the homeless were carried out outside Europe and have limited generalizability to European countries. This study therefore aimed to address the prevalence of substance use among homeless people in the Netherlands, the pattern of their use and the relationship with housing status at follow-up. This study included 344 participants (67.1% of the initial cohort) who were followed from baseline to 18 months after the baseline interview. Multinomial logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between substance use and housing status. The most reported substances which were used among these homeless people were cannabis (43.9%) and alcohol (≥5 units on one occasion) (30.7%). Other substances were used by around 5% or less of the participants. Twenty-seven percent were classified as substance misuser and 20.9% as substance dependent. The odds to be marginally housed (4.14) or institutionalized (2.12) at follow-up compared to being housed of participants who were substance users were significantly higher than those of participants who did not use substances. The odds to be homeless were more than twice as high (2.80) for participants who were substance dependent compared with those who were not. Homeless people who use substances have a more disadvantageous housing situation at follow-up than homeless people who do not use substances. Attention is needed to prevent and reduce long-term homelessness among substance-using homeless people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  14. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infographics » Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances Email Facebook ... amphetamines (10.6%, 10.3%, and 9.5%). Teens who mix prescription opioids with other drugs are ...

  15. Effects of two different post-surgical protocols including either 0.05 % chlorhexidine herbal extract or 0.1 % chlorhexidine on post-surgical plaque control, early wound healing and patient acceptance following standard periodontal surgery and implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugisch, Oliver; Ramseier, Christoph A; Salvi, Giovanni E; Hägi, Tobias T; Bürgin, Walter; Eick, Sigrun; Sculean, Anton

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early wound healing, tooth staining and patient acceptance with two different post-surgical maintenance protocols. Forty patients scheduled for flap surgery to treat periodontal pockets or accommodate dental implants were randomly assigned to receive the following two different post-surgical maintenance protocols: (a) 2 weeks rinsing with a 0.05 % chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)/herbal extract combination (test) or (b) a 0.1 % CHX solution (control). Early wound healing was evaluated clinically and immunologically. Tooth staining and patient acceptance were assessed by means of visual analogue scale (VAS). Both groups presented with comparable wound healing profiles. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two protocols regarding early wound healing and plaque index (p > 0.05). However, in the control group, statistically significantly more patients felt discomfort due to tooth staining (p = 0.0467). Compared with patients from the test group, patients in the control group reported statistically significant more irritation of taste at week 1 (p = 0.0359) and at week 2 (p = 0.0042). The present findings indicate that the two CHX protocols resulted in comparable healing and inhibition of plaque formation. Tooth staining and subjective discomfort related to irritation of taste were more frequent in the control group. A post-operative protocol including 0.05 % CHX/herbal extract may have the potential to improve patient compliance during post-operative maintenance.

  16. Substance abuse in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F T; Abrams, T; Dulit, R; Fyer, M

    1993-01-01

    The impact of substance abuse on patients with borderline personality disorder was investigated. Substance abuse was common. Female patients preferred alcohol and sedatives. Male patients preferred stimulants. Substance abuse was associated with poor school performance, unemployment, and promiscuity. Depersonalization-derealization was common in nonsubstance using and alcohol-sedative using patients, but was rarely found in stimulant users. Substance abuse appears to be a devastating complication in the patient with borderline personality disorder.

  17. Substance Abuse in Aging Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available substance abuse' specially opiates and prescribed drugs are spreading among the older adults. Most of the time it begins as an attempt to medicate chronic pains, medical conditions and loneliness. In other instances, it simply is the continuation of a problem that begun in young adulthood. But scholars and specialists in both fields of Addiction and Gerontology, rather neglected this fast growing problem, to the extent that we almost have no data on the epidemiology, prevention and treatment modalities among the substance abusing old adults in Iran. This paper reflects the necessity of designing age specific programs to identify and treat this group. Besides, some of the most effictive methods of treatment in other countries are reviewed.

  18. The Effect of Substance Use on 10-Year Outcome in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibell, Melissa A; Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Auestad, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Substance use is common in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and has been linked to poorer outcomes with more severe psychopathology and higher relapse rates. Early substance discontinuation appears to improve symptoms and function. However, studies vary widely in their methodology, and few have exam...... be significantly reversed if one stops the abuse in time. This can help patients who struggle with addiction with their motivation to embrace abstinence....

  19. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    , medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the "model minority" myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood.

  20. Intersection of suicidality and substance abuse among young Asian-American women: implications for developing interventions in young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Chang, Stephanie Tzu-Han; Tong, Hui Qi; Meneses, Michelle Ann; Yuzbasioglu, Rojda Filiz; Hien, Denise

    2014-01-01

    imperative for professionals in the fields of public health, mental health, medicine, and substance abuse to proactively combat the “model minority” myth and to design and implement interventions targeting family dynamics, coping with immigration/acculturative stresses, mental illnesses, suicidal behaviors, and substance abuse among Asian-American populations across the developmental lifespan. Originality/value This paper provides specific suggestions for interventions to adequately respond to the mental health needs of young Asian-American women. These include addressing the cultural stigma and shame of seeking help, underlying family origin issues, and excessive alcohol and drug use as unsafe coping, as well as incorporating empowerment-based and mind-body components to foster an intervention targeting suicidality among Asian-American women in early adulthood. PMID:25031627

  1. The administration of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, P.J.; Godfrey, B.E.; O'Brien, R.

    1983-01-01

    A brief history is given of the evolution of a system to approve the licensing of doctors and dentists to use radioactive medicinal products in man. Currently, the Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC) is appointed by UK Health Ministers to advise them on the granting, renewal, suspension, revocation and variation of certificates. The type of information requested on the application form for a certificate is outlined. (UK)

  2. Differences between health-promoting lifestyle among sex worker with substance use and non-substance use women (Case study in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Damirchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The high risks behaviors in sex worker women have a strong relationship with substance use. In addition, lifestyle has a key role in prevalence of social problems. Therefore, the aim of current study is to investigate the differences between health-promoting lifestyle among women sex workers with substance and non-substance use.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive correlation research. The 120 women including 60 sex worker with substance use and 60 non-substance use women who were selected by convenience sampling in Tehran in 2016. They completed the Health- Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP. Data was analyzed by utilizing multivariate analysis of variance. SPSS software version 20 was used.Results: The results indicated that there was a the higher mean scores in nutrition and interpersonal sub-scales in non-substance use women than sex worker women (P=0.001. In addition, in spiritual level (P=0.001, responsibility (P=0.008 and Stress Management (P=0.015 in non-substance women had lower scores than substance use women sex-worker.Conclusion: These findings indicated that even though the life style in two group of sex worker women was unhealthy and unsafe but, in life style components in two women sex worker with and without substance abuse were different.

  3. 49 CFR 32.610 - Controlled substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controlled substance. 32.610 Section 32.610 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE... substance in schedules I through V of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 812), and as further defined...

  4. Substance use during pregnancy and postnatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Tine, Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Substance exposure in utero has been associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties. The aims of this study were to describe women who use substances and are in treatment with respect to the type and number of substances used during pre...

  5. Substance use prevention programmes among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance use among adolescents is a major problem facing the world today. However, there are challenges on prevention of substance use among this population. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore and describe current evidence on substance use prevention programmes among adolescents focusing ...

  6. Gateway Psychoactive Substances and Adolescent Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Use of gateway substances by adolescents usually precedes use of hard substances. Aims: Determine prevalence of use of gateway substances, age at first use and associated factors. Methods: Instruments consisting of sociodemographic variables and alcohol , tobacco, cannabis, stimulant use sections of ...

  7. Dermal uptake of petroleum substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Boogaard, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Petroleum products are complex substances comprising varying amounts of linear and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics which may penetrate the skin at different rates. For proper interpretation of toxic hazard data, understanding their percutaneous absorption is of paramount importance. The extent and significance of dermal absorption of eight petroleum substances, representing different classes of hydrocarbons, was evaluated. Literature data on the steady-state flux and permeability coefficient of these substances were evaluated and compared to those predicted by mathematical models. Reported results spanned over 5-6 orders of magnitude and were largely dependent on experimental conditions in particular on the type of the vehicle used. In general, aromatic hydrocarbons showed higher dermal absorption than more lipophilic aliphatics with similar molecular weight. The results showed high variation and were largely influenced by experimental conditions emphasizing the need of performing the experiments under "in use" scenario. The predictive models overestimated experimental absorption. The overall conclusion is that, based on the observed percutaneous penetration data, dermal exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, even of aromatics with highest dermal absorption is limited and highly unlikely to be associated with health risks under real use scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular toxicities of performance-enhancing substances in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ritesh; Stout, C William; Link, Mark S; Homoud, Munther K; Weinstock, Jonathan; Estes, N A Mark

    2005-10-01

    Athletes commonly use drugs and dietary supplements to improve athletic performance or to assist with weight loss. Some of these substances are obtainable by prescription or by illegal means; others are marketed as supplements, vitamins, or minerals. Nutritional supplements are protected from Food and Drug Administration regulation by the 1994 US Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, and manufacturers are not required to demonstrate proof of efficacy or safety. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration lacks a regulatory body to evaluate such products for purity. Existing scientific data, which consist of case reports and clinical observations, describe serious cardiovascular adverse effects from use of performance-enhancing substances, including sudden death. Although mounting evidence led to the recent ban of ephedra (ma huang), other performance-enhancing substances continue to be used frequently at all levels, from elementary school children to professional athletes. Thus, although the potential for cardiovascular injury is great, few appropriately designed studies have been conducted to assess the benefits and risks of using performance-enhancing substances. We performed an exhaustive OVID MEDLINE search to Identify all existing scientific data, review articles, case reports, and clinical observations that address this subject. In this review, we examine the current evidence regarding cardiovascular risk for persons using anabolic-androgenic steroids including 2 synthetic substances, tetrahydrogestrinone and androstenedione (andro), stimulants such as ephedra, and nonsteroidal agents such as recombinant human erythropoietin, human growth hormone, creatine, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate.

  9. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex

  10. The Condition of Oral Health in Regular Users of Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A

    2016-02-09

    Besides various harmful effects on the overall health, chronic consumption of psychoactive substances has different consequences on oral health. The goal of this paper was to examine the condition of oral health in psychoactive substance users during the healing process and to do a comparative analysis of maintaining oral hygiene before and during the substance abuse treatment. The study included 26 regular users of psychoactive substance. All the respondents used different types of psychoactive substances for at least two years and were treated for three months. The examination was divided into two parts. The first included completing the questionnaires that contained questions related to maintaining oral hygiene while using psychoactive substances and during the substance abuse treatment (the moment of interviewing). The second included the clinical examination of the respondents during the therapy. Taking into account all information collected from the questionnaires, respondents used heroin statistically significantly more than all the other substances ( p psychoactive substances, gingiva and other periodontal tissues suffer the worst damage, but when the healing process starts, the awareness about the importance of maintaining oral hygiene improves.

  11. Substance Use Prevention Programs for Indigenous Adolescents in the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand: Protocol for a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Mieke; Stapinski, Lexine; Lees, Briana; Newton, Nicola; Champion, Katrina; Chapman, Catherine; Ward, James; Teesson, Maree

    2018-02-01

    Indigenous adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing harms related to substance use compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts as a consequence of earlier onset and higher rates of substance use. Early onset of substance use has been identified as a risk factor for future substance use problems and other health, social, and family outcomes. Therefore, prevention of substance use among adolescents has been identified as a key area to improve health of Indigenous Peoples. Evidence exists for the effectiveness of prevention approaches for adolescents in mainstream populations and, most recently, for the use of computer- and Internet-delivered interventions to overcome barriers to implementation. However, there is currently no conclusive evidence about the effectiveness of these approaches for Indigenous adolescents. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the international evidence regarding the effectiveness of substance use prevention programs for Indigenous adolescents in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A total of 8 peer-reviewed databases and 20 gray literature databases will be searched, using search terms in line with the aims of this review and based on previous relevant reviews of substance use prevention. Studies will be included if they evaluate a substance use prevention program with Indigenous adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years) as the primary participant group and are published between January 1, 1990 and August 31, 2017. A narrative synthesis will be provided about the effectiveness of the programs, the type of program (whether culture-based, adapted, or unadapted), delivery of the program (computer- and Internet-delivered or traditional), and the setting in which the programs are delivered (community, school, family, clinical, or a combination). The study will identify core elements of effective substance use prevention programs among Indigenous adolescents and appraise the methodological quality of the studies. This

  12. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Discontinuation of medical drug treatment is a serious problem in primary care. The need for a better understanding of the processes, including physician-specific mechanisms, is apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between general practitioners' prescribing....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...... of all drugs and drug-specific early discontinuation showed some degree of positive association - strongest for anti-hypertensive drugs (r = 0.62) and antidepressants (r = 0.43). Conclusion This study confirmed our hypothesis that general practitioners with high levels of prescribing attain higher rates...

