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Sample records for included density percentage

  1. Superplastic Constitutive Equation Including Percentage of High-Angle Grain Boundaries as a Microstructural Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Liu, F. C.; Xue, P.; Wang, D.; Xiao, B. L.; Ma, Z. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fifteen Al-Mg-Sc samples with subgrain/grain sizes in the range of 1.8 to 4.9 μm were prepared through the processing methods of friction stir processing (FSP), equal-channel-angular pressing (ECAP), rolling, annealing, and combinations of the above. The percentages of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) of these fine-grained alloys were distributed from 39 to 97 pct. The samples processed through FSP had a higher percentage of HAGBs compared to other samples. Superplasticity was achieved in all fifteen samples, but the FSP samples exhibited better superplasticity than other samples because their fine equiaxed grains, which were mostly surrounded by HAGBs, were conducive to the occurrence of grain boundary sliding (GBS) during superplastic deformation. The dominant deformation mechanism was the same for all fifteen samples, i.e., GBS controlled by grain boundary diffusion. However, the subgrains were the GBS units for the rolled or ECAP samples, which contained high percentages of unrecrystallized grains, whereas the fine grains were the GBS units for the FSP samples. Superplastic data analysis revealed that the dimensionless A in the classical constitutive equation for superplasticity of fine-grained Al alloys was not a constant, but increased with an increase in the percentage of HAGBs, demonstrating that the enhanced superplastic deformation kinetics can be ascribed to the high percentage of HAGBs. A modified superplastic constitutive equation with the percentage of HAGBs as a new microstructural parameter was established.

  2. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  3. Evaluation of density, moisture content and percentage compaction of concrete using direct transmission and backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attobrah, A. T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear method widely used in determining the density and moisture content of soil - aggregates, asphalt concretes, roller compacted concretes and Portland cement concretes, is the radiometry technique. Generally, all radiometry systems consist of a source of radiation, the sample being examined and a radiation detector. In operation, a radioactive source and a detector are placed on the same or opposite sides of a concrete sample. A portion of radiation from the source which passes through the concrete sample and reaches the detector produces a series of electrical pulses which when counted gives a measure of the dimensions or physical characteristics of the concrete sample. In this research work, concrete beams were fabricated using a 500 x 225 x 200mm wooden mould whiles a table vibrator was used to consolidate the concrete after placement in the mould. The mass of the beam was determined and the actual density calculated and inputted in the gauge. Measurements were performed on the unhardened and hardened concrete using the backscatter method and the direct transmission method at depths of 50mm, 100mm and 150mm. The measuring times of 15, 60 and 240 second were use to take the measurements. The study provided information on the variation of density with depth and this was observed to be within the range of 0 kg/m 3 to 1 kg/m 3 and 13 kg/m 3 to 23 kg/m 3 for the unhardened concrete samples in which density increased with depth and those in which density decreased with depth respectively. For the hardened concrete sample, the average change in density with depth was between 4 - 11 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density increased with depth and between 11 - 21 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density decreased with depth. The study also provided information about the degree of consolidation of Portland cement concrete which on the average was between 95% - 97% for the unhardened concrete samples and increased to between 97% - 99% for the hardened concrete

  4. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging–Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Methods: Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity©, developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. Results: The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (pBI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, pBI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. Advances in knowledge: On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories. PMID:24029631

  5. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, A S; Tagliafico, G; Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-11-01

    To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity(©), developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (pBI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, pBI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories.

  6. Molecular density functional theory of water including density-polarization coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-06-22

    We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived from first-principles that relies on the particle's density and multipolar polarization density and includes the density-polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar density and vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give more physical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the full density-polarization coupling of water, that is known to be non-vanishing but has never been taken into account. Furthermore, the theory requires only the partial charge distribution of a water molecule and three measurable bulk properties, namely the structure factor and the Fourier components of the longitudinal and transverse dielectric susceptibilities.

  7. Molecular density functional theory of water including density–polarization coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Lévy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We present a three-dimensional molecular density functional theory of water derived fromfirst-principles that relies on the particle’s density and multipolar polarization density andincludes the density–polarization coupling. This brings two main benefits: (i) scalar densityand vectorial multipolar polarization density fields are much more tractable and give morephysical insight than the full position and orientation densities, and (ii) it includes the fulldensity–pola...

  8. Local existence of solutions to the Euler-Poisson system, including densities without compact support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2018-01-01

    Local existence and well posedness for a class of solutions for the Euler Poisson system is shown. These solutions have a density ρ which either falls off at infinity or has compact support. The solutions have finite mass, finite energy functional and include the static spherical solutions for γ = 6/5. The result is achieved by using weighted Sobolev spaces of fractional order and a new non-linear estimate which allows to estimate the physical density by the regularised non-linear matter variable. Gamblin also has studied this setting but using very different functional spaces. However we believe that the functional setting we use is more appropriate to describe a physical isolated body and more suitable to study the Newtonian limit.

  9. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  10. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Simultaneous measurements of work function and H‒ density including caesiation of a converter surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofaro, S.; Friedl, R.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    Negative hydrogen ion sources rely on the surface conversion of neutral atomic hydrogen and positive hydrogen ions to H-. The efficiency of this process depends on the actual work function of the converter surface. By introducing caesium into the source the work function decreases, enhancing the negative ion yield. In order to study the impact of the work function on the H- surface production at similar conditions to the ones in ion sources for fusion devices like ITER and DEMO, fundamental investigations are performed in a flexible laboratory experiment. The work function of the converter surface can be absolutely measured by photoelectric effect, while a newly installed cavity ring-down spectroscopy system (CRDS) measures the H- density. The CRDS is firstly tested and characterized by investigations on H- volume production. Caesiation of a stainless steel sample is then performed in vacuum and the plasma effect on the Cs layer is investigated also for long plasma-on times. A minimum work function of (1.9±0.1) eV is reached after some minutes of plasma treatment, resulting in a reduction by a value of 0.8 eV compared to vacuum measurements. The H- density above the surface is (2.1±0.5)×1015 m-3. With further plasma exposure of the caesiated surface, the work function increases up to 3.75 eV, due to the impinging plasma particles which gradually remove the Cs layer. As a result, the H- density decreases by a factor of at least 2.

  12. Universal Correction of Density Functional Theory to Include London Dispersion (up to Lr, Element 103).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjun; Choi, Jeong-Mo; Goddard, William A

    2012-02-02

    Conventional density functional theory (DFT) fails to describe accurately the London dispersion essential for describing molecular interactions in soft matter (biological systems, polymers, nucleic acids) and molecular crystals. This has led to several methods in which atom-dependent potentials are added into the Kohn-Sham DFT energy. Some of these corrections were fitted to accurate quantum mechanical results, but it will be tedious to determine the appropriate parameters to describe all of the atoms of the periodic table. We propose an alternative approach in which a single parameter in the low-gradient (lg) functional form is combined with the rule-based UFF (universal force-field) nonbond parameters developed for the entire periodic table (up to Lr, Z = 103), named as a DFT-ulg method. We show that DFT-ulg method leads to a very accurate description of the properties for molecular complexes and molecular crystals, providing the means for predicting more accurate weak interactions across the periodic table.

  13. Dynamical density functional theory for arbitrary-shape colloidal fluids including inertia and hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Goddard, Ben; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades the classical density-functional theory (DFT) and its dynamic extensions (DDFTs) have become a remarkably powerful tool in the study of colloidal fluids. Recently there has been extensive research to generalise all previous DDFTs finally yielding a general DDFT equation (for spherical particles) which takes into account both inertia and hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which strongly influence non-equilibrium properties. The present work will be devoted to a further generalisation of such a framework to systems of anisotropic particles. To this end, the kinetic equation for the Brownian particle distribution function is derived starting from the Liouville equation and making use of Zwanzig's projection-operator techniques. By averaging over all but one particle, a DDFT equation is finally obtained with some similarities to that for spherical colloids. However, there is now an inevitable translational-rotational coupling which affects the diffusivity of asymmetric particles. Lastly, in the overdamped (high friction) limit the theory is notably simplified leading to a DDFT equation which agrees with previous derivations. We acknowledge financial support from European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  14. A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation

    KAUST Repository

    Maas, Jan

    2015-11-01

    © EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.

  15. Nanocomposites for ultra high density information storage, devices including the same, and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite article that includes a single-crystal or single-crystal-like substrate and heteroepitaxial, phase-separated layer supported by a surface of the substrate and a method of making the same are described. The heteroepitaxial layer can include a continuous, non-magnetic, crystalline, matrix phase, and an ordered, magnetic magnetic phase disposed within the matrix phase. The ordered magnetic phase can include a plurality of self-assembled crystalline nanostructures of a magnetic material. The phase-separated layer and the single crystal substrate can be separated by a buffer layer. An electronic storage device that includes a read-write head and a nanocomposite article with a data storage density of 0.75 Tb/in.sup.2 is also described.

  16. Numerical modelling of seawater intrusion in Shenzhen (China) using a 3D density-dependent model including tidal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Yang, Qingchun; Martín, Jordi D.; Juncosa, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    During the 1990s, groundwater overexploitation has resulted in seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the Shenzhen city, China. Although water supply facilities have been improved and alleviated seawater intrusion in recent years, groundwater overexploitation is still of great concern in some local areas. In this work we present a three-dimensional density-dependent numerical model developed with the FEFLOW code, which is aimed at simulating the extent of seawater intrusion while including tidal effects and different groundwater pumping scenarios. Model calibration, using waterheads and reported chloride concentration, has been performed based on the data from 14 boreholes, which were monitored from May 2008 to December 2009. A fairly good fitness between the observed and computed values was obtained by a manual trial-and-error method. Model prediction has been carried out forward 3 years with the calibrated model taking into account high, medium and low tide levels and different groundwater exploitation schemes. The model results show that tide-induced seawater intrusion significantly affects the groundwater levels and concentrations near the estuarine of the Dasha river, which implies that an important hydraulic connection exists between this river and groundwater, even considering that some anti-seepage measures were taken in the river bed. Two pumping scenarios were considered in the calibrated model in order to predict the future changes in the water levels and chloride concentration. The numerical results reveal a decreased tendency of seawater intrusion if groundwater exploitation does not reach an upper bound of about 1.32 × 104 m3/d. The model results provide also insights for controlling seawater intrusion in such coastal aquifer systems.

  17. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs Is Associated with Increased Density of Intestinal Mucosa-Associated Bacteria Including Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Mølbak, Lars; Delègue, Camilla Lindholm

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with changes in the luminal gut microbiota. It is not known whether the mucosa-associated microbiota is affected by NEC and stimulates inflammatory lesions. Objective: We hypothesized that the density of the mucosa-associated microbiota co...

  18. Innovative Methods for Estimating Densities and Detection Probabilities of Secretive Reptiles Including Invasive Constrictors and Rare Upland Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    stressors, explain the distribution of a  keystone   species . Biological  Invasions 18:3309‐3318.  Steen, D. A. 2010. Snakes in the grass: secretive natural...Carolina Sandhills and the invasive Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) in Everglades National Park, Florida. For both species , existing...radiotelemetry and extensive road survey data are used to generate the first density estimates available for the species . The results show that southern

  19. Measured Properties of Turbulent Premixed Flames for Model Assessment, Including Burning Velocities, Stretch Rates, and Surface Densities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent burning velocity of Bunsen flames depends...burning velocity of Bunsen flames are inadequate because they should include two additional parameters: mean velocity Ū and burner width W. These...corru- gated) flame with well-defined boundary conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent

  20. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  1. The maximal excess charge for a family of density-matrix-functional theories including Hartree-Fock and Müller theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehle, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We will give a proof that the maximal excess charge for an atom described by a family of density-matrix-functionals, which includes Hartree-Fock and Müller theories, is bounded by a universal constant. We will use the new technique introduced by Frank et al. [preprint arXiv:1608.05625 (2016)].

  2. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  3. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F.; Dixon, David A.

    2016-08-09

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n ( M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1 – 4 ) and (MO3)n ( M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1 – 3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation DFT functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs, and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer.

  4. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) coupled with reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, D.

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced.

  5. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  6. Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly

    2013-01-01

    At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…

  7. Including screening in van der Waals corrected density functional theory calculations: The case of atoms and small molecules physisorbed on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Ambrosetti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Density Functional Theory (DFT)/van der Waals-Quantum Harmonic Oscillator-Wannier function (vdW-QHO-WF) method, recently developed to include the vdW interactions in approximated DFT by combining the quantum harmonic oscillator model with the maximally localized Wannier function technique, is applied to the cases of atoms and small molecules (X=Ar, CO, H 2 , H 2 O) weakly interacting with benzene and with the ideal planar graphene surface. Comparison is also presented with the results obtained by other DFT vdW-corrected schemes, including PBE+D, vdW-DF, vdW-DF2, rVV10, and by the simpler Local Density Approximation (LDA) and semilocal generalized gradient approximation approaches. While for the X-benzene systems all the considered vdW-corrected schemes perform reasonably well, it turns out that an accurate description of the X-graphene interaction requires a proper treatment of many-body contributions and of short-range screening effects, as demonstrated by adopting an improved version of the DFT/vdW-QHO-WF method. We also comment on the widespread attitude of relying on LDA to get a rough description of weakly interacting systems

  8. Making Sense of Fractions and Percentages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitin, David J.; Whitin, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Because fractions and percentages can be difficult for children to grasp, connecting them whenever possible is beneficial. Linking them can foster representational fluency as children simultaneously see the part-whole relationship expressed numerically (as a fraction and as a percentage) and visually (as a pie chart). NCTM advocates these…

  9. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  10. Percentage of Fast-Track Receipts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset provides the percentage of fast-track receipts by state during the reporting fiscal year. Fast-tracked cases consist of those cases identified as Quick...

  11. The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kaoru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clock molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to cardiometabolic disorders. The existence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL in the circulation, an abnormality of lipid metabolism, in part associated with lifestyle, is also one of risk parameters for cardiometabolic disorders. The 3111 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the Clock gene has been reported to be associated with lifestyle including morning/evening preference. We investigated whether the Clock 3111 T/C SNP may affect lipids and lipoproteins including sdLDL. Methods In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years, the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system. Results The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p Conclusion Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.

  12. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 13 CFR 115.31 - Guarantee percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, on behalf of a... Contracts in excess of $100,000 which are executed on behalf of non-disadvantaged concerns. (c) Contract... Applicable Statutory Limit represents multiplied by the guarantee percentage approved by SBA. For example if...

  14. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  15. Soils, County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu symbol and ID, state symbol, name, category, percolation rate and passing percentage., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Soils dataset current as of 2008. County-wide soils cover - an aggregation of section-wide soil coverages with additional attributes. Primary attributes include mu...

  16. Comparison of body fat percentage and physical performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body fat percentage and physical performance of male national senior and junior karate athletes. Sixteen male karate kumite competitors of the national karate team (senior n = 8; junior n = 8) participated in this study. The tests included both assessment of selected ...

  17. Magnetizability and rotational g tensors for density fitted local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory using gauge-including atomic orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, Stefan; Schütz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present theory and implementation of an efficient program for calculating magnetizabilities and rotational g tensors of closed-shell molecules at the level of local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) using London orbitals. Density fitting is employed to factorize the electron repulsion integrals with ordinary Gaussians as fitting functions. The presented program for the calculation of magnetizabilities and rotational g tensors is based on a previous implementation of NMR shielding tensors reported by S. Loibl and M. Schütz [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 084107 (2012)]. Extensive test calculations show (i) that the errors introduced by density fitting are negligible, and (ii) that the errors of the local approximation are still rather small, although larger than for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors. Electron correlation effects for magnetizabilities are tiny for most of the molecules considered here. MP2 appears to overestimate the correlation contribution of magnetizabilities such that it does not constitute an improvement over Hartree-Fock (when comparing to higher-order methods like CCSD(T)). For rotational g tensors the situation is different and MP2 provides a significant improvement in accuracy over Hartree-Fock. The computational performance of the new program was tested for two extended systems, the larger comprising about 2200 basis functions. It turns out that a magnetizability (or rotational g tensor) calculation takes about 1.5 times longer than a corresponding NMR shielding tensor calculation

  18. Geographic and sociodemographic factors in the etiology of juvenile neoplasms: implications for leukaemia clusters of several factors including density, background radiation, infections and immunisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC) by the recently invented method of Fears and Brown, as modified (for correct variances of relative risk estimates) by Breslow and Zhao. The analysis has shown that, for OSCC cases, negative associations with population density, stillbirths and infant deaths were sufficiently strong for these alone to account for all but one of the leukaemia clusters so far reported in Britain as 'black hole' effects (the single exception being the Sellafield cluster). Finally, strong positive associations with regional levels of background radiation were found which have reinforced an earlier impression that these inevitable exposures are important causes of childhood cancer. (orig./MG)

  19. Research on energy recycle percentage of servo motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Yen-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy recycle circuit fed back the energy to batteries is one of the important means to extend the travel distance of action vehicle for an electric vehicle or hybrid vehicle by driven batteries. In order to achieve energy recycle must be use, such as the motor characteristics, the principle of motor controller and design of circuit to reach the energy recycle of motor in action vehicles. Focus on the 24 V 8A 150W servo motor and its shaft coupling with a condition by magnetic brake to simulate as the analog load and adjust the brake to 0.2 Newton-meter. According to the characteristics of the motor, the principle of the motor controller and the design and energy recovery of the circuit system for discussion, that include drive control circuit of motor and based on the former to design the circuit of energy recycle circuit of motor and to feed back the energy to the driving batteries. According to the characteristics of the motor, the principle of the motor controller and the design and energy recovery of the circuit system for discussion, that include drive control circuit of motor and based on the former to design the circuit of energy recycle circuit of motor and to feed back the energy to the driving batteries. By mean of the architecture of energy recycle circuit to test the power recovery which divide into without load and without energy collector, without load and with energy collector, with load and without energy collector and with load and energy collector four cases under these conditions to investigate the power recovery analysis. For the statistics of energy, the average energy recovery power percentage by without load and without energy collector is 9.7%, the average energy recovery power percentage by without load and with energy collector is 20.5%, the average energy recovery power percentage by with load and without energy collector is 1.82%, and the average energy recovery power percentage by with load and with energy

  20. Labelling alcoholic drinks: percentage proof, original gravity, percentage alcohol or standard drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, T; Honig, F

    1990-01-01

    Drivers who wish to stay 'under the limit', problem drinkers wishing to control their drinking and literally anyone who drinks alcohol and is concerned about their health are all increasingly exhorted to monitor their alcohol intake by counting 'standard drinks' (each containing 8-14 g, depending on the country in question). Unfortunately, the evidence presented in this paper suggests that this system permits many errors. In particular, it requires two assumptions to be met: (1) that drinks of the same beverage type (i.e. beer, wine, fortified wine or spirits) normally contain the same percentage of alcohol by volume; and (2) that people serve, or are served, alcoholic drinks in standard serves. It is shown that in practice the strength of drinks available for sale of a given beverage type varies widely and that 'atypical' strengths form a significant proportion of alcohol sales. Furthermore, whether drinking occurs in a private residence or on licensed premises, it is usual for quantities greater than the supposed Australian standard of 10 g to be served. In practice, most people are unaware of the strengths of different beverages or the rough equivalences between them. Even if they are taught the standard drink system, they cannot make allowances for 'atypical' variations in strength. It is suggested these problems could be readily overcome if all alcohol containers were labelled in terms of standard drinks. The benefits of such a labelling system are discussed with regard to health promotion, accident prevention and the accuracy of surveys of alcohol use.

  1. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  2. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  3. Small percentage of anaphylactic reactions treated with epinephrine during food challenges in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der Johanna P.M.; Berends, Irene; Wijk, van Roy Gerth; Arends, Nicolette J.T.; Maaren, van Maurits S.; Groot, de Hans; Wichers, Harry J.; Emons, Joyce A.M.; Dubois, Anthony E.J.; Jong, de Nicolette W.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, occur during oral food challenges (OFCs) and the first-line treatment of anaphylaxis is epinephrine. Objective: To evaluate the percentage of anaphylactic reactions treated with epinephrine during OFCs and to identify associated factors

  4. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and restricted percentages computed by the Board or established by the Secretary pursuant to § 982.40 shall apply...

  5. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens. Keywords. Geopolymer; fly ash; rice husk bark ash; percentage of water absorption; artificial neural networks. 1. Introduction. Most building materials have typical porous structure and composed of ...

  6. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... conducted. According to these input parameters, in the neural networks model, the percentage of water absorption of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the neural networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens.

  7. Determination of percentage of caffeine content in some analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods were employed for the determination of percentage Caffeine content in three brands of analgesic tablets which are; Extraction using only water as a solvent and Extraction using both water and chloroform as solvents, watch glass has been used as the weighing apparatus and the percentage of Caffeine ...

  8. determination of perce rmination of percentage of caffeine content

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Two methods were employed for the deter brands of analgesic tablets which are;. Extraction using both water and chlorofor weighing apparatus and the percentage of. The percentage of caffeine using only water. Boska, and Panadol Extra were 7.40%, 5.60 caffeine using both water and chloroform i.

  9. 26 CFR 1.613-1 - Percentage depletion; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-1 Percentage depletion; general rule. (a) In general. In the case of a taxpayer computing the deduction for depletion under section 611... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Percentage depletion; general rule. 1.613-1...

  10. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to these input parameters, in the neural networks model, the percentage of water absorption of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the neural networks model have shown a strong potential for predicting the percentage of water absorption of the geopolymer specimens. Keywords.

  11. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  12. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (pappendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  13. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  14. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  15. Court Remands as a Percentage of New Court Cases Filed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of court remand actions received during each Fiscal Year 2010 - onward as compared to the total number of...

  16. Wound debridement: Comparative reliability of three methods for measuring fibrin percentage in chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaud, Anne-Laure; Blaizot, Xavier; Gaillard, Cathy; Morice, Aurore; Lebreuilly, Ingrid; Clément, Cécile; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Dompmartin, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and interrater reliability of three methods to measure the percentage of fibrin within a wound, hence reflecting wound debridement. The three methods include visual assessment, a portable wound measurement system (PWMS) Visitrak(R), and a computerized planimetry software Canvas(R). The main objective was to compare the computerized planimetry with visual analysis. For each wound, a series of two repeated recordings of fibrin percentage based on the same Day 1 photograph at Day 8 and Day 15, respectively, was assessed by four evaluators using the two methods. Additional objectives consisted in the assessment of the inter-rater reliability of computerized planimetry and PWMS to assess fibrin percentage and total surface area. Twenty-four patients were included for a total of 31 wounds. Intraclass correlation coefficient revealed improved reproducibility and repeatability of computerized planimetry. The reproducibility of computerized planimetry was better than PWMS when measuring the percentage of fibrin and total wound area. Because average visual estimations were very close to the computerized planimetry, bedside evaluation of fibrin percentage and wound debridement was considered as reliable, and consequently a valid technique for daily practice. PWMS proved to be less convenient, owing to difficulties in identifying fibrin margins. The higher intra and interrater reliability of computerized planimetry probably reflected the fact that subjective clinical assessment and objective calculation of percentages were mandatory for correct wound evaluation. Therefore, digital image analysis was considered as an accurate method for double-blind and multicentric trials.

  17. Effects of Intercropping on Biological Yield, Percentage of Nitrogen and Morphological Characteristics of Coriander and Fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bigonah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intercropping arrangements of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: mono-crop of fenugreek (A, %25 of optimum density of coriander + %175 of optimum density of fenugreek (B, %50 of optimum density of coriander + %150 of optimum density of fenugreek (C, %75 of optimum density of coriander + %125 of optimum density of fenugreek (D, %100 of optimum density of coriander + %100 of optimum density of fenugreek (E, mono-crop of coriander (F, %125 of optimum density of coriander + %75 of optimum density of fenugreek (G, %150 of optimum density of coriander + %50 of optimum density of fenugreek (H, %175 of optimum density of coriander + %25 of optimum density of fenugreek (I. Biological yield harvested in coriander at %5 flowering stage and in fenugreek at %20 flowering stage. The result showed that B treatment had highest plant height and biological yield of fenugreek, highest total land equivalent ratio and also B treatment had lowest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and biological yield of coriander. I treatment had lowest biological yield of fenugreek and it had highest essential oil contents of leaf, essential oil yield and plant height in coriander. Also A and E treatments had highest percent of nitrogen of biomass in fenugreek and coriander, respectively.

  18. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian wood species using the kraft process. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The infra red analysis of the pulp obtained from the various wood species confirmed the chemical integrity of the pulps obtained from all the hard wood ...

  19. 7 CFR 987.44 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... applicable grade and size available to supply the trade demand for free dates of any variety is likely to be... effectuate the declared policy of the act, it shall recommend such percentages to the Secretary. If the...

  20. 12 CFR 226.14 - Determination of annual percentage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 226.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.14 Determination of annual percentage... calculation tool used in good faith by the creditor; and (2) upon discovery of the error, the creditor...

  1. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the ... intensity were the predictors of high BF%. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ... maintenance of weight loss among overweight and obese women [18]. 2. METHODOLOGY.

  2. Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artificial neural networks for prediction of percentage of water absorption of geopolymers produced by waste ashes ... Different specimens, made from a mixture of fly ash and rice husk bark ash in fine and coarse form together with alkali activatormade of water glass and NaOH solution, were subjected to permeability tests at ...

  3. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  4. 78 FR 48789 - Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... defined in 38 CFR 36.4301. Essentially ``net value'' is the fair market value of the property, minus the... signs of stability that can sustain a change in the net value to less than the historical high of 15.11... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Percentage to Determine Net Value AGENCY: Department...

  5. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of percentage grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Chalkiness is a major concern in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding because it is one of the key factors in determining quality and price, which is a complicated quantitative trait and controlled by maternal, endosperm and cytoplasmic effects. In this study, we conducted grain chalkiness percentage quantitative ...

  6. Effect of Tap Root Size, Percentage Rootlets Retention and Planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two-factor interaction of length of tap root and percentage of retention of rootlets also had a significant influence on tree growth, except leaf dry weight. The best biomass production was observed for non-treated stump tap root and rootlets and planting at 9 cm soil depth ensuring a gain of about 486 % of tree dry weight ...

  7. Coral Reef Coverage Percentage on Binor Paiton-Probolinggo Seashore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Budi Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coral reef damage in Probolinggo region was expected to be caused by several factors. The first one comes from its society that exploits fishery by using cyanide toxin and bomb. The second one goes to the extraction of coral reef, which is used as decoration or construction materials. The other factor is likely caused by the existence of large industry on the seashore, such as Electric Steam Power Plant (PLTU Paiton and others alike. Related to the development of coral reef ecosystem, availability of an accurate data is crucially needed to support the manner of future policy, so the research of coral reef coverage percentage needs to be conducted continuously. The aim of this research is to collect biological data of coral reef and to identify coral reef coverage percentage in the effort of constructing coral reef condition basic data on Binor, Paiton, and Probolinggo regency seashore. The method used in this research is Line Intercept Transect (LIT method. LIT method is a method that used to decide benthic community on coral reef based on percentage growth, and to take note of benthic quantity along transect line. Percentage of living coral coverage in 3 meters depth on this Binor Paiton seashore that may be categorized in a good condition is 57,65%. While the rest are dead coral that is only 1,45%, other life form in 23,2%, and non-life form in 17,7%. A good condition of coral reef is caused by coral reef transplantation on the seashore, so this coral reef is dominated by Acropora Branching. On the other hand, Mortality Index (IM of coral reef resulted in 24,5%. The result from observation and calculation of coral reef is dominated by Hard Coral in Acropora Branching (ACB with coral reef coverage percentage of 39%, Coral Massive (CM with coral reef coverage percentage of 2,85%, Coral Foliose (CF with coral reef coverage percentage of 1,6%, and Coral Mushroom (CRM with coral reef coverage percentage of 8,5%. Observation in 10 meters depth

  8. Percentage extremity fat, but not percentage trunk fat, is lower in adolescent boys with anorexia nervosa than in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Katzman, Debra K; Cord, Jennalee; Manning, Stephanie J; Mickley, Diane; Herzog, David B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe undernutrition associated with altered regional fat distribution in females. Although primarily a disease of females, AN is increasingly being recognized in males and is associated with hypogonadism. Testosterone is a major regulator of body composition in males, and testosterone administration in adults decreases visceral fat. However, the effect of low testosterone and other hormonal alterations on body composition in boys with AN is not known. We hypothesized that testosterone deficiency in boys with AN is associated with higher trunk fat, as opposed to extremity fat, compared with control subjects. We assessed body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and measured fasting testosterone, estradiol, insulin- like growth factor-1, leptin, and active ghrelin concentrations in 15 boys with AN and in 15 control subjects of comparable maturity aged 12-19 y. Fat and lean mass in AN boys was 69% and 86% of that in control subjects. Percentage extremity fat and extremity lean mass were lower in boys with AN (P = 0.003 and 0.0008); however, percentage trunk fat and the trunk to extremity fat ratio were higher after weight was adjusted for (P = 0.005 and 0.003). Testosterone concentrations were lower in boys with AN, and, on regression modeling, positively predicted percentage extremity lean mass and inversely predicted percentage trunk fat and trunk to extremity fat ratio. Other independent predictors of regional body composition were bone age and weight. In adolescent boys with AN, higher percentage trunk fat, higher trunk to extremity fat ratio, lower percentage extremity fat, and lower extremity lean mass (adjusted for weight) are related to the hypogonadal state.