  13. Trends in Substance Use Across the Nation and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jeremy; Owen, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    With the discovery of morphine in the early 1800s, substance abuse quickly followed. Next came the production of heroin and other synthetic opioids, along with increases in nonmedical use of prescription medications. In the 21st century, drug abuse and addiction continues to rise nationwide with the three most common drugs abused in adolescents being marijuana, synthetic marijuana, and hallucinogens. Among adolescents and adults nationwide, rates of alcohol, opioids, and amphetamine use have increased over the last decade. In South Dakota, the most prevalent drugs consist of alcohol, methamphetamine, heroin, and prescription opioids. Through the implementation and use of the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) by the South Dakota Board of Pharmacy (SDBOP), hydrocodone/acetaminophen has been identified as the most dispensed controlled substance in the state with roughly 21,000 prescriptions dispensed last November alone. While the PDMP does not necessarily encompass all controlled substances used by the patient (e.g., those purchased from illicit sources), the generation of PDMP reports by physicians and pharmacists is still beneficial. With increased use of the PDMP along with urine drug screens and patient interviews, health care professionals can continue to work collaboratively to help curb the growing epidemic of substance use. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  14. Gender abuse, depressive symptoms, and substance use among transgender women: a 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population.

  15. Substance use by Egyptian youth: current patterns and potential avenues for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Christopher A; Boulos, Dina N K; Saleh, Doa'a A; Jillson, Irene A; Garas, Magdy; Loza, Nasser; Samuel, Philip; Shaker, Yousri Edward; Ostrowski, Mar-Jan; Amr, Sania

    2015-04-01

    Substance abuse in Egypt is a serious public health threat. Recent studies have demonstrated increases in the prevalence of the use of tobacco, illegal drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, particularly among youth. We conducted focus groups with a total of 40 male and female youth participants, ages 12-14 and 15-18, recruited from two different areas (Cairo and Alexandria) in 2012. We investigated their knowledge and perceptions regarding current substance use, its sources, and promoting and protecting factors, broadly addressing the use of tobacco products, illicit and prescription drugs, inhaled substances such as glue and solvents, and alcohol. Our findings suggest that: (1) youth in Egypt had access to and were actively using substances encountered in similar research worldwide, including tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, glue sniffing, and pharmaceutical agents; (2) smoking cigarettes and using hashish were the most common practices, and Tramadol was the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug; (3) peer pressure from friends stood out as the most common reason to start and continue using substances, followed by adverse life events and having a parent or family member who used substances; (4) strict parenting, religiosity, and having non-user friends were among the factors perceived by youth to prevent substance use or help them quit using substances; (5) most youths were aware of the adverse health effects of substance use. These findings will inform the design of quantitative surveys aimed at estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors related to substance use among youth and potential avenues for prevention.

  16. Crime and substance misuse in adjudicated delinquent youth: the worst of both worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether comorbid offending and substance misuse in previously adjudicated delinquents correlated better with measures of concurrent antisocial cognition and personality and subsequent criminality and substance misuse than offending or substance misuse alone. A sample of 1,177 youths was divided into four groups based on self-reported crime and substance misuse data from Wave 4 (ages 16-21) of the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012): a no-crime and substance-misuse (NCS) group, a crime-only (CO) group, a substance-misuse-only (SO) group, and a crime and substance-misuse (C&S) group. As predicted, youths in the C&S group earned significantly higher scores on concurrent measures of neuroticism, grandiosity/manipulation, callousness/unemotionality, impulsivity/irresponsibility, and moral disengagement, and significantly lower scores on measures of agreeableness, conscientiousness, impulse control, suppression of aggression, and consideration of others than did youths in the other three groups. Prospective analyses revealed that C&S participants engaged in more subsequent crime and experienced more substance-related social problems than participants in the other three groups and reported significantly more substance-related dependency symptoms and episodes of alcohol/drug treatment than participants in the NCS and CO groups. Hence, previously adjudicated youths who experienced problems with crime and substances in late adolescence/early adulthood were at increased risk for concurrent antisocial cognition and personality problems and subsequent crime and substance-misuse problems compared with participants in the other three groups. The prospective effects were found to be partially mediated by antisocial cognition in the form of moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Early marriage and early motherhood in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Minja Kim; Thapa, Shyam; Mishra, Vinod

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines age patterns of first marriage and motherhood and covariates of early marriage, delayed consummation of marriage and early motherhood in Nepal using data from the 2000 Nepal Adolescent and Young Adult Survey (NAYA). Both unmarried and married male and female youths (age 14-22) were included in the survey. The analysis is based on 2800 urban youths and 5075 rural youths with complete information on the variables examined. Proportional hazard models are used to estimate covariates of early marriage and early motherhood, and logistic regression models are used to estimate covariates of delayed consummation of marriage. The results show that early marriage and early motherhood are quite common among Nepalese women, especially in rural areas. Early marriage is much less common among men. Delayed consummation of marriage is common among very young brides, especially in rural areas. The main covariates associated with early marriage and early motherhood are respondent's education, region of residence and ethnicity. The main covariates of delayed consummation of marriage are age at first marriage, region of residence and ethnicity. The study highlights the need to focus on less educated female youths in the Terai region in order to reduce the reproductive and child health risks associated with early marriage and early childbearing.

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and the Risk of Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liew, Zeyan; Ritz, Beate; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants and endocrine disruptors that may affect fetal brain development. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to PFASs increases the risk of congenital cerebral palsy (CP). The source population for this study includes 83,389 liveborn...... singletons and mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1996-2002. We identified 156 CP cases by linking the cohort to the Danish National Cerebral Palsy Register, and we randomly selected 550 controls using a case-cohort design. We measured 16 PFASs in maternal plasma collected in early....... No association between PFASs and CP was found in girls. Prenatal exposures to PFASs may increase the risk of CP in boys, but the finding is novel and replication is needed....

  19. Adolescent substance use: Assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of a school-based health center workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M; Sebastian, Rachel A; Murphy, Mary; Oreskovich, Kristin; Condon, Timothy P

    2017-01-01

    Recent attention has focused on the potential for school-based health centers (SBHCs) to provide access points for adolescent substance use care. In 2015, the University of New Mexico began screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) training for providers at New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH)-funded SBHCs across the state. This study assesses baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the New Mexico SBHC provider workforce regarding adolescent substance use and provision of services. In early 2015, the NMDOH administered an SBHC provider workforce survey (N = 118) and achieved a 44.9% response rate. This descriptive analysis includes all survey respondents who self-identified as a primary care or behavioral health provider in an SBHC serving middle or high school students (n = 52). Among respondents, the majority (57.7%) were primary care providers, including nurse practitioners, physicians, and physician assistants. The remaining 42.3% of respondents were master's-level behavioral health providers. Only 44.2% of providers reported practicing the full SBIRT model at their SBHC, and 21.2% reported having received continuing education on SBIRT within the previous 3 years. Most respondents, 84.6%, agreed that it is the responsibility of SBHC providers to screen students for substance use using a standardized tool, and 96.2% agreed that it is the responsibility of the SBHC provider to assess for students' readiness to change. A majority reported self-efficacy in helping students achieve change in their alcohol use, illicit drug use, and prescription drug misuse: 73.1%, 65.4%, and 63.5%, respectively. These results suggest that SBIRT training for New Mexico SBHC providers is timely. The authors identified gaps between recommended SBIRT practices and SBIRT delivery as well as discrepancies between reported provider self-efficacy and actual implementation of the SBIRT model. Further study will determine the effectiveness of efforts to

  20. Relation of Supervisor Social Control to Employee Substance Use: Considering the Dimensionality of Social Control, Temporal Context of Substance Use, and Substance Legality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on supervisor social control provided little evidence for a relation to employee alcohol use, and only one study explored illicit drug use. Based on past research, several hypotheses were developed that the relation between supervisor social control and substance use depends on (a) the dimension social control (contact vs. enforcement), (b) the temporal context of substance use (on the job vs. off the job), and (c) substance legality (alcohol vs. illicit drugs). Method: Data came from a national probability sample of U.S. workers. Supervisor social control represented both supervisor contact and supervisor enforcement. Measures of alcohol and illicit drug use each assessed several dimensions of off-the-job use (overall use, overall impairment, and use after work) and on-the-job use (use before work, use during the workday, and impairment during the workday). Results: As hypothesized, the results did not support a relation of supervisor contact to off-the-job or on-the-job alcohol use and illicit drug use. Supervisor enforcement was unrelated to off-the-job alcohol use but was negatively related to on-the-job alcohol use. Supervisor enforcement was negatively related to both off-the-job and on-the-job illicit drug use. Conclusions: These findings help clarify the generally unsupportive findings from past research for a relation between supervisor social control and employee alcohol use, as well as extend this line of research to include illicit drug use. The results suggest that to fully understand the relation of supervisor social control to employee substance use, one must consider the dimension of supervisor social control, temporal context of substance use, and substance legality. PMID:22333338

  1. Autoradiographic localization of substance P receptors using 125I substance P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, C.W.; Quirion, R.; Jensen, R.T.; Moody, T.W.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Chase, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for localization of substance P receptors in the rat central nervous system using 125 I labeled substance P in an autoradiographic procedure. Particularly high densities of substance P receptors were observed in the olfactory bulb, dentate gyrus, amygdala, superior colliculus, and locus coeruleus. Surprisingly low densities of substance P receptors were found in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a region which contains high concentrations of substance P

  2. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): toward a public health approach to the management of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; McRee, Bonnie G; Kassebaum, Patricia A; Grimaldi, Paul L; Ahmed, Kazi; Bray, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive and integrated approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services through universal screening for persons with substance use disorders and those at risk. This paper describes research on the components of SBIRT conducted during the past 25 years, including the development of screening tests, clinical trials of brief interventions and implementation research. Beginning in the 1980s, concerted efforts were made in the US and at the World Health Organization to provide an evidence base for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary health care settings. With the development of reliable and accurate screening tests for alcohol, more than a hundred clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care, emergency departments and trauma centers. With the accumulation of positive evidence, implementation research on alcohol SBI was begun in the 1990s, followed by trials of similar methods for other substances (e.g., illicit drugs, tobacco, prescription drugs) and by national demonstration programs in the US and other countries. The results of these efforts demonstrate the cumulative benefit of translational research on health care delivery systems and substance abuse policy. That SBIRT yields short-term improvements in individuals' health is irrefutable; long-term effects on population health have not yet been demonstrated, but simulation models suggest that the benefits could be substantial.

  3. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56 different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC 50  toxicity. The toxic effect of chlorophenols on willows was comparable to that on duck weed (Lemna) and green algae, while volatile compounds like chlorinated solvents or benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene had less effect on trees than on these aquatic plants, due to volatilization from leaves and test media. In particular low (g/L range) toxicity was observed for tested nanomaterials. Effects of pharmaceuticals (typically weak acids or bases) depended strongly of the solution pH. Like for algae, baseline toxicity was observed for willows, which is related to the water solubility of the compounds, with absolute chemical activity ranging from 0.01 to 0.1, but with several exceptions. We conclude that the willow tree toxicity test is a robust method for relating uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of substances to the toxicity to trees.

  4. All that glitters: fool's gold in the early-modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-12-01

    Natural philosophers of the early-modern period perceived fool's gold or iron pyrites as a substance required for the formation of metals, and chemists such as Johann Glauber speculated the vitriol produced from pyrites was the source of the legendary philosopher's stone. The sulphurous exhalations of fool's gold were also thought by members of the early Royal Society to be the basis of a variety of meteorological, geological and medical effects, including the production of thunder, lightning, earthquakes and volcanoes, fossilisation and petrifaction, as well as the principal cause of bladder and gallstones.

  5. The Classification of Substance Use Disorders: Historical, Contextual, and Conceptual Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Robinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the history of substance use and misuse and chronicles the long shared history humans have had with psychoactive substances, including alcohol. The practical and personal functions of substances and the prevailing views of society towards substance users are described for selected historical periods and within certain cultural contexts. This article portrays how the changing historical and cultural milieu influences the prevailing medical, moral, and legal conceptualizations of substance use as reflected both in popular opinion and the consensus of the scientific community and represented by the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. Finally, this article discusses the efforts to classify substance use disorders (SUDs and associated psychopathology in the APA compendium. Controversies both lingering and resolved in the field are discussed, and implications for the future of SUD diagnoses are identified.

  6. Turkish high school students' attitudes toward addictive substances: association with perceived parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).

  7. Parent and Grandparent Marijuana Use and Child Substance Use and Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Epstein, Marina; Abbott, Robert D.; Steeger, Christine M.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Using prospective longitudinal data from 3 generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Methods Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning 3 generations (N = 306 families, children ages 6-22), this study tested associations between grandparent (G1) and parent (G2) marijuana use and child (G3) past-year cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses tested whether G3 substance-related norms mediated these associations. Current G1 and G2 marijuana use was examined, as was G2 high school and early adult use and G1 marijuana use when G2 parents were in early adolescence. Controls included G2 age at G3 birth, G2 education and depression, and G3 gender. Results G2 current marijuana use predicted a higher likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use, but was not related to the probability of G3 cigarette use. G3's perceptions of their parents' norms and G2 current marijuana use both contributed independently to the likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use when included in the same model. G3 children's own norms and their perceptions of friends' norms mediated the link between G2 current marijuana use and G3 alcohol and marijuana use. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of the growing trend toward marijuana legalization. To the extent that parent marijuana use increases under legalization, we can expect more youth to use alcohol and marijuana and to have norms that favor substance use. PMID:27265424

  8. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  9. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2013-01-01

    at levels above LOQ, whereas amphetamines (5.4%) (amphetamine [5.2%] and methamphet-amine [1.5%]), tetrahydrocannabinol (3.7%), and cocaine (3.3%), including the metabolite benzoylecgo-nine, were the most frequently detected illegal drugs. A driver could be positive for more than one substance; therefore...

  10. Dynamic changes of main metabolic substances during anther ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main metabolic substances changes during the development process of anther-derived embryos in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. 'Dawuxing') were studied. These include water contents, dry mass contents, carbohydrates, soluble proteins and nucleic acids. In the developmental stages of anther-derived ...

  11. Association between personality traits and substance use in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Guillon-Riquelme, Alejandro; Secades, Roberto; Orgilés, Mireia

    2016-03-02

    Substance use is considered one of the most frequent risk behaviors during adolescence. Personality factors are linked to consumption during adolescence. Although there are studies on personality and consumption among Spanish adolescents, some outcomes are contradictory, and more studies including larger samples and using validated measures are needed. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between different personality factors and substance use among Spanish adolescents. Participants were 1,455 students aged between 13-18 years. The adaptation of the 16PF-IPIP Personality Inventory was applied to assess Warmth, Stability, Gregariousness, Friendliness, Sensitivity, Trust, Openness to experience, Sociability, Perfectionism, and Calmness. Participants were asked about their different consumption substances during their lifetime. Results provide evidence for a relationship between personality factors and psychoactive substance use. There are different distributions of alcohol use regarding personality traits. Furthermore, personality factors have some influence on consumption of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.Trust and Calmness influence average alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine consumption, whereas Sociability had no statistically significant influence on any of the three substances. The results from this study are highly useful in the design of preventive programs, as they provide more evidence of the role of personality traits as a risk factor.

  12. Method for determining immunochemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'connor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Drawing a method for detecting and measuring a predetermined specifically-bindable immunochemical substance in a liquid sample in a cuvette, comprising the steps of: (A) providing, in an immunoassay technique for the liquid sample in said cuvette, a component comprising a suspension of particles which may be agglutinated or insolubilized in relationship to the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance in the sample; and (B) determining the presence and concentration of the immunochemical substance by measuring the electromagnetic radiation transmission properties of the sample using a calibrated radiation-measuring apparatus, said apparatus comprising: (1) a suitable electromagnetic radiation source capable of providing radiation at wavelengths equal to or less than the mean diameter of said particles; (2) means for concentrating and collimating radiation from the electromagnetic radiation source to form a beam; (3) means for filtering the beam to (I) eliminate radiation having wavelengths greater than the means diameter of the particles and (II) transmit radiation, which radiation has a range, whereby the upper wavelength is equal to or below the mean diameter of the particles, and the range is of at least about 100nm; (4) means for (I) positioning a sample-containing cuvette and for (II) allowing the filtered beam incident on the cuvette to be transmitted through the cuvette and sample, and for (III) receiving a portion of the filtered beam transmitted through the sample at two or more predetermined angles with respect to the beam; and (5) means for detecting and measuring the portion of the beam transmitted at a predetermined angle

  13. substances by Bacillus thuringiensis BAR 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR CHARLES O.NWUCHE;Prof. A. R. Popoola

    causes cancer, liver damage, immunotoxicity, birth defects and reproductive problems in both man and animals (Kouser and Qaim, 2011). Some microorganisms produce biological agents capable of causing morbidity and mortality of other organisms including insects. Early studies on the performance of several microbial ...

  14. Risky decisions and their consequences: neural processing by boys with Antisocial Substance Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Crowley

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with conduct and substance problems ("Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD repeatedly engage in risky antisocial and drug-using behaviors. We hypothesized that, during processing of risky decisions and resulting rewards and punishments, brain activation would differ between abstinent ASD boys and comparison boys.We compared 20 abstinent adolescent male patients in treatment for ASD with 20 community controls, examining rapid event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In 90 decision trials participants chose to make either a cautious response that earned one cent, or a risky response that would either gain 5 cents or lose 10 cents; odds of losing increased as the game progressed. We also examined those times when subjects experienced wins, or separately losses, from their risky choices. We contrasted decision trials against very similar comparison trials requiring no decisions, using whole-brain BOLD-response analyses of group differences, corrected for multiple comparisons. During decision-making ASD boys showed hypoactivation in numerous brain regions robustly activated by controls, including orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. While experiencing wins, ASD boys had significantly less activity than controls in anterior cingulate, temporal regions, and cerebellum, with more activity nowhere. During losses ASD boys had significantly more activity than controls in orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, with less activity nowhere.Adolescent boys with ASD had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained risk-taking of such boys. The findings suggest that the dysphoria, reward

  15. Characteristics of ice-active substances released by sea ice diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, James A.

    1997-07-01

    Several species of antarctic sea ice diatoms have been found to release ice-active substances (IAS). At natural concentrations, they produce dense pitting on ice crystal surfaces at temperatures slightly below the freezing point, without significantly affecting the freezing point. This phenomenon appears to be associated with cold-adapted species as it has not been found in temperature fresh water and marine diatoms. IASs have been found in several species of sea ice diatoms, including both attached and unattached species. The ice-active substances have been found both in ice platelet water as well as in the solid congelation ice in McMurdo Sound in early summer, and in newly formed ice in winter in the Weddell and Bellinghausen seas. An IAS- producing species (Amphiprora) was cultured in the laboratory and produced noticeable increases in IAS activity. The IAS is retained by dialysis tubing and appears to be proteinaceous, as it is inactivated by proteases and heat. Further attempts to purify and characterize the IAS are in progress. The role of the IAS is unknown. Possible roles involving attachment of diatoms to ice and modification of the optical properties of ice are being considered.

  16. On the relationships between commercial sexual exploitation/prostitution, substance dependency, and delinquency in youthful offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Social Learning Conceptualization for Substance Abuse: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Giovazolias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Substance misuse and abuse among adolescents and young adults, especially students, remain a significant public health issue, often associated with serious academic, psychological and health problems. Theoretical models of social behaviour emphasize the importance of peer behaviour as a modelling or normative influence. The processes by which social influence factors contribute to substance misuse behaviour have been described in models derived from the social learning paradigm, including both socio-environmental (e.g. social modelling, perceived norms and coping skills and cognitive variables (e.g. self-efficacy, outcome expectancies. However, this growing body of the literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of processes by which social and cognitive variables may influence substance misuse in youth populations. This review critically examines the literature on different forms of peer influence and accordingly provides suggestions for intervention strategies that take into consideration the relevant research findings on social learning constructs.

  18. Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Consumption in People With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Olive, Laetitia; Nalpas, Bertrand; Duny, Yohan; Nocca, David; Perney, Pascal

    2016-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the kind of psychoactive substances consumed by people with obesity. Patients were included at their first visit for bariatric surgery. Socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depressive disorders and psychoactive substance consumption were assessed. The prevalence of psychoactive substance consumption was compared to that of the general population reported by the French National Institute of Prevention and Health Education. One hundred (100) patients were consecutively recruited: 60 women (mean age 41 ± 14 years) and 40 men (mean age 46 ± 13 years). Sixty-seven percent of subjects consumed alcohol. Consumption rates of cannabis (21% vs. 10%), cocaine (7.0% vs. 0.8%) and amphetamine (6.0% vs. 0.3%) were significantly (p consumption. This consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity and should therefore be detected before surgery.

  19. Use of psychoactive substances by adolescents: current panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of vulnerability to substance use disorders (SUDs. Epidemiological studies indicate that about 23% of Brazilian adolescents use drugs, with alcohol being the most widely consumed substance. The etiology of SUDs is complex, influenced by an interaction of genetic risk, individual development, environmental factors, context of use, and substance used. Clinicians should consider diagnostic criteria and be aware of behavioral changes that may indicate drug use and its consequences in various aspects of adolescent life. Identification and treatment of comorbid conditions is critical to the management of SUDs in this age group. Interventions should restrict access to drugs and facilitate prompt recognition of initial use, preventing progression to serious patterns of abuse or dependence. Intervention should be broad, including academic and occupational activities as well as social relationships and leisure, which are critical to the reestablishment of normal adolescent development.

  20. Adolescent Substance Use in the Context of the Family: A Qualitative Study of Young People's Views on Parent-Child Attachments, Parenting Style and Parental Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Aisling; Campbell, Anne; McColgan, Mary

    2016-12-05

    Adolescent substance use can place youth at risk of a range of poor outcomes. Few studies have attempted to explore in-depth young people's perceptions of how familial processes and dynamics influence adolescent substance use. This article aimed to explore risk and protective factors for youth substance use within the context of the family with a view to informing family based interventions. Nine focus groups supplemented with participatory techniques were facilitated with a purposive sample of sixty-two young people (age 13-17 years) from post-primary schools across Northern Ireland. The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) parent-child attachments, (2) parenting style, and (3) parental and sibling substance misuse. Parent-child attachment was identified as an important factor in protecting adolescents from substance use in addition to effective parenting particularly an authoritative style supplemented with parental monitoring and strong parent-child communication to encourage child disclosure. Family substance use was considered to impact on children's substance use if exposed at an early age and the harms associated with parental substance misuse were discussed in detail. Both parent and child gender differences were cross-cutting themes. Parenting programmes (tailored to mothers and fathers) may benefit young people via components on authoritative styles, parental monitoring, communication, nurturing attachments and parent-child conflict. Youth living with more complex issues, e.g., parental substance misuse, may benefit from programmes delivered beyond the family environment, e.g., school based settings.

  1. The comparative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) and substance abuse treatment alone: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Vedel, Ellen; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2013-07-16

    Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N = 52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.

  2. Possible barriers to enrollment in substance abuse treatment among a diverse sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: opinions of treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2013-03-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Code of practice for the design of laboratories using radioactive substances for medical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Code has been prepared to supplement the radioactive substances acts and regulations implemented in Australia. It is intended as a guide to safe practices but is not legislation. Areas covered include siting, layout, surface finishes, laboratory furniture and fittings, ventilation, containment and release of airborne effluent and storage of radioactive substances

  4. Prevention of Substance Abuse in the Workplace: Review of Research on the Delivery of Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Royer; Schlenger, William

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the chief reasons for engaging in substance abuse prevention in the workplace; outlines the foundations of workplace prevention services; and reviews recent research on workplace substance abuse prevention, including the major preventive interventions aimed at the workplace environment and the individual worker.…

  5. 40 CFR 82.3 - Definitions for class I and class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and pipe covers; (6) Pre-polymers. Controlled substance means any substance listed in appendix A or..., or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United... treatments to prevent the introduction, establishment and/or spread of quarantine pests (including diseases...

  6. Children of Mothers with Histories of Substance Abuse, Mental Illness, and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Children exposed to parental substance abuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substance abuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…

  7. 40 CFR 792.107 - Test, control, and reference substance handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... process. (d) The receipt and distribution of each batch is documented. Such documentation shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test, control, and reference substance...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Test, Control, and Reference...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.129 - Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preparation containing free or chemically unneutralized potassium hydroxide (KOH), including caustic potash... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substances named in the Federal Caustic... REGULATIONS § 1500.129 Substances named in the Federal Caustic Poison Act. The Commission finds that for those...

  9. Care at the Crossroads: Navigating the HIV, HCV, and Substance Abuse Syndemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Rebecca; Dugdale, Caitlin; Touzard-Romo, Francine; Noska, Amanda; Flanigan, Timothy; Rich, Josiah D.

    2014-01-01

    For patients with both HIV/HCV coinfection and substance addiction, multidisciplinary teams can facilitate coordination of care and improve clinical outcomes. Such teams should include HIV/HCV treatment providers, mental health specialists, case managers, social workers, and substance abuse counselors. PMID:25520548

  10. 75 FR 81536 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... knowledge, it [the GRAS affirmation petition] is a representative and balanced submission that includes... cumulative effect of the substance in the diet, taking into account any chemically or pharmacologically related substances in such diet'' (proposed Sec. 170.36(c)(4)(i)(A)). This proposed provision restated the...

  11. Self-Reported Substance Use among High School Students with and without Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Bourgeois, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    A total of 197 Year 9 and 10 students, 74 of whom had learning difficulties (LD), from two high schools in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, self-reported their substance use. Seventeen substances, including two fictitious ones to detect over-reporting, were presented to participants for them to indicate their current usage,…

  12. 75 FR 57169 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... the activities designated as significant new uses. Certain new uses, including production volume... production volume. However, the order's restrictions on manufacturing, import, processing, distribution in...) use of the substance will be as a pigment for plastics. Based on test data on analogous substances...

  13. 77 FR 64748 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Partial Deletion of the... Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the... remedial action included the installation of a soil vegetative cover over these defined areas of stamp...

  14. 78 FR 44455 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the Sola... Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), which EPA promulgated pursuant to section 105 of the... removal included excavation of gravel backfill materials and three to five feet of native soil from the...