  9. Association of extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies including 43,407 individuals: The EPOCH-JAPAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Aya; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2018-02-08

    The effect of very high or extremely high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well described. Although a few recent studies have reported the adverse effects of extremely high levels of HDL-C on CVD events, these did not show a statistically significant association between extremely high levels of HDL-C and cause-specific CVD mortality. In addition, Asian populations have not been studied. We examine the impact of extremely high levels of HDL-C on cause-specific CVD mortality using pooled data of Japanese cohort studies. We performed a large-scale pooled analysis of 9 Japanese cohorts including 43,407 participants aged 40-89 years, dividing the participants into 5 groups by HDL-C levels, including extremely high levels of HDL-C ≥2.33 mmol/L (≥90 mg/dL). We estimated the adjusted hazard ratio of each HDL-C category for all-cause death and cause-specific deaths compared with HDL-C 1.04-1.55 mmol/L (40-59 mg/dL) using a cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. During a 12.1-year follow-up, 4995 all-cause deaths and 1280 deaths due to overall CVD were identified. Extremely high levels of HDL-C were significantly associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD mortality (hazard ratio = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-4.09 for total) and increased risk for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk for extremely high HDL-C was more evident among current drinkers. We showed extremely high levels of HDL-C had an adverse effect on atherosclerotic CVD mortality in a pooled analysis of Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluctuations of population density in Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) related to fruit availability in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 10-year record including two mast fruitings and three other peak fruitings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Tomoko; Kuze, Noko; Bernard, Henry; Malim, Titol Peter; Kohshima, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the population density of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) and fruit availability for 10 years (2005-2014), in primary lowland dipterocarp forests in the Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia. During the research period, two mast fruitings and three other peak fruiting events of different scales occurred in the study area. The orangutan population density, estimated every 2 months by the marked nest count method, changed between 0.3 and 4.4 ind/km 2 and the mean population density was 1.3 ind/km 2  ± SE 0.1 (n = 56). The population density increased markedly during mast and peak fruiting periods. A significant positive correlation was observed between the population density and fruit availability in the study period (Spearman, R = 0.3, P < 0.01, n = 56). During non-fruiting periods, however, no significant correlation was observed between them. These results suggest that the spatial difference in fruit availability during mast and peak fruiting periods was larger than during non-fruiting periods, and many orangutans temporarily moved to the study site from the surrounding areas seeking fruit.

  11. 7 CFR 929.49 - Marketable quantity, allotment percentage, and annual allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... history, established pursuant to § 929.48. Such allotment percentage shall be established by the Secretary and shall equal the marketable quantity divided by the total of all growers' sales histories including...

  12. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  13. DEXTRAN SEDIMENTATION INDUCES A DIFFERENCE IN THE PERCENTAGE OF HYPODENSE EOSINOPHILS IN PERIPHERAL-BLOOD BETWEEN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC-ASTHMA AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, MO; DIJKHUIZEN, B; GERRITSEN, J; KAUFMAN, HF

    1994-01-01

    Considerable differences in the percentage of hypodense eosinophils in the peripheral blood of asthmatics have been reported by different investigators. In these previous studies dextran sedimentation was used for removal of erythrocytes prior to density centrifugation. We hypothesized that the

  14. Acoustic properties of polymer foam composites blended with different percentage loadings of natural fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Taufiq Zaliran, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the acoustic properties of polymer foam composites (FC) filled with natural fiber. The FC were produced based on crosslinking of polyol, with flexible isocyanates and wood filler. The percentages of wood filler loading are 10, 15, and 20 wt% ratio of polyol. The FC also has a thickness of 10, 20 and 30 mm. The acoustic properties of the FC were determined by using Impedance Tube test, Optical Microscope (OM) and Mettler Toledo Density Kit test. The results revealed that FC20 with 30 mm in thickness gives the highest sound absorption coefficient (α) with 0.970 and 0.999, at low and high frequency respectively. FC20 also shows smallest pores structures size with 134.86 μm and biggest density with 868.5 kg/m3 which helps in absorbing sound. In this study, FC with different percentage loading of wood filler and different foam thickness shows the ability to contribute the absorption coefficient of polymeric foam at different frequency levels. Lastly, this type of FC is suitable for any type of sound absorption applications material.

  15. Budgetary Approach to Project Management by Percentage of Completion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Borowiec

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and effective project management process is made possible by the use of methods and techniques of project management. The aim of this paper is to present the problems of project management by using Percentage of Completion method. The research material was gathered based on the experience in implementing this method by the Johnson Controls International Company. The article attempts to demonstrate the validity of the thesis that the POC project management method, allows for effective implementation and monitoring of the project and thus is an effective tool in the managing of companies which exploit the budgetary approach. The study presents planning process of basic parameters affecting the effectiveness of the project (such as costs, revenue, margin and characterized how the primary measurements used to evaluate it. The present theme is illustrating by numerous examples for showing the essence of the raised problems and the results are presenting by using descriptive methods, graphical and tabular.

  16. The percentage of migration as indicator of femoral head position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Ringertz, H.; Samuelsson, L.; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm; Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm

    1988-01-01

    In childhood subluxation of one or both hips may develop rather insidiously. For lack of generally accepted objective methods of assessment, ambiguous interpretations of findings in serial examinations are common. Many subluxations are overlooked during the early stages. In order to overcome such disadvantages, determination of the percentage of migration seems to be a reasonably easy and reliable technique facilitating evaluation of impending dislocation. This investigation was carried out in order to estabilsh norms applicable to patients in the pediatric age interval. The 98th percentile of migration increases with age from 16% in patients < 4 years of age to 24% in patients ≥ 12 years. Higher figures represent subluxation. If the migration exceeds 80% a manifest luxation is present. A difference in migration between the two hips larger than 12% indicates abnormality calling for clinical and radiologic follow-up. (orig.)

  17. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. NIST-Traceable NMR Method to Determine Quantitative Weight Percentage Purity of Mustard (HD) Feedstock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    analysis of this sample can be done periodically as part of the instrument QC validation. Detailed QC specifications are not included in this method ... method is measured in milligrams, and the Z level is arbitrarily based on detection limits of the current instrument . The data from a P&A test is...ECBC-TR-1506 NIST-TRACEABLE NMR METHOD TO DETERMINE QUANTITATIVE WEIGHT PERCENTAGE PURITY OF MUSTARD (HD) FEEDSTOCK SAMPLES David J

  19. Used percentage veto for LIGO and virgo binary inspiral searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Tomoki; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2010-08-01

    A challenge for ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and Virgo is to understand the origin of non-astrophysical transients that contribute to the background noise, obscuring real astrophysically produced signals. To help this effort, there are a number of environmental and instrumental sensors around the site, recording data in "channels". We developed a method called the used percentage veto to eliminate corrupted data based on the statistical correlation between transients in the gravitational wave channel and in the auxiliary channels. The results are used to improve inspiral binary searches on LIGO and Virgo data. We also developed a way to apply this method to help find the physical origin of such transients for detector characterization. After identifying statistically correlated channels, a follow-up code clusters coincident events between the gravitational wave channel and auxiliary channels, and thereby classifies noise by correlated channels. For each selected event, the code also gathers and creates information that is helpful for further investigations. The method is contributing to identifying problems and improving data quality for the LIGO S6 and Virgo VSR2 science runs.

  20. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in Phramongkutklao Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumon Sopapornamorn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Narumon Sopapornamorn1, Manapon Lekskul1, Suthee Panichkul21Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To describe the corneal endothelial density and morphology in patients of Phramongkutklao Hospital and the relationship between endothelial cell parameters and other factors.Methods: Four hundred and four eyes of 202 volunteers were included. Noncontact specular microscopy was performed after taking a history and testing the visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement, Schirmer’s test and routine eye examination by slit lamp microscope. The studied parameters included mean endothelial cell density (MCD, coefficient of variation (CV, and percentage of hexagonality.Results: The mean age of volunteers was 45.73 years; the range being 20 to 80 years old. Their MCD (SD, mean percentage of CV (SD and mean (SD percentage of hexagonality were 2623.49(325 cell/mm2, 39.43(8.23% and 51.50(10.99%, respectively. Statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age (p < 0.01. There was a significant difference in the percentage of CV between genders. There was no statistical significance between parameters and other factors.Conclusion: The normative data of the corneal endothelium of Thai eyes indicated that, statistically, MCD decreased significantly with age. Previous studies have reported no difference in MCD, percentage of CV, and percentage of hexagonality between gender. Nevertheless, significantly different percentages of CV between genders were presented in this study.Keywords: Corneal endothelial cell, parameters, age, gender, smoking, Thailand

  1. Effects of Intercropping on Biological Yield, Percentage of Nitrogen and Morphological Characteristics of Coriander and Fenugreek

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bigonah; P Rezvani Moghaddam; M Jahan

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the intercropping arrangements of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), a field experiment was conducted during growing season of 2010 at Agriculture Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: mono-crop of fenugreek (A), %25 of optimum density of coriander + %175 of optimum density of fenugreek (B), %50 of o...

  2. Effects of cooling rate on vermicular graphite percentage in a brake drum produced by one-step cored wire injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-shuang Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum was produced by cored wire injection in a one-step method. Silica sand and low-density alumina-silicate ceramic were used as molding materials in order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on percentage of vermicular graphite and mechanical properties of the brake drum casting. Several thermocouples were inserted into the casting in the desired positions to measure the temperature change. By means of one-step cored wire injection, the two residual concentrations of Mg and RE were effectively controlled in the ranges of 0.013%-0.017% and 0.019%-0.025%, respectively, which are crucial for the production of vermicular graphite cast iron and the formation of vermicular graphite. In addition, the cooling rate had a significant effect on the vermicular graphite percentage. In the case of the silica mold brake drum casting, there was an obvious difference in the cooling rate with the wall change, leading to a change in vermicular graphite percentage from 70.8% to 90%. In the low-density alumina-silicate ceramic mold casting, no obvious change in temperature was detected by the thermocouples and the percentage of the vermicular graphite was stable at 85%. Therefore, the vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum with a better combination of mechanical properties could be obtained.

  3. Effect of embryo culture media on percentage of males at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Zhuang, Xinjie; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence the percentage of males at birth? The percentage of males delivered after ICSI cycles using G5™ medium was statistically significantly higher than after cycles where Global, G5™ PLUS, and Quinn's Advantage Media were used. Male and female embryos have different physiologies during preimplantation development. Manipulating the energy substrate and adding growth factors have a differential impact on the development of male and female embryos. This was a retrospective analysis of the percentage of males at birth, and included 4411 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles between January 2011 and August 2013 at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Third Hospital Peking University. Only singleton gestations were included. Participants were excluded if preimplantation genetic diagnosis, donor oocytes and donor sperm were used. The database between January 2011 and August 2013 was searched with unique medical record number, all patients were present in the database with only one cycle. Demographics, cycle characteristics and the percentage of male babies in the four culture media groups were compared with analysis of variance or χ(2) tests. Multivariable logistic regression was done to determine the association between the sex at birth and culture media after adjusting for other confounding factors, including parental age, parental BMI, type of infertility, parity, number of embryos transferred, number of early gestational sacs, cycles with testicular sperm aspiration (TESA)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm extraction (TESE), number of oocytes retrieved, cycles with blastocyst transfers, and gestational age within ICSI group. Within the IVF group, the percentage of males at birth for G5™, Global, Quinn's and G5™ PLUS media were comparable (P > 0.05); however, within the ICSI group, the percentage of male babies in cycles using G5™(56.1%) was statistically significantly higher than

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Percentages of Salmonella and Shigella in Seafood Imported to Jordan: Higher Percentages and More Diverse Profiles in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E

    2017-03-01

    This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of human-specific ( Shigella spp.) and zoonotic ( Salmonella enterica ) foodborne pathogens in internationally traded seafood. Sixty-four Salmonella and 61 Shigella isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from Egypt, Yemen, and India. The pathogens were isolated on selective media, confirmed by PCR, and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Approximately 79 and 98% of the Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively, exhibited resistance to at least one antimicrobial, and 8 and 49% exhibited multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes). Generally, Salmonella exhibited high resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; very low resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin; and no resistance to ceftriaxone. Meanwhile, Shigella spp. exhibited high resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, streptomycin, and ampicillin; low resistance to kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone; and very low resistance to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Salmonella isolates exhibited 14 resistance profiles, Shigella isolates 42. This study is novel in showing that a human-specific pathogen has higher antimicrobial resistance percentages and more diverse profiles than a zoonotic pathogen. Thus, the impact of antimicrobial use in humans is as significant as, if not more significant than, it is in animals in spreading antibiotic resistance through food. This study also demonstrates that locally derived antimicrobial resistance can spread and pose a public health risk worldwide through seafood trade and that high resistance would make a possible outbreak difficult to control. So, capacity building and monitoring harvest water areas are encouraged in fish producing countries.

  5. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  6. The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield and Oil Rate and Protein Percentage of Four Varieties Castor in Climatic Conditions of Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Laei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study theeffect ofdrought stress was investigated on grain yield and oil rate and protein percentage of four varieties of castor in the climatic conditions of Damghan. The experiment was done in the research farm of Damghan Islamic Azad University(Iranin 2011 assplit plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots of drought stress were 5, 10 and15 days and another factor included four varities of castor ( one-flower, two- flower, local and red-flower which were performed in stable density of fivebushes per cultured square meter. Therefore, after gremination, the amount of irrigation water was recorded using volumetric meters. The traits evaluated included oil rate,seed protein percentage, andgrainyield. The results show that two-flower variety with 1241 kg per hectare on 5-day drought stress has the most grain yield. Most oil rate was observed in two-flower variety on 5 day drought stress with 496.4 kg/ha.

  7. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...

  8. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in healthy Turkish eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıcı, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84). Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3 ± 13.5 (range, 20 to 70) years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  9. Toward a Redefinition of Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos

    1975-01-01

    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  10. [Prognosis and percentage of employment after the surgery in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H; Kawahito, K; Yamaguchi, A; Murata, S; Ino, T

    2002-07-01

    The percentage of employment in the Marfan patient after the Bentall procedure was studied. Eighteen of 20 patients (90%) returned to their daily life and are working well after the surgery. Seven patients (35%) needed the second operation due to the enlargement of false lumen during the follow-up period. Fatal cardiovascular accidents occurred in 7 their families (35%) in our series. Careful follow-up, adequate selection of medical and surgical treatment including second operation, medical examination of their families are important to keep the good quality of life in the Marfan patient.

  11. Relation between milk-fat percentage, vitamin D, and BMI z score in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-12-01

    Fortified cow milk is a material contributor of vitamin D and dietary fat in children. Recommendations for children >2 y of age advise reduced milk-fat consumption to reduce childhood obesity, yet the relation between lower milk fat, vitamin D stores, and body mass index (BMI) is unclear. The primary objective was to explore the association between milk-fat percentage and both BMI z score (zBMI) and venous 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; the secondary objective was to assess whether milk volume consumed modified this relation. This was a cross-sectional analysis. Healthy urban children aged 12-72 mo were recruited from 9 primary health care practices within The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) research group in Toronto, Canada. We used adjusted bivariate linear regression to examine the relation between milk-fat percentage and child 25(OH)D and zBMI concurrently. Effect modification by milk volume consumed on the evaluated relations was explored with the use of an interaction term in the statistical model. Among the 2745 included children there was a positive association between milk-fat percentage and 25(OH)D (P = 0.006) and a negative association between milk-fat percentage and zBMI (P milk had a 5.4-nmol/L (95% CI: 4.32, 6.54) higher median 25(OH)D concentration and a 0.72 lower (95% CI: 0.68, 0.76) zBMI score than children who drank 1% milk. Milk volume consumed modified the effect of milk-fat percentage on 25(OH)D (P = 0.003) but not on zBMI (P = 0.77). Whole milk consumption among healthy young children was associated with higher vitamin D stores and lower BMI. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to confirm these findings. TARGet Kids! was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01869530. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Dietary Energy Density in the Australian Adult Population from National Nutrition Surveys 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda Lee; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    It is hypothesized that the observed proliferation of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods globally is an important contributing factor to the development of the obesity epidemic. However, evidence that the population's dietary energy density has increased is sparse. The World Cancer Research Fund recommends that dietary energy density be energy density of the Australian population has changed between 1995 and 2012. A secondary analysis of two cross-sectional Australian national nutrition surveys from 1995 and 2011/2012 was conducted. Participants of the surveys included adults aged 18 years and older (1995 n=10,986 and 2011/2012 n=9,435) completing 24-hour dietary recalls, including a second recall for a subset of the population (10.4% in 1995 and 64.6% in 2011/2012). Outcome measures included the change in dietary energy density (calculated as energy/weight of food [kcal/g] for food only) between surveys. The National Cancer Institute method for "estimating ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day" was used to determine the usual distribution and the percentage of participants reporting energy density energy density was 1.59 (0.26) kcal/g and 1.64 (0.32) kcal/g (Penergy-density recommendations. For those aged 70 years and older, the percentage with energy density energy density energy density has increased between the two surveys and few people consumed low energy-dense diets in line with recommendations. The change was largely due to increased energy density of older adult's diets, while young adults had high dietary energy density at both time points. These data suggest efforts now focus on the evaluation of the role of modifying energy density of the diet to reduce the risk of weight gain in adults. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is a percentage a percentage? Systematic review of the effectiveness of Scandinavian behavioural modification smoking cessation programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dollerup, Jens; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is the leading preventable cause of death in the world. A total of 50% of all smokers will die from a smoking-related disease with a major impact upon quality of life and health-care costs. Tobacco-controlling policies, including smoking cessation, have increasingly been implemented...... across European countries. Reported effectiveness data on smoking cessation interventions are important for decision making....

  14. Alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Xijin; Sun, Di; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2017-11-01

    Heavy metal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are widespread environmental contaminants and exert detrimental effects on the immune system. We evaluated the association between Pb/Cd exposures and innate immune cells in children from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area. A total number of 294 preschool children were recruited, including 153 children from Guiyu (e-waste exposed group), and 141 from Haojiang (reference group). Pb and Cd levels in peripheral blood were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NK cell percentages were detected by flow cytometer, and other innate immune cells including monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils were immediately measured by automated hematology analyzer. Results showed children in Guiyu had significantly higher Pb and Cd levels than in reference group. Absolute counts of monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils, as well as percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils were significantly higher in the Guiyu group. In contrast, NK cell percentages were significantly lower in Guiyu group. Pb elicited significant escalation in counts of monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, as well as percentages of monocytes, but decline in percentages of neutrophils in different quintiles with respect to the first quintile of Pb concentrations. Cd induced significant increase in counts and percentages of neutrophils in the highest quintile compared with the first quintile of Cd concentrations. We concluded alteration of the number and percentage of innate immune cells are linked to higher levels of Pb and Cd, which indicates Pb and Cd exposures might affect the innate and adaptive immune response in Guiyu children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight Loss Percentage Prediction of Subsequent Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Exclusively Breastfed Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Jane Chang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding.

  16. Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Morphology in Healthy Turkish Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arıcı

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84. Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA, coefficient of variation (CV in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3±13.5 (range, 20 to 70 years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P<0.001; correlation, −0.388 and percentage of hexagonal cells, (P<0.001; correlation, −0.199 with age. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P<0.001; correlation, 0.363 with increasing age. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA, CV in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and CCT between genders and there was also no significant difference in these parameters between fellow eyes of subjects. Conclusions. Normotive data for the endothelium in the Turkish population are reported. Endothelial cell density in the Turkish eyes is less than that described in the Japanese, American, Chinese, and Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  17. Metabolic syndrome: Differences for Asian Americans is in their percentage of body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alpert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian Americans are not frequently thought of as being obese or overweight yet some of the Asian American subgroups have a disproportionate risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although the standardized body mass index (BMI assessment is an adequate tool for reporting secular prevalence trends for overweight/obesity across populations, it falls short in accuracy when assessing Asian Americans. In recent years more has been written about the re-evaluation of BMI cut points for normal weight, overweight, or obese Asian Americans. Additionally, the waist circumference norm was modified to indicate a smaller waist size is a risk for metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the research literature on BMI and percentage of body fat as it relates to health risk for metabolic syndrome for Asian American subgroups. Three databases were used to identify articles for this review: Google Scholar, CINHAL, and PubMed. Seven hundred twenty-six articles were initially identified as meeting the criteria; 690 articles were eliminated after a review of the article titles revealed the content did not meet the focus of this review. Of the remaining articles, 19 were eliminated after a review of the abstracts indicated they were meta-analyses, review articles, or case studies. The remaining 18 articles were included in this review. Three common themes emerged. (1 The differences in BMI and body fat percentage are evident between Asian Americans and other ethnic groups. (2 Differences in the percentage of body fat exist between Asian American subgroups, and between Asian Americans and Asian immigrants. (3 There are differences in disease development end points when comparing Asian American subgroups and Asian immigrant subgroups. There are differences in body fat distribution and body fat percentages as well as BMI compared to other ethnic groups for metabolic syndrome. There are also differences between Asian

  18. Choice of probing site for estimation of carcass lean percentage in Pitrain pig using the real-time ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy PL.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time ultrasound data of backfat thickness, longissimus thoracis muscle depth and longissimus thoracis muscle area were obtained from 210 Piétrain pigs (98 gilts and 112 barrows using the Pie Medical Scanner 200 equipped with an animal science probe (ASP-18 and frequency of 3.5 MHz. They were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at an average age of 213 days for an average weight of 101 kg. The day before slaughter, four longitudinal and transverse images were taken on the level of the last rib and the tenth rib from each animal. The repeatability of ultrasound last rib backfat (ULRBF measurements was similar to that of tenth rib backfat (UTRBF (t = 0.87. Ultrasound last rib longissimus thoracis muscle depth (ULRMD and area (ULRMA measurements were more repeatable than those corresponding to the tenth rib. The best correlation between carcass lean percentage estimated by the Fat Lean Meter (CGM lean and ultrasound carcass measurements was obtained with backfat thickness (r = -0.51. The correlation between CGM lean percentage and ULRMD and between CGM lean percentage and ULRMA were higher than those between CGM lean percentage and UTRMD and between CGM lean percentage and UTRMArespectively. When the CGM lean percentage was predicted from ultrasound backfat thickness, the accuracy of the regression equation was the same regardless of the probing site (last or tenth rib. On the other hand, when longissimus thoracis muscle measurements (depth and area are included together with backfat thickness in prediction equations, the last rib was more accuracy. Therefore, the last rib site can serve as the probing site for CGM lean percentage prediction.

  19. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.

  20. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  1. Association between frequency of atrial and ventricular ectopic beats and biventricular pacing percentage and outcomes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Mittal, Suneet; Ruwald, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    -defibrillator device with data available on biventricular pacing percentage and pre-implantation 24-h Holter recordings were included. Using logistic regression, we estimated the influence of ectopic beats on the percentage of biventricular pacing. Reverse remodeling was measured as reductions in atrial and left...

  2. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Stival, Marina Morato; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Pereira, Leonardo Costa; Antunes, Marja Letícia Chaves; de Lima, Luciano Ramos; Prestes, Jonato; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Souza, Vinícius Carolino; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; Pprofile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.

  3. Relationship between body fat percentage determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis and metabolic risk factors in Syrian male adolescents (18–19 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bachir Mahfouz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between increasing obesity and metabolic syndrome among adolescent and the adverse consequences in adulthood including type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease is well documented. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the major metabolic risk factors and some clinical important parameters in Syrian male adolescents (18-19 years old, and to assess the correlations between BF% determined by BIA-man prediction equation and metabolic risk factors in the same group. The correlations between body fat percentage (BF% based on BIA-man predictive equations, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS, cholesterol (Chol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, Hematocrit (Ht, and hemoglobin (Hb in 1596 healthy Syrian adolescents aged 18-19 years and the mean values of these parameters were examined. Data showed that, DBP, Chol, TG, LDL and TG/HDL-C were significantly (p<0.05 higher in overweight and obese subjects in compression to normal weight cases. Whereas, SBP, FBS and Ht were significantly (p<0.05 higher in obese subjects in compression to normal weight. However, all measured variable related to metabolic syndrome risk factors increased with increasing the BF% determined by BIA-man. The present study suggests that % BF by BIA-man is a good predictor of metabolic risks factors for Syrian adolescents.

  4. Breast Cancer Risk and Mammographic Density Assessed with Semiautomated and Fully Automated Methods and BI-RADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Abra M; Sieh, Weiva; Lipson, Jafi A; Rothstein, Joseph H; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S; Rubin, Daniel L

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To compare three metrics of breast density on full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images as predictors of future breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved study included 125 women with invasive breast cancer and 274 age- and race-matched control subjects who underwent screening FFDM during 2004-2013 and provided informed consent. The percentage of density and dense area were assessed semiautomatically with software (Cumulus 4.0; University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada), and volumetric percentage of density and dense volume were assessed automatically with software (Volpara; Volpara Solutions, Wellington, New Zealand). Clinical Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classifications of breast density were extracted from mammography reports. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression stratified according to age and race and adjusted for body mass index, parity, and menopausal status, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was computed. Results The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs for each standard deviation increment of the percentage of density, dense area, volumetric percentage of density, and dense volume were 1.61 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.19), 1.49 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.92), 1.54 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.10), and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.80), respectively. Odds ratios for women with extremely dense breasts compared with those with scattered areas of fibroglandular density were 2.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 4.97) and 2.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 4.64) for BI-RADS and Volpara density classifications, respectively. Clinical BI-RADS was more accurate (AUC, 0.68; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.74) than Volpara (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70) and continuous measures of percentage of density (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), dense area (AUC, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.72), volumetric percentage of density (AUC, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70), and density volume (AUC, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0

  5. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone ... to people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether ...

  6. Forecasting Error Calculation with Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Fahmi, Hasanul; Hakim, Sarudin Al; Rahim, Robbi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction using a forecasting method is one of the most important things for an organization, the selection of appropriate forecasting methods is also important but the percentage error of a method is more important in order for decision makers to adopt the right culture, the use of the Mean Absolute Deviation and Mean Absolute Percentage Error to calculate the percentage of mistakes in the least square method resulted in a percentage of 9.77% and it was decided that the least square method be worked for time series and trend data.

  7. Relation between insertion torque and bone-implant contact percentage: an artificial bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Huang, Heng-Li; Chen, Michael Yuan-Chien; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Su, Kuo-Chih; Chang, Chih-Han; Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the peak insertion torque value (ITV) of a dental implant and the bone-implant contact percentage (BIC%). Dental implants were inserted into specimens comprising a 2-mm-thick artificial cortical shell representing cortical bone and artificial foam bone representing cancellous bone with four densities (groups 1 to 4--0.32, 0.20, 0.16, and 0.12 g/cm(3)). Each specimen with an inserted implant was subjected to micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning, from which the 3D BIC% values were calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the ITV and BIC% were calculated. The ITVs in groups 1 to 4 were 56.2 ± 4.6 (mean±standard deviation), 45.6 ± 0.9, 43.3 ± 4.3, and 38.5 ± 3.4 N cm, respectively, and the corresponding BIC% values were 41.5 ± 0.5%, 39.0 ± 1.0%, 30.8 ± 1.1%, and 26.2 ± 1.6%. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ITV and BIC% was r = 0.797 (P < 0.0001). The initial implant stability, quantified as the ITV, was strongly positively correlated with the 3D BIC% obtained from micro-CT images. The ITV of a dental implant can be used to predict the initial BIC%; this information may provide the clinician with important information on the optimal loading time.

  8. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  9. Effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine the effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk composition of smallholders' dual-purpose cattle on-farm in the Ashanti Region. Fresh milk samples from various breeds of cows were assessed for percentage components of protein, fat, lactose, cholesterol, solidnon- fat and ...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC 2001...