  15. Storage of hazardous substances in bonded warehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Artavia, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    A variety of special regulations exist in Costa Rica for registration and transport of hazardous substances; these set the requirements for entry into the country and the security of transport units. However, the regulations mentioned no specific rules for storing hazardous substances. Tax deposits have been the initial place where are stored the substances that enter the country.The creation of basic rules that would be regulating the storage of hazardous substances has taken place through the analysis of regulations and national and international laws governing hazardous substances. The regulatory domain that currently exists will be established with a field research in fiscal deposits in the metropolitan area. The storage and security measures that have been used by the personnel handling the substances will be identified to be putting the reality with that the hazardous substances have been handled in tax deposits. A rule base for the storage of hazardous substances in tax deposits can be made, protecting the safety of the environment in which are manipulated and avoiding a possible accident causing a mess around. The rule will have the characteristics of the storage warehouses hazardous substances, such as safety standards, labeling standards, infrastructure features, common storage and transitional measures that must possess and meet all bonded warehouses to store hazardous substances. (author) [es

  16. Do male-derived substances affect female mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone by females of the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Yamane, T.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, male-derived substances transferred during copulation often alter female physiology. Thus these substances may affect female behaviour, including mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone. In the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), males

  17. Risk from genotoxic substances in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, M.D.; Houk, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Although various governments and statutes provide formulaic guidelines to help drive the risk assessment process, application of these guidelines to complex environmental exposures can be an intractable exercise. Consequently, risk assessments for mixtures of substances in the environment often diverge from the more doctrinaire approaches. This paper attempts to 1) provide an introduction to recent developments in U.S. guidelines using the 1996 EPA Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment as an example and 2) identify and resolve some of the unique concerns that have evolved from risk assessments of environmental mixtures, especially with regard to the field of genetic toxicology. Deleterious health effects from genetic damage include cancer, birth defects, cardiovascular disease, and aging. The proper characterization and management of genetic risks not only protects human health, but the environment as well, ensuring species vigor and diversity by protecting the gene pool

  18. Substance use among Danish psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with psychiatric disorders have a greater risk of mortality than the general population. Use or abuse of substances, including alcohol, play a crucial part in this context. Moreover, it is well known that drug use can worsen psychopathology and reduce treatment compliance...... a questionnaire regarding their use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. The questionnaire was based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), supplemented by questions regarding use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The results were compared with those uses in the general population. Results: In total...... equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients...

  19. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  20. [About flavouring substances and flavouring preparations regulation in the field of manufacturing of flavourings and foodstuffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantseva, O V; Shatrov, G N

    2013-01-01

    In article are given substantiation for modification of contemporary list of biologically active substances with undesirable toxicological qualities (namely included in this list of menthofuran, methyleugenol (4-Allyl-1,2-dimethoxybenzene), teucrin A, capsaicin, estragol1 (-Allyl-4-methoxybenzene) and excluded from the list of quinine, santonin, berberin) and developing the list of plants--natural sources of flavourings substances. The new criteria of European Union for including into the relevant for using in/on foodstuff list of flavouring substances, which was published in the Comission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 872/2012 concerning flavourings, listed the 11 flavouring substances for which have been established indexes of foodstuffs in manufacturing, which there are could using and criteria of their safety (caffeine, theobromine, neohesperidin dihydrocalcone, rebaudioside A, d-camphor, three quinine salts (FL 14.011, FL 14.152 and FL 14.155), glycyrrhizic acid and its ammoniated form, ammonium chloride, discussed the possibility of using R- and S-isomers of flavouring substances and L- and D-forms of aminoacids for preparing of flavours, are discussed. Improving of the system of safety using of flavourings in Russian Federation, harmonized with demands of European Union and FAQ/WHO, are, at first, connected with the necessity of reevaluation of the list flavouring substances, which could be use in/on foodstuff, developing of list of the plants--natural sources of flavourings substances and preparations and regulations of using flavourings preparations which can include biologically active substances.

  1. A Study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the personality characteristics and criminal behavior in the substance abusers. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior was also studied. Moreover, in the present study, the personality profile of substance users and nonusers was compared using psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism (PEN inventory. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive subjects diagnosed as per International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for substance abuse, fulfilling the inclusive and exclusive criteria were taken. A well-matched control was also assessed to compare the studied subject using a well-designed semi-structured proforma and PEN inventory. Results: Most of the substance abusers were Hindus, married, belonged to 21-30 age group and urban domicile, and were presently unemployed, educated up to middle class, and belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Family history of substance use was significant in the subjects, and the chief substance of use was opioids. Scores for psychoticism and neuroticism, as well as the criminal behavior was significantly higher in studied subjects. Conclusion: Thus, conclusions drawn were that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the control group and second, the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance of abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers. Identifying these variables can be the first step in the intervention in substance abusers in order to reduce their future criminal behavior.

  2. Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-addiction Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muntasir Maruf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. We sought to assess the pattern of substance use and related factors among hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a descriptive study that included 105 patients. All patients who were admitted to a private drug de-addiction clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh, between 1 July and 31 December 2013 and diagnosed with substance use disorder were enrolled in the study. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Results: Almost all (90.5% respondents were male and were poly-substance users (91.4%. The mean age of respondents was 28.8±8.0 years. Most (27.6% respondents used three types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5% respondents. More than three-fourths (81.0% of respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, the majority (79.0% used opioids, followed by cannabinoids (55.2%, and alcohol (41.0%. Curiosity, peer pressure, and for fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found in the study population. Our findings could help in the management and development of prevention strategies for substance use in Bangladesh.

  3. Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the differences in the diversity of family factors between adolescents with and without Internet addiction and substance use experience. A total of 3662 students (2328 boys and 1334 girls) were recruited from seven junior high schools, six senior high schools, and four vocational high schools in southern Taiwan. Internet addiction and substance experience were classified according to the score of Chen Internet Addiction Scale Questionnaires for Experience of Substance use. The family factors assessed included perceived family satisfaction, family economic status, parents' marriage status, care-givers, the frequency of intra-family conflict, families' habitual alcohol use, and perceived parents' or care givers' attitude toward adolescents' substance use. This study demonstrated that the characteristics of higher parent-adolescent conflict, habitual alcohol use of siblings, perceived parents' positive attitude to adolescent substance use, and lower family function could be used develop a predictive model for Internet addiction in the multiple logistic regression analysis. The former three family factors were also sufficient in themselves to develop a predictive model for substance use experience. The results revealed that adolescent Internet addiction and substance use experience shared similar family factors, which indicate that Internet addiction and substance use should be considered in the group of behavioral problem syndromes. A family-based preventive approach for Internet addiction and substance use should be introduced for adolescents with negative family factors.

  4. Substance Use Among Students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences in Iran in 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Kafi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Population pattern in Guilan province represents a dramatic increase in youth population. Regarding high prevalence of substance use among them, its destructive effects and consequences and paucity of previous related studies, this research was performed to determine the prevalence of substance use among students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 845 students in 2005-2006. Data were collected by a questionnaire including demographic data and history of substance use and were analyzed by EPI 2002 software and chi-square. 30.1% of students had a history of substance use at least once during their lives. Cigarette (26.36%, alcohol (17.04% and opium (3.86% were the most prevalent used substances. Substance use was significantly associated with male gender, higher age groups, living with friends or alone and being married. There were significant relationships between substance use during past 30 days and studying medicine or dentistry and substance use during life and past 30 days was significantly higher in residency period. This study demonstrated substance use between our samples was considerable and specific interventions to reduce it seem necessary.

  5. Substance abuse amongst the medical graduate students in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Substance abuse is found worldwide including among students. We carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of substance abuse among medical student studying in a medical college in north India. Methods: Using a validated questionnaire a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 230 undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in a private medical college. Results: The prevalence of substance abuse was 20.43 per cent (47/230 among medical students. An increase in substance abuse was observed in the latter years of medical education. A total of 43 of 47 (91.7% students using these substances were aware of the ill effects. The most common reasons for substance use were relief from psychological stress (34/47, 72.4% and occasional celebration (34/47, 72.4%. Of the 47 substance users, 28 (59.6% made past attempts to quit the substance abuse. Interpretation & conclusions:Nearly one-fifth of medical students abuse at least one substance despite knowing the ill effects with the main predisposing factor being the psychological stress.

  6. ADHD Medication and Substance-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Chang, Zheng; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert D; Lahey, Benjamin B; Rickert, Martin E; Sjölander, Arvid; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-09-01

    Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47.2% female) adolescent and adult ADHD patients. Within-individual analyses compared the risk of substance-related events (i.e., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. In adjusted within-individual comparisons, relative to periods in which patients did not receive ADHD medication, male patients had 35% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events when receiving medication (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.64-0.67), and female patients had 31% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events (odds ratio=0.69, 95% CI=0.67-0.71). Moreover, male patients had 19% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.81, 95% CI=0.78-0.85), and female patients had 14% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI= 0.82-0.91). Sensitivity analyses supported most findings but were less consistent for long-term associations among women. These results provide evidence that receiving ADHD medication is unlikely to be associated with greater risk of substance-related problems in adolescence or adulthood. Rather, medication was associated with lower concurrent risk of substance-related events and, at least among men, lower long-term risk of future substance-related events.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of treatments for co-occurring substance use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Xie, Haiyi; Meier, Andrea; McLeman, Bethany; Saunders, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among people with substance use disorders, and the comorbidity is associated with negative outcomes. We report on a randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) plus standard care, individual addiction counseling plus standard care and standard care alone on substance use and PTSD symptoms. Three-group, multi-site randomized controlled trial. Seven addiction treatment programs in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Recruitment took place between December 2010 and January 2013. In this single-blind study, 221 participants were randomized to one of three conditions: ICBT plus standard care (SC) (n = 73), individual addiction counseling (IAC) plus SC (n = 75) or SC only (n = 73). One hundred and seventy-two patients were assessed at 6-month follow-up (58 ICBT; 61 IAC; 53 SC). Intervention and comparators: ICBT is a manual-guided therapy focused on PTSD and substance use symptom reduction with three main components: patient education, mindful relaxation and flexible thinking. IAC is a manual-guided therapy focused exclusively on substance use and recovery with modules organized in a stage-based approach: treatment initiation, early abstinence, maintaining abstinence and recovery. SC are intensive out-patient program services that include 9-12 hours of face-to-face contact per week over 2-4 days of group and individual therapies plus medication management. Primary outcomes were PTSD severity and substance use severity at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were therapy retention. PTSD symptoms reduced in all conditions with no difference between them. In analyses of covariance, ICBT produced more favorable outcomes on toxicology than IAC or SC [comparison with IAC, parameter estimate: 1.10; confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-2.04; comparison with SC, parameter estimate: 1.13; CI = 0.18-2.08] and had a greater reduction in reported drug use than SC (parameter estimate: -9.92; CI =

  8. Refractory organic substances in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frimmel, F. H

    2002-01-01

    ... and its Quality Control in Fractions of Refractory Organic Substances and the Corresponding Original Water Samples 39 Introduction 39 Description of Analytical Methods 41 Sample Treatment 41 Fl...

  9. Fact Sheet: Benzidine-Based Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  10. Humic Substances in waters for supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Valero, Miller; Cruz Torres, Luis Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The humic substances make part of the degradation products of the organic matter of the soil and they are incorporate to the superficial waters for the action of laundry that they carry out by the superficial waters. These substances have been recognized as precursors in the formation of the disinfections sub-products, with free chlorine in treatment of drinkable water plants. The disinfections sub-product and the compound organic halogens, they have been classified potentially in human as cancerigenic substances, and therefore the interest in knowing more about the precursors substances, mechanisms of formation of disinfections sub-products, national situation and methods to diminish their formation

  11. Mental health and substance abuse treatment and juvenile crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; Markowitz, Sara; Libby, Anne M

    2004-06-01

    There is a large body of literature examining the determinants of juvenile crime, which highlights economic, family, peer, and educational factors associated with delinquency and recidivism, and the important roles of social service and educational systems. Two factors, substance abuse and mental illness are also potentially important. The observed high correlations between crime, substance abuse and poor mental health suggests that factors which reduce substance abuse and improve mental health may also be effective in reducing criminal activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of mental health and substance abuse treatment in reducing crimes committed by juveniles. This paper uses detention data in conjunction with substance abuse and mental health treatment data for youth enrolled in the Colorado state foster care program over a three year period. Duration models are used to examine the structural determinants of detention. We analyze the impact of treatment in delaying or preventing this group of at-risk youth from engaging in criminal behavior. Violent crimes are analyzed separately. We also include the price of beer in all models to gauge the effectiveness of higher beer prices in reducing crime, holding treatment constant. The analysis finds that individuals who receive treatment have lower probabilities of being detained for any offence. Accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity makes the magnitude of these effects larger. Also consistent with our theory, higher beer prices lower the detention hazard. Results of this study suggest that expansion of health services targeted at these youth may be effective at reducing crime. For violent crime, where the literature shows that substance abuse plays a significant role, stricter alcohol-regulatory policies may also be highly effective.

  12. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  13. Substance use in a population-based clinic sample of people with first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Werners, Ursula; Secher, Sandra M; Hill, Katherine E; Brazil, Rossa; Masson, Kim; Pernet, David E; Kirkbride, James B; Murray, Graham K; Bullmore, Ed T; Jones, Peter B

    2007-06-01

    Substance use is implicated in the cause and course of psychosis. To characterise substance and alcohol use in an epidemiologically representative treatment sample of people experiencing a first psychotic episode in south Cambridgeshire. Current and lifetime substance use was recorded for 123 consecutive referrals to a specialist early intervention service. Substance use was compared with general population prevalence estimates from the British Crime Survey. Substance use among people with first-episode psychosis was twice that of the general population and was more common in men than women. Cannabis abuse was reported in 51% of patients (n=62) and alcohol abuse in 43% (n=53). More than half (n=68, 55%) had used Class A drugs, and 38% (n=43) reported polysubstance abuse. Age at first use of cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine was significantly associated with age at first psychotic symptom. Substance misuse is present in the majority of people with first-episode psychosis and has major implications for management. The association between age at first substance use and first psychotic symptoms has public health implications.

  14. The consequences of substance use among gay and bisexual men: a Consensual Qualitative Research analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Amy B; Young, Ross McD; Hamernik, Elisabeth; Dunne, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Substance use is common among gay/bisexual men and is associated with significant health risks (e.g. HIV transmission). The consequences of substance use, across the range of substances commonly used, have received little attention. The purpose of this study is to map participant's beliefs about the effects of substance use to inform prevention, health promotion and clinical interventions. Participants were interviewed about experiences regarding their substance use and recruited through medical and sexual health clinics. Data were collected though a consumer panel and individual interviews. Responses regarding perceived consequences of substance use were coded using Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) methodology. Most participants reported lifetime use of alcohol, cannabis, stimulants and amyl nitrite, and recent alcohol and cannabis use. A wide range of themes were identified regarding participant's thoughts, emotions and behaviours (including sexual behaviours) secondary to substance use, including: cognitive functioning, mood, social interaction, physical effects, sexual activity, sexual risk-taking, perception of sexual experience, arousal, sensation, relaxation, disinhibition, energy/activity level and numbing. Analyses indicated several consequences were consistent across substance types (e.g. cognitive impairment, enhanced mood), whereas others were highly specific to a given substance (e.g. heightened arousal post amyl nitrite use). Prevention and interventions need to consider the variety of effects of substance use in tailoring effective education programs to reduce harms. A diversity of consequences appear to have direct and indirect impacts on decision-making, sexual activity and risk-taking. Findings lend support for the role of specific beliefs (e.g. expectancies) related to substance use on risk-related cognitions, emotions and behaviours.

  15. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  16. Assessment of Personality Problems among Patients with Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Ingebjørg Aspeland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM – Several studies have shown that personality disorders (PDs are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. A development from research of co-occurrence estimates in this patient group investigates personality problems as dimensional constructs, which seek to capture the core of personality pathology. The aim of our study was to explore whether personality problems might be assessed among SUD patients in early stages of treatment. We also sought to investigate personality problem severity among Norwegian adult SUD patients.

  17. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and substance abuse treatment utilization among substance-dependent incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltan, Jessica R; Cellucci, Tony

    2011-10-01

    Incarcerated women have high rates of substance abuse problems and trauma. A variety of variables may influence whether these women seek help or are referred for substance abuse problems. This study reports an exploratory project on service utilization among incarcerated substance-dependent women (N = 40) in southeastern Idaho. Using self-report and interview tools, most participants reported some substance abuse treatment history, although extent and types of treatment varied. Most of the women also reported some type of childhood abuse. Age, income, and consequences of alcohol and other drug use related positively to substance abuse treatment. However, severity of childhood sexual abuse and current trauma symptoms were negatively correlated with substance abuse treatment episodes. These women may use substances to cope with childhood trauma or may not perceive the substance abuse system as responsive to their co-occurring trauma symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A "refugee paradox" for substance use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the link between nativity and substance use disorders (SUD) among refugees using national samples. As such, it remains uncertain if the "immigrant paradox" for substance use can be extended to include refugees in the United States. Employing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examine the lifetime prevalence of SUDs among refugees (n=428) in contrast with non-refugee immigrants (n=4955) and native-born Americans (n=29,267). We also examine the impact of gender and refugee duration on the relationship between nativity, refugee status, and SUDs. Refugees were between 3 and 6 times less likely than native-born Americans meet criteria for all SUDs examined, and significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=0.44, 95% CI=0.41-0.47), cocaine (AOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.50-0.59), hallucinogen (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.58-0.74), and opioid/heroin (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.58-0.66) use disorders. The refugee-SUD link was significantly moderated by gender. Duration as a refugee was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorder and decreased risk of cannabis and illicit drug use disorders. Study findings provide evidence in support of a "refugee paradox" for SUDs among adults in the United States. Refugees are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to meet criteria for all SUDs examined and, albeit with weaker effects, significantly less likely than non-refugee immigrants to meet criteria for a variety of SUDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposal for a new detection method of substance abuse risk in Croatian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalovic Vorkapic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors of successful substance abuse treatment is the early start of the same treatment. Recent selection method for identification of Croatian adolescents in the substance abuse risk that has been using drug tests from urine samples, has been simple and exact on the one hand, but on the other, has been very rare and usually guided by the pressure of parents or the court. Besides, such method presented the source of legal and ethical questions. So, the proposal of application of standardized psychological tests during systematic medical exams of Croatian adolescents at the age range of 15-22 years could help with the early detection of those adolescents who were in the substance abuse risk or already had the developed addiction problem.

  1. The role of schools in combating illicit substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Cynthia J; Knight, John R

    2007-12-01

    Disturbingly high levels of illicit drug use remain a problem among American teenagers. As the physical, social, and psychological "home away from home" for most youth, schools naturally assume a primary role in substance abuse education, prevention, and early identification. However, the use of random drug testing on students as a component of drug prevention programs requires additional, more rigorous scientific evaluation. Widespread implementation should await the result of ongoing studies to address the effectiveness of testing and evaluate possible inadvertent harm. If drug testing on students is conducted, it should never be implemented in isolation. A comprehensive assessment and therapeutic management program for the student who tests positive should be in place before any testing is performed. Schools have the opportunity to work with parents, health care professionals, and community officials to use programs with proven effectiveness, to identify students who show behavioral risks for drug-related problems, and to make referrals to a student's medical home. When use of an illicit substance is detected, schools can foster relationships with established health care experts to assist them. A student undergoing individualized intervention for using illicit substances merits privacy. This requires that awareness of the student's situation be limited to parents, the student's physician, and only those designated school health officials with a need to know. For the purposes of this statement, alcohol, tobacco, and inhalants are not addressed.

  2. Substance abuse risk in emerging adults associated with smaller frontal gray matter volumes and higher externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Korycinski, Steven T; Soules, Mary; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2014-04-01

    During emerging adulthood, alcohol and substance use peak. Previous research has suggested that prefrontal and subcortical brain volumes may relate to risk for development of substance abuse. Epidemiological studies indicate that early initiation of alcohol or drug use significantly increases the likelihood of later substance use disorder diagnoses. We hypothesized that frontal regions would be smaller in young adults with early substance use and related problems (early-risk, ER), compared with a control group without early use/problems (C). We further hypothesized that these volumes would be associated with more externalizing behaviors, an additional robust predictor of substance abuse. One hundred and six subjects, ages 18-23, underwent high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance image scanning. Individuals were categorized as C (n=64) or ER (n=42) using a composite-score of early alcohol/drug use and problems based on prospectively collected assessments; externalizing behaviors were also previously assessed during adolescence. Neuroanatomical volumes were compared between groups and correlated with behavioral measures. ER subjects exhibited more externalizing behaviors than their control counterparts. Total left frontal cortex and left superior frontal cortex volumes were significantly smaller in the ER group, controlling for family history of alcoholism and current substance use. Total gray matter volumes were negatively associated with substance risk score. Further, externalizing behavior score was negatively correlated with both left superior cortical and left total cortical volumes. These findings suggest that smaller frontal cortical volumes, specifically the left superior frontal cortex, represent an underlying risk factor for substance abuse in emerging adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patterns of Substance Use Across the First Year of College and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bin eCho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting college is a major life transition. This study aims to characterize patterns of substance use across a variety of substances across the first year of college and identify associated factors. We used data from the first cohort (N=2056, 1240 females of the Spit for Science sample, a study of incoming freshmen at a large urban university. Latent transition analysis was applied to alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other illicit drug uses measured at the beginning of the fall semester and midway through the spring semester. Covariates across multiple domains - including personality, drinking motivations and expectancy, high school delinquency, peer deviance, stressful events, and symptoms of depression and anxiety - were included to predict the patterns of substance use and transitions between patterns across the first year. At both the fall and spring semesters, we identified three subgroups of participants with patterns of substance use characterized as: 1 use of all four substances; 2 alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use; and 3 overall low substance use. Patterns of substance use were highly stable across the first year of college: most students maintained their class membership from fall to spring, with just 7% of participants in the initial low substance users transitioning to spring alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis users. Most of the included covariates were predictive of the initial pattern of use, but covariates related to experiences across the first year of college were more predictive of the transition from the low to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis user groups. Our results suggest that while there is an overall increase in alcohol use across all students, college students largely maintain their patterns of substance use across the first year. Risk factors experienced during the first year may be effective targets for preventing increases in substance use.

  4. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  5. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  6. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  7. Physical harm due to chronic substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Pennings, Ed; Brunt, Tibor; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Chronic use at high dose of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco is associated with physical disease. The relative physical harm of these substances has not been described before, but will benefit the guiding of policy measures about licit and illicit substances. The physical harm of 19 addictive

  8. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  9. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  10. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse among Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the factors influencing substance abuse amongundergraduate students in Osun State; Nigeria. A sample of 1, 200undergraduate students were randomly selected from three tertiaryinstitution in Osun State. Factors Influencing Substance Abuse Questionnaire (FISA) was developed by the researcher ...

  11. Juvenile Offender Comprehensive Reentry Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Donnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substance abuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substance abuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…

  12. Perception of Nigerian healthcare professionals about substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the poor health indices in most developing countries, the consequences of substance abuse by healthcare professionals are grave. While studies from western countries observed that a significant proportion of healthcare professionals abuse substances; and are less likely to seek help, the prevalence is ...

  13. prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    substance/drugs used were: marijuana [Indian hemp] 25.8%, solution 24.5%, caffeine (Kola) 15.8%, and coffee 4.8%. Keeping awake, suppression of fatigue, and peer group effect were the identified factors influencing psychoactive substance use. The commonest types of injuries sustained were bruises and lacerations ...

  14. Prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly identified psychoactive substance/drugs used were: marijuana [Indian hemp] 25.8%, solution 24.5%, caffeine (Kola) 15.8%, and coffee 4.8%. Keeping awake, suppression of fatigue, and peer group effect were the identified factors influencing psychoactive substance use. The commonest types of injuries ...

  15. Developmental Cascade Model for Adolescent Substance Use From Infancy to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and non-alcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents’ alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via three major hypothesized pathways: first via parental warmth/sensitivity from toddler to kindergarten age predicting higher parental monitoring in middle childhood through early adolescence serving as a protective pathway for adolescent substance use; second, via child low self-regulation in the preschool years to a continuing externalizing behavior problem pathway leading to underage drinking and higher engagement with substance using peers; and third, via higher social competence from kindergarten age through middle childhood being protective against engagement with delinquent and substance using peers, and leading to lower adolescent substance use. The sample consisted of 227 intact families recruited from the community at 12 months of child age. Results were supportive for the first two pathways to substance use in late adolescence. Among proximal, early adolescent risks, engagement with delinquent peers and parent’s acceptance of underage drinking were significant predictors of late adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. The results highlight the important protective roles of maternal warmth/sensitivity in early childhood to kindergarten age, parental monitoring in middle childhood, and of child self-regulation in the preschool period as reducing risk for externalizing behavior problems, underage drinking, and engagement with delinquent peers in early adolescence. Specific implications for the creation of developmentally fine-tuned preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:27584669

  16. Perception of Helpfulness among Participants in a Prison-Based Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Valerie K.; Magaletta, Philip; Hubbert, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which an early prison release incentive impacted inmates' perceptions of substance abuse treatment helpfulness, overall satisfaction and focus on treatment issues. Three groups of inmates participating in their first, third or sixth month of residential drug abuse treatment were…

  17. Child and Parent Report of Parenting as Predictors of Substance Use and Suspensions from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Thompson, Ronald W.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Gross, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how child and parent reports of parenting were related to early adolescent substance use and school suspensions. Data were from two time points 6 months apart on 321 families with an eighth-grade student attending one of five schools in the Pacific Northwest. Child- and parent-report measures of family management practices were…

  18. Use of substance and non-prescription drugs by pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 2.9% admitted to using tobacco. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy appears to be higher in the older pregnant Nigerians. The implications of use in early pregnancy and during labour are highlighted. Key Words: Non-prescription drugs, Substance use, Pregnant Women, Nigeria (J College Med: 2003 8(1): ...