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Gugger, Carolyn K; Reeves, Matthew S; Farmer, Mildred V; Kaden, Valerie N; Rains, Tia M

    2010-02-01

    Weight loss and consumption of viscous fibers both lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We evaluated whether or not a whole-grain, ready-to-eat (RTE) oat cereal containing viscous fiber, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, lowers LDL cholesterol levels and improves other cardiovascular disease risk markers more than a dietary program alone. Randomized, parallel-arm, controlled trial. Free-living, overweight and obese adults (N=204, body mass index 25 to 45) with baseline LDL cholesterol levels 130 to 200 mg/dL (3.4 to 5.2 mmol/L) were randomized; 144 were included in the main analysis of participants who completed the trial without significant protocol violations. Two portions per day of whole-grain RTE oat cereal (3 g/day oat b-glucan) or energy-matched low-fiber foods (control), as part of a reduced energy ( approximately 500 kcal/day deficit) dietary program that encouraged limiting consumption of foods high in energy and fat, portion control, and regular physical activity. Fasting lipoprotein levels, waist circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and body weight were measured at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 10, and 12. LDL cholesterol level was reduced significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal vs control (-8.7+/-1.0 vs -4.3+/-1.1%, P=0.005). Total cholesterol (-5.4+/-0.8 vs -2.9+/-0.9%, P=0.038) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (-6.3+/-1.0 vs -3.3+/-1.1%, P=0.046) were also lowered significantly more with whole-grain RTE oat cereal, whereas high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride responses did not differ between groups. Weight loss was not different between groups (-2.2+/-0.3 vs -1.7+/-0.3 kg, P=0.325), but waist circumference decreased more (-3.3+/-0.4 vs -1.9+/-0.4 cm, P=0.012) with whole-grain RTE oat cereal. Larger reductions in LDL, total, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and waist circumference were evident as early as week 4 in the whole-grain RTE oat cereal group. Consumption of a

  13. Periodontal disease and percentage of calories from fat using national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, T; Kitamura, M; Kawashita, Y; Ando, Y; Saito, T

    2017-02-01

    The association between periodontal disease and nutrient intake was examined using linked data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases from the same year 'using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases, all from 2005'. There has been increasing focus on the importance of nutritional factors in disease in recent years, but very few studies in Japan have looked at the association between periodontal disease and nutrients. Therefore, in the present study we investigated factors associated with periodontal disease, particularly in terms of nutrient intake. Data from 3043 individuals, ≥ 20 years of age (the original study sample comprised 4873 individuals, but those younger than 20 years of age and pregnant women were excluded from the present study) were compiled from linked responses to these three surveys from the same year. Permission to use the data was obtained from the Lifestyle-Related Diseases Control General Affairs Division of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. Information including basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, dental habits, blood data, intake of foods (including the categories of food) and nutrient-related information were obtained from the linked data. The individual maximum Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an index of periodontal disease. Subjects were divided, according to maximum CPI, into groups in which CPI = 0-2 or CPI = 3-4, and associations between CPI and basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, blood data and food intake were analyzed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of calories from fat was a nutrient factor associated with periodontal disease, with the percentage of calories from fat

  14. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  15. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  16. Higher percentage of CD133+ cells is associated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with stage IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cell model suggested that tumor progression is driven by the overpopulation of cancer stem cells and eradicating or inhibiting the symmetric division of cancer stem cells would become the most important therapeutic strategy. However, clinical evidence for this hypothesis is still scarce. To evaluate the overpopulation hypothesis of cancer stem cells the association of percentage of CD133+ tumor cells with clinicopathological parameters in colon cancer was investigated since CD133 is a putative cancer stem cell marker shared by multiple solid tumors. Patients and methods Tumor tissues matched with adjacent normal tissues were collected from 104 stage IIIB colon cancer patients who were subject to radical resection between January, 1999 to July, 2003 in this center. The CD133 expression was examined with immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of the percentage of CD133+ cell with clinicopathological parameters and patients' 5-year survival was analyzed. Results The CD133+ cells were infrequent and heterogeneous distribution in the cancer tissue. Staining of CD133 was localized not only on the glandular-luminal surface of cancer cells but also on the invasive budding and the poorly differentiated tumors with ductal structures. Both univariate and multivariate survival analysis revealed that the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the invasive depth of tumor were independently prognostic. The patients with a lower percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (less than 5% were strongly associated with a higher 5-year survival rate than those with a higher percentage of CD133+ cancer cells (greater than or equal to 55%. Additionally, no correlation was obtained between the percentage of CD133+ cancer cells and the other clinicopathological parameters including gender, age, site of primary mass, pathologic types, grades, and invasive depth. Conclusion The fact that a higher percentage CD133+ cells were strongly associated

  17. Automated objective determination of percentage of malignant nuclei for mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viray, Hollis; Coulter, Madeline; Li, Kevin; Lane, Kristin; Madan, Aruna; Mitchell, Kisha; Schalper, Kurt; Hoyt, Clifford; Rimm, David L

    2014-01-01

    Detection of DNA mutations in tumor tissue can be a critical companion diagnostic test before prescription of a targeted therapy. Each method for detection of these mutations is associated with an analytic sensitivity that is a function of the percentage of tumor cells present in the specimen. Currently, tumor cell percentage is visually estimated resulting in an ordinal and highly variant result for a biologically continuous variable. We proposed that this aspect of DNA mutation testing could be standardized by developing a computer algorithm capable of accurately determining the percentage of malignant nuclei in an image of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue. Using inForm software, we developed an algorithm, to calculate the percentage of malignant cells in histologic specimens of colon adenocarcinoma. A criterion standard was established by manually counting malignant and benign nuclei. Three pathologists also estimated the percentage of malignant nuclei in each image. Algorithm #9 had a median deviation from the criterion standard of 5.4% on the training set and 6.2% on the validation set. Compared with pathologist estimation, Algorithm #9 showed a similar ability to determine percentage of malignant nuclei. This method represents a potential future tool to assist in determining the percent of malignant nuclei present in a tissue section. Further validation of this algorithm or an improved algorithm may have value to more accurately assess percentage of malignant cells for companion diagnostic mutation testing.

  18. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  19. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality.

  20. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  1. Density games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-10-07

    The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of heavy metal exposure on blood haemoglobin concentration and methemoglobin percentage in Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisi, A; Lionetto, M G; Sanchez-Hernandez, J C; Schettino, T

    2011-06-01

    The earthworm haemoglobin (Hb) is a large extracellular hemoprotein flowing in a closed circulatory system. In spite of the fundamental role of this respiratory pigment in earthworm physiology, little is known about its sensitivity to environmental pollutants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible effect of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, mercury) exposure on Hb concentration and oxidation state (methemoglobin formation) in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. In addition, the tissue concentration of metallothioneins, a well-known biomarker of heavy metal exposure, was determined as an indicator of metal uptake. The animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu and Hg utilizing the standard acute toxicity test, "Filter paper test" for 48 h. Exposure to heavy metals (10(-5)-10(-3) M for Cd, 10(-4)-10(-3) M for Hg, and 10(-4)-10(-2) M for Cu) was found to increase haemoglobin concentration in L. terrestris, although the magnitude of such an increase was dependent on the metal. In addition, metal exposure led to the formation of methemoglobin. Compared to other known biological responses to heavy metals, such as metallothionein induction, methemoglobin increase showed a higher sensitivity and a higher percentage variation in exposed organisms, showing to be a possible suitable biomarker of exposure/effect to be included in a multi biomarker strategy in earthworm in soil monitoring assessment.

  3. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P range for longer in the lowest density and the least in the highest density, including depleting the range of vegetation sooner in the smaller ranges. An additional study assessing the relationship between individual hen range use, nutrition, and egg quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF MASSETER AND TEMPORAL MUSCLES WITH USE PERCENTAGE WHILE CHEWING ON CANDIDATES FOR GASTROPLASTY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréa Cavalcante Dos; Silva, Carlos Antonio Bruno da

    Surface electromyography identifies changes in the electrical potential of the muscles during each contraction. The percentage of use is a way to treat values enabling comparison between groups. To analyze the electrical activity and the percentage of use of masseter and temporal muscles during chewing in candidates for gastric bypass. It was used Surface Electromyography Miotool 200,400 (Miotec (r), Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil) integrated with Miograph 2.0 software, involving patients between 20-40 years old. Were included data on electrical activity simultaneously and in pairs of temporal muscle groups and masseter at rest, maximum intercuspation and during the chewing of food previously classified. Were enrolled 39 patients (59 women), mean age 27.1+/-5.7. The percentage of use focused on temporal muscle, in a range of 11-20, female literacy (n=11; 47.82) on the left side and 15 (65.21) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and 12 (75.00) on the right-hand side. In masseter, also in the range of 11 to 20, female literacy (n=10; 43.48) on the left side and 11 (47.83) on the right-hand side. In the male, nine (56.25) at left and eight (50.00) on the right-hand side. 40-50% of the sample showed electrical activity in muscles (masseter and temporal) with variable values, and after processing into percentage value, facilitating the comparison of load of used electrical activity between the group, as well as usage percentage was obtained of muscle fibers 11-20% values involving, representing a range that is considered as a reference to the group studied. The gender was not a variable. A eletromiografia de superfície identifica variações dos potenciais elétricos dos músculos durante cada contração realizada. O percentual de uso é uma forma de tratar valores possibilitando comparação entre grupos. Analisar a atividade elétrica e o percentual de uso dos músculos masséteres e temporais durante a mastigação em candidatos à gastroplastia

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 707 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and advertisements, while Part II discusses annual... number of days that would occur for any actual sequence of that many calendar months. If credit unions...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - Annual Percentage Yield Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentage yield calculations for account disclosures and advertisements, while Part II discusses annual... number of days that would occur for any actual sequence of that many calendar months. If institutions...

  7. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) portion of the Human Appropriation of Net Primary...

  8. HANPP Collection: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity as a Percentage of Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) as a Percentage of Net Primary Product (NPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a map identifying...

  9. Weight Percentage of Calcium Carbonate for 17 Equatorial Pacific Cores from Brown University

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weight percentages of calcium carbonate in this file were compiled by J. Farrell and W. L. Prell of Brown University for 17 equatorial Pacific Ocean sediment cores....

  10. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protecting People.™ Search The CDC Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study of ...

  11. Source rock indication from the heavy mineral weight percentages, central Tamil Nadu, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamanickam, G.V.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Manickaraj, D.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Loveson, V.J.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Mahesh, R.

    mineral distribution. Though much variation in the positive direction is noticed, significant shift in the heavy mineral assemblage could not be recognized. Heavy minerals have been evaluated for the weight percentage distribution in the low tide and high...

  12. Genetic analysis of milk solid no-fat percentage by fixed and random regression models in Kurdi sheep of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemh kazemi borzel abad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Milk solid no-fat is economically very important in cheese industry. Compared to the other kinds of milk, ewe’s milk contains higher amount of milk solids no-fat. Milk solids no-fat (MSNF contains lactose, caseins, whey proteins, and minerals. The use of test day records in random regression method has several benefits including flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of lactation, reducing generation interval and cost of recording by making fewer measurements, increasing the accuracy of genetic evaluation and direct correction for fixed effects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk solid no-fat percentage in Kurdi sheep of Shirvan using fixed and random regression models. Materials and methods In the present investigation, genetic analysis of milk solid no-fat percentage was carried out using fixed and random regression models by Wombat software. Data included 1094 test day records of milk solid no-fat percentage collected from 250 ewes in Hossien Abad Kurdi sheep breeding station. Milking was carried out by hand milking combined with lamb suckling at 14 days interval starting from May to August 2012. Then, 50 ml of milk samples were immediately analysed by Ecomilk total to determine the milk solid no-fat percentage. Fixed effects of litter size, parity, month of recording and days in milk as covariate and random effects of direct genetic and permanent environmental effects were included in the models. General linear model was used to identify effective fixed effects on the trait by SAS 9.1 software. Variance and covariance components were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood procedure. In random regression model, orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 2 for permanent environmental and additive genetic effects was fitted. Results and Discussion Average milk solid no-fat percentage of Kurdi ewes was 11.83. Average

  13. [Percentage of psychoemotional problems in Spanish children and adolescents. Differences between 2006 and 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra, Virginia

    2016-11-04

    To examine the percentage of psychoemotional problems in Spanish children and adolescents and the difference between 2006 and 2012. Data from 9,761 participants were taken from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006 and 2012. The Goodman Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess mental health. The percentage of participants with abnormal scores in the different scales was calculated. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, social level and adult mental health status were used. In 2012, the percentage of Spanish youths with emotional, conduct, hyperactivity, peer and prosocial problems and abnormal total problem score was 8.5, 6.7, 10.2, 7.7, 0.7 and 4%, respectively. In 2006, these percentages were 11.5, 10.2, 14.7, 10.1, 0.9 and 6.7%. A significant reduction was found for the percentage of children and adolescents with problematic behavior between 2006 and 2012. Based on the total problem score, about 4% of Spanish youths suffer from psychoemotional problems. This percentage has decreased between 2006 and 2012. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  15. High Density Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.

  16. Change with age in regression construction of fat percentage for BMI in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Mishima, Takaaki; Watanabe, Eiji; Seki, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, curvilinear regression was applied to the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage, and an analysis was done to see whether there are characteristic changes in that curvilinear regression from elementary to middle school. Then, by simultaneously investigating the changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the essential differences in BMI and body fat percentage were demonstrated. The subjects were 789 boys and girls (469 boys, 320 girls) aged 7.5 to 14.5 years from all parts of Japan who participated in regular sports activities. Body weight, total body water (TBW), soft lean mass (SLM), body fat percentage, and fat mass were measured with a body composition analyzer (Tanita BC-521 Inner Scan), using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis & multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Height was measured with a digital height measurer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as body weight (km) divided by the square of height (m). The results for the validity of regression polynomials of body fat percentage against BMI showed that, for both boys and girls, first-order polynomials were valid in all school years. With regard to changes with age in BMI and body fat percentage, the results showed a temporary drop at 9 years in the aging distance curve in boys, followed by an increasing trend. Peaks were seen in the velocity curve at 9.7 and 11.9 years, but the MPV was presumed to be at 11.9 years. Among girls, a decreasing trend was seen in the aging distance curve, which was opposite to the changes in the aging distance curve for body fat percentage.

  17. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  18. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  20. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Karimzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran during 2014–2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2% (P < 0.001. In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases, wrist tendonitis (13 cases, olecranon bursitis (9 cases, golfers elbow (4 cases, tennis elbow (4 cases, trochanteric bursitis (6 cases, anserine bursitis (6 cases, prepatellar bursitis (11 cases, and ankle tendonitis (7 cases. Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography (P < 0.001 and 34% through Doppler sonography (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  1. Comparison the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination or ultrasound methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Hadi; Seyedbonakdar, Zahra; Mousavi, Maryam; Karami, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the percentage of detection of periarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using clinical examination and ultrasound methods. This study is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in Al-Zahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) during 2014-2015. In our study, ninety patients were selected based on the American College of Rheumatology 2010 criteria. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist to find the existence of effusion, and the data were filled in the checklist. The ultrasonography for detecting effusion in periarticular structures was done by an expert radiologist with two methods, including high-resolution ultrasonography and power Doppler. The percentage of effusion existence found by physical examination was compared by sonography, and the Chi-square and t -tests were used for data analysis. The percentage of effusion found in areas with physical examination by rheumatologist was lower than the frequency distribution of effusions found by sonography (8.3% VS 14.2%) ( P < 0.001). In sonography, rotator cuff tendonitis is the most common periarthritis. Other findings in sonography were biceps tendinitis (10 cases), wrist tendonitis (13 cases), olecranon bursitis (9 cases), golfers elbow (4 cases), tennis elbow (4 cases), trochanteric bursitis (6 cases), anserine bursitis (6 cases), prepatellar bursitis (11 cases), and ankle tendonitis (7 cases). Tenderness on physical examination was found in 15% of the cases, and the evidence of periarthritis was found in 21/7% through sonography ( P < 0.001) and 34% through Doppler sonography ( P < 0.001). The percentage of periarthritis detection by ultrasonography and power Doppler sonography was higher than clinical examination. Hence, the ultrasonography is more accurate than physical examination.

  2. The Influence of Oxygen Percentage, Carbon Dioxide Percentage, and Sea Level on the Mean Size and Diversity of Marine Animals during the Cambrian-Neogene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, C.; Gao, Y.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout the course of time, mean body size and diversity have increased arguably due to relationship with environmental factors. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sea level are possibly among the most essential environmental factors that influence body size and diversification of marine animals. We test this hypothesis using correlations between animal size and diversity and these environmental variables, but the correlation tests show that oxygen and carbon dioxide levels have no significant relationships with mean body size and diversity in general. According to Pearson's product-moment correlation test, sea level and mean body size of marine animals are inversely related to each other; sea level increases, the mean body sizes decrease or vise versa. Therefore, we looked at trends within individual phyla seeking correlations between the two factors and diversity. Carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are directly related to the diversification of Brachiopoda; sea level is directly related to the diversification of Arthropoda and Echinodermata. Oxygen percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and sea level have influence toward the increase in mean body size and diversity of marine animals in specific phylum, with the exception of inverse relation between sea level and mean body size. Environmental factors do indeed influence the fluctuation of the mean body size and diversification of marine animals during the Cambrian-Neogene transition, which is proven through correlation test.

  3. The percentage of macrophage numbers in rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Wicaksono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Excessive accumulation of macrophages in sciatic nerve fascicles inhibits regeneration of peripheral nerves. The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of the macrophages inside and outside of the fascicles at the proximal, at the site of injury and at the distal segment of rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Thirty male 3 months age Wistar rats of 200-230 g were divided into sham-operation group and crush injury group. Termination was performed on day 3, 7, and 14 after crush injury. Immunohistochemical examination was done using anti CD68 antibody. Counting of immunopositive and immunonegative cells was done on three representative fields for extrafascicular and intrafascicular area of proximal, injury and distal segments. The data was presented as percentage of immunopositive cells. The percentage of the macrophages was significantly increased in crush injury group compared to the sham-operated group in all segments of the peripheral nerves. While the percentage of macrophages outside fascicle in all segments of sciatic nerve and within the fascicle in the proximal segment reached its peak on day 3, the percentage of macrophages within the fascicles at the site of injury and distal segments reached the peak later at day 7. In conclusions, accumulation of macrophages outside the nerve fascicles occurs at the beginning of the injury, and then followed later by the accumulation of macrophages within nerve fascicles

  4. Impact of body fat percentage change on future diabetes in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxue; Lin, Ziwei; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the work was to determine the effect of body fat change on risk of diabetes in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) population. A total of 1,857 NGT subjects were included and followed up for an average period of 44.57 months. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Subjects were grouped based on the BF% and/or body mass index (BMI) state. Among all subjects, 28 developed diabetes after follow-up. Compared with subjects with stable normal BF% (control), subjects who became obesity at follow-up were defects in insulin secretion and had a higher risk of developing diabetes (7.102, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.740-28.993), while no difference in diabetic risk could be viewed between subjects with abnormal BF% at baseline but normal at the end of follow-up and control subjects after adjustment of confounding factors. Moreover, compared with those keeping normal BF% and BMI both at baseline and follow-up, subjects who had normal BMI at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BF% at baseline or/and follow-up still had a higher risk to develop diabetes (4.790, 95% CI 1.061-21.621), while those with normal BF% at baseline and follow-up, but abnormal BMI at baseline or/and follow-up had not. Subjects from normal BF% at baseline to obese at follow-up are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Maintaining normal body fat is more relevant than BMI in preventing diabetes. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(12):947-955, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  6. Evaluation of electron mobility in InSb quantum wells by means of percentage-impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, T. D.; Edirisooriya, M.; Santos, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to quantitatively analyze the contribution of each scattering factor toward the total carrier mobility, we use a new convenient figure-of-merit, named a percentage impact. The mobility limit due to a scattering factor, which is widely used to summarize a scattering analysis, has its own advantage. However, a mobility limit is not quite appropriate for the above purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the difference in contribution among many scattering factors toward the total carrier mobility can be obtained by evaluating percentage impacts of scattering factors, which can be straightforwardly calculated from their mobility limits and the total mobility. Our percentage impact analysis shows that threading dislocation is one of the dominant scattering factors for the electron transport in InSb quantum wells at room temperature

  7. PI/PID controller design based on IMC and percentage overshoot specification to controller setpoint change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmad; Majhi, Somanath

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the normalized Internal Model Control (IMC) filter time constant is designed to achieve a specified value of the maximum sensitivity for stable first and second order plus time delay process models, respectively. Since a particular value of the maximum sensitivity results in an almost constant percentage overshoot to controller setpoint change, an empirical relationship between the normalized IMC filter time constant and percentage overshoot is presented. The main advantage of the proposed method is that only a user-defined overshoot is required to design a PI/PID controller. Simulation examples are given to demonstrate the value of the proposed method.

  8. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  9. Circulating serum xenoestrogens and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hedman, Curtis J; Wang, Jue; Hemming, Jocelyn Dc; Hampton, John M; Buist, Diana Sm; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Sisney, Gale S; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2013-05-27

    Humans are widely exposed to estrogenically active phthalates, parabens, and phenols, raising concerns about potential effects on breast tissue and breast cancer risk. We sought to determine the association of circulating serum levels of these chemicals (reflecting recent exposure) with mammographic breast density (a marker of breast cancer risk). We recruited postmenopausal women aged 55 to 70 years from mammography clinics in Madison, Wisconsin (N = 264). Subjects completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample that was analyzed for mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, octylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A (BPA). Percentage breast density was measured from mammograms by using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Serum BPA was positively associated with mammographic breast density after adjusting for age, body mass index, and other potentially confounding factors. Mean percentage density was 12.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4 to 14.0) among the 193 women with nondetectable BPA levels, 13.7% (95% CI, 10.7 to 17.1) among the 35 women with detectable levels below the median (0.55 ng/ml; Ptrend = 0.01). Percentage breast density was also elevated (18.2%; 95% CI, 13.4 to 23.7) among the 18 women with serum mono-ethyl phthalate above the median detected level (>3.77 ng/ml) compared with women with nondetectable BPA levels (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.9 to 14.3; Ptrend = 0.07). No other chemicals demonstrated associations with percentage breast density. Postmenopausal women with high serum levels of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate had elevated breast density. Further investigation of the impact of BPA and mono-ethyl phthalate on breast cancer risk by using repeated serum measurements or other markers of xenoestrogen exposure are needed.

  10. Percentage of Protected Area Amounts within each Watershed Boundary for the Conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: This dataset uses spatial information from the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD, March 2011) and the Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US Version 1.0). The resulting data layer, with percentages of protected areas by category, was created using the ATtI...

  11. 7 CFR 981.47 - Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... terms of kernel weight) or the allocation quantity (marketable production plus almonds diverted to oil... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of establishing salable and reserve percentages... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Volume Regulation § 981.47 Method of...

  12. 45 CFR 305.33 - Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.33 Determination of applicable percentages based on performance levels. (a) A State's... performance levels. 305.33 Section 305.33 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  13. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 51680, Aug...

  14. Study of low weight percentage filler on dielectric properties of MCWNT-epoxy nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manindra Trihotri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made to study the effect of low weight percentage multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT powder on dielectric properties of MWCNT reinforced epoxy composites. For that MWCNT (of different low weight percentage reinforced epoxy composite was prepared by dispersing the MWCNT in resin. Samples were prepared by solution casting process and characterized for their dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε′, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ and AC conductivity (σac. The main objective is the investigation of the dielectric properties of the prepared samples at the low weight percentage of the filler at different temperatures and frequencies. From the two mechanisms of electrical conduction, first the leakage current obtained by the formation of a percolation network in the matrix and the other by tunneling of electrons formed among conductors nearby (tunneling current; here we are getting conduction by the second mechanism. Generally, leakage current makes more contribution to conductivity than tunneling current. Dielectric dissipation factor at 250Hz frequency is greater than all other frequencies and starts increasing from 60∘C. The peak height of the transition temperature decreases with increasing frequency. This study shows that the addition of a low weight percentage of MWCNT can modify considerably the electrical behavior of epoxy nanocomposites without chemical functionalization of filler.

  15. Cognitive Load in Percentage Change Problems: Unitary, Pictorial, and Equation Approaches to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Tobias, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Eighth grade students in Australia (N = 60) participated in an experiment on learning how to solve percentage change problems in a regular classroom in three conditions: unitary, pictorial, and equation approaches. The procedure involved a pre-test, an acquisition phase, and a post-test. The main goal was to test the relative merits of the three…

  16. Increased percentage of Th17 cells in peritoneal fluid is associated with severity of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogacz, Marek; Winkler, Izabela; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Semczuk, Andrzej; Rechberger, Tomasz; Adamiak, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Th17 cells are a newly discovered T helper lymphocyte subpopulation, producing interleukin IL-17. Th17 cells are present in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) at different stages of endometriosis. We aim to establish their potential importance in the pathogenesis and clinical features of the disease. The percentage of Th17 cells among T helper lymphocytes was determined in the PF and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with endometriosis and in the control group by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies: anti-CD-4-FITC, anti-CD-3-PE/Cy5, and anti-IL-17A-PE. Th17 percentage is increased in PF in comparison with PB in both endometriotic patients and in the control group. In severe endometriosis, the percentage of Th17 cells in PF was higher than with early (I/II stage) endometriosis. A positive correlation between the percentage of Th17 cells in PF and the white blood cell count in PB was found in patients with endometriosis. Targeting the activity of PF Th17 cells may have an influence on the proliferation of ectopic tissue and clinical manifestations of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; McKenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  18. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  19. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  20. 13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Capital Impairment Percentage. 108.1840 Section 108.1840 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM NMVC Company's Noncompliance With Terms of Leverage Computation of Nmvc Company's Capital Impairment § 108.1840 Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment...

  1. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  2. Detection of erythropoietin misuse by the Athlete Biological Passport combined with reticulocyte percentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received...

  3. The remaining percentage of 32P after burning of sulphur tablet containing 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Weiqing

    1991-01-01

    Three types of sulphur tablet containing 32 P are made artificially. The remaining percentage of 32 P after burning of three types of sulphur tablets containing 32 P is 98.1 ± 1.3% for 1st and 2nd types and 97.2 ± 2.8% for 3rd type

  4. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment...

  5. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... Biennial publication of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare... the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the...

  6. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY: Administration on Children, Youth and Families... of allotment percentages for States under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State... IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program. Under section 423(a), the allotment...

  7. Influence of N atomic percentages on cell attachment for CNx coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of N atomic percentages on cell attachment for CNx coatings. D J LI* and L F NIU. Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, P.R. China. MS received 12 December 2002. Abstract. Carbon film is an excellent candidate for use as a biocompatible coating due to its excellent prop- erties.

  8. The effects of crude protein percentage and urea in different stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1977) concluded that diets containing more than 130/0 natural protein could not be improved by additions of NPN. Since high-producing dairy cows require diets containing. 16% crude protein (CP), urea would not be useful in such diets. Cows requiring a high percentage of dietary protein. (16% CP) probably can only use ...

  9. Nest-density distribution patterns in a yellow-legged gull archipelago colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eric; Roche, Philip; Bonnet, Véronique; Tatoni, Thierry

    2001-12-01

    The nest density distribution of yellow-legged gulls Larus cachinnans was investigated on the large Marseille archipelago colony (south-east France) which houses c. 18 000 breeding pairs. The study was performed at two investigation scales, including both mean nesting density on the nine study islands and density distribution within 171 sampling plots. The mean nesting density on each island was negatively correlated with island surface area and with the distance from the initial colony location (south-east end of the archipelago). No significant correlation was found with the other island parameters analysed (maximum elevation, shape index and distance from continent). A partial least squares regression performed between denstiy data from 171 500 m 2 sampling plots and environmental variables showed that the mostly explaining factors were island isolation and percentage of rocks in the plots (positive correlation), and distance of the island from the south-east end of the archipelago, island area, distance from plot to seaside and percentage of stone in the plots (negative correlation). Thus in our case, vegetation parameters (cover and height) were not influencial factors in nest density distribution.

  10. Correlation of Leukocyte Count and Percentage of Segmented Neutrophils with Pathohistological Findings of Appendix in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Baskovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAppendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency operation in children's age. Although none of the laboratory values has not high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of appendicitis, leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils are most commonly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a statistically significant correlation between leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils compared to the pathohistological finding of appendix in children. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed the data in the period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016. The analysis was made on 211 patients. Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs was calculated. We determined the specificity and sensitivity of leukocyte count and the percentage of segmented neutrophils used in the calculation of Alvorado and Pediatric Appendicitis score.ResultsThe results of the research have shown that the correlation between leukocyte count and the pathohistological findings is weak (rs = 0.29, p = 3.61*10-8, while there is no correlation between the percentage of segmented neutrophils and pathohistological findings (rs = 0.18, p = 7.08 *10-5. The sensitivity of leukocyte count is 93% and the specificity is 30%, while the sensitivity to the percentage of segmented neutrophils is 71% and the specificity is 50%. ROC analysis for leukocytes shows area under the curve of 0.648, while for segmented neutrophils of 0.574.ConclusionGiven the correlation results obtained, the clinical experience of physicians will still have one of the leading roles in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children.

  11. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Mi [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography.

  12. Variability of breast density assessment in short-term reimaging with digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yi, Ann; Chang, Jung Min; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variability of breast density assessments in short-term reimaging with digital mammography. Materials and methods: In 186 women, short term (mean interval, 27.6 days) serial digital mammograms including CC and MLO views were obtained without any treatment. Mammographic density assessments were performed by three blinded radiologists for Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS, grades 1–4) and visual percentage density (PD) estimation, and by one radiologist for computer-aided PD estimation. The variability of assessments was analyzed according to the age, breast density, and mammography types by multivariate logistic regression. Results: In BI-RADS assessments, 29% (161 of 558) of breast density categories were assessed differently after short-term reimaging and the mean absolute difference in PD for CC and MLO view was 7.6% and 8.1% for visual assessments, and 7.4% and 6.4% for computer-aided assessments, respectively. Among all computer-aided assessments, 29% (54 of 186) of CC view and 22% (41 of 186) of MLO view assessments had discrepancy over 10% in PD. Younger age (<50), greater breast density (grades 3 and 4), and different mammography types were significantly associated with the variability. Conclusion: Considerable variability in breast density assessments occurred in short-term reimaging with digital mammography, particularly in women with younger age and greater breast density and when examined using different types of mammography

  13. Comparison of percentage excess weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowicz, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Orłowski, Michał; Siczewski, Wiaczesław; Pawlak, Maciej; Świetlik, Dariusz; Witzling, Mieczysław; Michalik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are acceptable options for primary bariatric procedures in patients with body mass index (BMI) 35–55 kg/m2. Aim The aim of this study is to compare the effects of these two bariatric procedures 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Material and methods Two hundred and two patients were included 72 LSG and 130 LAGB patients. The average age was 38.8 ±11.9 and 39.4 ±10.4 years in LSG and LAGB groups, with initial BMI of 44.1 kg/m2 and 45.2 kg/m2, p = NS. Results The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 6 months for LSG vs. LAGB was 36.3% vs. 30.1% (p = 0.01) and at 12 months was 43.8% vs. 34.6% (p = 0.005). The greatest difference in the mean %EWL at 12 months was observed in patients with initial BMI of 40–49.9 kg/m2 in favor of LSG (47.5% vs. 35.6%; p = 0.01). Two years after surgery there was no advantage of LSG and in the subgroup of patients with BMI 50–55 kg/m2 there was a trend in favor of LAGB (57.2% vs. 30%; p = 0.07). The multiple regression model of independent variables (age, gender, initial BMI and the presence of comorbidities) proved insignificant in prediction of the best outcome in means of %EWL for either operative modality. None of these factors in the logistic regression model could determine the type of surgery that should be used in particular patients. Conclusions During the first 2 years after surgery, the best results were obtained in women with lower BMI undergoing LSG surgery. The LSG provides greater %EWL after a shorter period of time though the difference decreases in time. PMID:25337157

  14. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  15. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  16. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  17. Analysis the percentage frequency to estimate Volleyball´s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Calero-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the percentage frequency as a mathematical model used to estimate the international volleyball performance. Based on the description of its practical objectives, the paper shows some positive and negative characteristics of the equation, characteristics that affect decision making by the coach. Three studies were conducted involving a population of 42 games in volleyball, men's youth category, 10 game of 13 possible belonging to the Final round of 2006 FIVB World League, and a ranked players in the qualifying phase of the 2006 World League with 48 games as population. The investigation determined that the percentage frequency is a simple computer model that defines a value perfectly isolated from reality, but does not model correctly all variables that significantly influence the final performance, creating false interpretations of reality.