  19. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  20. Parental Bonding and Its Effect on Adolescent Substance Use and Sexual Debut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Turk, Jazmin; Johnson, Jennifer M.; Dominguez, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among parental bonding factors and the early onset of sexual behaviors and substance use. Significant differences were found in the levels of care among the parental status groups and among the ages of onset for alcohol use. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Behavior of boys in kindergarten and the onset of substance use during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Màsse, L C; Tremblay, R E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of personality dimensions measured at ages 6 and 10 years in predicting early onset of cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, and other drug use in boys. In addition, the stability of the prediction between the measurements at ages 6 and 10 years was investigated. Data from a large longitudinal study of boys were used to assess the relation between childhood personality and the onset of substance use from 10 to 15 years of age. Childhood personalities were assessed by teachers' ratings of behaviors. Self-reports of smoking cigarettes, getting drunk, and using other drugs provided the measurement of substance use. Discrete-time survival analysis was used for the statistical analyses. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance significantly predict early onset of substance use (eg, cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs), but reward dependence was unrelated to any of the outcomes studied. The results also indicated that either set of predictors (ie, the personality dimensions measured at ages 6 and 10 years) could be used to predict onset of cigarette smoking, getting drunk, and other drug use, because the power of prediction was similar between the measurements at ages 6 and 10 years. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance lead to early onset of substance use in boys. The stability of the prediction between ages 6 and 10 years suggests that the kindergarten assessments may be used for preventive efforts at school entry instead of waiting until early adolescence.

  2. The concept of temperament in psychoactive substance use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unseld, Matthias; Dworschak, Giselle; Tran, Ulrich S; Plener, Paul L; Erfurth, Andreas; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto-Michael; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2012-12-10

    Substance abuse is among the leading causes of preventable diseases and premature death but reasons and conditions leading to substance abuse are complex and multifaceted. Different models of abuse and dependence assume an underlying emotional vulnerability. Individual behavioral and emotional reactivity patterns of personality are considered in the concept of temperament but studies linking different types of temperament with substance use are rare. In this study we investigated 1380 inhabitants (59.7% females; 40.3% males) of residential student homes in Austria, using Akiskals TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire. Further, we administered the CAGE- and the HSI-questionnaire and assessed other psychoactive substance use to examine associations between traits of temperament and substance abuse using ordered logistic regression. Temperaments follow different distributions in both genders: Women have higher scores on the depressive, cyclothymic, and anxious subscales and lower scores on the hyperthymic scale than men. The cyclothymic and particularly irritable temperament serve as predictors of self-reported nicotine dependence, alcohol abuse and cannabis use. Interestingly, the depressive temperament seems to be protective against self-reported cannabis use. Substance abuse assessment is based on self-reports only and urine drug and blood tests were not performed. Also, the history of substance abuse is not documented thus temperamental factors could have been influenced by substance abuse if the time of onset was in early adolescence. The study design was cross-sectional, thus limiting causal interpretations. It might be important to consider temperamental traits as protective- and risk factors in the etiology, prevention and therapy of substance abuse in future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An update on substance use and treatment following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David P; Cardon, Aaron L

    2008-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among young adults. Substance abusers constitute a disproportionate percentage of these patients. A history of substance abuse predicts increased disability, poorer prognosis, and delayed recovery. While consensus in the literature indicates that substance-abuse rates decline following injury, conflicting literature shows a significant history of brain injury in addicts. We reviewed the literature on substance abuse after TBI to explore the state of knowledge on TBI as a risk factor for substance abuse. While recent reviews regarding substance abuse in TBI patients concur that substance-abuse rates decline even after mild TBI, an emerging literature suggests mild TBI may cause subtle impairments in cognitive, executive, and decision-making functions that are often poorly recognized in early diagnosis and treatment. When combined with difficulties in psychosocial adjustment and coping skills, these impairments may increase the risk for chronic substance abuse in a subset of TBI patients. Preliminary results from veterans indicate these patterns hold in a combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder population with TBI. This increasingly prevalent combination presents a specific challenge in rehabilitation. While this comorbidity presents a challenge for the successful treatment and rehabilitation of both disorders, there is sparse evidence to recommend any specific treatment strategy for these individuals. Mild TBI and substance abuse are bidirectionally related both for risks and treatment. Further understanding the neuropsychiatric pathology and different effects of different types of injuries will likely improve the implementation of effective treatments for each of these two conditions.

  4. `Quanta,' Tropes, or Processes: Ontologies for QFT Beyond the Myth of Substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Johanna

    The following sections are included: * A Methodological Preface * `Identical Particles' and the Myth of Substance * Non-Individual Particulars or Quanta * Fields of Trope Structures? * Fields as Free Processes? * Conclusion * References

  5. 77 FR 75390 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... substance will be used as a feedstock replacement in cement kiln production. Based on analogous crystalline... included to assess the progression or regression of any lesions. If the results of the 90-day inhalation...

  6. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... hyperthermia, seizures, hyponatremia, bruxism, sweating, hypertension, tachycardia, headache, palpitations... departments of individuals exposed to methylone with symptoms that include tachycardia, headache, palpitations... medical use, classification of methylone as a Schedule I controlled substance was appropriate. Another...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1 - Substances that are generally recognized as safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commissioner regards such common food ingredients as salt, pepper, vinegar, baking powder, and monosodium glutamate as safe for their intended use. This part includes additional substances that, when used for the...

  8. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  9. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non...... of patients abusing both drugs and alcohol had poor premorbid academic functioning from early childhood. Overall, drug and alcohol abuse are highly prevalent in contemporary first-episode psychosis samples. In our study, substance abuse comorbidity did not generate differences on diagnosis, duration...

  10. Automated Extraction of Substance Use Information from Clinical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Pakhomov, Serguei; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Carter, Elizabeth W; Lindemann, Elizabeth; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Within clinical discourse, social history (SH) includes important information about substance use (alcohol, drug, and nicotine use) as key risk factors for disease, disability, and mortality. In this study, we developed and evaluated a natural language processing (NLP) system for automated detection of substance use statements and extraction of substance use attributes (e.g., temporal and status) based on Stanford Typed Dependencies. The developed NLP system leveraged linguistic resources and domain knowledge from a multi-site social history study, Propbank and the MiPACQ corpus. The system attained F-scores of 89.8, 84.6 and 89.4 respectively for alcohol, drug, and nicotine use statement detection, as well as average F-scores of 82.1, 90.3, 80.8, 88.7, 96.6, and 74.5 respectively for extraction of attributes. Our results suggest that NLP systems can achieve good performance when augmented with linguistic resources and domain knowledge when applied to a wide breadth of substance use free text clinical notes.

  11. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  12. Negative emotion-driven impulsivity predicts substance dependence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bechara, Antoine; Recknor, Emily C; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2007-12-01

    Impulsivity is predominant among users of several drugs of abuse including alcohol, cocaine, and amphetamines, and it is considered a risk factor for later development of alcohol and substance abuse and dependence. However, there is little consensus on how impulsivity should be defined and measured, and there are few studies on the relationship between separate dimensions of impulsivity and substance dependence. We used a multidimensional measure of impulsivity (the UPPS scale) to examine differences between 36 individuals with substance dependence (ISD) and 36 drug-free controls on the dimensions of urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking. In addition, we examined which dimensions of impulsivity better predicted addiction-related problems as measured with the addiction severity index. Results revealed that ISD show high scores on dimensions of urgency, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation (effect sizes ranging from 1.10 to 1.96), but not on sensation seeking. Among the different impulsivity dimensions, urgency was the best predictor of severity of medical, employment, alcohol, drug, family/social, legal and psychiatric problems in ISD, explaining 13-48% of the total variance of these indices. Furthermore, urgency scores alone correctly classified 83% of the participants in the ISD group. Urgency is characterized by a tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional states. Thus, our results could have important implications for novel treatment approaches for substance dependence focused on emotional regulation.

  13. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Caitlin E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bierut, Laura J.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European–American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  14. Substance use across adolescence: do gender and age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Simões

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the choices which impact in lifetime health, such as substance use, are made in adolescence. It becomes, therefore, important to know the factors associated to these behaviours in adolescence in different contexts of life. To analyze these factors, an explanatory model was developed using structural equation modeling. Data from 12.881 state school students from Portugal who participated in two waves of the Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC / World Health Organization (WHO survey were analyzed. The model fits well the data [CFI: .985; NNFI: .980; RMSEA: .018 (.017-.020; SRMR: .018]. For each of the dependent factors, the levels of variance ranged from 12% (tobacco use to 47% (alcohol and illicit drugs use. Alcohol and tobacco present the strongest associations to illicit drugs use. Relationships with family, friends, classmates, and teachers were also associated with substance use, being this association mediated by certain factors, including psychological symptoms, well-being, and school satisfaction. Several non-invariant paths were obtained in gender and age comparisons. The results showed that substance use is associated with several factors and that social factors are mediated by personal factors. Results have also shown that gender and age are important factors on substance use.

  15. Variations in Adolescent Purpose in Life and Their Association With Lifetime Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoski, Kathryn; Pierce, Jennifer; Hauck, Corinne; Stoddard, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Purpose in life (PIL) promotes positive development and is associated with decreased substance use. However, to our knowledge, researchers have not investigated how different categories of PIL are associated with substance use behavior among youth. Therefore, we sought to explore categories of PIL and how they are related to substance use in a sample of adolescents. Ninth through 12th-grade students from a high school in a Midwest suburban community completed a paper-and-pencil survey ( n = 408, M age = 15.36, SD = 1.21; 50% female; 72% White). Measures included lifetime substance use and categories of PIL. Exploratory factor analyses suggest that there are three categories of PIL. Alcohol and other drug (ATOD) use was inversely related with broad other-promoting PIL, while a broad self-promoting PIL was positively associated with ATOD use. These findings suggest that exploring PIL with students may reduce substance use behavior.

  16. The Prevalence of Substance Use among Bandar Abas Azad Islamic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Substance abuse is one of the most important problem and disease in current century that produced wide worry in the entire world. The solving of addiction among young and educated population is more important issue. The current research was aimed the study of the prevalence rate of the substance use (included: opium, alcohol, cigarette, Hubble bubble among Bandar Abas azad Islamic university students. Method: In this cross sectional study 310 university students were selected by stratified random sampling. For gathering data the prevalence substance use questionnaire was used. Results: The findings showed the start age was 22-25 years old. Also, prevalence rate of cigarette, Hubble bubble, opium, and alcohol were higher in boy students in comparison of girl students. The rate of difference was significant by run of chi square analysis. Conclusion: Sex, the history of substance use in family member, and friends were risk factors of substance use.

  17. Personal networks of women in residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth; Brown, Suzanne; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung; McCarty, Chris

    This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t -tests. Compared to IOP women, RT women had more substance users in their networks, more network members with whom they had used substances and fewer network members who provided social support. These findings suggest that women in residential treatment have specific network characteristics, not experienced by women in IOP, which may make them more vulnerable to relapse; they may therefore require interventions that target these specific network characteristics in order to reduce their vulnerability to relapse.

  18. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse...... increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. METHOD: The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305...... diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression...

  19. The moderating effects of peer substance use on the family structure-adolescent substance use association: quantity versus quality of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David

    2005-06-01

    This study examines the association between family structure and adolescent substance use, specifically focusing on the potential conditioning effects of the level of exposure to substance-using peers. Using data from a statewide study of Florida students, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use was regressed on measures of family structure, exposure to deviant peers, family process variables (including supervision, attachment, and discipline), and an array of salient predictors of adolescent substance use. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the level of exposure to substance-using peers moderates the relationship between family structure and substance use for three of the four dependent variables. The core finding is that living with two natural parents serves as a protective factor against using tobacco, alcohol, or other illicit drugs, but only under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is lowest. Under conditions when exposure to deviant peers is highest, teens residing in a traditional two-parent family are most likely to report substance use. However, some evidence suggests that this latter finding may be due to differences in the duration of exposure to deviant peers. These findings reinforce the need to continue to explore how the quantity of parenting may provide additional protection against adolescent substance use beyond quality of parenting factors.

  20. Differential diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, R N; Miner, C R

    1997-01-01

    We derived a statistical model that discriminates between substance-induced psychosis (i.e., DSM-III-R organic delusional disorder or organic hallucinosis; ODD-OH) and DSM-III-R schizophrenia in patients who have both DSM-III-R psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) and prominent delusions or hallucinations. A sample of 211 PSUD inpatients was divided by year of admission into data sets A and B, each of which was divided between those with concurrent schizophrenia and those with concurrent ODD-OH. A six-predictor discriminant function correctly classified 76.2 percent of all set A patients, including 83.1 percent with schizophrenia. Formal thought disorder and bizarre delusions significantly predict a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with odds ratios (OR) of 3.55:1 and 6.09:1, respectively. Suicidal ideation (OR = 0.32:1), intravenous cocaine abuse (0.18:1), and a history of drug detoxification (0.26:1) or methadone maintenance (0.18:1) demonstrate inverse relationships with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The model was validated in set B, correctly predicting the diagnostic status of 70.4 percent of patients (72.5% with schizophrenia). The pattern of presenting symptoms and clinical history differs in patients with psychosis due to PSUD and in those whose psychosis is due to schizophrenia. The model presented here contributes to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and ODD-OH among patients with PSUD.