  18. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido-Estepa Macarena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased mammographic breast density is a moderate risk factor for breast cancer. Different scales have been proposed for classifying mammographic density. This study sought to assess intra-rater agreement for the most widely used scales (Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd and compare them in terms of classifying mammograms as high- or low-density. Methods The study covered 3572 mammograms drawn from women included in the DDM-Spain study, carried-out in seven Spanish Autonomous Regions. Each mammogram was read by an expert radiologist and classified using the Wolfe, Tabár, BI-RADS and Boyd scales. In addition, 375 mammograms randomly selected were read a second time to estimate intra-rater agreement for each scale using the kappa statistic. Owing to the ordinal nature of the scales, weighted kappa was computed. The entire set of mammograms (3572 was used to calculate agreement among the different scales in classifying high/low-density patterns, with the kappa statistic being computed on a pair-wise basis. High density was defined as follows: percentage of dense tissue greater than 50% for the Boyd, "heterogeneously dense and extremely dense" categories for the BI-RADS, categories P2 and DY for the Wolfe, and categories IV and V for the Tabár scales. Results There was good agreement between the first and second reading, with weighted kappa values of 0.84 for Wolfe, 0.71 for Tabár, 0.90 for BI-RADS, and 0.92 for Boyd scale. Furthermore, there was substantial agreement among the different scales in classifying high- versus low-density patterns. Agreement was almost perfect between the quantitative scales, Boyd and BI-RADS, and good for those based on the observed pattern, i.e., Tabár and Wolfe (kappa 0.81. Agreement was lower when comparing a pattern-based (Wolfe or Tabár versus a quantitative-based (BI-RADS or Boyd scale. Moreover, the Wolfe and Tabár scales classified more mammograms in the high-risk group, 46.61 and 37

  19. 20 CFR 225.42 - Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Cost-of-Living Increases § 225.42 Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of-living increase. The percentage amount of the cost-of-living... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of the percentage amount of a cost-of...

  20. Relationship between percentage of regulatory T-cells and dental amalgam fillings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khaliq

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regulatory T-cells are the main component of peripheral tolerance and their level is decreased in autoimmunity. In dental amalgam, a mixture of metals is used as a restorative material. During daily a ctivities, these metals are ingested and affect renal, neurosensory and immune systems. Studies have demonstrated an increased risk of autoimmune diseases in patients with dental amalgam fillings. It was hypothesized that the percentage of regulatory T-cells decreases in individuals with amalgam fillings. Therefore this study was designed to determine and compare the percentage of regulatory T-cells in individuals with and without amalgam fillings. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were divided into two groups with each group consisting of 40 individuals. Group I (study group comprised individuals with amalgam fillings, and Group II (control group, individuals without amalgam fillings in their teeth. Blood samples of all the participants were collected and tagged with CD4‑FITC, CD25‑PE and CD127‑PerCP-Cy monoclonal antibodies for the detection of regulatory T-cells, FACSCalibur was used for this purpose. Results: The percentage of regulatory T-cells in the control group was high (77.77±5.54% compared to the study group (76.09±7.68%, however, on comparison, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.25. Conclusion: Dental amalgam fillings did not show a declining effect on the percentage of regulatory T-cells.

  1. What Percentage of Patients is a Candidate for Unicompartmental Knee Replacement at a Chinese Arthroplasty Center?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yong; Xiao, Lianbo; Zhai, Weitao; Kasparek, Maximilian F.; Ouyang, Guilin; Boettner, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Background: Data on indication of Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) in the Asian population are currently not available. The current paper evaluates patients undergoing knee replacement at a Chinese Orthopaedic Specialty Hospital to report the percentage of patients who meet radiographic and clinical indication criteria for UKA. Methods: Over a one-year period 463 consecutive patients (515 knees) underwent primary knee replacement surgery. Clinical data were recorded and preoperative r...

  2. The application of the percentage change calculation in the context of inflation in Mathematical Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The school subject Mathematical Literacy requires application of mathematics procedures in various contextual settings, but not much is known about the ways in which students engage with contextual settings such as inflation. This qualitative study was conducted with in-service Mathematical Literacy teachers in South Africa with the purpose of exploring the extent to which the teachers recognised the contextual constraints involved in applying the percentage change calculation to the inflation context. The written responses of the 406 Mathematical Literacy teachers were scrutinised to identify their interpretations of the contextual constraints involved in applying the percentage change procedure to the context of inflation. The item required the application of two successive percentage change operations (corresponding to the inflation rates for the 2 years. Of the 406 responses that were analysed, 260 (65% were unable to take account of all the contextual constraints. There were 108 teachers who reduced the procedure to a one-step calculation while 64 teachers interpreted the context as a percentage decrease scenario. A large number of teachers (162 struggled with the interpretation of the role of the year, k, in the relationship between the quantities. The findings indicate that engagement with and understanding of the concept of inflation is dependent on a synthesis of the contextual constraints into the mathematical procedures. This article provides some insights into the struggles with making sense of the contextual nature of inflation which is an area that has received little attention in mathematics education studies. The teachers’ struggles likely mirror learners’ struggles and hence the research applies in a similar way to learners.

  3. Association between neutrophilic granulocyte percentage and depression in hospitalized patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Lv, Ying; Song, Wen-Qian; Ma, Xun; Guan, Gong-Chang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shun-Ming; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Bo; Tang, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Jun-Kui

    2016-12-13

    Previous researches reveal that depression is associated with increased inflammatory markers. As a simple and cheap inflammatory marker, we hypothesize that neutrophilic granulocyte percentage is associated with depression in hospitalized heart failure patients, whose prevalence of depression is at a very high level. Three hundred sixty-six cases of hospitalized heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-IV were enrolled. All the enrolled patients received Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (24-items) (HAM-D 24 ). The demographic, clinical data, blood samples and echocardiography were documented. The Pearson simple linear correlation was performed to evaluate the confounding factors correlated with HAM-D 24 depression index. The significantly correlated factors were enrolled as independent variables in Logistic regression to determine the risk or protective factors for depression, which was taken as dependent variable. Two hundred ten cases of hospitalized heart failure patients (57.4%) had depression. Among them, 134 patients (63.8%) had mild depression, 58 patients (27.6%) had moderate depression and 18 patients (8.6%) had severe depression. Pearson simple linear correlation revealed that in hospitalized patients with heart failure, the neutrophils granulocyte percentage was positively correlated with the HAM-D 24 depression index (r = .435, p York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, hemoglobin, TC, LDL-C, creatinine, cystatin-C, TBIL and albumin, the neutrophils granulocyte percentage is still significantly associated with depression in hospitalized heart failure patients (OR = 1.046, p < .001). The neutrophils granulocyte percentage may be used as a new marker for depression in hospitalized heart failure patients.

  4. Profile of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Flexibility and Fat Percentage of Junior High School Students in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemuruh Putra Akbar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable disease and global mortality in adolescent. Lack of physical activity will lead the condition into poor physical fitness, measured by cardio respiratory fitness (maximum oxygen volume, VO2 max, and other components such as flexibility. The study aimed to describe VO2 max, flexibility and fat percentage among junior high school students in Jatinangor. Methods: The study was a descriptive observational study using descriptive analysis.  VO2 max was assessed using Astrand Ryhming step test, flexibility was measured using flexometer sit and reach test, and fat percentage was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis scale. The subjects were junior high school students who were study in 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade in Jatinangor Junior High School based on stratification sampling method. It was conducted from September–October 2013. Results: Total subjects were 110 students consisted of male (n=52 and female (n=58.  The VO2 max were in good and above category, 57.69% of male (50.37 ± 9.80 ml/kg/min, and 60.34% of female (37.66±7.03 ml/kg/min. The flexibility for both males and females were within excellent category (67.31%, 26.56 ±7.14 cm and 67.24%, 27.29±6.64 cm respectively. The fat percentage in females were within healthy category (67.24%, 25.28 ± 6.85 %, meanwhile male were within underfat category (48.08%, 11.66 ± 5.83 %. Conclusions: The majority of VO2 max, and flexibility both in male and female were good. The fat percentages were good in female students, while in male students were under normal range. DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1085

  5. Effect of percentage of low plastic fines on the unsaturated shear strength of compacted gravel soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Low plastic fines in gravel soils affect its unsaturated shear strength due to the contribution of matric suction that arises in micro and macro pores found within and between aggregates. The shear strength of five different types of prepared gravel soils is measured and is compared with a theoretical model (Fredlund et al., 1978 to predict the unsaturated shear strength. The results are consistent to a great extent except the case of dry clayey gravel soil. It is also found that on inundation of gravel soils containing plastic fines greater than 12% a considerable reduction in both the strength and the stiffness modulus is noticed. This 12% percentage is close to the accepted 15% percentage of fines given by ASTM D4318 (American society for testing material. The angle of internal friction that arises due to matric suction decreases with the increase of degree of saturation of soil. The hysteresis of some tested gravel soils is measured and found that it increases by increasing the percentage of fines.

  6. Effects of Aloe vera on dressing percentage and haemato-biochemidal parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera on dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.Materials and Methods: A total of 90 chicks were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups.Fresh Aloe vera leaf juice (ALJ was prepared and administered to the test group T3 at the rate of 20 g/Lin drinking water daily.This study was carried out for 42 days. Dressing percentage and hemato-biochemical parameters were recorded at the end ofexperiment.Results: Group that was given Aloe vera (T3 showed numerically higher dressing percentage as compared to control group(T1 and drug control group (T2. It also showed significantly (P0.05 differences were observed in other parameters among all the treatment groups.Conclusion: Aloe vera has potential to be a growth promoter in broiler chicks and its growth promoting effects are comparableto that of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP.

  7. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively). In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert) (from 62.1 to 74.6%) dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%).

  8. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  9. METALLURGICAL PROGRAMS: CALCULATION OF MASS FROM VOLUME, DENSITY OF MIXTURES, AND CONVERSION OF ATOMIC TO WEIGHT PERCENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Metallurgical Programs include three simple programs which calculate solutions to problems common to metallurgical engineers and persons making metal castings. The first program calculates the mass of a binary ideal (alloy) given the weight fractions and densities of the pure components and the total volume. The second program calculates the densities of a binary ideal mixture. The third program converts the atomic percentages of a binary mixture to weight percentages. The programs use simple equations to assist the materials staff with routine calculations. The Metallurgical Programs are written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for interactive execution and have been implemented on an IBM PC-XT/AT operating MS-DOS 2.1 or higher with 256K bytes of memory. All instructions needed by the user appear as prompts as the software is used. Data is input using the keyboard only and output is via the monitor. The Metallurgical programs were written in 1987.

  10. Effect of Cancer Awareness on the Percentage of Reported Oral Cancers in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahiry, Waiel

    2016-09-01

    From the start of Al-Amal Oncology Unit Foundation in Aden (2007), the awareness programs commenced and continued to widen the campaign on targeted population (male and female) in schools, colleges, mosques, private and government offices, local radio and television broadcasts. This study aimed to measure the impact of cancer awareness vis-à-vis the number of reported cases of cancers in Al-Amal Oncology Unit in Aden using oral cancer as the focus of study. Methods and Resources: This study was conducted retrospectively for three years (2008-2010), using the data from the archives of Al-Amal Oncology Unit in Aden, Yemen. The records of 41 newly registered oral cancers were thoroughly reviewed and analyzed in comparison with the total newly registered cancers over the same period of time. It was found that the percentage of oral cancers during the time of intensified regular awareness activities was not significant after one year; however, there was a significant increase at the end of 2010. Results also show that females showed higher percentage of reported oral cancers after intensified regular awareness activities covering a wider age range. The percentages of operable (early stages) oral cancers were markedly increased after cancer awareness activities were implemented, from 8.3% in 2008 to 60.0% in 2010. Cancer awareness aims to minimize late presentation of the disease and encourages early presentation and detection to improve survival rates. This study concluded that an improved cancer awareness program marked a significant improvement on patients' diagnosis due to earlier presentation and thus improves the chances of survival. Cancer awareness should continue as a regular activity in Aden, Yemen to sustain this improvement so far.

  11. Investigating the influence of infill percentage on the mechanical properties of fused deposition modelled ABS parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Álvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a manufacturing process that is usually used for modeling and prototyping. One of the most popular printing techniques is fused deposition modeling (FDM, which is based on adding melted material layer by layer. Although FDM has several advantages with respect to other manufacturing materials, there are several problems that have to be faced. When setting the printing options, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as temperature, speed, infill percentage, etc. Selecting these parameters is often a great challenge for the user, and is generally solved by experience without considering the influence of variations in the parameters on the mechanical properties of the printed parts.This article analyzes the influence of the infill percentage on the mechanical properties of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene printed parts. In order to characterize this influence, test specimens for tensile strength and Charpy tests were printed with a Makerbot Replicator 2X printer, in which the infill percentage was varied but the rest of the printing parameters were kept constant. Three different results were analyzed for these tests: tensile strength, impact resistance, and effective printing time. Results showed that the maximum tensile force (1438N and tensile stress (34,57MPa were obtained by using 100% infill. The maximum impact resistance, 1,55J, was also obtained with 100% infill. In terms of effective printing time, results showed that printing with an infill range between 50% and 98% is not recommended, since the effective printing time is higher than with a 100% infill and the tensile strength and impact resistance are smaller. In addition, in comparing the results of our analysis with results from other authors, it can be concluded that the printer type and plastic roll significantly influence the mechanical properties of ABS parts.

  12. Estimated percentage of typhoid fever in adult pakistani population (TAP) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, F.; Arshad, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmed, S.; Rehma, S.

    2013-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a serious infection with high morbidity and mortality in untreated cases. It is one of the very common infections in developing countries due to various factors involving hygiene and sanitation. Objective: To determine the estimated percentage of typhoid fever in Pakistani population and to find the commonly prescribed antibiotics for the disease. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 1036 patients, selected from forty five general practitioner clinics, between June to October 2010. Patients of > 18 years of age with > 3 days history of fever (> 100 degree F) and high index of suspicion for typhoid fever were tested for typhoid fever using Typhidot kits and positive cases were recruited for monitoring response to treatment. The febrile patients with clear cut history of urinary or respiratory infect-ion, hypovolemic shock or hepatobiliary disease were excluded and not tested by typhidot kit. The antibiotics prescribed to study population by various general practitioners were noted. Data was analysed on SPSS. Results were expressed in percentages and proportions. Results: Total 1036 patients were recruited. Typhoidot test was negative in 63.9% and positive in 36.1% patients with highest percentages of positive cases in Karachi, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad. The maximum number of cases were reported in summer season especially from June to August. Most of the patients were between ages of 19 - 39 years. The commonest anti-biotics prescribed were Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin. Conclusion: Typhoid fever is very common infection in Pakistan caused by Salmonella typhi which is transmitted among humans through faecooral route. Disease can be controlled not only by antibiotics like fluoroquinolones but by patient education, improvement in hygiene and sanitation, safe supply of clean drinking water and prophylactic vaccination as well. However, timely diagnosis and appropriate management with proper antibiotics is the key

  13. VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING DRESSING PERCENTAGE OF COMMERCIALLY CULTURED CYPRINID FISH IN CARP FISH PONDS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Marković

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the yield carcass of all categories of cyprinid fish reared in ponds in Serbia. Samples of two and three-year old carp, two-year old silver carp and grass carp were taken in the winter from a pond where the production is organized in a semi­intensive system. The three­year old carp was sampled from two ponds. In one case, it fed on barley, maize and wheat in the following proportions 40:30:30, while in the second case it fed on complete diet mixtures. Also, the samples of two­year old carp were taken from ponds where they fed on complete feed mixture. Dressing percentage was the most favourable in common carp (67%, followed by silver carp (62%, and it was the least in grass carp (60% (p<0.01. The best yield (66% was obtained in two-year old carp, followed by one-year old carp (64%, and the worst yield was determined in three-year old carp (58% (p<0.01. Carcasses yield was better in two-year old carp fed on pelleted feed (68% than in carp of the same age fed on grains (66% (p<0.01. The values of dressing percentage measured in three-year old carp reared in the semi-intensive system was 56%, and 59% in three-year old carp fed on pelleted complete feed mixture. Fish species, age, system of husbandry and diet showed a significant effect on carcasses yield. The highest dressing percentage and weight of fillets was noted in two-year old carp fed on complete feed, and it was a result of lower weight of internal organs and associated fat. The obtained results may be helpful in creating the best strategy for the selection of raw fish for fish manufacturing.

  14. Percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa does not correlate with fertilizing capacity of thawed bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lozano, I; Ávalos-Rodríguez, A; Castillo-Juárez, H; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; Roa-Vidal, J J; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2014-02-01

    In the spermatozoa of some species, the ubiquitin-proteasome system detects altered proteins and tags them for elimination by the proteasome. In some species' ejaculates, a high proportion of ubiquitinated spermatozoa (i.e. those having ubiquitin bound to the altered or damaged membrane proteins) has been related to infertility. The aim of this study was to assess whether the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa relates to fertility of dairy bulls and whether ubiquitination increases during protein remodelling that occurs during in vitro spermatic capacitation. Thirty-two frozen semen straws from four high-fertility (ReproMax(®) ) and four normal-fertility (Normal) Holstein-Friesian sires were evaluated. Ubiquitinated and capacitated spermatozoa were quantified by sperm ubiquitin tag immunoassay and chlortetracycline stain, respectively. Fertilizing capacity of sires was assessed by in vitro fertilization. No differences were found between Normal and ReproMax(®) sires with regard to the observed percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa (42.97 ± 3.69% and 49.68 ± 9.27%, respectively; p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences were found in the percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa as a consequence of spermatic capacitation in either Normal (42.97 ± 3.69% before capacitation vs 44.67 ± 7.5% after; p > 0.05) or ReproMax(®) sires (49.68 ± 9.27% before vs 45.05 ± 7.51% after; p > 0.05). The percentage of ubiquitinated spermatozoa in a thawed sperm samples did not correlate with its in vitro fertilizing capacity; thus, this assay does not prove useful to detect in vivo fertility differences between sires. Additionally, protein degradation occurring during remodelling of the spermatozoon plasma membrane during the capacitation process does not seem to involve the ubiquitin-proteasome system. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Combined air and oxygen entrainment. Effect on the percentage output of fixed performance masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyew, M A; Holland, A J; Metcalf, I R

    1990-09-01

    Secondary oxygen was added to air entrained by the primary jet of a fixed performance mask. Twenty such masks, in each of six groups rated at 24%, 28%, 31%, 35%, 40% and 50%, gave higher O2 percentages equivalent to those calculated from an equation that related the O2 concentration to the secondary flow. Actual values of both were closely correlated, with regression slopes and intercepts similar to those derived from this equation. This technique is simple and predictable in altering the composition of an air-oxygen mixture delivered to the patient.

  16. Atrial fibrillation in patients with sick sinus syndrome: the association with PQ-interval and percentage of ventricular pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren

    2012-01-01

    AimsIn the recently published DANPACE trial, incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) was significantly higher with single-lead atrial (AAIR) pacing than with dual-chamber (DDDR) pacing. The present analysis aimed to evaluate the importance of baseline PQ-interval and percentage of ventricular pacing...... (VP) on AF.Methods and resultsWe analysed data on AF during follow-up in 1415 patients included in the DANPACE trial. In a subgroup of 650 patients with DDDR pacemaker, we studied whether %VP, baseline PQ-interval, and programmed atrio-ventricular interval (AVI) was associated with AF burden measured...... between minimal-paced programmed AVI = 100 and >100 ms (median value), respectively (P= 0.60).ConclusionsThe present study indicates that a longer baseline PQ-interval is associated with an increased risk of AF in patients with sick sinus syndrome. Atrial fibrillation burden is not associated...

  17. [Association between dietary intake, physical activity, socioeconomic factors and body fat percentage among schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avila, Gisele Liliam; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the association between dietary intake, physical activity and socioeconomic factors associated with body fat percentage in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. It is a cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 2,481 students from public and private schools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body fat percentage was investigated by measuring triceps and subscapular skin folds. Poisson regression was performed to test the association between excess body fat and independent variables, estimating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of excess body fat was 23.9%, though there was no significant difference between sex (p = 0.359) and age (p = 0.202). Excess body fat was associated with different factors in 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, namely eating less than three meals a day (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.38 to 1.91) and consumption of high-risk food more than 3 times a day (OR = 0.61 CI: 0.47 to 0.79). No significant difference was observed with physical activity. The high prevalence of excess body fat detected reveals the need for fostering the adoption of healthier behavioral practices (in relation to nutrition and physical activity) by schoolchildren.

  18. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  19. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  20. Weight loss percentage prediction of subsequent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breastfed neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rui-Jane; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Mei-Huei; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in our hospital has increased since the implementation of breastfeeding promotion. Inadequate breastfeeding results in reduced calorie intake, weight loss and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Supplementary feeding is required if breastfeeding proves inadequate. However, the optimal weight loss cut-off value for supplementary feeding is unknown. We collected records for all healthy neonates with a gestational age ≥35 weeks and birth body weight (BBW) above 2500 g, born between March 2002 and July 2005, from our nursery. A total of 1979 neonates were reviewed, 874 of whom were exclusively breastfed and subsequently enrolled in this study. Only infants who were breastfed exclusively were enrolled; 219 of these infants (25.1%) presented significant hyperbilirubinemia after 72 hours of age. Infants with early-onset (BBW after 48 hours and weight loss ≥11% of BBW after 72 hours as the cut-off values for the prediction of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia, negative predictive values were 77.7% and 76.8%, respectively. This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of feed texture on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Altaf, H.; Hassan, M.M.U.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of two important forms of feed, mash and crumbles, fed alone or in combination (mash-crumbs), was studied on growth performance, dressing percentage and organ weight of broilers. One hundred twenty broiler chicks were used in the present study and were fed mash, crumbles and mash-crumbs feed for 0-6 weeks of age. Four treatments, designated as A, B, C and D were used in this experiment. Chicks in group A were kept on mash feeding serving as control and those in group B were offered crumbles. Group C was fed mash from day old to two weeks and crumbles from three to six weeks of age while group D was offered mash from day old to four weeks and then crumbles were fed for next two weeks of age. The results of the experiment showed that different forms of feed exhibited significant (P<0.05) effect on overall weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the broilers. Whereas, feed consumption, dressing percentage and relative weights of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, pancreas, intestine and abdominal fat pad of the birds remained unaffected due to different forms of feed. The broilers maintained upon crumbles throughout the experimental period, fetched maximum profit than other treatment groups. (author)

  2. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Ombuds’ corner: Is the number of cases involving women related to their percentage in an organization?

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Ombuds has seen double the number of cases involving women staff members compared to those involving men, relative to their populations. Two questions can thus be asked: is that a general phenomenon also seen in other organizations? Or is it related to the under-representation of women, namely is this a common situation in organizations with fewer women than men? If so, the Ombuds should notice different statistics in organizations where the number of women and men is comparable.   To answer these questions, several annual reports from international organizations have been analysed. The names of these organizations are kept confidential, as the reports are not public. Relation between the percentage of cases involving women and their percentage in an Organization. The circled data point is CERN’s. The results can be seen in this graph (right), limited solely by the number of Organizations for which such data is available. Note that if the ...

  4. Reaction rate constants and mean population percentage for nitrifiers in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, I D; Katsiri, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the determination of reaction rate constants for nitrifying bacteria and their mean population percentage in biomass in an alternating oxidation ditch system. The method used is based on the growth rate equations of the ASM1 model (IWA) (Henze et al. in Activated sludge models ASM1, ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3. IWA Scientific and Technical Report no. 9, IWA Publishing, London, UK, 2000) and the application of mass balance equations for nitrifiers and ammonium nitrogen in an operational cycle of the ditch system. The system consists of two ditches operating in four phases. Data from a large-scale oxidation ditch pilot plant with a total volume of 120 m(3) within an experimental period of 8 months was used. Maximum specific growth rate for autotrophs (μ(A)) and the half-saturation constant for ammonium nitrogen (K(NH)) were found to be 0.36 day(-1) and 0.65 mgNH(4)-N/l, respectively. Additionally, the average population percentage of the nitrifiers in the biomass was estimated to be around 3%.

  5. Mammography density estimation with automated volumetic breast density measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To compare automated volumetric breast density measurement (VBDM) with radiologists' evaluations based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), and to identify the factors associated with technical failure of VBDM. In this study, 1129 women aged 19-82 years who underwent mammography from December 2011 to January 2012 were included. Breast density evaluations by radiologists based on BI-RADS and by VBDM (Volpara Version 1.5.1) were compared. The agreement in interpreting breast density between radiologists and VBDM was determined based on four density grades (D1, D2, D3, and D4) and a binary classification of fatty (D1-2) vs. dense (D3-4) breast using kappa statistics. The association between technical failure of VBDM and patient age, total breast volume, fibroglandular tissue volume, history of partial mastectomy, the frequency of mass > 3 cm, and breast density was analyzed. The agreement between breast density evaluations by radiologists and VBDM was fair (k value = 0.26) when the four density grades (D1/D2/D3/D4) were used and moderate (k value = 0.47) for the binary classification (D1-2/D3-4). Twenty-seven women (2.4%) showed failure of VBDM. Small total breast volume, history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density were significantly associated with technical failure of VBDM (p 0.001 to 0.015). There is fair or moderate agreement in breast density evaluation between radiologists and VBDM. Technical failure of VBDM may be related to small total breast volume, a history of partial mastectomy, and high breast density.

  6. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  7. The ear-leaf percentage of calcium and magnesium in maize inbred lines and their diallel progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, V

    1984-10-01

    Eight maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and their single cross hybrids were grown for one year under field conditions near Osijek. The ear-leaf was taken in the tasseling stage and analysed for Ca and Mg percentage. Parental effects on ear-leaf content of Ca and Mg were very high. The hybrids of line C103 had low mean percentages of ear-leaf Ca and Mg while the hybrids of line Os64 had high mean percentages.

  8. RPE vs. Percentage 1RM Loading in Periodized Programs Matched for Sets and Repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Helms

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate differences between rating of perceived exertion (RPE and percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM load assignment in resistance-trained males (19–35 years performing protocols with matched sets and repetitions differentiated by load-assignment.Methods: Participants performed squats then bench press 3x/weeks in a daily undulating format over 8-weeks. Participants were counterbalanced by pre-test 1RM then assigned to percentage 1RM (1RMG, n = 11; load-assignment via percentage 1RMs, or RPE groups (RPEG, n = 10; participant-selected loads to reach target RPE ranges. Ultrasonography determined pre and post-test pectoralis (PMT, and vastus lateralis muscle thickness at 50 (VLMT50 and 70% (VLMT70 femur-length.Results: Bench press (1RMG +9.64 ± 5.36; RPEG + 10.70 ± 3.30 kg, squat (1RMG + 13.91 ± 5.89; RPEG + 17.05 ± 5.44 kg and their combined-total 1RMs (1RMG + 23.55 ± 10.38; RPEG + 27.75 ± 7.94 kg increased (p < 0.05 in both groups as did PMT (1RMG + 1.59 ± 1.33; RPEG +1.90 ± 1.91 mm, VLMT50 (1RMG +2.13 ± 1.95; RPEG + 1.85 ± 1.97 mm and VLMT70 (1RMG + 2.40 ± 2.22; RPEG + 2.31 ± 2.27 mm. Between-group differences were non-significant (p > 0.05. Magnitude-based inferences revealed 79, 57, and 72% chances of mean small effect size (ES advantages for squat; ES 90% confidence limits (CL = 0.50 ± 0.63, bench press; ES 90% CL = 0.28 ± 0.73, and combined-total; ES 90% CL = 0.48 ± 0.68 respectively, in RPEG. There were 4, 14, and 6% chances 1RMG had a strength advantage of the same magnitude, and 18, 29, and 22% chances, respectively of trivial differences between groups.Conclusions: Both loading-types are effective. However, RPE-based loading may provide a small 1RM strength advantage in a majority of individuals.

  9. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  10. Changes in Wine Aroma Composition According to Botrytized Berry Percentage: A Preliminary Study on Amarone Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fedrizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of Botrytis cinerea, a noble rot, on the aroma components of Amarone, a dry red wine produced from withered grapes. A comparative analysis of wines obtained from manually selected healthy and botrytized grapes was done. Aroma analysis revealed that most compounds varied significantly according to the percentage of botrytized berries utilized. Botrytized wines contained less fatty acids and more fruity acetates than healthy wines. A positive correlation between the content of N-(3-methylbutylacetamide, sherry lactone and an unidentified compound and the level of fungal infection was also observed. The results indicate that noble rot can significantly modify important aroma components of Amarone wine.

  11. Verification of performance of the power percentage channel for the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    It was found that the response that gives the power percent channel is correct, given the positive results of the independent tests that were carried out to the gamma ionization chamber and the electronics associated to this channel. Regarding the gamma chamber, it was verified that the appropriate operation voltage is 800 V, and that for operations in stationary state to 1 MW during 2 h, presented maximum variations of 3%. Also it was determined that the degradation percentage in the sensitivity to the gamma radiation is 10.24%, because this chamber has not been changed since the reactor enters in operation at November 8, 1968 by what will be considered to short term the substitution of the same one due to the burnt that it presents. In connection with the electronics of the channel, it was simulated the response of the chamber for intervals of 6 h and in the 4 analyzed cases the response of the channel was lineal. (Author)

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of GRC with high percentage of fly ash substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovés, V; Gosálbez, J; Miralles, R; Bonilla, M; Payá, J

    2015-07-01

    New applications of non-destructive techniques (NDT) with ultrasonic tests (attenuation and velocity by means of ultrasonic frequency sweeps) have been developed for the characterization of fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. According to new lines of research on glass-fibre reinforced cement (GRC) matrix modification, two similar GRC composites with high percentages of fly ash and different water/binder ratios will be studied. Conventional techniques have been used to confirm their low Ca(OH)(2) content (thermogravimetry), fibre integrity (Scanning Electron Microscopy), low porosity (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry) and good mechanical properties (compression and four points bending test). Ultrasound frequency sweeps allowed the estimation of the attenuation and pulse velocity as functions of frequency. This ultrasonic characterization was correlated successfully with conventional techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Uncovering the FUTREX-6100XL prediction equation for the percentage body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fthenakis, Zacharias G; Balaska, Dimitra; Zafiropulos, Vassilis

    2012-10-01

    Based on the near infra-red (NIR) interactance method, the FUTREX company has developed a series of instruments, for the estimation of the body fat percentage (%BF). %BF is estimated through prediction equations incorporated in the instruments, which for the newest models (FUTREX-6100XL and FUTREX-6100A/ZL) are proprietary and they are not published anywhere. This missing knowledge may lead to several misunderstandings and confusion and degrades those instruments to 'black boxes'. The present work uncovers and presents the prediction equation of FUTREX-6100/XL and discusses the contribution of each term of that equation to the %BF. Furthermore, this study presents the method used, which can be used to uncover equations incorporated in other instruments. This method is based on the idea of firstly uncovering the dependence of the equation on each parameter separately and then combining those dependencies to uncover the unknown equation.