  1. Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Howard, Matthew O; Garland, Eric L; McGovern, Patricia; Lazar, Michael

    2017-04-01

    High rates of relapse following substance misuse treatment highlight an urgent need for effective therapies. Although the number of empirical studies investigating effects of mindfulness treatment for substance misuse has increased dramatically in recent years, few reviews have examined findings of mindfulness studies. Thus, this systematic review examined methodological characteristics and substantive findings of studies evaluating mindfulness treatments for substance misuse published by 2015. The review also includes the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of mindfulness treatments for substance misuse. Comprehensive bibliographic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, identified 42 pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results revealed significant small-to-large effects of mindfulness treatments in reducing the frequency and severity of substance misuse, intensity of craving for psychoactive substances, and severity of stress. Mindfulness treatments were also effective in increasing rates of posttreatment abstinence from cigarette smoking compared to alternative treatments. Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse is a promising intervention for substance misuse, although more research is needed examining the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions exert their effects and the effectiveness of mindfulness treatments in diverse treatment settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Problem and Pathological Gambling in Schizophrenia: Exploring Links with Substance Use and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, Rebecca G; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-02-16

    High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to both gambling and substance use, including poly-substance use. Additionally, delay discounting is a form of impulsivity known to positively associate with both PPG and SUDs and thought to underlie mechanisms of addiction in both contexts. We aimed to investigate the relationship between PPG and delay discounting in schizophrenia. 337 individuals with schizophrenia completed structured face-to-face interviews regarding gambling behaviors, substance use, and delay discounting. PPG in schizophrenia was associated with substance use, in particular with poly-substance use, and with delay discounting among males. Factors related to substance use were strongly linked with gambling in this sample, but not always with PPG more than recreational gambling. Our findings overall support the notions that multiple forms of gambling in schizophrenia are clinically relevant, that gambling may share common substrates with substance use, and that delay discounting represents a potential mechanism of this association in males.

  3. Predicting HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders among incarcerated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Cynthia L; Wang, Wei; Greenbaum, Paul; Liddle, Howard A

    2008-12-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are among the most vulnerable groups for STD infection, and substance abuse is prevalent in over half of this population. Substance abuse and HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors are closely linked among juvenile justice-involved youth, but it is unclear whether common antecedents explain these different problems. The current study examined predictors of HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and investigated whether family variables added unique predictive variance for these problems among incarcerated youth. The sample included 154 substance-involved youth ages 13 to 17 recruited in detention facilities in Miami and Tampa, FL and was primarily male (82%) and African-American (58%). Using a comprehensive assessment strategy with data obtained from youth report, parent report, and laboratory confirmed STD testing, the results show that delinquency is a consistent predictor of both HIV/STD risk level and substance use disorders, and also that substance use directly predicts HIV/STD risk level among incarcerated adolescents. Consistent with previous research, family conflict is an important predictor of substance use disorders even after controlling for other factors. The results suggest the need for integrated family-based interventions addressing delinquency, substance abuse, and HIV/STD-associated risk factors with juvenile justice-involved adolescents.

  4. Further insights into metal-DOM interaction: consideration of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent substances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacheng Xu

    Full Text Available Information on metal binding with fluorescent substances has been widely studied. By contrast, information on metal binding with non-fluorescent substances remains lacking despite the dominance of these substances in aquatic systems. In this study, the metal binding properties of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent substances were investigated by using metal titration combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS analysis. The organic matters in the eutrophic algae-rich lake, including natural organic matters (NOM and algae-induced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, both contained fluorescent and non-fluorescent substances. The peaks in the one-dimensional spectra strongly overlapped, while 2D-COS can decompose the overlapped peaks and thus enhanced the spectral resolution. Moreover, 2D FTIR COS demonstrated that the binding susceptibility of organic ligands in both NOM and algal EPS matrices followed the order: 3400>1380>1650 cm-1, indicative the significant contribution of non-fluorescent ligands in metal binding. The modified Stern-Volmer equation also revealed a substantial metal binding potential for the non-fluorescent substances (logKM: 3.57∼4.92. As for the effects of organic ligands on metal binding, EPS was characterized with higher binding ability than NOM for both fluorescent and non-fluorescent ligands. Algae-induced EPS and the non-fluorescent substances in eutrophic algae-rich lakes should not be overlooked because of their high metal binding potential.

  5. Acculturation, Social Self-Control, and Substance Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents’ substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents’ level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents’ extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents’ self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  6. Sex disparities in substance abuse research: Evaluating 23 years of structural neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kimberly E; Gutierrez, Eric J; Yamamoto, Dorothy J; Regner, Michael F; McKee, Sherry A; Tanabe, Jody

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences. Temporal trends in the numbers of participants by sex and substance use status were analyzed. We evaluated how often sex effects were appropriately analyzed and the proportion of studies that found sex by substance interactions on volumetric measures. Female enrollment increased over time, but remained significantly lower than male enrollment (p=0.01), with the greatest bias for alcohol and opiate studies. 79% of studies included both sexes; however, 74% did not evaluate sex effects or used an analytic approach that precluded detection of sex by substance use interactions. 85% of studies that stratified by sex reported different substance effects on brain volumes. Only 33% of studies examining two-way interactions found significant interactions, highlighting that many studies were underpowered to detect interactions. Although female participation in substance use studies of brain morphometry has increased, sex disparity persists. Studying adequate numbers of both sexes and employing correct analytic approaches is critical for understanding sex differences in brain morphometric changes in substance abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substance use disorders in Arab countries: research activity and bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders, which include substance abuse and substance dependence, are present in all regions of the world including Middle Eastern Arab countries. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly used tool for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research productivity in the field of substance use disorders in Arab countries using bibliometric indicators. Methodology Original or review research articles authored or co-authored by investigators from Arab countries about substance use disorders during the period 1900 – 2013 were retrieved using the ISI Web of Science database. Research activity was assessed by analyzing the annual research productivity, contribution of each Arab country, names of journals, citations, and types of abused substances. Results Four hundred and thirteen documents in substance use disorders were retrieved. Annual research productivity was low but showed a significant increase in the last few years. In terms of quantity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (83 documents) ranked first in research about substance use disorders while Lebanon (17.4 documents per million) ranked first in terms of number of documents published per million inhabitants. Retrieved documents were found in different journal titles and categories, mostly in Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal. Authors from USA appeared in 117 documents published by investigators from Arab countries. Citation analysis of retrieved documents showed that the average citation per document was 10.76 and the h - index was 35. The majority of retrieved documents were about tobacco and smoking (175 documents) field while alcohol consumption and abuse research was the least with 69 documents. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that research in this field was largely neglected in the past. However, recent research interest was observed. Research output on tobacco and smoking was relatively high compared to other substances of abuse like illicit drugs

  8. Substance abuse and mental health visits among adolescents presenting to US emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Jahan; Aurrecoechea, Adrian; Anderson, Erik; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify factors associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) visits for substance abuse, including those complicated by mental health (dual diagnosis), and to analyze their effect on ED length of stay (LOS) and disposition. We performed a secondary analysis of ED visits by adolescents (age, 11-24) using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2010) to identify visits for mental health, substance use, and dual diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic and visit-level factors, factors associated with substance use and dual diagnosis visits, as well as the effects of substance use and mental health conditions on ED LOS and disposition. Substance use and mental health accounted for 2.1% and 4.3% of all adolescent visits, respectively, with 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3%-23.5%) of substance abuse visits complicated by mental health. The factors significantly associated with substance use include the following: male sex, urban location, West region, ambulance arrival, night and weekend shift, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. Additional LOS was 89.77 minutes for mental health, 71.33 minutes for substance use, and 139.97 minutes for dual diagnosis visits, as compared with visits where these conditions were not present. Both mental health and substance use were associated with admission/transfer as compared with other dispositions as follows: mental health odds ratio (OR), 5.93 (95% CI, 5.14-6.84); illicit drug use OR, 3.56 (95% CI 2.72-4.64); and dual diagnosis OR, 6.86 (95% CI, 4.67-10.09). Substance abuse and dual diagnosis are common among adolescent ED visits and are strongly associated with increased use of prehospital resources, ED LOS, and need for hospitalization.

  9. An Act to regulate the keeping and use of radioactive substances, irradiating apparatus and certain electronic products, and for matters incidental thereto (No. 440 of 1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This Radiation Safety Act 1975 which applies to radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus is a framework Act governing activities involving their possession and applications including their disposal. It makes provision for the duties and powers of the authorities responsible for administering the Act (the Radiological Council), licensing requirements and exemptions therefrom, registration of such substances and apparatus, inspection procedures and liability under the Act. The Radioactive Substances Act 1954, the Radioactive Substances Act Amendment Acts 1960 and 1964 are repealed. (NEA) [fr

  10. Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS): Sampling ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a large group of manufactured compounds used in a variety of industries, such as aerospace, automotive, textiles, and electronics, and are used in some food packaging and firefighting materials. For example, they may be used to make products more resistant to stains, grease and water. In the environment, some PFAS break down very slowly, if at all, allowing bioaccumulation (concentration) to occur in humans and wildlife. Some have been found to be toxic to laboratory animals, producing reproductive, developmental, and systemic effects in laboratory tests. EPA's methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. This technical brief summarizes the work being done to develop robust analytical methods for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. EPA is working to develop robust analytical methods for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids.

  11. Identification of a new Bacillus licheniformis strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaoqi; Yu, Zhanqiao; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has spurred a great number of studies for development of new antimicrobials in the past decade. The purpose of this study was to screen environmental samples for Bacillus strains producing potent antimicrobial agents. A new strain, which showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, was isolated from soil and designated as B116. This new isolate was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. The production of bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) started at early exponential phase and achieved highest level at early stationary phase. The BLS was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and its molecular mass was determined as ∼4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Culture supernatant of the new isolate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. The BLS was resistant to heat, acid and alkaline treatment. Activity of the BLS was totally lost after digestion by pronase and partially lost after digestion by papain and lipase. The new isolate and relevant BLS are potentially useful in food and feed applications.

  12. Efficacy of cerebroprotective substances in the management of functional disorders induced by the cytotoxic brain oedema-producing substance hexachlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, K

    1993-01-01

    The hexachlorophene-induced cytotoxic brain oedema is used as experimental model of brain damage, suitable for testing cerebroprotective substances. It has clinical importance since many brain injuries are accompanied by an oedema. The primary target of the neurotoxin, hexachlorophene, is the neuronal cell membrane, but it also causes secondary effects including a disruption of myelin lamellae, increases in water and sodium content, decreases of potassium content, and vacuolation in the white matter. Rats received orally hexachlorophene 240 mg/kg a day for three weeks by liquid diet. The disruption of coordinative motor response, observed in a specially developed test, was used to characterise hexachlorophene-induced injuries in studies designed to evaluate the potential of cerebroprotective substances. Because of their membranotropic efficacy some nootropic substances with different modes of action were examined. The disturbance of coordinative motor response was restored significantly earlier than in spontaneous remission following administration of piracetam, pyritinol, methyl glucamine orotate, naftidrofuryl, and also under the influence of the calcium antagonists cinnarizine, flunarizine and nifedipine. These results support the therapeutic use of nootropic substances in the management of neurotoxic injuries and brain oedema.

  13. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... for the first time, an acknowledgement to its debilitating nature. This article explores the overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). METHODS: The bibliographic search was a computerized screen of PubMed databases from January 1990 to the present. Binge eating disorder, substance...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...

  14. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods. PMID:23781843

  15. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Bernadene; Munro, Ian; Abbot, Peter; Baldwin, Nigel; Lopez-Garcia, Rebeca; Ly, Karen; McGirr, Larry; Roberts, Ashley; Socolovsky, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review compares the regulations, definitions and approval processes for substances intentionally added to or unintentionally present in human food in the following specific countries/jurisdictions: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States. This includes direct food additives, food ingredients, flavouring agents, food enzymes and/or processing aids, food contact materials, novel foods, and nanoscale materials for food applications. The regulatory authority of each target jurisdiction/country uses its own regulatory framework and although the definitions, regulations and approval processes may vary among all target countries, in general there are many similarities. In all cases, the main purpose of each authority is to establish a regulatory framework and maintain/enforce regulations to ensure that food consumed and sold within its respective countries is safe. There is a move towards harmonisation of food regulations, as illustrated by Australia and New Zealand and by Mercosur. The European Union has also established regulations, which are applicable for all member states, to establish a common authorisation procedure for direct food additives, flavourings and enzymes. Although the path for approval of different categories of food additives varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, there are many commonalities in terms of the data requirements and considerations for assessment of the safety of use of food additives, including the use of positive lists of approved substances, pre-market approval, and a separation between science and policy decisions. The principles applied are largely reflective of the early work by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) committees and JECFA assessments of the safety of food additives for human and animal foods.

  16. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  17. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  18. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  19. Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Kim, Sunny; De La Rosa, Mario; Dillon, Frank R; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2010-08-09

    Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers' and daughters' early sexual activity and adult substance abuse. A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother-daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data. Daughters' current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0) and mothers' current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0). Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16-19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16-19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers' childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3) was a strong predictor for daughters' childhood sexual experience. Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.