  14. Effect of temperature on percentage of germination of canistel seeds (Pouteria campechiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Renata Aparecida de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The canistel is a fruit originated in Mexico and Central America, being introduced in Brazil in 1986. The plants present medium size, however it can reach up to 15 meters of height; the leaves measure about 10 to 25 cm; the flowers are complete and small and the fruit presents yellow coloration when ripe, with whitish pulp and sweet flavor. The propagation can be realized by seed or grafting. In view of almost total absence of information about the culture and the possibility to have a commercial cultivation, the present work, was live in which the effect of the temperature was evaluated in the percentage of germination of the seeds. It was checked that the best averages were obtained in temperature of 30ºC and the minor in 15ºC, 20ºC and 40ºC could be considerate the worst of them.

  15. Distribution of horn flies on individual cows as a percentage of the total horn fly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, J H; Steelman, C D; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; George, J E

    2003-10-20

    Twenty-three mixed-breed herd cows were phenotyped for their ability to serve as a suitable host for Haematobia irritans, the horn fly. Based upon consistent observations within the lower quartile or upper quartile of individual fly counts, four cows were phenotyped as low carriers and five cows were phenotyped as high carriers of horn flies. The cows designated as low carriers consistently carried levels of flies below the economic threshold. However, during a period of fly population explosion, low carriers harbored flies well above the economic threshold. Although the number of flies counted on these low carrying cattle increased as the population increased, the relative percentage of the population that they carried changed very little. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this observation, and future studies are suggested.

  16. Minimize the Percentage of Noise in Biomedical Images Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khader Jilani Saudagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of the research is to improve the quality of biomedical image for telemedicine with minimum percentages of noise in the retrieved image and to take less computation time. The novelty of this technique lies in the implementation of spectral coding for biomedical images using neural networks in order to accomplish the above objectives. This work is in continuity of an ongoing research project aimed at developing a system for efficient image compression approach for telemedicine in Saudi Arabia. We compare the efficiency of this technique against existing image compression techniques, namely, JPEG2000, in terms of compression ratio, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, and computation time. To our knowledge, the research is the primary in providing a comparative study with other techniques used in the compression of biomedical images. This work explores and tests biomedical images such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET.

  17. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  18. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.

  19. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk. PMID:26833246

  20. A Data Matrix Method for Improving the Quantification of Element Percentages of SEM/EDX Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John

    2009-01-01

    A simple 2D M N matrix involving sample preparation enables the microanalyst to peer below the noise floor of element percentages reported by the SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/ energy dispersive x-ray) analysis, thus yielding more meaningful data. Using the example of a 2 3 sample set, there are M = 2 concentration levels of the original mix under test: 10 percent ilmenite (90 percent silica) and 20 percent ilmenite (80 percent silica). For each of these M samples, N = 3 separate SEM/EDX samples were drawn. In this test, ilmenite is the element of interest. By plotting the linear trend of the M sample s known concentration versus the average of the N samples, a much higher resolution of elemental analysis can be performed. The resulting trend also shows how the noise is affecting the data, and at what point (of smaller concentrations) is it impractical to try to extract any further useful data.

  1. Determination of electron clinical spectra from percentage depth dose (PDD) curves by classical simulated annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visbal, Jorge H. Wilches; Costa, Alessandro M.

    2016-01-01

    Percentage depth dose of electron beams represents an important item of data in radiation therapy treatment since it describes the dosimetric properties of these. Using an accurate transport theory, or the Monte Carlo method, has been shown obvious differences between the dose distribution of electron beams of a clinical accelerator in a water simulator object and the dose distribution of monoenergetic electrons of nominal energy of the clinical accelerator in water. In radiotherapy, the electron spectra should be considered to improve the accuracy of dose calculation since the shape of PDP curve depends of way how radiation particles deposit their energy in patient/phantom, that is, the spectrum. Exist three principal approaches to obtain electron energy spectra from central PDP: Monte Carlo Method, Direct Measurement and Inverse Reconstruction. In this work it will be presented the Simulated Annealing method as a practical, reliable and simple approach of inverse reconstruction as being an optimal alternative to other options. (author)

  2. Using saturation water percentage data to predict mechanical composition of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Okafor, D.O.

    1995-04-01

    One hundred and sixty-six soil samples representing eleven textural classes and having wide variations in organic matter (OM) contents and other physico-chemical properties were collected from different locations in southeastern Nigeria to study the relationship between mechanical composition and saturation water percentage (SP). The objective was to develop a prediction model for silt + clay (SC) and clay (C) contents of these soils using the SP values. The magnitude of the correlation coefficients (r) between SC or C and SP was dependent on the amount of organic matter (OM) present in the soils. For soils with ≤ 1.00% OM, the correlation (r) between SC and SP was 0.9659 (p ≤ 0.001) and that between C and SP was 0.9539 (p ≤ 0.001). For soils with ≥ 2.00% OM, the 'r' values were generally low, varying between 0.5320 and 0.2665 for SC and 0.6008 and 0.3000 for C. The best-fit regression models for predicting SC and C were developed with soils having ≤ 1.00% OM. An independent data set from 25 soil samples collected from other parts of the study area was used to test the predictive ability of the best-fit models. These models predicted SC and C accurately in soils having between 0.28 and 1.10% OM, but poorly in soils having between 1.31 and 3.91% OM. These results show that the use of saturation water percentage to predict the mechanical composition of soils is most reliable for soils with low (≤ 1.00%) OM contents. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Effect of Natural Sand Percentages on Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Yassub Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a flexible pavement requires the knowledge of the material properties which are characterized by stiffness and fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance relates the number of load cycles to failure with the strain level applied to the asphalt mixture. The main objective of this research is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures by using two types of fine aggregate having different percentages. In this study, two types of fine aggregate were used natural sand (desert sand and crushed sand. The crushed sand was replaced by natural sand (desert sand with different percentages (0%, 25%, 75% and 100% by the weight of the sand (passing sieve No.8 and retained on sieve No.200 and one type of binder (40/50 penetration from Al-Daurah refinery. The samples of beams were tested by four point bending beam fatigue test at the control strain mode (250, 500 and 750 microstrain while the loading frequency (5Hz and testing temperature (20oC according to (AASHTO T321. The experimental work showed that fatigue life (Nf and initial flexural stiffness increased when control strain decreased for asphalt mixtures. Acceptable fatigue life at 750 microstrain was obtained with asphalt concrete mixtures containing 100% crushed sand as well as asphalt concrete contained 25% natural sand. The asphalt concrete contained 100% and 75% of natural sand exhibited high fatigue life at low level of microstrain (250. The main conclusion of this study found that best proportion of natural sand to be added to an asphaltic concrete mixture is falling within the range (0% and 25% by weight of fraction (passing No.8 and retained on No.200 sieve .

  4. Associations Between Body Fat Percentage and Fitness among Police Officers: A Statewide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Ma, Claudia C; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Gu, Ja K; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-03-01

    Police work is generally sedentary although there may be situations that require physical endurance and strength, such as foot chases and arresting suspects. Factors such as excessive body fat can impede an officer's physical ability to deal with such occurrences. Our objective was to examine associations between officers' body fat percentage (BF%) and performance on a standardized fitness protocol. Data were obtained from fitness screening among 1,826 male and 115 female officers in a large US police agency. The screening consisted of a 2.4-km run, push-ups, sit-ups, and sit-and-reach test. Sex-specific body fat percentages were estimated from skinfold thickness measured using calipers. Linear regression models were used to examine unadjusted and adjusted mean scores of fitness tests across BF% tertiles. The prevalence of overall fitness was 4.3 times greater in male officers and 3.6 times greater in female officers having the lowest BF% tertile compared with the highest tertile (30.3% vs 7.1% and 46.0% vs 12.8%, respectively). BF% was linearly and positively associated with the time of 2.4-km run ( p   sit-ups ( p   sit-and-reach ( p   sit-and-reach ( p  = 0.122). Associations were independent of age, race/ethnicity, rank, and duty station. Overall, BF% was inversely associated with fitness levels in male and female officers. Future longitudinal studies should be initiated to explore the potentially causal relationship between BF% and fitness in law enforcement officers.

  5. Assessment of laryngeal view: percentage of glottic opening score vs Cormack and Lehane grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochroch, E A; Hollander, J E; Kush, S; Shofer, F S; Levitan, R M

    1999-10-01

    To examine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of two methods that categorize laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy, the Cormack-Lehane grading system and a new scale, the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) scale. Seven anesthesiologists from the University of Pennsylvania Health System viewed 25 identical pairs of slides of laryngeal views during direct laryngoscopy. Each anesthesiologist rated the 50 slides for both Cormack-Lehane grades and POGO scores. The latter CL replaces grades 1 and 2 C-L grades with a percentage of glottic opening: the POGO score. Inter and intra-physician reliability for the Cormack-Lehane grades were determined using the kappa statistic analysis, comparison of POGO scores was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficients (rI). The POGO score had a better inter and intra-physician reliability than the Cormack-Lehane grading system. The intra-physician reliability for the POGO score was very good with an average interclass rI value of 0.88. The inter-physician score was good with a rI of 0.73. The Cormack-Lehane grading system had excellent intra-physician concordance (average kappa = 0.83.) but the inter-physician reliability was poor (kappa = 0.16.) The Cormack-Lehane grading system has very poor inter-physician reliability. The lack of inter-physician reliability with Cormack-Lehane grading calls into question the results of previous studies in which different laryngoscopists used this method to assess laryngeal view. The POGO score appears to have good intra and inter-rater reliability. It has several theoretical advantages and may prove to be more useful for research studies in direct laryngoscopy.

  6. [Percentage of uric acid calculus and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hong-Heng; An, Geng

    2009-02-15

    To study the percentage of uric acid calculus in uroliths and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley. To analyze the chemical composition of 290 urinary stones by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and study the ratio changes of uric acid calculus. Uric acid calculus patients and healthy people were studied. Personal characteristics, dietary habits were collected. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis and studied the dietary risk factors of uric acid calculus. Patients with uric acid calculus, calcium oxalate and those without urinary calculus were undergone metabolic evaluation analysis. The results of uric acid calculus patients compared to another two groups to analysis the relations between the formation of uric acid calculus and metabolism factors. Uric acid calculi were found in 53 cases (18.3%). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that low daily water intake, eating more salted and animal food, less vegetable were very closely associated with uric acid calculus. Comparing to calcium oxalate patients, the urine volume, the value of pH, urine calcium, urine oxalic acid were lower, but uric acid was higher than it. The value of pH, urine oxalic acid and citric acid were lower than them, but uric acid and urine calcium were higher than none urinary calculus peoples. Blood potassium and magnesium were lower than them. The percentage of uric acid stones had obvious advanced. Less daily water intake, eating salted food, eating more animal food, less vegetables and daily orange juice intake, eating sea food are the mainly dietary risk factors to the formation of uric acid calculus. Urine volume, the value of pH, citric acid, urine calcium, urine uric acid and the blood natrium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, uric acid have significant influence to the information of uric acid stones.

  7. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (T Mi ), maximum (T Ma ), and mean temperatures (T Me ) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which T Me values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as T Ma and T Me of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), T Me of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), T Ma of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and T Mi and T Me of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease T Me , especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R 2 =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Density comparison of 3D printing materials and the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, M.; Silveira, L.C.; Cechinel, C.M.; Soares, F.A.P.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Phantoms are commonly used for teaching and radiation dosimetry as a simulator of the human body in order that no individual be exposed to radiation during training and research. Some are the properties that can be used as a measurement parameter in a phantom: density, energy compatibility, attenuation and scattering of the radiation, anthropomorphism, among others. 3D printing has revolutionized many areas of knowledge, including those that make use of radiations. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the density of various materials applied in 3D printing and compare found values with human body density in ICRP 110. Methods: Cubes with 2cm edges were printed on 12 materials of different compositions with internal filling of 60 %, 80% and 100%, weighed on a precision balance and measured with a caliper. Results: The densities found ranged from 0,575 g/cm³ to 2,624 g/cm³ for 60% infill, 0,686 g/cm³ to 3,091 g/cm³ for 80% and 0,794 g/cm³ to 3,572 g/cm³ for 100%. Densities related to teeth, bones, muscles, fat, among others, could be created from specific infill variations. Conclusion: All analyzed materials have the capacity to mimic the structures described in ICRP 110 when the percentage of filling are varied. However, even achieving human tissue density the materials may be not adequate for attenuation and require further experiments. (author)

  9. Association between passive smoking in adulthood and phalangeal bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, T; Bech, M; Curtis, T

    2011-01-01

    and body fat percentage were measured and 96.7% (n = 15,038) of the participants answered a self-reported questionnaire with information on passive smoking, other lifestyle factors, education, etc. The association between passive smoking and BMD was examined using multiple linear regression analysis...... in their home during adulthood. INTRODUCTION: Smoking is associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between BMD at the phalangeal bones and self-reported passive smoking. METHODS: The study included...

  10. The Effect of Nitrogen and Plant Density on Some Growth Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil in Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Izadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of different amounts of nitrogen and plant density on growth, yield, the percentage of essential oil in leaf and essential oil yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita L., an experiment was conducted in 2008 at the Experimental Field of the Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University. The experiment was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications over two cuts. The main plots included the amounts of 100, 150 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha in which half of fertilizer were used for the first cut and another half for the second. The sub-plots were consisted of plant densities as 8, 12 and 16 plants/m2. Morphophysiological characteristics including plant height, node and leaf number per plant, leaf area index, fresh and dry yield, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield over two cuts, and also the growth of dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate in the first cut were measured. The results showed that, nitrogen treatment significantly affected the properties measured, so that, their highest rates were obtained with the application of 100 and 200 kg nitrogen/ha from the first and the second cut, respectively. In addition, total dry matter, leaf area index and crop growth rate increased with increasing the amounts of nitrogen. Plant density also affected the plant height; node number, leaf number and leaf area index, essential oil percentage in leaf and essential oil yield in the first cut significantly, and in the second cut, plant density effect on leaf number and leaf area index was significant as well. Keywords: Peppermint, Nitrogen, Plant density, Yield, Growth indices, Essential oil

  11. Attractor comparisons based on density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing a chaotic attractor can be seen as a problem in pattern recognition. Some feature vector must be extracted from the attractor and used to compare to other attractors. The field of machine learning has many methods for extracting feature vectors, including clustering methods, decision trees, support vector machines, and many others. In this work, feature vectors are created by representing the attractor as a density in phase space and creating polynomials based on this density. Density is useful in itself because it is a one dimensional function of phase space position, but representing an attractor as a density is also a way to reduce the size of a large data set before analyzing it with graph theory methods, which can be computationally intensive. The density computation in this paper is also fast to execute. In this paper, as a demonstration of the usefulness of density, the density is used directly to construct phase space polynomials for comparing attractors. Comparisons between attractors could be useful for tracking changes in an experiment when the underlying equations are too complicated for vector field modeling

  12. Preoperative/neoadjuvant therapy in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of response and resection percentages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Gillen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor prognosis and prolonged survival is achieved only by resection with macroscopic tumor clearance. There is a strong rationale for a neoadjuvant approach, since a relevant percentage of pancreatic cancer patients present with non-metastatic but locally advanced disease and microscopic incomplete resections are common. The objective of the present analysis was to systematically review studies concerning the effects of neoadjuvant therapy on tumor response, toxicity, resection, and survival percentages in pancreatic cancer.Trials were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1966 to December 2009 as well as through reference lists of articles and proceedings of major meetings. Retrospective and prospective studies analyzing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer patients, followed by re-staging, and surgical exploration/resection were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects models. Primary outcome measures were proportions of tumor response categories and percentages of exploration and resection. A total of 111 studies (n = 4,394 including 56 phase I-II trials were analyzed. A median of 31 (interquartile range [IQR] 19-46 patients per study were included. Studies were subdivided into surveys considering initially resectable tumors (group 1 and initially non-resectable (borderline resectable/unresectable tumors (group 2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given in 96.4% of the studies with the main agents gemcitabine, 5-FU (and oral analogues, mitomycin C, and platinum compounds. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy was applied in 93.7% of the studies with doses ranging from 24 to 63 Gy. Averaged complete/partial response probabilities were 3.6% (95% CI 2%-5.5%/30.6% (95% CI 20.7%-41.4% and 4.8% (95

  13. 7 CFR 929.250 - Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2000-2001 crop year. 929.250 Section 929.250 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... § 929.250 Marketable quantity and allotment percentage for the 2000-2001 crop year. The marketable quantity for the 2000-2001 crop year is set at 5.468 million barrels and the allotment percentage is...

  14. 26 CFR 1.613-7 - Application of percentage depletion rates provided in section 613(b) to certain taxable years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-7 Application of percentage depletion rates provided in... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Application of percentage depletion rates... depletion rate specified in section 613 in respect of any mineral property (within the meaning of the 1939...

  15. 76 FR 10471 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... that can be marketed throughout the season. The regulations apply to all handlers of tart cherries that... percentages. These restricted percentages are only applied to states or districts with a 3-year average of... growers receive for their product, an econometric model has been developed. The econometric model provides...

  16. 75 FR 12702 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... establish the amount of tart cherries that can be marketed throughout the season. The regulations apply to... percentages. These restricted percentages are only applied to states or districts with a 3-year average of... growers receive for their product, an econometric model has been developed. The econometric model provides...

  17. 20 CFR Appendix Vi to Subpart C of... - Percentage of Automatic Increases in Primary Insurance Amounts Since 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percentage of Automatic Increases in Primary... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Pt. 404, Subpt. C, App. VI Appendix VI to Subpart C of Part 404—Percentage of Automatic Increases in...

  18. Outlining and categorising mammographic breast density: expert radiologist perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Brennan, Patrick C.; Lee, Warwick; Ryan, John; Cawson, Jennifer; Nickson, Carolyn; Reed, Warren; Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Al Mousa, Dana; Ryan, Elaine

    2012-02-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the outlining and categorising of mammographic breast density by expert radiologists in order to help to understand what kind of region radiologists perceive as breast density and how they assess the density of a mammogram. It investigates inter-radiologist variability in breast density outlining and assessment. Forty-five normal cranio-caudal view mammograms with a range of appearances of breast density were presented to twenty radiologists. Each participant was asked to manually outline any mammographic breast density using an interactive pen tablet and to visually classify mammographic breast density in two ways by using the BI-RADS density categorization system by the American College of Radiology, and by estimating the percentage of area of mammographic breast density. Large differences were found in breast density outlining for all BI-RADS density categories. Scattered and patchy breast density appeared to be associated with large variation in outlining. There was moderate inter-radiologist agreement in BI-RADS density categorising (Kappa = 0.489). Breast density is a complex radiological feature that impacts upon assessment consistency.

  19. [Re-evaluation of classification of myelodysplastic syndromes with low percentage bone marrow blasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Hua; Xu, Ze-Feng; Li, Lin; Nie, Ling; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Yue; Qin, Tie-Jun; Hao, Yu-Shu; Xiao, Zhi-Jian

    2009-01-01

    To apply the WHO criteria and the minimal diagnostic criteria to the classification of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with low percentage (MDS patients with less than 0.050 BM blasts diagnosed between 1988 and 2005 according to FAB criteria were retrospectively reclassified with WHO criteria (2001) and minimal diagnostic criteria. According to the WHO criteria, 5 patients were diagnosed as refractory anemia (RA), 7 as refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 76 as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), 9 as RCMD-RS, 35 as MDS-unclassified (MDS-U), 3 as 5q - syndromes, and the rest 75 patients could not be classified suitably. Among the latter 75 patients 16 BM smears showed dysplasia in more than 2 cell lineage but only unilineage cytopenia in peripheral blood (PB). Nine of them were reclassified as RCMD after followed up for more than half a year. Forty-four BM smears showed erythroid dysplasia only, but bicytopenia or pancytopenia in PB. Twenty-seven of them were classified as RCMD after follow-up. Fifteen BM smears not showed dysplasia in any myeloid lineage were reclassified as MDS (5 patients), HS-MDS (5 patients) and idiopathic cytopenia of uncertain significance (ICUS) (5 patients) according to the MDS minimal diagnostic criteria. According to WHO criteria (2001), RA is the least diagnosis in MDS. The minimal diagnostic criteria for MDS classification of patients not fulfilled the standard criteria of MDS.

  20. Analysis of the percentage voids of test and field specimens using computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, D. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, COPPE UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Zip Code 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, COPPE UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Zip Code 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Motta, L.M.G. da [Laboratorio de Geotecnia, COPPE UFRJ, P.O. Box 68506, Zip Code 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1999-02-11

    Computerized tomography has been an excellent tool of analysis of asphaltics mixtures, because it allows comparison of the quality and integrity of test and field specimens. It was required to detect and follow the evolution of cracks, when these mixtures were submitted to fatigue tests, and also helping to interpret the distribution of tensions and deformations which occur in the several types of solicitations imposed to the mixtures. Comparing the medium values of percentage voids obtained from tomographic images with the project's values, it can be observed that the values of test and field specimens for the wearing course are closer to the ones of the project than the ones of the binder. It can be verified that the wearing course specimens always present a distribution of the aggregate, and voids quite homogeneously in the whole profile of the sample, while the binder specimens show an accentuated differentiation of the same factors in the several heights of the sample. Therefore, when choosing a slice for tomography, these considerations should be taken into account.

  1. Novel equations to predict body fat percentage of Brazilian professional soccer players: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Novack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.

  2. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  3. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  4. Monitoring lean meat percentage predictions from optical grading probes by a commercial cutting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangsei, Lars Erik; Bjerke, Frøydis; Røe, Morten; Alvseike, Ole

    2018-03-01

    The lean meat percentage (LMP) classification in Norwegian slaughterhouses is obtained by Hennessy Grading Probe 7 (HGP7), an optical tool. Even though the HGP7 method is validated frequently, there is industrial and legislative demand to reconsider the applied LMP equation, typically due to the introduction of new breeds. A deboning pilot plant generates precise yield data using cutting and deboning stratified pork carcasses by a specific commercial cutting pattern (CCP) at an annual rate of approximately 250 slaughter pigs. This paper shows how results obtained by CCP can be used to measure LMP in pork and how these results can be used for monitoring the quality of LMP predicted by HGP7. The effect of gender, maternal- and paternal lines on validity of HGP7 predictions was evaluated. The effect of introducing a new maternal line (TN70) seems to be substantial, whereas the effects of the tested paternal lines are small to negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author).

  6. Performance of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Cages, under Different Percentage of Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. B. Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different rate in percentage feeding of the productivity (Body weight (BW and feed conversion (FC of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, with a total of 13500 animals, distributed in nine cages, with n = 1500 fish/cage, with three replicates in a period of four weeks. The animals were feed with   three treatments: treatment 1 (2% BW; treatment 2 ( 3% BW and treatment 3 (4% BW, divided in two meals,  and feed  with commercial food 36% crude protein. The BW gain was significantly higher for the animals that received feed rate of 4% BW. However, apparent feed conversion was better when used the rate of (2% BW- treatment 1 of tambaqui reared in cages.

  7. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARDS OF Acrocarpus fraxinifolius COMPOUNDS WITH DIFFERENT PERCENTAGES OF BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilani Trianoski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812360The particleboard industries have used a large volume of wood mainly from planted forest of Pinus, beingnecessary to diversify the wood species and optimize the use of raw material. One of the ways to optimizethe use of this resource is the utilization of the bark in the particleboard manufacturing process. In thisway, this research was developed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboardmanufactured with the wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and different proportions of the bark. The boardswere manufactured with 100% of wood particles of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius and replacing the woodparticles with 30%, 20% and 10% of bark, board density of 0.75 g/cm³ and 8% of urea-formaldehyde resin.The properties of board density, water absorption and thickness swelling, static bending, internal bond andscrew pullout strength, were determined according to EN and NBR standards, and then compared with thestandard treatment (100% Pinus taeda and with the minimum requirements of these standards. The resultsindicated that Acrocarpus fraxinifolius species showed technical feasibility for particleboard production and the addition of the bark until 30% did not negatively affect the physical and mechanical properties ofthe boards.

  9. Gene trap mutation of murine Outer dense fiber protein-2 gene can result in sperm tail abnormalities in mice with high percentage chimaerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer dense fiber protein 2, Odf2, is a major component of the outer dense fibers, ODF, in the flagellum of spermatozoa. ODF are associated with microtubule doublets that form the axoneme. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of Odf2 is important for sperm motility. In the course of a study of Odf2 using Odf2 mouse knockout lines we observed that males of a high percentage chimaerism, made using XL169 embryonic stem cells, were infertile, whereas mice of low-medium percentage chimaerism were fertile. Results XL169 ES cells have a β-geo gene trap cassette inserted in the Odf2 gene. To determine possible underlying mechanisms resulting in infertility we analyzed epididymal sperm and observed that >50% displayed bent tails. We next performed ultrastructural analyses on testis of high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice. This analysis showed that high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice produce elongating spermatids that miss one or more entire outer dense fibers in their midpiece and principal piece. In addition, we observed elongating spermatids that show thinning of outer dense fibers. No other obvious abnormalities or defects are present in elongating spermatids. Spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymis of XL169 mice of high percentage chimaerism show additional tail defects, including absence of one or more axonemal microtubule doublets and bent tails. Sperm with bent tails display abnormal motility. Conclusions Our results document the possible impact of loss of one Odf2 allele on sperm tail structure and function, resulting in a novel sperm tail phenotype.

  10. Body composition and menstrual status in adults with a history of anorexia nervosa-at what fat percentage is the menstrual cycle restored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Schulpen, Maya; Støving, René Klinkby

    2017-04-01

    To study the association between body composition measures and menstrual status in a large sample of adult patients with a history of anorexia nervosa and to calculate the predicted probability of resumption of menstrual function. Furthermore, to establish whether fat percentage is superior to body mass index in predicting the resumption of menses. One hundred and thirteen adult women with a history of anorexia nervosa underwent a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and completed questionnaires regarding medication prescription and menstrual function. Fifty percent of patients were expected to resume their menstrual function at a body mass index of 19 kg m -2 or a fat percentage of 23%. Twenty-five percent of patients were expected to resume their menstrual function at body mass index 14 kg m -2 or fat percentage 11%. Fat percentage and body mass index were equally capable of predicting the resumption of menses. Fat percentage and body mass index were positive predictors of the resumption of menses, however, body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was not superior to body mass index in predicting menstrual recovery, which is of great clinical relevance as body mass index is easier and cheaper to obtain. Body composition measures only account for one of numerous factors involved in the resumption of menses. Regression models based on our data had a R 2 value of 0.14, indicating that only 14% of the variation in menstrual recovery could be explained by the variables included. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:370-377). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  12. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortelainen, Erno M [ORNL; Lesinski, Thomas [ORNL; More, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Nazarewicz, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sarich, J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schunck, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Stoitsov, M. V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wild, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2010-01-01

    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  13. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  14. Density Functional Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1) The total energy of an electron system in an external potential is a unique functional of the total electron density; and. (2)The density that minimizes the energy is the ground-state density, and this minimum energy is the ground-state energy of the system.

  15. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia); Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: Zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  16. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.; Ismail, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mamat, M. H.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  17. Cosmetic outcome and percentage of breast volume excision in oncoplastic breast conserving surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sharon W W; Cheung, Polly S Y; Chueng, Polly S Y; Lam, S H

    2010-07-01

    Since breast-conserving surgery demonstrated identical long term survival on seven randomized trials, it has become the preferred treatment option over mastectomy. Oncoplastic surgery applying simple reshaping and displacement techniques allows inclusion of patients with large tumors in the group selected for breast-conserving surgery. However, the cosmetic outcome and the degree of patient satisfaction, especially in relation to the original breast volume and the percentage of breast tissue excised is not well documented. The present study was designed to assess patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome after oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery, and to establish the correlation between patient satisfaction and percentage of breast volume excision (PBVE). A total of 169 Asian patients underwent breast-conserving surgery for primary breast cancer at either United Christian Hospital (UCH) or Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (HKSH) from Nov 2007 to Jan 2008 by two breast surgeons. Among this group, 162 patients with breast-conserving surgery incorporating oncoplastic techniques were prospectively recruited for study. Tumor characteristics, patient satisfaction, cosmetic outcome and surgeons' score were prospectively documented. Breast volume (BV) calculation was based on preoperative mammography (BV = 1/3pir(1)r(2)h), which was validated by our previous study to correlate strongly with actual BV (r = 0.98). PBVE was calculated by dividing the fresh specimen weight by the calculated BV. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess patient satisfaction and surgeons' score on cosmetic outcome during the first 1-3 postoperative months. The correlation between PBVE and patient satisfaction was studied. The median age of the group of patients studied was 52 years (range: 20-96 years). The median tumor size was 2.5 cm (range: 0.6-5 cm). The median breast volume was 493 cm(3) (range: 210-1,588 cm(3)). The median PBVE was 7.4% (range: 1-42%), and 94% of patients were

  18. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  19. An estimation of the percentage of dose in intraoral radiology exams using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzoumet, S.P.J.; Braz, D.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; Padilha, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    In this work we used the EGS4 code in a simulated study of dose percentage in intraoral examination to 10 energy range to 140 keV. The simulation was carried out on a model consisting of different geometry (cheek, tooth and mouth cavity) under normal incidence X-ray beam over the surface of the various simulated materials. It was observed that for energy smaller than 30 keV most of the energy is deposited on the cheek. In 30 keV there is a point of maximum radiation absorption in the tooth (approximately 60% of the energy of the incident radiation is deposited on the tooth) in relation to other simulated materials. It means that in this energy there is a better contrast in the radiographic image of the tooth and a smaller dose on the cheek. In 40 keV the deposited energy in the tooth is roughly equal to the energy that is transmitted (to the radiographic film or buccal cavity) causing a degradation in the radiographic image and/or a higher dose in the oral cavity. For energies above 40 keV, the amount of energy transmitted (to the oral cavity and/or radiographic film) is higher than the energy deposited in other materials, i.e, it only contributes to increasing of dose in the regions close to the oral cavity and the radiographic image degradation. These results can provide important information for radiological procedures applied in dentistry where the image quality is a relevant factor to a dental evaluation needs as well as reducing dose in the oral cavity.

  20. Effects of Different Percentages of Microhydroxyapatite on Microhardness of Resin-modified Glass-ionomer and Zirconomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Shoale, Soodabe; Kowkabi, Mahsa

    2017-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main mineral component of the tooth structure, which exhibits considerable biological behavior and its incorporation might improve microhardness of dental materials. Microhardness of restorative materials, like glass-ionomer, is critical for the clinical longevity of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of two glass-ionomers types by incorporating different percentages of microhydroxyapatite. In this study, 80 disc-shaped experimental specimens (6 mm in diameter, 2 mm in height) were prepared in 8 groups, including resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI, GC, Gold Label, Japan), zirconia-reinforced glass-ionomer (Zirconomer, Shofu, Kyoto, Japan), and their mixture with 0, 5, 15 and 25 wt% of microhydroxyapatite (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany). All the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37ºC for 24 hours. Then Vickers microhardness test was carried out on the both sides of specimens and data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and paired t-test ( P glass-ionomer, Zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer, Microhydroxyapatite.

  1. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 - 0.159 (HWDI) + 0.161 (age) for men and 53.35 - 0.265 (HWDI) + 0.132 (age) for women. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  2. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  3. MATERIAL COMPOSITIONS AND NUMBER DENSITIES FOR NEUTRONICS CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the number densities and isotopic weight percentages of the standard materials to be used in the neutronics (criticality and radiation shielding) evaluations by the Waste Package Development Department. The objective of this analysis is to provide material number density information which can be referenced by future neutronics design analyses, such as for those supporting the Conceptual Design Report

  4. Evalution of Drought Stress Effect on Growth, Yield, Essential Oil and Chamazulene Percentage of Three Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. Cultivars in Khuzestan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Farhoudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress on growth, photosynthesis, essential oil yield and chamazulene percentage of three chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. cultivars in Islamic Azad University, Shoshtar Branch was studied. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete blocke design (RCBD with 4 replications. Main plots consisted of drought stress levels including control (90% field capacity, medium stress(75% field capacity and hard stress (55%field capacity and sub-plots included 3 chamomile cultivars (Presov, Bodgold and Sherazi. Results showed that drought stress had significant effect on photosynthesis, plant height, organic solute concentration, flower yield, essential oil and chamazulene percentage of chamomile cultivars. Medium stress level did not impose significant effect on essential oil yield of chamomile cultivars compared to control. Under highest drought stress level, Presov and Bodgold cultivars had highest flower yield (123.4 and 121 g/m2, essential oil yield (0.159 and 0.163 g/m2 and chamazulene percentage (4.81 and 5.71.

  5. Modern charge-density analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on developments from the past 10-15 years, this volume presents an objective overview of the research in charge density analysis. The most promising methodologies are included, in addition to powerful interpretative tools and a survey of important areas of research.

  6. Effects of tillage operations and plant density on leaf spot disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two seasons experiments conducted in 2002 and 2003 revealed that Tillage operations significantly influenced leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging 3.14; 2.08 and Grain yield 3.02; 3.84 in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Plant density also had significant difference on leafspot disease severity; Percentage lodging ...

  7. Impact of errors in recorded compressed breast thickness measurements on volumetric density classification using volpara v1.5.0 software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waade, Gunvor Gipling; Highnam, Ralph; Hauge, Ingrid H R; McEntee, Mark F; Hofvind, Solveig; Denton, Erika; Kelly, Judith; Sarwar, Jasmine J; Hogg, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Mammographic density has been demonstrated to predict breast cancer risk. It has been proposed that it could be used for stratifying screening pathways and recommending additional imaging. Volumetric density tools use the recorded compressed breast thickness (CBT) of the breast measured at the x-ray unit in their calculation; however, the accuracy of the recorded thickness can vary. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inaccuracies in recorded CBT impact upon volumetric density classification and to examine whether the current quality control (QC) standard is sufficient for assessing mammographic density. Raw data from 52 digital screening mammograms were included in the study. For each image, the clinically recorded CBT was artificially increased and decreased in increments of 1 mm to simulate measurement error, until ±15% from the recorded CBT was reached. New images were created for each 1 mm step in thickness resulting in a total of 974 images which then had volpara density grade (VDG) and volumetric density percentage assigned. A change in VDG was observed in 38.5% (n = 20) of mammograms when applying ±15% error to the recorded CBT and 11.5% (n = 6) was within the QC standard prescribed error of ±5 mm. The current QC standard of ±5 mm error in recorded CBT creates the potential for error in mammographic density measurement. This may lead to inaccurate classification of mammographic density. The current QC standard for assessing mammographic density should be reconsidered.

  8. An empirical model for salt removal percentage in water under the effect of different current intensities of current carrying coil at different flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen S. AbdelHady

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic treatment of hard water is an alternative, simple approach by which the hard water that needs to be treated flows through a magnetic field. This field is created by inducing current in a coil wrapped around a pipe. Consequently some of its properties, such as total dissolved salts (TDS, conductivity (Ec and PH change. The primary purpose of hard water treatment is to decrease TDS in the incoming liquid stream. Using performance data from the application of different magnetic field densities on the different flow levels of water, empirical mathematical models were developed relating the salt removal percentage (SRP to operating flow rate and current of the coil. The obtained experimental results showed that the SRP increased with increasing the current at low flow rates (up to 0.75 ml/s.

  9. The role of the plasmasphere in the dynamics of ionospheric density structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.

    2007-05-01

    Coordinated ground-based and satellite observations are of great importance for understanding the electrodynamics of inner-magnetospheric density structures. Examples of these structures are storm enhanced density (SED) and plasmasphere drainage plumes resulting from the erosion of the plasmasphere boundary layer by sub-auroral disturbance electric fields. SED or localized enhancement of TEC results from a poleward redistribution of dusk-sector plasma from the low-latitude region during the early stage of a strong geomagnetic disturbance. While ground-based observations with GPS TEC and ISR combined with low-altitude satellite observations such as DMSP, TOPEX, and JASON see enhanced density structure, IMAGE EUV magnetospheric imagery from space detect this enhanced density as a pronounced bright region in the inner plasmapshere. In this paper, we present coordinated ground-based and satellite observations results showing the role of the plasmasphere and plasmapause in the dynamics of ionospheric density structures. This includes the simultaneous global observations of ground-based GPS TEC and ionospheric TEC observed by the JASON and TOPEX satellites to experimentally determine the percentage contribution of the plasmapshere to the ground- based GPS TEC and thus to the degradation of navigation and communication systems. We find the plasmasphere can contribute significantly to round-based GPS TEC.

  10. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  11. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Williams, Scott G. [Peter Maccallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry L., E-mail: lkestin@comcast.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National

  12. Comparison of percentage body fat and body mass index for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid risk profiles in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funghetto SS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,2 Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa,3 Marina Morato Stival,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,4 Leonardo Costa Pereira,1 Marja Letícia Chaves Antunes,1 Luciano Ramos de Lima,1 Jonato Prestes,4 Ricardo Jacó Oliveira,1 Maurílio Tiradentes Dutra,2 Vinícius Carolino Souza,1,4 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,4 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski1 1University of Brasília (UnB, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty Estácio de Sá of Vitória, ES, Brazil; 4Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil Objective: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI and percentage body fat (PBF for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women.Method: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein.Results: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05 and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL than did the overweight group (P≤0.05. According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739–0.886; P<0.0005 proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884–0.965; P=0.003 and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023–0

  13. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  14. Percentage depth dose calculation accuracy of model based algorithms in high energy photon small fields through heterogeneous media and comparison with plastic scintillator dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagar, Ananda Giri Babu; Mani, Ganesh Kadirampatti; Karunakaran, Kaviarasu

    2016-01-08

    Small fields smaller than 4 × 4 cm2 are used in stereotactic and conformal treatments where heterogeneity is normally present. Since dose calculation accuracy in both small fields and heterogeneity often involves more discrepancy, algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated for achieving better treatment results. This report aims at evaluating accuracy of four model-based algorithms, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) from Monaco, Superposition (SP) from CMS-Xio, AcurosXB (AXB) and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) from Eclipse are tested against the measurement. Measurements are done using Exradin W1 plastic scintillator in Solid Water phantom with heterogeneities like air, lung, bone, and aluminum, irradiated with 6 and 15 MV photons of square field size ranging from 1 to 4 cm2. Each heterogeneity is introduced individually at two different depths from depth-of-dose maximum (Dmax), one setup being nearer and another farther from the Dmax. The central axis percentage depth-dose (CADD) curve for each setup is measured separately and compared with the TPS algorithm calculated for the same setup. The percentage normalized root mean squared deviation (%NRMSD) is calculated, which represents the whole CADD curve's deviation against the measured. It is found that for air and lung heterogeneity, for both 6 and 15 MV, all algorithms show maximum deviation for field size 1 × 1 cm2 and gradually reduce when field size increases, except for AAA. For aluminum and bone, all algorithms' deviations are less for 15 MV irrespective of setup. In all heterogeneity setups, 1 × 1 cm2 field showed maximum deviation, except in 6MV bone setup. All algorithms in the study, irrespective of energy and field size, when any heterogeneity is nearer to Dmax, the dose deviation is higher compared to the same heterogeneity far from the Dmax. Also, all algorithms show maximum deviation in lower-density materials compared to high-density materials.

  15. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Singh, Rana Gopal; Alok, Kumar; Singh, Shivendra

    2014-07-01

    Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI) between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL) and at 12 months (TM) for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutritional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record) and clinical characteristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC) and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  16. High energy density laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    High energy density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued at these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade

  17. Urinary and Anthropometrical Indices of Bone Density in Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements on the x-ray of the 2nd metacarpal of the right hand and 2h fasting urine sample were used in a cross sectional study to assess urinary indices of bone density (bone mass, percentage cortical area, PCA) in 94 healthy Nigerian adults aged between 19-72 years. Body mass index (BMI) was also estimated.

  18. Sleep spindle density in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Hvidtfelt, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether...... the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin...... levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included. Unspecified, slow, and fast SS were automatically detected, and SS densities were defined as number per minute and were computed across sleep stages and sleep cycles. The between-cycle trends of SS densities in N2...

  19. X-ray output and percentage ripple in x-ray tube voltage. X-ray generators for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shigeru; Katoh, Yoh; Negishi, Toru; Abe, Shinji; Ogura, Izumi

    1998-01-01

    Various characteristics of x-ray generators used for mammography (tube voltage, tube current, percentage average error of irradiation time, percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform, linearity, and reproducibility of the photographic effect) have already been clarified by the authors. In our more recent investigations, x-ray output and radiation quality as percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform were evaluated using the dynamic study method with the aluminum filter specified in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. In addition, we also assessed the effects of fluctuation in percentage ripple of the tube voltage waveform on the x-ray spectrum. Based on the results obtained, the characteristics of an ideal x-ray generator for mammography are discussed. The results of this study showed that x-ray output differences in terms of percentage ripple ranged from 45% to 82% compared with that of a constant-potential high-voltage generator. With regard to radiation quality, differences of 0.01 to 0.02 mm were found in the half value layer using an aluminum filter. The thicker the x-ray absorber, the more marked the effects of percentage ripple. In terms of the x-ray spectrum, moreover, characteristic x-rays (at 17.4 and 19.5 keV) cannot be effectively used, although a molybdenum target or molybdenum filter is used. Based on these results, a constant potential high-voltage generator with percentage ripple of 4% or less in the tube voltage waveform should be employed for mammography. (author)

  20. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  2. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  3. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  4. Low bone mineral density among patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, S.R.; Riaz, A.; Nazir, L.; Umer, T.P.; Rasool, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis is an early and common feature in rheumatoid arthritis. Apart from other manifestations, Osteoporosis is an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis which may result in increased risk of fractures, morbidity, mortality, and associated healthcare costs. This study evaluates bone mineral density changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of recent-onset. Methods: This descriptive case series was conducted in the Rheumatology Department of a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Data was prospectively collected from 76 patients presenting with seropositive or seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. Bone mineral density of these patients measured at lumbar spine and hip by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Variables like age, gender, BMI, menstrual status, disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, vitamin D level, clinical disease activity index and seropositivity for rheumatoid arthritis were measured along with outcome variables. Results: A total of 104 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered with 28 excluded from study. Among the remaining 76 patients, 68 (89.50 percentage) were female, with mean age of patients (with low bone mineral density) as 50.95±7.87 years. Nineteen (25 percentage) patients had low bone mineral density, 68.52 percentage had low BMD at spine while 10.52 percentage at hip and 21.05 percentage at spine and hip both. Low bone mineral density was found higher in patients with seronegative 7 (50 percentage) as compared to seropositive patients 12 (19.4 percentage) (p-value 0.017), whereas low bone mineral density was found higher 12 (70.6 percentage) among post-menopausal women. Conclusion: Low BMD was found in 25 percentage of patients at earlier stage of the rheumatoid arthritis with seropositivity, age and menopausal status as significant risk factors. (author)

  5. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  6. Bone mineral density and mammographic density in Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseson, Heidi; Rice, Megan S.; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Torres, Gabriela; Blanco, Margarita; Tamayo-Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is a putative marker for lifetime exposure to estrogen. Studies that have explored whether BMD is a determinant of mammographic density (MD) have observed inconsistent results. Therefore, we examined this potential association in a sample of women (N=1,516) from the clinical sub-cohort in the Mexican Teachers’ Cohort (N=115,315). Methods We used multivariable linear regression to assess the association between quartiles of BMD and percent MD, as well as total dense and non-dense area of the breast, stratified by menopausal status. We also examined the associations by body mass index (BMI) (<30kg/m2,, ≥30kg/m2). Results Overall, there was no association between BMD and MD among premenopausal women. However, when we stratified by BMI, there was a modest inverse association between BMD and percent MD (difference between extreme quartiles= −2.8, 95%CI: −5.9, 0.27, p-trend=0.04) among women with BMI <30 kg/m2, but a positive association among obese women (comparable difference=5.1, 95%CI: 0.02, 10.1, p-trend=0.03; p-interaction<0.01). Among postmenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were positively associated after adjustment for BMI (p-trend<0.01). Postmenopausal women in the highest two quartiles of BMD had 4–5 percentage point higher percent MD compared to women in the lowest quartile. The association did not differ by BMI in postmenopausal women (p-interaction=0.76). Conclusion Among obese premenopausal women as well as postmenopausal women, BMD was positively associated with percent MD. Among leaner premenopausal women, BMD and percent MD were modestly inversely associated. These findings support the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to estrogen (as measured by BMD) may influence MD. PMID:26463740

  7. Parasite density and the spectrum of clinical illness in falciparum malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Mahmood, T.; Ahmed, N.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the impact of percentage parasitemia and clinical features on morbidity and mortality in patients with P. falciparum malaria. Seventy-six adult patients of smear positive P. falciparum malaria were selected for the study. Parasite density was estimated on thin blood film and expressed as percentage of red blood cells parasitized. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of parasite density. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 12. Results were expressed as percentages, mean and standard deviations. P-value 10%. Comparative analysis of the groups showed that pallor, impaired consciousness, jaundice or malarial hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure, DIC, and mortality were all strongly associated with the density of Plasmodium falciparum malaria (p=0.001). Parasite density was not related to age, gender and hepatosplenomegaly. High parasite density was associated with severe clinical illness, complications and mortality. Parasite counts of > 5% may be considered as hyperparasitaemia in this population of the world. (author)

  8. High density, low open porosity magnesia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alecu, I.D.; Stead, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many modern high-tech applications require magnesia ceramic components with high bulk densities and very low apparent porosities. Quite commonly, bulk densities above 3500 kg.m -3 and open porosities close to zero are specified for such applications of magnesia ceramics. The paper presents the recent achievements of Rojan Advanced Ceramics in the field of high density, very low open porosity magnesia ceramic materials and special products, including labware and planar components. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  9. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío del Pilar; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. PMID:28902162

  10. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dee, Anne; Bernstein, Leslie; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ulrich, Cornelia; Baumgartner, Richard N; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy; Alfano, Catherine M; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  11. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  12. [Correlation between percentage of body fat and simple anthropometric parameters in children aged 6-9 years in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H C; Hao, Y T; Guo, Y F; Wei, Y H; Zhang, J H; Huang, G P; Mao, L M; Zhang, Z Q

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of simple anthropometric parameters in diagnosing obesity in children in Guangzhou. Methods: A cross-sectional study, including 465 children aged 6-9 years, was carried out in Guangzhou. Their body height and weight, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured according to standard procedure. Body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. Body fat percentage (BF%) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple regression analysis was applied to evaluate the correlations between age-adjusted physical indicators and BF%, after the adjustment for age. Obesity was defined by BF%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the indicators for childhood obesity. Area under-ROC curves (AUCs) were calculated and the best cut-off point that maximizing 'sensitivity + specificity-1' was determined. Results: BMI showed the strongest association with BF% through multiple regression analysis. For 'per-standard deviation increase' of BMI, BF% increased by 5.3% ( t =23.1, P <0.01) in boys and 4.6% ( t =17.5, P <0.01) in girls, respectively. The ROC curve analysis indicated that BMI exhibited the largest AUC in both boys (AUC=0.908) and girls (AUC=0.895). The sensitivity was 80.8% in boys and 81.8% in girls, and the specificity was 88.2% in boys and 87.1% in girls. Both the AUCs for WHtR and WC were less than 0.8 in boys and girls. WHR had the smallest AUCs (<0.8) in both boys and girls. Conclusion: BMI appeared to be a good predicator for BF% in children aged 6-9 years in Guangzhou.

  13. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  14. A COMPARATIVE LOOK INTO HOW TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES: THROUGH USING PERCENTAGES OR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hakkı ERTEN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the appropriateness of two statistical procedures for measuring the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies: percentages and correlation coefficients. To do this a group of 20 learners of English were asked to study 12 words in a written list, with their pronunciations, dictionary definitions, and example sentences. Data was collected through introspection where students were asked to verbalize their mental processes as they studied the target words. A pre-test and post-test were given to measure the task achievement. The qualitative data was transcribed verbatim and content-analysed for tokens of strategy use as well as by noting whether each use of strategies led to successful recall of the words on which they were used. To calculate the strategy effectiveness, both simple percentage calculation and correlation coefficients were employed for comparison. The findings indicated that percentage calculation can give a more realistic picture of strategy effectiveness than correlation coefficients.

  15. Energy and nutrient density of foods in relation to their carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Martin, Agnes; Verger, Eric O; Voinnesson, Marc; Imbert, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A carbon footprint is the sum of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) associated with food production, processing, transporting, and retailing. We examined the relation between the energy and nutrient content of foods and associated GHGEs as expressed as g CO2 equivalents. GHGE values, which were calculated and provided by a French supermarket chain, were merged with the Composition Nutritionnelle des Aliments (French food-composition table) nutrient-composition data for 483 foods and beverages from the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. Foods were aggregated into 34 food categories and 5 major food groups as follows: meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, frozen and processed fruit and vegetables, grains, and sweets. Energy density was expressed as kcal/100 g. Nutrient density was determined by using 2 alternative nutrient-density scores, each based on the sum of the percentage of daily values for 6 or 15 nutrients, respectively. The energy and nutrient densities of foods were linked to log-transformed GHGE values expressed per 100 g or 100 kcal. Grains and sweets had lowest GHGEs (per 100 g and 100 kcal) but had high energy density and a low nutrient content. The more-nutrient-dense animal products, including meat and dairy, had higher GHGE values per 100 g but much lower values per 100 kcal. In general, a higher nutrient density of foods was associated with higher GHGEs per 100 kcal, although the slopes of fitted lines varied for meat and dairy compared with fats and sweets. Considerations of the environmental impact of foods need to be linked to concerns about nutrient density and health. The point at which the higher carbon footprint of some nutrient-dense foods is offset by their higher nutritional value is a priority area for additional research. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Technical factors influencing cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of various technical factors on the variation of cone packing density estimates in adaptive optics flood illuminated retinal images. METHODS: Adaptive optics images of the photoreceptor mosaic were obtained in fifteen healthy subjects. The cone density and Voronoi diagrams were assessed in sampling windows of 320×320 µm, 160×160 µm and 64×64 µm at 1.5 degree temporal and superior eccentricity from the preferred locus of fixation (PRL. The technical factors that have been analyzed included the sampling window size, the corrected retinal magnification factor (RMFcorr, the conversion from radial to linear distance from the PRL, the displacement between the PRL and foveal center and the manual checking of cone identification algorithm. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between cone density estimated within the different sampling window conditions. RESULTS: The cone density declined with decreasing sampling area and data between areas of different size showed low agreement. A high agreement was found between sampling areas of the same size when comparing density calculated with or without using individual RMFcorr. The agreement between cone density measured at radial and linear distances from the PRL and between data referred to the PRL or the foveal center was moderate. The percentage of Voronoi tiles with hexagonal packing arrangement was comparable between sampling areas of different size. The boundary effect, presence of any retinal vessels, and the manual selection of cones missed by the automated identification algorithm were identified as the factors influencing variation of cone packing arrangements in Voronoi diagrams. CONCLUSIONS: The sampling window size is the main technical factor that influences variation of cone density. Clear identification of each cone in the image and the use of a large buffer zone are necessary to minimize factors influencing variation of Voronoi

  17. The percentage of iNKT cells among other immune cells at various clinical stages of laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Klatka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells constitute a small population of immune cells that share functional and phenotypic characteristics of T lymphocytes and NK cells. Due to their involvement in specific and non-specific immune responses, iNKT cells may represent an important component of antitumor and anti-infectious immunity. Material and methods: Using flow cytometry, we analyzed the percentages of iNKT cells as well as T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of 50 laryngeal cancer patients at various clinical stages in comparison to healthy controls (n=15. Moreover, we determined the expression of CD25, CD69 and CD95 antigens on T lymphocytes.Results: The percentage of CD4+/CD3+ T lymphocytes in the controls was higher than in laryngeal cancer patients, both with early and late stages of the disease. The percentage of CD8+/CD3+ T lymphocytes in healthy controls was lower than in patients with early and late clinical stages of laryngeal cancer. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer showed a lower percentage of iNKT cells and higher frequencies of T regulatory cells (Tregs than the controls. Advanced clinical stages of laryngeal cancer are associated with impaired activation of lymphocytes.Conclusions: Our study confirmed that laryngeal cancer cells exert a strong suppressor effect on the immune system of the host. This is reflected by a decrease in the percentage of iNKT cells that are capable of cancer cell elimination, and a concomitant increase in the percentage of Tregs. However, further studies are needed in order to explain the underlying mechanisms of immunosuppression and understand interactions between immune and cancer cells.

  18. A Simple Method to Measure the Thermal contraction Percentage of a Solid Between Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2000-01-01

    We described how to build a simple device for measuring, with a reasonable good accuracy, the thermal contraction of a flat sample between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The contraction percentage of the sample is determined by the dimensional comparison of two images taken through the bottom of a transparent quartz tray. Instead of a photo or video camera, a high-resolution flatbed scanner is utilized to avoid the correction of perspectives. The so-called Grueneisen approximation are applied to evaluate the contraction percentages for intermediate temperatures. (Author) 28 refs

  19. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    Fischer 344 rats showed sex difference in the percentage of oleate in lipids of the omental adipose tissue (Thorling, E.B. and Overvad, K. (1994) Nutr. Res. 14, 569-576). The development of this difference was studied with respect to time in rats maintained on laboratory chow, from the age of 3 w...... in the female than in the male rats, and this difference increased with age. The results of the present study suggest that these changes in percentage of oleate in adipose tissue lipids may partly have been caused by an effect of sex steroids on the delta-9-desaturase....

  20. A Simple Method to Measure the Thermal contraction Percentage of a Solid Between Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    We described how to build a simple device for measuring, with a reasonable good accuracy, the thermal contraction of a flat sample between room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The contraction percentage of the sample is determined by the dimensional comparison of two images taken through the bottom of a transparent quartz tray. Instead of a photo or video camera, a high-resolution flatbed scanner is utilized to avoid the correction of perspectives. The so-called Grueneisen approximation are applied to evaluate the contraction percentages for intermediate temperatures. (Author) 28 refs.

  1. Effect of the medium's density on the hydrocyclonic separation of waste plastics with different densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shuangcheng; Fang, Yong; Yuan, Huixin; Tan, Wanjiang; Dong, Yiwen

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocyclones can be applied to recycle waste plastics with different densities through separating plastics based on their differences in densities. In the process, the medium density is one of key parameters and the value of the medium's density is not just the average of the density of two kinds of plastics separated. Based on the force analysis and establishing the equation of motion of particles in the hydrocyclone, a formula to calculate the optimum separation medium density has been deduced. This value of the medium's density is a function of various parameters including the diameter, density, radial position and tangential velocity of particles, and viscosity of the medium. Tests on the separation performance of the hydrocyclone has been conducted with PET and PVC particles. The theoretical result appeared to be in good agreement with experimental results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnic density effects for adult mental health: systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Dewey, Michael E; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2017-12-14

    Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016. We obtained additional data from study authors. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis taking into account clustering of estimates within datasets. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity in studies due to ethnicity, country, generation, and area-level deprivation. Our main exposure was ethnic density, defined as the residential concentration of own racial/ethnic minority group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety and the common mental disorders (CMD), suicide, suicidality, psychotic experiences, and psychosis. We included 41 studies in the review, with meta-analysis of 12 studies. In the meta-analyses, we found a large reduction in relative odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-0.89)] and suicidal ideation [OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.98)] for each 10 percentage-point increase in own ethnic density. For CMD, depression, and anxiety, associations were indicative of protective effects of own ethnic density; however, results were not statistically significant. Findings from narrative review were consistent with those of the meta-analysis. The findings support consistent protective ethnic density associations across countries and racial/ethnic minority populations as well as mental health outcomes. This may suggest the importance of the social environment in patterning detrimental mental health outcomes in marginalized and excluded population groups.

  3. Fast response densitometer for measuring liquid density

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Densitometer was developed which produces linear voltage proportional to changes in density of flowing liquid hydrogen. Unit has fast response time and good system stability, statistical variation, and thermal equilibrium. System accuracy is 2 percent of total density span. Basic design may be altered to include measurement of other flowing materials.

  4. Evaluation of four mammographic density measures on HRT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, Marco; Pettersen, Paola; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the relation between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. These studies indicate that women with dense breasts have a four to six fold risk increase. There is currently no gold standard for automatic assessment of mammographic density. In previous work two different automated methods for measuring the effect of HRT w.r.t. changes in breast density have been presented. One is a percentage density based on an adaptive global threshold, and the other is an intensity invariant measure, which provides structural information orthogonal to intensity-based methods. In this article we investigate the ability to detect density changes induced by HRT for these measures and compare to a radiologist's BI-RADS rating and interactive threshold percentage density. In the experiments, two sets of mammograms of 80 patients from a double blind, placebo controlled HRT experiment are used. The p-values for the statistical significance of the separation of density means, for the HRT group and the placebo group at end of study, are 0.2, 0.1, 0.02 and 0.02 for the automatic threshold, BI-RADS, the stripyness and the interactive threshold respectively.

  5. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  6. Variation of body fat percentage with special reference to diet modification in patients with chronic kidney disease: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity causes hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a correlation exists between body fat percentage (BFP of chronic kidney disease (CKD patients and their dietary intake. In this hospital-based, quasi-experimental study, 135 incident cases of CKD were included, of whom 76 completed the study. The patients included were aged 18 years and above and had a body mass index (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m [2] , had CKD of any etiology and serum creatinine of up to 5 mg/dL. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, active hepatitis B or C, malignancy, previous kidney transplantation, current participation in any trial, diabetes mellitus and those who were on dia-lysis were excluded. The study patients were put on a diet of 25-30 kcal/kg/day, with 60% of the calories coming from carbohydrates and 20% each from protein and fat. Assessment was made at baseline (BL and at 12 months (TM for anthropometric parameters, skin-fold thickness, nutri-tional parameters, serum albumin and dietary intake (3-day dietary record and clinical charac-teristics. No significant change was seen in BFP, waist circumference (WC and BMI at BS and at TM. There was significant improvement in serum albumin (P <0.05 and e-GFR (P <0.01 while CRP was elevated both at BL and TM. The dietary intake was within the prescribed limit, with significant improvement in energy intake between BS and TM (P <0.05. The intake of delta dietary protein and fat positively correlated with delta e-GFR (P <0.001. There was a significant association between change in BFP and change in BMI (P <0.005. During follow-up, there was no significant change in biochemical parameters and BFP as well as stage of CKD of the study patients. This study supports the fact that dietary counseling is an important part of treatment in patients with CKD.