  20. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Carey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB. Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the 5 psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (AUT, bipolar disorder (BIP, major depressive disorder (MDD, and schizophrenia (SCZ—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p<0.001. After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: A MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, B MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, C SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and D SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity.

  2. Interventions for Adolescent Substance Abuse: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Arshad, Ahmed; Finkelstein, Yaron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-10-01

    Many unhealthy behaviors often begin during adolescence and represent major public health challenges. Substance abuse has a major impact on individuals, families, and communities, as its effects are cumulative, contributing to costly social, physical, and mental health problems. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent substance abuse among adolescents. We report findings from a total of 46 systematic reviews focusing on interventions for smoking/tobacco use, alcohol use, drug use, and combined substance abuse. Our overview findings suggest that among smoking/tobacco interventions, school-based prevention programs and family-based intensive interventions typically addressing family functioning are effective in reducing smoking. Mass media campaigns are also effective given that these were of reasonable intensity over extensive periods of time. Among interventions for alcohol use, school-based alcohol prevention interventions have been associated with reduced frequency of drinking, while family-based interventions have a small but persistent effect on alcohol misuse among adolescents. For drug abuse, school-based interventions based on a combination of social competence and social influence approaches have shown protective effects against drugs and cannabis use. Among the interventions targeting combined substance abuse, school-based primary prevention programs are effective. Evidence from Internet-based interventions, policy initiatives, and incentives appears to be mixed and needs further research. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of specific interventions components with standardized intervention and outcome measures. Various delivery platforms, including digital platforms and policy initiative, have the potential to improve substance abuse outcomes among adolescents; however, these require further research. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  3. Current Trends in Adolescent Substance Use in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Atkinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: National secondary school-based drug surveys facilitate the identification and understanding of patterns of substance use among adolescents, associated risk and protective factors which exist and inform prevention and treatment interventions and policies which are appropriate for resource constrained settings. This paper analyses current trends as well as reviews trends from the last National School Survey conducted by the National Council on Drug Abuse in 2006. Method: The study utilized a survey design that included a representative sample of secondary school students. Data were collected from 3365 students from 38 schools across the island. The study made specific reference to the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco cigarette, marijuana and inhalant use among secondary school students. Results: The most widely used substances among the sample were alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, marijuana and solvents/inhalants. A large number of students (64% reported a lifetime prevalence of alcohol use. Alcohol use was also the highest for one-year (44% and one-month (33.6% use. While lifetime use of tobacco cigarette was higher than marijuana, one-year and one-month use of marijuana was higher than that of tobacco cigarette. There has been a slight increase in the age of initiation for alcohol, tobacco cigarette and marijuana use. There has also been a significant decrease (approximately 50% in lifetime, past year and past month prevalence of inhalant use since the 2006 secondary school survey. Conclusions: Alcohol continues to be the substance most widely used by Jamaican adolescents, followed by tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. Though the average age of first use has slightly increased for all substances, prevalence remains a concern. As such, innovative school-based interventions are required to assist in reducing substance use among Jamaican adolescents.

  4. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premature menopause; Ovarian insufficiency - cancer ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  5. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use. 1 , 2 Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months. 3

  6. Workplace Health and Safety: Hazardous Substances in the Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Noel; Walsh, Wendy; Beiers, Robin

    1997-01-01

    Lists requirements of hazardous-substances legislation as it pertains to science laboratories with a summary of obligations under the Hazardous Substances Compliance Standard for manufacturers, importers, suppliers of hazardous substances, employers or principals, and employees. (AIM)

  7. Developmental cascades: Linking adolescent substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement to adult substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Moira; Handley, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie; Bountress, Kaitlin

    2010-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample (N = 405), the current study examined developmental cascades among substance use, affiliation with substance use promoting peers, and academic achievement over an 18-year period and tested whether these pathways mediated the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol and drug use disorders. Results showed that the influence of parental alcoholism on adult drug disorders was mediated by developmental cascades across all three domains, whereas the influence of parental alcoholism on adult alcohol disorders was mediated through affiliation with substance use promoting peers and persistence in binge drinking. Adolescent drug use had more implications for adult outcomes than did adolescent alcohol use, which was less likely to spill over into other domains of functioning. Findings indicated that adolescent risk factors had indirect rather than unique effects on adult substance use disorders, suggesting that adolescent risk is not immutable and is largely mediated by later influences. PMID:20883589

  8. Advances on functional neuroimaging in substance misuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Han Mei

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has contributed greatly to our knowledge about the neuropharmacology of substance misuse in man. In this review, discussed the application and the progress of the positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the substance misuse. After reading some papers, found that the dopamine transporter was significantly decreased in the brain of subjects with heroin abuse. Also observed a significant decrease of regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral cerebral frontal lobes, temporal lobes, the insula and the ipsilateral basal nuclei in substance misuse subjects. Taken together, functional images will lead the direction in future research formedication development of addiction treatment. (authors)

  9. Science and policy in substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Arndt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

  10. Former substance users working as counselors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    is derived from an interview study initiated in 2000 in Denmark on former substance users with 4 -8 years of abstinence. Through an analysis of interview data from a larger group of former substance users, it became evident that those working as counselors experienced specific dilemmas and problems......All helping professionals risk participation in "dual relationships". But in the case of former substance users working as counselors, specific dilemmas and problems are accentuated. A qualitative analysis highlights some of the ethical and personal dilemmas faced by these counselors. The data...

  11. Serotonin transporter genotype linked to adolescent substance use treatment outcome through externalizing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy eChung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses suggest that the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR short (S allele, relative to the long (L allele, is associated with risk for alcohol dependence, particularly among individuals with early onset antisocial alcoholism. Youth in substance use treatment tend to show antisocial or externalizing behaviors, such as conduct problems, which predict worse treatment outcome. This study examined a pathway in which 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with externalizing behavior, and the intermediate phenotype of externalizing behavior serves as a link between 5-HTTLPR genotype and substance use treatment outcome in youth. Adolescents (n=142 who were recruited from addictions treatment were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (S and LG carriers vs. LALA, assessed for externalizing and internalizing behaviors shortly after starting treatment, and followed over 6-months. 5-HTTLPR genotype was not associated with internalizing behaviors, and was not directly associated with 6-month substance use outcomes. However, 5-HTTLPR genotype was associated with externalizing behaviors (S and LG > LALA, and externalizing behaviors predicted alcohol and marijuana problem severity at 6-month follow-up. Results indicated an indirect (p<.05 and non-specific (i.e., both alcohol and marijuana severity effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on youth substance use treatment outcomes, with externalizing behaviors as an important linking factor. Adolescents in substance use treatment with low expressing (S and LG 5-HTTLPR alleles and externalizing behavior might benefit from intervention that addresses serotonergic functioning, externalizing behaviors, and substance use to improve outcomes.

  12. Substance misuse and substance use disorders in sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraanen, Fleur L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2011-04-01

    Substance abuse has often been associated with committing sex offenses. In this article, the following will be reviewed: 1) studies that assessed substance abuse in sex offenders; 2) differences in substance abuse among different types of sex offenders; 3) differences in substance abuse between sex offenders and nonsexual offenders and substance abuse in the normal population; 4) sex offenders' intoxication at the time of the offense; and 5) differences in intoxication at the time of the offense among different types of sex offenders. Studies will be discussed according to the method they used to assess substance abuse, i.e., file research, screening instruments or semi-structured interviews. This review shows that about half of the sex offenders has a history of substance abuse, a quarter to half of the sex offenders has a history of alcohol misuse and that about one fifth to a quarter of the sex offenders has a history of drug misuse. Furthermore, about a quarter to half of the sex offenders appeared to be intoxicated at the time of the offense. The review results in recommendations for future research. Because of the high prevalence of substance abuse in sex offenders it is advisable to routinely screen for substance abuse and, if necessary, to treat substance abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  14. Substance Use in Rural Central Appalachia: Current Status and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Lara; Satterwhite, Emily; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-04-01

    The burden of substance use and especially the unmatched rates of overdoses in rural Central Appalachia highlight the need for innovative approaches to curb the initiation to drug misuse and to address current substance use disorders. Effective substance use interventions involve a thorough understanding of the region. In Central Appalachia, many of the barriers to treatment are shared with other rural and impoverished areas, including a lack of access to health care and lack of health care providers with specialized training. Parts of Appalachia also present their own considerations, including the challenges of fostering trust and encouraging treatment-seeking in communities with dense, long-term, place-based social and family networks. Current policies and interventions for substance use have been largely inadequate in the region, as evidenced by continued increases in substance use and substance-related deaths, especially related to nonmedical prescription drug use and increasing heroin use. The authors discuss ways in which rural life, poverty, identity, and values in Appalachia have influenced substance use and treatment and propose strategies and interventions to improve outcomes.

  15. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  16. Associations Between Physical and Relational Forms of Peer Aggression and Victimization and Risk for Substance Use Among Elementary School-Age Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Gabrielli, Joy; Cooley, John L.; Rubens, Sonia L.; Pederson, Casey A.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between physical and relational forms of aggression and victimization and risk for willingness to engage in substance use and actual use in a sample of 231 (50% Male) 2nd thru 4th grade students (Mean age = 8.3 years). Physical aggression was more strongly associated with risk for substance use outcomes than physical victimization. Neither relational aggression nor victimization were linked to risk for substance use. Specifically targeting physical aggression for the prevention of early substance use among elementary school-age youth appears to be warranted. PMID:26702250

  17. Maternal substance use and integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Karen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of women with substance abuse issues is increasing. Women present with a unique constellation of risk factors and presenting needs, which may include specific needs in their role as mothers. Numerous integrated programs (those with substance use treatment and pregnancy, parenting, or child services have been developed to specifically meet the needs of pregnant and parenting women with substance abuse issues. This synthesis and meta-analysis reviews research in this important and growing area of treatment. Methods We searched PsycINFO, MedLine, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Proquest Dissertations, Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL and compiled a database of 21 studies (2 randomized trials, 9 quasi-experimental studies, 10 cohort studies of integrated programs published between 1990 and 2007 with outcome data on maternal substance use. Data were summarized and where possible, meta-analyses were performed, using standardized mean differences (d effect size estimates. Results In the two studies comparing integrated programs to no treatment, effect sizes for urine toxicology and percent using substances significantly favored integrated programs and ranged from 0.18 to 1.41. Studies examining changes in maternal substance use from beginning to end of treatment were statistically significant and medium sized. More specifically, in the five studies measuring severity of drug and alcohol use, the average effect sizes were 0.64 and 0.40, respectively. In the four cohort studies of days of use, the average effect size was 0.52. Of studies comparing integrated to non-integrated programs, four studies assessed urine toxicology and two assessed self-reported abstinence. Overall effect sizes for each measure were not statistically significant (d = -0.09 and 0.22, respectively. Conclusions Findings suggest that integrated programs are effective in reducing maternal substance use. However, integrated programs were not

  18. Maternal neural responses to infant cries and faces: relationships with substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eLandi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse in pregnant and recently postpartum women is a major public health concern because of effects on the infant and on the ability of the adult to care for the infant. In addition to the negative health effects of teratogenic substances on fetal development, substance use can contribute to difficulties associated with the social and behavioral aspects of parenting. Neural circuits associated with parenting behavior overlap with circuits involved in addiction (e.g., frontal, striatal and limbic systems and thus may be co-opted for the craving/reward cycle associated with substance use and abuse and be less available for parenting. The current study investigates the degree to which neural circuits associated with parenting are disrupted in mothers who are substance-using. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural response to emotional infant cues (faces and cries in substance-using compared to non-using mothers. In response to both faces (of varying emotional valence and cries (of varying distress levels, substance-using mothers evidenced reduced neural activation in regions that have been previously implicated in reward and motivation as well as regions involved in cognitive control. Specifically, in response to faces, substance users showed reduced activation in prefrontal regions, including the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as visual processing (occipital lobes and limbic regions (parahippocampus and amygdala. Similarly, in response to infant cries substance-using mothers showed reduced activation relative to non-using mothers in prefrontal regions, auditory sensory processing regions, insula and limbic regions (parahippocampus and amygdala. These findings suggest that infant stimuli may be less salient for substance-using mothers, and such reduced saliency may impair developing infant-caregiver attachment and the ability of mothers to respond appropriately to their

  19. Microcomputer for controlled substance record keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R L; Motta, L J; Yee, A D

    1984-01-01

    The use of a microcomputer to maintain controlled substance inventory and record keeping is described. The system maintains perpetual inventories of the central narcotic vault and proof-of-use controlled drug records outstanding at nursing stations. The computerized system has eliminated (1) the delay previously encountered in the posting of transactions from the numeric log to perpetual inventory logs and (2) the potential addition and subtraction errors inherent in a manual system. Computerizing the controlled drug record-keeping system has saved approximately 166 minutes of labor per day, a cost savings of approximately $26. The new system also helps prevent diversion of controlled substances. The computer may also be used for other tasks while not running the controlled substance program. A microcomputer is well suited to the task of controlled-substance record-keeping functions, and the cost of the system (less than $4000) can be quickly recouped in labor savings.

  20. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.