  7. Chemical Characteristics of Goat Cheese with Different Percentages of Mixed Indigenous Probiotic Culture during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Setyawardani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the chemical characteristic of goat cheese that used various concentrations of probiotic starter with combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus TW2 and Lactobacillus plantarum TW14 isolates. The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design with a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement. The first factor was the concentration of probiotic starter consisted of 4 lavels i.e., 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% v/v. All probiotic concentrations used the same ratio of L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14, i.e. 1:1. The second factor was the duration of ripening process consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0 (no ripening, 10, 20, and 30 days at 5oC. The observed variables were cheese chemical properties including water content, protein, fat, ash, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, free fatty acids (FFA, and proteolysis profile. The results showed that addition of probiotic starter at a concentration of 5% mixture of L. rhamnosus TW2 and L. plantarum TW14 increased (P<0.01 only on ash content. The duration of ripening process up to 30 d significantly increased (P<0.01 protein and fat. Combination of probiotic starter concentrations and duration of ripening process increased (P<0.01 fat and ash contents. Proteolysis profile showed that protein was degraded into 72 and 52kDa proteins, but no 17kDa protein was found in cheese ripened for 30 d. It is concluded that 30 d duration of ripening at 5oC was the main contributing factor to chemical characteristics of cheese including chemical properties, pH, TTA, FFA, and proteolysis profile of probiotic goat cheese, while the concentration of mixed probiotics affected ash content, TTA and FFA of cheese.

  8. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  9. Density operators in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    A brief discussion and resume of density operator formalism in the way it occurs in modern physics (in quantum optics, quantum statistical physics, quantum theory of radiation) is presented. Particularly we emphasize the projection operator method, application of spectral theorems and superoperators formalism in operator Hilbert spaces (Hilbert-Schmidt type). The paper includes an appendix on direct sums and direct products of spaces and operators, and problems of reducibility for operator class by using the projection operators. (author)

  10. Air shower density spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. R.; Foster, J. M.; Hodson, A. L.; Hazen, W. E.; Hendel, A. Z.; Bull, R. M.

    Results are presented of a measurement of the differential local density spectrum of extensive air showers at sea level using 1 sq m current-limited spark chambers. The 2 cm gap, Ne/He-filled discharge chambers with 6 mm thick 'Georgia-wired' glass faces, were mounted directly on the underside of a light, uniform, sandwich-panel roof. Separate runs with different trigger requirements were made. Low density spectra according to different counting criteria are presented in a graph. Another graph shows a differential local density spectrum. The results of the measurements are compared with previous measurements

  11. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  12. 26 CFR 1.613-6 - Statement to be attached to return when depletion is claimed on percentage basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613-6 Statement to be attached to return when depletion is claimed on percentage basis. In addition to... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Statement to be attached to return when depletion...

  13. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  14. 42 CFR 413.139 - Depreciation: Optional allowance for depreciation based on a percentage of operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is determined. (c) Application. If a provider has inadequate historical cost records for pre-1966... either has no historical cost records or has incomplete records, the determination of historical cost may... based on a percentage of operating costs. 413.139 Section 413.139 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF AREA PERCENTAGE OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STAINING BY TRUE COLOR IMAGE-ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATION OF FIXED THRESHOLDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILLEMSE, F; HENZENLOGMANS, SC; EGGINK, HF

    1994-01-01

    Most image analysis systems (IAS) use black-and-white cameras. However, true color IASs are considered to be useful for quantification of immunohistologically stained structures. Using a true color IAS, we evaluated two methods of segmentation for quantification of area percentage of staining: one

  16. Percentage change in body mass index or gestational weight gain: Which is a better predictor of foetal macrosomia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, I; Kınay, T; Kayıkcıoglu, F; Kahyaoglu, S; Mollamahmutoglu, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate gestational weight gain (GWG) and percentage change in body mass index (BMI) for prediction of foetal macrosomia. A total of 409 term pregnant women, of whom 86 delivered macrosomic infants (> 4000 g) and 323 delivered non-macrosomic infants were recruited for the study. GWG and body mass index at delivery were significantly higher in the macrosomic than non-macrosomic group (15.8 ± 5.6 vs 13.9 ± 5.6, and 31.4 ± 4.3 vs 29.5 ± 4.3, respectively) (p macrosomia showed an area under curve of 0.58 (p = 0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52-0.65), and significance of percentage change in BMI in prediction of macrosomia revealed an area under curve of 0.52 (p = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46-0.59). BMI percentage changes both in obese (BMI ≥ 25) and non-obese (BMI 0.05). BMI percentage change does not seem to be a strong predictor of foetal macrosomia, and GWG was not found to be an independent risk factor after multivariate regression analysis was performed.

  17. Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to examine if increased protein intake vs. control influences body fat percentage during stable body weight. Body composition was assessed before and after a 3-month isoenergetic dietary intervention of 2MJ/d supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual ad libitum energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group (n=12) and an isoenergetic combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group (n=12). Daily protein intake was calculated from a 24h urinary nitrogen. Body composition was measured by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a method that allows for estimation of 4-body compartments (fat and lean; water, bone and rest). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their habitual physical activity. Daily protein intake increased in the protein group during the intervention compared to baseline with +11±14g (Pbody fat percentage showed a significant group×time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of -1.0±1.1% of the protein group vs. 0.1±0.6% of the control group (Pbody fat percentage decreased with unchanged physical activity during 3months of stable body weight. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications.

  19. The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage in the Friesian cattle in the province of Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Shimy, S.A.F.

    1956-01-01

    The heritability of milk yield and fat percentage was calculated of herd-registered cattle in Friesland. The estimates were based on daughter-dam comparisons. Comparisons covered the first three lactations. The average heritability estimates of milk yield within sires, and according to the different

  20. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... issued thereunder, are unique in that they are brought about through group action of essentially small... percent of the raisins were packed and sold directly to consumers. Now, about 63 percent of the raisins... of the raisin grapes were sold fresh to the wine market for crushing. Since then, the percentage of...

  1. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  2. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  3. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  4. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  5. 13 CFR 124.510 - What percentage of work must a Participant perform on an 8(a) contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of work must a Participant perform on an 8(a) contract? 124.510 Section 124.510 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 8(a) BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT/SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS STATUS DETERMINATIONS 8(a) Business Development Contractual Assistance ...

  6. Optimal cutoffs of percentage body fat for predicting obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul-Hyun; Park, Hye Soon; Park, Mira; Kim, Hyeoijin; Kim, Chan

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a major health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular disease. The diagnosis of obesity is crucial to treating and preventing obesity-related medical problems. The objective was to determine optimal percentage body fat cutoffs in Korean adults for predicting obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors. We evaluated the body composition and prevalence of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, in 41,088 Korean adults aged 18-92 y. The optimal percentage body fat cutoffs for Korean adults were determined. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of overweight and obesity were estimated by logistic regression. The first cutoffs in men and women were 17% and 32% body fat, respectively; the second cutoffs were 21% and 37% body fat, respectively. The percentages of obese men and women were 41.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The adjusted OR of at least one risk factor for overweight or obesity in men was 2.22 (95% CI: 2.07, 2.38) or 4.05 (95% CI: 3.78, 4.33). The adjusted OR for women was 1.95 (95% CI: 1.79, 2.07; P disease and its risk factors is higher in Korean men than in Korean women. The cutoffs are useful for providing adequate guidelines for treating and preventing cardiovascular disease. This was the first study to determine cutoffs of percentage body fat for Korean adults.

  7. Denosumab improves density and strength parameters as measured by QCT of the radius in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genant, H K; Engelke, K; Hanley, D A; Brown, J P; Omizo, M; Bone, H G; Kivitz, A J; Fuerst, T; Wang, H; Austin, M; Libanati, C

    2010-07-01

    Bone strength is determined by both cortical and trabecular bone compartments and can be evaluated radiologically through measurement of bone density and geometry. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) separately assesses cortical and trabecular bone reliably at various sites, including the distal radius where there is a gradation of cortical and trabecular bone. We evaluated the effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits RANK ligand, on distal radius QCT in women with low bone mass to assess the impact of this novel therapy separately on trabecular and cortical bone. Postmenopausal women (n=332) with spine areal bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores between -1.0 and -2.5 received denosumab 60 mg or placebo every 6 months during the 24-month study. QCT measurements along the distal radius were made using a whole-body computed tomography scanner and were used to determine the percentage change from baseline in volumetric BMD; volumetric bone mineral content (BMC); cortical thickness; volume; circumference; and density-weighted polar moment of inertia (PMI), a derived index of bone strength. Denosumab treatment significantly increased total BMD and BMC along the radius (proximal, distal, and ultradistal sections). At 24 months, the ultradistal region had the greatest percentage increase in total BMD (4.7% [95% CI, 3.6-5.7]; Pproximal and distal regions were separately assessed, cortical bone had significant (Pradius over 24 months. Additionally, denosumab prevented the decrease in QCT-measured cortical thickness observed in the placebo group. These data extend the evidence from previous dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies for a positive effect of denosumab on both the cortical and trabecular bone compartments and propose a possible mechanism for the reduction in fracture risk achieved with denosumab therapy. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A Antunes; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-11-15

    Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12M in the composition of Na2SiO3 in 1:2vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  10. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Burke, John; McNeill, Graeme; Snow, Aisling; Torreggiani, William C

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications. The five highest impacting general radiology journals (according to the ISI Web of Knowledge database) were selected over a 6-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. Publications were totaled according to the country of the corresponding author. Publications (total and corrected for population size) were assessed according to the GDP of a given country and the percentage of GDP spent on research in that country. Correlation was determined using Spearman's rank. In total, 10,925 papers were identified. The top 10 nations produced 83.9% of the total number of papers. The United States was the most prolific country, with 41.7% of the total. The second-ranked and third-ranked countries were Germany (11.6%) and Japan (6.7%). Corrected for GDP, smaller European countries outperformed larger nations. Switzerland (0.925 publications per billion of GDP), Austria (0.694 publications per billion of GDP), and Belgium (0.648 publications per billion of GDP) produced the most papers per billion of GDP. When corrected for percentage of GDP spent on research, European countries again ranked highest, with Greece, Turkey, and Belgium having the best ratios. The percentage of GDP spent on research was positively correlated with the number of publications in high-ranking radiology journals (r = 0.603, P GDP and the percentage of GDP spent on research may give more meaningful results. When GDP is taken into consideration, smaller European countries are more productive. The importance of investment in radiologic research is emphasized by the association between increased funding of research and the number of publications in high-impacting radiology journals. Copyright (c) 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  12. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  13. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A. Antunes; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M). • Solidification/immobilization (S/I) waste of heavy metals. • Activators: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate (Na 2 SiO 3 ). - Abstract: Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1 wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30 ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12 M in the composition of Na 2 SiO 3 in 1:2 vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%.

  14. Geopolymers with a high percentage of bottom ash for solidification/immobilization of different toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boca Santa, Rozineide A. Antunes, E-mail: roosebs@gmail.com; Soares, Cíntia; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M). • Solidification/immobilization (S/I) waste of heavy metals. • Activators: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}). - Abstract: Geopolymers are produced using alkali-activated aluminosilicates, either as waste or natural material obtained from various sources. This study synthesized geopolymers from bottom ash and metakaolin (BA/M) in a 2:1 wt ratio to test the solidification/immobilization (S/I) properties of heavy metals in geopolymer matrices, since there is very little research using BA in this type of matrices. Therefore, a decision was made to use more than 65% of BA in geopolymer synthesis with and without the addition of heavy metals. The S/I tests with metals used 10, 15 and 30 ml of a waste solution after pickling of printed circuit boards containing metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sn, As and Ni, in different proportions. As alkali activator, the NaOH and KOH were used in the concentrations of 8 and 12 M in the composition of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} in 1:2 vol ratios. To test S/I efficiency, tests were conducted to obtain the leached and solubilized extract. The analysis was carried out through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and compressive strength tests. The geopolymer showed a high degree of S/I of the metals; in some samples, the results reached nearly 100%.

  15. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  16. Population Density Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    194 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke 26 June 2012 Distribution...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2012/194 26 June 2012 POPULATION DENSITY MODELING TOOL by Davy Andrew Michael Knott David Burke...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 26

  17. The local mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  18. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  19. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    High-energy-density capacitors that are compact and light-weight are extremely valuable in a number of critical DoD systems that include portable field equipment, pulsed lasers, detection equipment...

  20. Metabolic and molecular relative percentage coreduction in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Alvarez, Emilio; Carreras, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor-1 (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) stimulate key processes involved in tumour progression and are important targets for cancer therapeutics. 18 F-FDG maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on PET/CT is a marker of tumour metabolic activity. The purpose of this study was to measure percentage reductions in SUVmax (∇SUVmax%), VEGFR-2 (∇VEGFR-2%), EGFR (∇EGFR%) and COX-2 (∇COX-2%) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) after preoperative treatment, and to correlate the changes in these markers of response with pathological response in terms of tumour regression grade (TRG) using Roedel's scale and long-term clinical outcome. VEGFR-2, EGFR and COX-2 were measured using a quantitative and qualitative compound immunohistochemistry analysis (immunoreactive score) of the pretreatment endoscopic biopsy and definitive surgical specimens. Composite indexes using ∇SUVmax% and the three molecules were developed to differentiate patients with metabolic and molecular responses from nonresponders. Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore associations between the tumour markers, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The analysis included 38 patients with a median follow-up of 86 months (range 5 - 113 months). The ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% index correctly identified 13 of 19 pathological responders (TRG 3 and 4) and 17 of 19 nonresponders (TRG 0 - 2) (sensitivity 68 %, specificity 89 %, accuracy 79 %, positive predictive value 87 %, negative predictive value 74 %). In multivariate analysis, only the ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% index was associated with DFS (HR 0.11, p = 0.001) and OS (HR 0.15, p = 0.02). In patients with LARC the ∇VEGFR-2%/∇SUVmax% response index is associated with outcome. Determination of the optimal diagnostic cut-off level for this novel biomarker association should be explored. Evaluation in a clinical trial is

  1. Experimental measurements and prediction of liquid densities for n-alkane mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Estrada, Mariana; Iglesias-Silva, Gustavo A.; Hall, Kenneth R.

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental liquid densities for n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane and their binary mixtures from (273.15 to 363.15) K over the entire composition range (for the mixtures) at atmospheric pressure. A vibrating tube densimeter produces the experimental densities. Also, we present a generalized correlation to predict the liquid densities of n-alkanes and their mixtures. We have combined the principle of congruence with the Tait equation to obtain an equation that uses as variables: temperature, pressure and the equivalent carbon number of the mixture. Also, we present a generalized correlation for the atmospheric liquid densities of n-alkanes. The average absolute percentage deviation of this equation from the literature experimental density values is 0.26%. The Tait equation has an average percentage deviation of 0.15% from experimental density measurements

  2. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Abdullah, R. [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Tajuddin, A. A. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, R. [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, S. [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using {sup 60}Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ{sup 2} value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Z{sub max}.

  3. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, R.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Hashim, R.; Bauk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using 60Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ2 value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Zmax.

  4. Habitat-Based Density Models for Three Cetacean Species off Southern California Illustrate Pronounced Seasonal Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Becker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing marine species effectively requires spatially and temporally explicit knowledge of their density and distribution. Habitat-based density models, a type of species distribution model (SDM that uses habitat covariates to estimate species density and distribution patterns, are increasingly used for marine management and conservation because they provide a tool for assessing potential impacts (e.g., from fishery bycatch, ship strikes, anthropogenic sound over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The abundance and distribution of many pelagic species exhibit substantial seasonal variability, highlighting the importance of predicting density specific to the season of interest. This is particularly true in dynamic regions like the California Current, where significant seasonal shifts in cetacean distribution have been documented at coarse scales. Finer scale (10 km habitat-based density models were previously developed for many cetacean species occurring in this region, but most models were limited to summer/fall. The objectives of our study were two-fold: (1 develop spatially-explicit density estimates for winter/spring to support management applications, and (2 compare model-predicted density and distribution patterns to previously developed summer/fall model results in the context of species ecology. We used a well-established Generalized Additive Modeling framework to develop cetacean SDMs based on 20 California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI shipboard surveys conducted during winter and spring between 2005 and 2015. Models were fit for short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis delphis, Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli, and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae. Model performance was evaluated based on a variety of established metrics, including the percentage of explained deviance, ratios of observed to predicted density, and visual inspection of predicted and observed distributions. Final models were

  5. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  6. Percentage of Patients with Preventable Adverse Drug Reactions and Preventability of Adverse Drug Reactions – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous observational studies suggest that preventable adverse drug reactions are a significant burden in healthcare, but no meta-analysis using a standardised definition for adverse drug reactions exists. The aim of the study was to estimate the percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and the preventability of adverse drug reactions in adult outpatients and inpatients. Methods Studies were identified through searching Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, IPA, Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Science in September 2010, and by hand searching the reference lists of identified papers. Original peer-reviewed research articles in English that defined adverse drug reactions according to WHO’s or similar definition and assessed preventability were included. Disease or treatment specific studies were excluded. Meta-analysis on the percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and the preventability of adverse drug reactions was conducted. Results Data were analysed from 16 original studies on outpatients with 48797 emergency visits or hospital admissions and from 8 studies involving 24128 inpatients. No studies in primary care were identified. Among adult outpatients, 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.2%) had preventable adverse drug reactions and 52% (95% CI: 42–62%) of adverse drug reactions were preventable. Among inpatients, 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1–51%) had preventable adverse drug reactions and 45% (95% CI: 33–58%) of adverse drug reactions were preventable. Conclusions This meta-analysis corroborates that preventable adverse drug reactions are a significant burden to healthcare among adult outpatients. Among both outpatients and inpatients, approximately half of adverse drug reactions are preventable, demonstrating that further evidence on prevention strategies is required. The percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions among inpatients and in primary care is largely unknown and should be

  7. [Total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals from Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Describe the total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals living in Fortaleza/CE. This is a population-based, cross-sectional domiciliary study, which included 458 elderly individuals (66.6% women). The variables evaluated were total energy value (TEV) and the percentage contribution of calories from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The results are shown as mean, standard deviation, and percentile distribution (P5, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P95). The Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) with LSD post-hoc tests were used to determine the statistical significance of means between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. When comparing the mean values of TEV among categories of socioeconomic and demographic variables, statistically significant differences were found between women for ethnicity, years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Among men, differences were found for years of schooling and socioeconomic level. The mean energy value of men's diet was significantly higher than that of women (1475.8 kcal and 1236.4 kcal, respectively). The mean values of calorie percentage contribution from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were similar between men and women. The elderly of this study showed significant differences in mean values of TEV between sexes and between the categories years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Women also showed significant differences between the ethnic categories. The mean relative contribution of macronutrients in TEV was similar between genders and age groups.

  8. BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas that are in conifer land...

  9. BOREAS TE-18 Biomass Density Image of the SSA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas that are in conifer land cover classes...

  10. In Four ACA Expansion States, The Percentage Of Uninsured Hospitalizations For People With HIV Declined, 2012-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Fred J

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the influence of the Affordable Care Act's optional state Medicaid expansion on insurance coverage and health outcomes for hospitalized patients with HIV. I used data from the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for all hospitalizations of patients with HIV from 2012 through the first six months of 2014 in four states that expanded their Medicaid programs and two states that did not. I found that the percentage of hospitalizations of uninsured people with HIV in the four expansion states fell from 13.7 percent to 5.5 percent in the study period, while the percentage in the two nonexpanding states increased from 14.5 percent to 15.7 percent. I also found that hospitalized patients with HIV who did not have insurance were 40 percent more likely to die during their hospital stays than comparable patients with insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Change of CT values (HU) depending on the anode heating percentage of the X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Masayuki; Baba, Hitoshi; Yoshinaka, Masanori

    1998-01-01

    We report fluctuations in CT value (HU) in accordance with the anode heating percentage of the x-ray tube. We measured the CT value after changing the anode heating percentage of the x-ray tube in three CT machines. Our results demonstrated fluctuation in the CT value in the two CT machines that had the beam trimmer in the front of the detector. This fluctuation increased as section thickness decreased. The cause of fluctuation was movement of the focus to the cathode side, because the anode expanded with heat. The movement of the focus caused shading of the x-ray by the beam trimmer, and fluctuation of the x-ray dose to the detector caused fluctuation of the CT value and standard deviation (SD). In order to decrease fluctuation of the CT value, it is necessary to check and adjust the alignment of the x-ray tube, slit, beam trimmer, and detector. (author)

  12. Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153Sm(113,117Snm) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Guanquan; He Jiaheng; Bing Wenzeng; Pu Manfei; Wei Hongyuan; Wang Wenjin

    2004-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153 Sm-NTMP, 153 Sm-HEDTMP, 153 Sm-DCTMP, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-DTPMP, 113,117 Sn m -EDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -HEDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -DTPMP are measured. The results show that there is a linear relationship between the relative magnitude of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and the relative magnitude of the binding percentage to BSA of these 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes. This linear relationship provides a new method for determination of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes of this kind. This linear relationship also implicates that hydrophobic force plays an important role in the binding of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes to BSA

  13. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  14. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 1. The solutes H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, Na2SO4, NaNO3, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl from 0 to 50 °C, including extrapolations to very low temperature and to the pure liquid state, and NaHSO4, NaOH, and NH3 at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    Calculations of the size and density of atmospheric aerosols are complicated by the fact that they can exist at concentrations highly supersaturated with respect to dissolved salts and supercooled with respect to ice. Densities and apparent molar volumes of solutes in aqueous solutions containing the solutes H(2)SO(4), HNO(3), HCl, Na(2)SO(4), NaNO(3), NaCl, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), NH(4)NO(3), and NH(4)Cl have been critically evaluated and represented using fitted equations from 0 to 50 °C or greater and from infinite dilution to concentrations saturated or supersaturated with respect to the dissolved salts. Using extrapolated densities of high-temperature solutions and melts, the relationship between density and concentration is extended to the hypothetical pure liquid solutes. Above a given reference concentration of a few mol kg(-1), it is observed that density increases almost linearly with decreasing temperature, and comparisons with available data below 0 °C suggest that the fitted equations for density can be extrapolated to very low temperatures. As concentration is decreased below the reference concentration, the variation of density with temperature tends to that of water (which decreases as temperature is reduced below 3.98 °C). In this region below the reference concentration, and below 0 °C, densities are calculated using extrapolated apparent molar volumes which are constrained to agree at the reference concentrations with an equation for the directly fitted density. Calculated volume properties agree well with available data at low temperatures, for both concentrated and dilute solutions. Comparisons are made with literature data for temperatures of maximum density. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution are consistent, on a single ion basis, to better than ±0.1 cm(3) mol(-1) from 0 to 50 °C. Volume properties of aqueous NaHSO(4), NaOH, and NH(3) have also been evaluated, at 25 °C only. In part 2 of this work (ref 1 ) an ion interaction (Pitzer

  15. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juntaping, Kanokkarn; Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI) is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF%) is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% i...

  16. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  17. Dressing percentage of meat from crosses of Pirot pramenka and merino landshaf breed as indicator of meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Žujović Miroslav; Josipović Slavko; Tomić Zorica P.; Pavlovski Zlatica; Lukić Miloš; Pavlović Ivan; Ivanović Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Investigations were performed on lambs raised in cooperative farms and farm of ZZ STOCAR in Dimitrovgrad, immediately after the pasture fattening on Stara Planina Mountain in duration of 150 days. By random selection, 30 lambs of each sex were selected from male and female herds consisting of 300 and 200 lambs, respectively, in the second week of October, and were used for investigation of the dressing percentage. Fattening period lasted 240 days. The loss of live weight in transport to slaug...

  18. Higher percentage of CD133+ cells is associated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with stage IIIB

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Bao-Xiu; Liang, Yi; Peng, Rui-Qing; Ding, Ya; Xu, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Shi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer stem cell model suggested that tumor progression is driven by the overpopulation of cancer stem cells and eradicating or inhibiting the symmetric division of cancer stem cells would become the most important therapeutic strategy. However, clinical evidence for this hypothesis is still scarce. To evaluate the overpopulation hypothesis of cancer stem cells the association of percentage of CD133+ tumor cells with clinicopathological parameters in colon cancer was inves...

  19. Investigation of bioactivity, biocompatibility and thermal behavior of sol–gel silica glass containing a high PEG percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Renella, R.A.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Vecchio Ciprioti, S. [Department of Basic and Applied Science for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, Building RM017, I-00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which contain 60 or 70 weight percentage of PEG, were synthesized by the sol–gel technique. The materials were characterized and subjected to various tests to assess their application in the biomedical field. The evaluation of their morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the homogeneity of the samples on the nanometer scale. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds. This feature makes them class I hybrids. Simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) was used to investigate their thermal behavior and to establish the best temperatures for their pre-treatment. The fundamental properties that a material must have to be used in the biomedical field are biocompatibility and bioactivity. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid. This indicates that the materials are able to bond to bone tissue. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity tests highlight that the cell viability is affected by the polymer percentage. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. Therefore, the results obtained are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at high PEG percentage • Chemical, thermal and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Biological characterizations with WST-8 cytotoxicity tests • Bioactivity characterizations of hybrid materials with high PEG percentage.

  20. Parietal scalp is another affected area in female pattern hair loss: an analysis of hair density and hair diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojhirunsakool S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Poonkiat Suchonwanit Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common hair disease. However, studies of the quantitative measurement of FPHL are still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of hair density and hair diameter in normal women and FPHL patients, and further correlate the quantitative measurement with the clinical presentation of FPHL.Patients and methods: An evaluation of 471 FPHL patients and 236 normal women was carried out according to the Ludwig classification, and analysis was performed by using a computerized handheld USB camera with computer-assisted software. Various areas of the scalp, including frontal, parietal, midscalp, and occipital, were analyzed for hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair.Results: The hair density in normal women was the highest and the lowest in the midscalp and parietal areas, respectively. The FPHL group revealed the lowest hair density in the parietal area. Significant differences in hair density, non-vellus hair diameter, and percentage of miniaturized hair between the normal and FPHL groups were observed, especially in the midscalp and parietal areas.Conclusion: The parietal area is another important affected area in FPHL in addition to the midscalp area. This finding provides novel important information of FPHL and will be useful for hair transplant surgeons choosing the optimal donor sites for hair transplantation in women. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, alopecia, phototrichogram, miniaturization

  1. [Authorization of pathologists for the estimation of the tumor cell percentage on tissue sample for molecular analysis purpose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquain, Alexandra; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Bedgedjian, Isabelle; Felix, Sophie; Harimenshi, Jean-Marie; Mihai, Ionela-Marcela; Monnien, Franck; Singeorzan, Cristina; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2016-08-01

    Before molecular analysis is performed, morphological control with an estimation of the tumour cell percentage (%TC) could have a major impact on mutation detection. Accreditation according to NF EN ISO 15189 commands an authorization through evaluation of skills. The objective of this work was to validate the empowerment of pathologists to estimate %TC in tissue sample prior to molecular analysis. The accreditation technical guidance methods in Medical biology and histopathology were taken as references. %TC was the ratio of tumour cell nuclei on all nuclei within the area selected for the DNA extraction. External evaluations quality scores were used for accuracy. In order to assess the intermediate precision, 35 %TC estimation were performed 15 days apart in 4 samples (biopsies, transparietal biopsies or surgical specimen, either fixed or frozen) by 7 pathologists. Three other cases with interference (inflammation, mucus, necrosis) were evaluated. A result was satisfactory if %TC were within ±20 % of expected percentage obtained by the average of 35 estimates. The performances were satisfactory since no estimate was made more than 20 % of the expected percentage. Low interpathologists reproducibility has been reported in the literature and can have a consequence on molecular analysis in samples with low %TC, where the value reach the analytical sensitivity thresholds of molecular techniques. The current report is an example of a step of the accreditation process, which is a challenge for pathologists' activity in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and covering percentage of sponge (Porifera in different coral reef condition and depth in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARYANTO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, four specieses of sponge namely Auletta sp., Callyspongia pseudoreticulata, Callyspongia sp., and Halichondria sp. have been potentially identified as bacteriside for fishery commodities. Nevertheless, information on sponge distribution, its covering percentage, and its habitate are still very little. Observation on distribution and abundance of sponge was conducted in the Southeastern and the Northwestern part of Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi, using scuba diving set and under water writting tools. At first, coral reef condition in 3 and 10 m depths up to 100 m length of shore line were observed in both stations, using “lifeform method”. Then distribution and covering percentage of sponge, biotic and abiotic factor in 3, 6, 9, and 12 m depths in both stations were examined using “square transect method”. The result showed that different coral reef condition qualitatively causes different of sponge species distribution, but quantitatively not significantly different (P>0,05 on its covering percentage. It was also found that generally sponge grows better at the dead coral where no other biotic organism around.

  3. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  4. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  5. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Effects of Artemisin and Moringa oleifera Extract Combination on CD4+ and CD8+ Percentage of Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Fio Flora BR. Sijabat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of Artemisin and Moringa oleifera leaf extract combination on the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell of mice infected with P.berghei. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have important role in eliminating Plasmodium intracellular parasite that causes malaria infection. Artemisin is a potent antimalarial that kills the parasite through free radicals production. Excessive free radicals damage the immune cells, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Flavonoid (quercetin and kaempferol bioactive on Moringa leaves is a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and is expected to prevent and decrease the adverse effects of Artemisin. This experimental post-test group research was conducted on six groups, i.e. normal mice (negative control, P.berghei infected mice without treatment (positive control, and four other groups, i.e. P.berghei infected mice and treated with Artemisin 0.004mg/gBW (A, and combinations of Artemisin 0.004mg/gBW and Moringa leaf extract 0.125mg/gBW (DK1, 0.250mg/gBW (DK2, and 0.500mg/gBW (DK3. On day 3 and 7, blood samples from each group were drawn randomly, parasitemia degree was calculated microscopically (magnification 1000 times, the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was determined using flowcytometry. The results of this study indicated that the administration of Artemisin and Moringa leaf extract combination for 7 days significant increased the percentage of CD4 + T cells in DK2 (p=0.001 and DK3 (p=0.000, and decreased the degree of parasitemia in DK1 (p=0.000, DK2 (p=0.000, and DK3 (p=0.000, however CD8 + T cells show no difference. There was a relationship between Artemisin and Moringa leaf extract combination with the degree of parasitemia (p=0.000 and the percentage of CD4+ T cells (p = 0.000, but not on CD8+ T cells.   Keywords: parasitemia, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, Moringa oleifera

  7. The Effect of Freezing Stress on Percentage of Electrolytes Leakage and Survival of Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi-Darbandi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L. is a medicinal plant from Brassicaceae family which also known as a weed for winter cereals and oil seed rape. Low temperatures are one of the most important abiotic stresses that threat Flixweed growth and productivity. Therefore it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of Flixweed for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Iran’s north. east. Among many laboratory methods which have been developed to estimate and to evaluate plants response or their tolerance to freez¬ing temperatures, electrolyte leakage (EL test is widely used. This test is based on this principle that damage to the cell membranes results in enhanced leakage of solutes into the apoplastic water, hence recording the amount of leakage after stress treatments provides an estimation of tissue injury. Indeed continuing integration of plasma membrane is one important factor for survival of plants under freezing stress and any disturbance in membrane structure can lead to damage and death. So determination of LT50 point or critical temperature for electrolytes leakage and survival of plant is the most reliable, quantitative and simple methods for evaluating the cold tolerance of plants. The aim of this trial was to determine the LT50 according to the EL and SU% for Flixweed ecotypes. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance in Flixweed, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Experimental factors included five ecotypes of Flixweed (Eghlid, Sabzewar, Hamedan, Torbat-e-Jam and Neyshabour and 10 freezing temperature levels (0, -2,-4, -6, -8,-10,-12,-14,-16 and -18°C. Flixweed seeds were cultivated in pots in autumn of 2008 and were grown until 5-7 leaf stage under natural weather conditions for acclimation. Then to apply freezing

  8. Role of melt percentage on characteristics of Al-Zn-Mg/3 wt.% Al2O3 nanostructured composite modified through semi-solid thermomechanical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizamani, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Mostafa; Alizadeh, Ali; Jenabali-Jahromi, Seyed Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    A thermomechanical processing (TMP) method was employed to modify the characteristics of Al-Zn-Mg/3 wt% Al2O3 composite including the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The composite powders were subsequently cold pressed at 115 MPa and solid state sintered at 550 °C for 90 min under argon atmosphere. The TMP was then performed on the samples consisting of an additional cold pressing at 250 MPa followed by a partial remelting stage in the semi-solid state for 30 min under argon atmosphere. Four different temperatures corresponding to four percentages of melt content were chosen to apply in the TMP to study the role of the melt content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the modified samples. The observations obtained from the characterizations and mechanical tests showed that drastic alteration in the solid sintered microstructure occurred by reducing the porosity level and creating a solidified network as grain boundaries. However, with increasing the melt percentage up to 20%, decreasing the average grain diameter along with increasing the microhardness and compressive strength was observed.

  9. Density in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  10. density functional theory (DFT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present investigation, interaction of ruthenium (Ru) atoms with fluorine (F) atoms was studied using the density functional theory utilizing B3LYP method. It was found that up to seven F atoms can bind to a single Ru atom which results in increase of electron affinities successively, reaching a peak value of ...

  11. Multicomponent density functional theory embedding formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpitt, Tanner; Brorsen, Kurt R; Pak, Michael V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2016-07-28

    Multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) methods have been developed to treat two types of particles, such as electrons and nuclei, quantum mechanically at the same level. In the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) approach, all electrons and select nuclei, typically key protons, are treated quantum mechanically. For multicomponent DFT methods developed within the NEO framework, electron-proton correlation functionals based on explicitly correlated wavefunctions have been designed and used in conjunction with well-established electronic exchange-correlation functionals. Herein a general theory for multicomponent embedded DFT is developed to enable the accurate treatment of larger systems. In the general theory, the total electronic density is separated into two subsystem densities, denoted as regular and special, and different electron-proton correlation functionals are used for these two electronic densities. In the specific implementation, the special electron density is defined in terms of spatially localized Kohn-Sham electronic orbitals, and electron-proton correlation is included only for the special electron density. The electron-proton correlation functional depends on only the special electron density and the proton density, whereas the electronic exchange-correlation functional depends on the total electronic density. This scheme includes the essential electron-proton correlation, which is a relatively local effect, as well as the electronic exchange-correlation for the entire system. This multicomponent DFT-in-DFT embedding theory is applied to the HCN and FHF(-) molecules in conjunction with two different electron-proton correlation functionals and three different electronic exchange-correlation functionals. The results illustrate that this approach provides qualitatively accurate nuclear densities in a computationally tractable manner. The general theory is also easily extended to other types of partitioning schemes for multicomponent systems.

  12. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  13. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  14. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  15. Radiologist assessment of breast density by BI-RADS categories versus fully automated volumetric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju

    2013-09-01

    The objective of our study was to estimate mammographic breast density using a fully automated volumetric breast density measurement method in comparison with BI-RADS breast density categories determined by radiologists. A total of 791 full-field digital mammography examinations with standard views were evaluated by three blinded radiologists as BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For fully automated volumetric analysis, volumetric breast density was calculated with fully automated software. The volume of fibroglandular tissue, the volume of the breast, and the volumetric percentage density were provided. The weighted overall kappa was 0.48 (moderate agreement) for the three radiologists' estimates of BI-RADS density. Pairwise comparisons of the radiologists' measurements of BI-RADS density revealed moderate to substantial agreement, with kappa values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64. There was a significant difference in mean volumetric breast density among the BI-RADS density categories, and the mean volumetric breast density increased as the BI-RADS density category increased (pBI-RADS categories and fully automated volumetric breast density (ρ=0.765, pBI-RADS density categories. Mammographic density assessment with the fully automated volumetric method may be used to assign BI-RADS density categories.

  16. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Elshenawy; Salah Soliman; Ahmed Hawass

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  17. Influence of Hamstring Fatigue on the Estimated Percentage of Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers for the Vastus Lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jacob A; Stock, Matt S; Carrillo, Elias C; Olinghouse, Kendra D; Drusch, Alexander S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-12-01

    A previous study has demonstrated the ability to roughly estimate the percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers for the vastus lateralis through the analysis of peak torque values during fatiguing isokinetic testing. We examined whether use of the hamstrings influenced peak torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses for the quadriceps during fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions. On 2 separate occasions, 21 men (mean age = 23 years) performed 50 repeated, maximal concentric isokinetic muscle actions of the left leg extensors at a velocity of 180°·s. For 1 trial, the subjects maximally flexed the knee joint after each full extension to bring the dynamometer's lever arm back to the starting position. For the other trial, the subjects relaxed after each maximal extension and an investigator assisted in returning the lever arm. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris throughout testing. Dependent variables that assessed the decline in peak torque and EMG mean frequency for the vastus lateralis were examined using dependent samples t-tests, effect size statistics, and the number of subjects who exceeded the minimal difference needed to be considered real. Our results showed small mean differences between the trials (Cohen's d ≤0.136). For the estimated percentage of fast-twitch fibers, none of the subjects showed a difference between trials that we considered meaningful. The mean estimated percentages of fast-twitch fibers were 61.6 and 60.1. Collectively, use of the hamstrings during fatiguing isokinetic testing of the quadriceps had little influence on peak torque and EMG.

  18. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  19. Influence of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk fat percentage and fatty acid profiles in Romanian holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tăbăran, A; Balteanu, V A; Gal, E; Pusta, D; Mihaiu, R; Dan, S D; Tăbăran, A F; Mihaiu, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are considered the main sources of saturated fatty acids, which are a valuable source of nutrients in the human diet. Fat composition can be adjusted through guided nutrition of dairy animals but also through selective breeding. Recently, a dinucleotide substitution located in the exon 8 of the gene coding for acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), that alters the amino acid sequence from a lysine to an alanine (p.Lys232Ala) in the mature protein, was shown to have a strong effect on milk fat content in some cattle breeds. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of the DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism in Romanian Holstein cattle and Romanian Buffalo breeds and to further investigate its possible influence on fat percentage and fatty acid profiles. The results obtained in this study show that in Romanian Holstein cattle the K allele is associated with increased fat percentage and higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) was also higher in KK homozygous individuals, whereas the fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 decreased. The DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism revealed a high genetic variance for fat percentage, unsaturated C18, C16:0, and SFA/UFA. Although the effect of this polymorphism was not so evident for short chain fatty acids such as C4:0-C8:0, it was significant for C14:0 fatty acids. We concluded that selective breeding of carriers of the A allele in Romanian Holsteins can contribute to improvement in unsaturated fatty acids content of milk. However, in buffalo, the lack of the A allele makes selection inapplicable because only the K allele, associated with higher saturated fatty acids contents in milk, was identified.

  20. Percentages of NKT cells in the tissues of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszniak, Maria; Rybojad, Paweł; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Jabłonka, Andrzej; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are involved in the antitumor response by direct cytotoxicity and indirectly through activation of effector cells. Recent studies have shown a relationship between the number and function of NKT cells and clinical outcomes. NKT cells seem to represent a promising tool for immunotherapy of cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of NKT cells in peripheral blood, lymph nodes and tumor tissue of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as development of the most efficient set of cytokines stimulating differentiation of NKT cells. We evaluated the percentage of iNKT+CD3+ cells in the tissues collected from patients with NSCLC. For the generation of NKT cells, we cultured cells isolated from the blood of 20 healthy donors and from the tissues of 4 NSCLC patients. Cells were stimulated with α-GalCer in combinations with cytokines. We noted significant differences in the percentages of NKT cells in the patients' tissues. The highest percentage of these cells was observed in the tumor tissue and the lowest in the lymph nodes. In vitro, in healthy donors all α-GalCer-cytokine combinations were effective in stimulation of NKT cells' proliferation. NKT cells' proliferation was the most efficiently stimulated by α-GalCer+IL-2+IL-7 and α-GalCer+IL-2+IFN-γ. Our results suggest that in the course of NSCLC, NKT cells migrate to the primary tumor and accumulate therein. All tested combinations of α-GalCer and cytokines were capable of generation of NKT cells in vitro.

  1. Symptoms of stress and depression effect percentage of body fat and insulin resistance in healthy youth: LOOK longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Lisa S; Telford, Rohan M; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Telford, Richard D

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of both psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms on insulin resistance and percentage body fat in a cohort of healthy Australian children, following them from childhood into adolescence. Participants were 791 healthy, initially Grade 2 children (7-8 years; 394 girls), selected from the general community. Psychosocial stress was assessed using the Children's Stress Questionnaire, while depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory. Fasting blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose were collected to calculate the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Other measurements were height, weight, percentage body fat (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (pedometers), and pubertal maturation (Tanner score). Boys who reported more symptoms of depression had higher insulin resistance, irrespective of adiposity (p = .016); and longitudinally, we found a trend for boys who developed more depressive symptoms to develop higher insulin resistance (p = .073). These findings did not extend to girls. Furthermore, boys and girls with higher depressive symptoms had a higher percentage of body fat (p = .011 and .020, respectively); and longitudinally, boys whose depressive symptoms increased became fatter (p = .046). Our data provide evidence that early symptoms of depression increase insulin resistance, independent of adiposity. Our evidence that early symptoms of depression may lead to overweight, and obesity provides further reason to suggest that early attention to children with depression, even in preclinical stages, may reduce risk of chronic disease in later life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. High density, low open porosity magnesia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alecu, I.D.; Stead, R.J. [Rojan Advanced Ceramics Pty Ltd, Osborne Park, WA (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Many modern high-tech applications require magnesia ceramic components with high bulk densities and very low apparent porosities. Quite commonly, bulk densities above 3500 kg.m{sup -3} and open porosities close to zero are specified for such applications of magnesia ceramics. The paper presents the recent achievements of Rojan Advanced Ceramics in the field of high density, very low open porosity magnesia ceramic materials and special products, including labware and planar components. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society 4 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. The Challenge of Evaluating the Intensity of Short Actions in Soccer: A New Methodological Approach Using Percentage Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonderegger, Karin; Tschopp, Markus; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    There are several approaches to quantifying physical load in team sports using positional data. Distances in different speed zones are most commonly used. Recent studies have used acceleration data in addition in order to take short intense actions into account. However, the fact that acceleration decreases with increasing initial running speed is ignored and therefore introduces a bias. The aim of our study was to develop a new methodological approach that removes this bias. For this purpose, percentage acceleration was calculated as the ratio of the maximal acceleration of the action (amax,action) and the maximal voluntary acceleration (amax) that can be achieved for a particular initial running speed (percentage acceleration [%] = amax,action / amax * 100). To define amax, seventy-two highly trained junior male soccer players (17.1 ± 0.6 years) completed maximal sprints from standing and three different constant initial running speeds (vinit; trotting: ~6.0 km·h-1; jogging: ~10.8 km·h-1; running: ~15.0 km·h-1). The amax was 6.01 ± 0.55 from a standing start, 4.33 ± 0.40 from trotting, 3.20 ± 0.49 from jogging and 2.29 ± 0.34 m·s-2 from running. The amax correlated significantly with vinit (r = -0.98) and the linear regression equation of highly-trained junior soccer players was: amax = -0.23 * vinit + 5.99. Using linear regression analysis, we propose to classify high-intensity actions as accelerations >75% of the amax, corresponding to acceleration values for our population of >4.51 initiated from standing, >3.25 from trotting, >2.40 from jogging, and >1.72 m·s-2 from running. The use of percentage acceleration avoids the bias of underestimating actions with high and overestimating actions with low initial running speed. Furthermore, percentage acceleration allows determining individual intensity thresholds that are specific for one population or one single player.

  4. The Challenge of Evaluating the Intensity of Short Actions in Soccer: A New Methodological Approach Using Percentage Acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Sonderegger

    Full Text Available There are several approaches to quantifying physical load in team sports using positional data. Distances in different speed zones are most commonly used. Recent studies have used acceleration data in addition in order to take short intense actions into account. However, the fact that acceleration decreases with increasing initial running speed is ignored and therefore introduces a bias. The aim of our study was to develop a new methodological approach that removes this bias. For this purpose, percentage acceleration was calculated as the ratio of the maximal acceleration of the action (amax,action and the maximal voluntary acceleration (amax that can be achieved for a particular initial running speed (percentage acceleration [%] = amax,action / amax * 100.To define amax, seventy-two highly trained junior male soccer players (17.1 ± 0.6 years completed maximal sprints from standing and three different constant initial running speeds (vinit; trotting: ~6.0 km·h-1; jogging: ~10.8 km·h-1; running: ~15.0 km·h-1.The amax was 6.01 ± 0.55 from a standing start, 4.33 ± 0.40 from trotting, 3.20 ± 0.49 from jogging and 2.29 ± 0.34 m·s-2 from running. The amax correlated significantly with vinit (r = -0.98 and the linear regression equation of highly-trained junior soccer players was: amax = -0.23 * vinit + 5.99.Using linear regression analysis, we propose to classify high-intensity actions as accelerations >75% of the amax, corresponding to acceleration values for our population of >4.51 initiated from standing, >3.25 from trotting, >2.40 from jogging, and >1.72 m·s-2 from running. The use of percentage acceleration avoids the bias of underestimating actions with high and overestimating actions with low initial running speed. Furthermore, percentage acceleration allows determining individual intensity thresholds that are specific for one population or one single player.

  5. Quantitative structure activity relationship model for predicting the depletion percentage of skin allergic chemical substances of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongzong; Wang Tao; Zhang Kejun; Duan Yunbo; Yuan Shuping; Fu Aiping; Hu Zhide

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative model was developed to predict the depletion percentage of glutathione (DPG) compounds by gene expression programming (GEP). Each kind of compound was represented by several calculated structural descriptors involving constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical features of compounds. The GEP method produced a nonlinear and five-descriptor quantitative model with a mean error and a correlation coefficient of 10.52 and 0.94 for the training set, 22.80 and 0.85 for the test set, respectively. It is shown that the GEP predicted results are in good agreement with experimental ones, better than those of the heuristic method

  6. Density-dependent and density-independent mortality of the western corn rootworm: impact on dose calculations of rootworm-resistant Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; Meihls, Lisa N; Ellersieck, Mark R; Onstad, David W

    2010-02-01

    The percentage of viable eggs of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, which survived to the adult stage was evaluated for the effect of egg density in 2005 and 2007 in central Missouri. In 2005, each plot was 2.44 by 3.05 m and contained 64 maize (corn), Zea mays L., plants. In 2007, plots were 3.05 by 3.05 m and again contained 64 corn plants. Seven egg densities (2,400, 1,200, 600, 300, 100, 50, and 25 viable eggs per 30.5 cm) were evaluated with four to six replications in each year in a completely randomized design. In 2007 only, an additional row was infested near each plot to evaluate plant damage. In both years, there was no correlation of infestation level and percentage of emergence between infestation levels of 25-600 viable eggs per 30.5 cm, indicating that density-dependent mortality did not occur at these egg densities. In 2005, 8.04% of the viable eggs established on a corn plant and produced an adult at these lower infestation rates. In 2007, this value was 2.9%. Regardless of egg density, approximately 92-97% failed to establish and produce adults (density-independent mortality). In 2005 and in the combined analysis, as viable egg densities increased from 600 to 2400 per 30.5 cm there was a significant decrease in percentage of emergence. In a broken line analysis of the 2005 data, the point where density-dependent mortality began in the combined analysis was 851 eggs per 30.5 cm with a 95% confidence interval from 678 to 1024. That year density-dependent mortality was important at high infestations and killed 54.4% of those larvae that successfully established on a plant at the highest egg density. However, little or no density-dependent mortality occurred at infestation levels corn rootworm.

  7. Asymptotic density and effective negligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, Eric P.

    In this thesis, we join the study of asymptotic computability, a project attempting to capture the idea that an algorithm might work correctly in all but a vanishing fraction of cases. In collaboration with Hirschfeldt and Jockusch, broadening the original investigation of Jockusch and Schupp, we introduce dense computation, the weakest notion of asymptotic computability (requiring only that the correct answer is produced on a set of density 1), and effective dense computation, where every computation halts with either the correct answer or (on a set of density 0) a symbol denoting uncertainty. A few results make more precise the relationship between these notions and work already done with Jockusch and Schupp's original definitions of coarse and generic computability. For all four types of asymptotic computation, including generic computation, we demonstrate that non-trivial upper cones have measure 0, building on recent work of Hirschfeldt, Jockusch, Kuyper, and Schupp in which they establish this for coarse computation. Their result transfers to yield a minimal pair for relative coarse computation; we generalize their method and extract a similar result for relative dense computation (and thus for its corresponding reducibility). However, all of these notions of near-computation treat a set as negligible iff it has asymptotic density 0. Noting that this definition is not computably invariant, this produces some failures of intuition and a break with standard expectations in computability theory. For instance, as shown by Hamkins and Miasnikov, the halting problem is (in some formulations) effectively densely computable, even in polynomial time---yet this result appears fragile, as indicated by Rybalov. In independent work, we respond to this by strengthening the approach of Jockusch and Schupp to avoid such phenomena; specifically, we introduce a new notion of intrinsic asymptotic density, invariant under computable permutation, with rich relations to both

  8. Physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat in 0.5 million adults: the China Kadoorie Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; Bennett, Derrick; Li, Liming; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Bian, Zheng; Hong, Lai-San; Feng, Shixian; Chen, Xiaofang; Chen, Lingli; Zhou, Renxian; Mao, Enke; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-03-01

    Few large studies in China have investigated total physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity. We investigated determinants of physical activity and sedentary leisure time and their associations with adiposity in China. A total of 466,605 generally healthy participants (age: 30-79 y, 60% female) in the China Kadoorie Biobank were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Self-reported information on a range of activities was collected by interviewer-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as metabolic equivalent task hours per day (MET-h/d) spent on work, transportation, housework, and nonsedentary recreation. Sedentary leisure time was quantified as hours per day. Adiposity measures included BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat (by bioimpedance analysis). Associations were estimated by linear and logistic regression. The mean physical activity was 22 MET-h/d, and the mean sedentary leisure time was 3.0 h/d. For each sex, physical activity was about one-third lower among professionals/administrators than among factory workers, with intermediate levels for other occupational categories. A 1-SD (14 MET-h/d) greater physical activity was associated with a 0.15-unit (95% CI: 0.14, 0.16) lower BMI (in kg/m(2)), a 0.58-cm (95% CI: 0.55, 0.61) smaller waist circumference, and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.50) percentage points less body fat. In contrast, a 1-SD (1.5 h/d) greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a 0.19-unit higher BMI (95% CI: 0.18, 0.20), a 0.57-cm larger waist circumference (95% CI: 0.54, 0.59), and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.46) percentage points more body fat. For any given physical activity level, greater sedentary leisure time was associated with a greater prevalence of increased BMI, as was lower physical activity for any given sedentary leisure time. In adult Chinese, physical activity varies substantially by occupation, and lack of physical activity and excess sedentary

  9. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...... rates. It also measures the success rate of grasps chosen to maximize the probability of success given reaching constraints....

  10. Inflammation biomarkers in blood as mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia admitted patients: Importance of comparison with neutrophil count percentage or neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Curbelo

    Full Text Available The increase and persistence of inflammation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP patients can lead to higher mortality. Biomarkers capable of measuring this inadequate inflammatory response are likely candidates to be related with a bad outcome. We investigated the association between concentrations of several inflammatory markers and mortality of CAP patients.This was a prospective study of hospitalised CAP patients in a Spanish university hospital. Blood tests upon admittance and in the early-stage evolution (72-120 hours were carried out, where C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, proadrenomedullin, copeptin, white blood cell, Lymphocyte Count Percentage (LCP, Neutrophil Count Percentage (NCP and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR were measured. The outcome variable was mortality at 30 and 90 days. Statistical analysis included logistic regression, ROC analysis and area-under-curve test.154 hospitalised CAP patients were included. Patients who died during follow-up had higher levels of procalcitonin, copeptin, proadrenomedullin, lower levels of LCP, and higher of NCP and NLR. Remarkably, multivariate analysis showed a relationship between NCP and mortality, regardless of age, severity of CAP and comorbidities. AUC analysis showed that NLR and NCP at admittance and during early-stage evolution achieved a good diagnostic power. ROC test for NCP and NLR were similar to those of the novel serum biomarkers analysed.NLR and NCP, are promising candidate predictors of mortality for hospitalised CAP patients, and both are cheaper, easier to perform, and at least as reliable as the new serum biomarkers. Future implementation of new biomarkers would require comparison not only with classic inflammatory parameters like White Blood Cell count but also with NLR and NCP.

  11. Dietary energy density is positively associated with body composition of adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xue, Hong-Mei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Quan, Li-Ming; Gong, Yun-Hui; Cheng, Guo

    2018-02-20

    Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults. We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Southwest China. Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013. After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (Pcomposition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (Pcomposition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.

  12. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio

    2017-09-21

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ± 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% was measured by BIA-BF% and by BAI-BF%. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BAI-BF% and BF% assessed by BIA-BF%, while controlling for potential confounders. The concordance between the BF% measured by both methods was obtained with a paired sample t -test, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. Overall, the correlation between BF% obtained by BIA-BF% and estimated by BAI-BF% was r = 0.885, p adults with overweight/obesity, the BAI presents low agreement with BF% measured by BIA-BF%; therefore, we conclude that BIA-BF% is not accurate in either sex when body fat percentage levels are low or high. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings in different ethnic groups.

  13. The percentage of affected fragments in needle biopsy in the assessment of pathological staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rógerson Tenorio de Andrade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has high prevalence and mortality among men. Some of the findings on prostate biopsy may be related to the prognosis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the percentage of fragments affected by cancer in the prostate biopsy and the pathological staging in the surgical specimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Selected 159 patients underwent radical prostatectomy (RP between 2003 and 2009. Data was collected on age, digital rectal exam, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, Gleason score, number of biopsy fragments, number of fragments affected by tumor, and tumor extension in the surgical specimen. Statistical analysis with Student's t-test, chi-squared test, and multiple logistic regression evaluated the association of percentage of affected fragments (PAF with tumor extension and its predictive value. RESULTS: The patients mean age and PSA were respectively 64 years and 8.5 ng/ml. Histopathologic evaluation of surgical specimens revealed 20.8% of patients with extraprostatic disease, 8.2% with seminal vesicle invasion and 35.8% with positive margins. We found that patients with extraprostatic disease, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion had a higher mean PAF. PAF was divided into three groups: less than 34%, 34% to 50%, and greater than 50%, and the higher the PFA, the larger the increase in pathological changes. CONCLUSION: PAF in biopsy is a simple and practical parameter, which should be used as a predictor of pathological stage in RP specimen.

  14. Influence of Ce addition on biomedical porous Ti-51 atomic percentage (at. %) Ni shape memory alloy fabricated by microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mustafa K.; Hamzah, E.; Saud, Safaa N.; Nazim, E. M.; Bahador, A.

    2017-12-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Ce shape memory alloys (SMAs) were successfully fabricated by microwave sintering. The improvement of the mechanical properties especially the elastic modulus is the most important criterion in this research. The high elastic modulus problems are the most critical issues frequently encountered in hard tissue replacement applications. The effect of Ce addition with four atomic percentages (0 %, 0.19 %, 0.385 % and, 1.165 %) on the microstructure, phase composition, transformation temperatures and mechanical properties was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and compression test. The microstructure shows plates-like with needles-like inside the titanium-rich region. The compression strain was improved, but reduces the compression strength. The addition of cerium improved the properties by reducing the elastic modulus to be very close to the natural human bone, also the microwave sintering gives TiNi SMAs with low elastic modulus comparing with other methods. Based on the results, the 0.385 at. % Ce exhibited a remarkable highest compressive strain and lower elastic modulus compared with the other percentages. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-Ni-Ce SMAs could be a potential alternative to improve Ti-51 at %Ni SMAs for certain biomedical applications.

  15. Hierarchical structure of the European countries based on debts as a percentage of GDP during the 2000-2011 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    We investigate hierarchical structures of the European countries by using debt as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the countries as they change over a certain period of time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on debt as a percentage of GDP of European countries over the period 2000-2011 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). This period is also divided into two sub-periods related to 2004 enlargement of the European Union, namely 2000-2004 and 2005-2011, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. The bootstrap techniques is applied to see a value of statistical reliability of the links of the MSTs and HTs. The clustering linkage procedure is also used to observe the cluster structure more clearly. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their level of debts. Our results show that by the debt crisis, the less and most affected Eurozone’s economies are formed as a cluster with each other in the MSTs and hierarchical trees.

  16. Evalouating the effects of saline irrigation water and genotypes on chamazulene percentage of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Chamazulene is an important chamomile essential oil compound. Growth and development, performance, and the quality and quantity of the active ingredients of medicinal plants vary in different climatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the percentage of chamazulene of three genotypes under different levels of salinity.  Methods: This experiment was done in the field of agriculture and natural resources research center of the split plot in a randomized complete block design with three repeated and two factor salt and genotype was performed during the 2012-2013. The main factor consisted salinity levels control, 6, 9 and 12 ds/m and subfactor genotypes of Isfahan, Ahvaz and Shiraz. The essence was extracted by steam distillation method, then the percentage of chamazulene was measured using a spectrophotometer apparatus at a wavelength of 603 nm. Results: In the genotype of Isfahan which was native to the region, the highest amount of chamazulene was observed under the influence of all treatments, and the Ahvaz genotype, which did not have enough adaptation to the region, showed the least amount of this effective ingredient than the other two genotypes.Conclusion: The quality and quantity of chamomile essential oils are genetically controlled as other medicinal plants, but the climatic factors and the interaction between the plant and the environmental conditions also affect this trait. The amount of chamazulene in chamomile herb increased under salinity conditions which were in line with the results of this study.

  17. Whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis of allostery: A large percentage of a protein can contribute to mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingling; Fenton, Aron W

    2017-09-01

    Many studies of allosteric mechanisms use limited numbers of mutations to test whether residues play "key" roles. However, if a large percentage of the protein contributes to allosteric function, mutating any residue would have a high probability of modifying allostery. Thus, a predicted mechanism that is dependent on only a few residues could erroneously appear to be supported. We used whole-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis to determine which amino acid sidechains of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK; approved symbol PKLR) contribute to regulation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP; activator) and alanine (inhibitor). Each nonalanine/nonglycine residue of hL-PYK was mutated to alanine to generate 431 mutant proteins. Allosteric functions in active proteins were quantified by following substrate affinity over a concentration range of effectors. Results show that different residues contribute to the two allosteric functions. Only a small fraction of mutated residues perturbed inhibition by alanine. In contrast, a large percentage of mutated residues influenced activation by Fru-1,6-BP; inhibition by alanine is not simply the reverse of activation by Fru-1,6-BP. Moreover, the results show that Fru-1,6-BP activation would be extremely difficult to elucidate using a limited number of mutations. Additionally, this large mutational data set will be useful to train and test computational algorithms aiming to predict allosteric mechanisms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bioelectrical impedance for measuring percentage body fat in young persons with Down syndrome: validation with dual-energy absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Sarah J; Thompson, John M D; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2012-11-01

    Children with Down syndrome have an increased prevalence of obesity, although there is little work describing body composition in this population. The aims of this study were to accurately measure body fat in children with Down syndrome and to identify which existing algorithm best predicts percentage body fat in this population. Seventy children with Down syndrome had anthropometric, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data collected to calculate percentage body fat (PBF). Pearson correlations were carried out to assess the relationships of various methods for measuring body fat and Bland-Altman plots to assess systematic error. Mean PBF was 30.5% for girls and 22.5% for boys. A total of 38% of girls and 23% of boys were obese according to international criteria. PBF as determined by DXA correlated well with PBF by BIA in both girls and boys (r = 0.91 and 0.89, respectively, p obesity in children with Down syndrome. BIA can be used to accurately determine adiposity in this population. We recommend the use of the Schaeffer algorithm for calculation of PBF in children with Down syndrome. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  19. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influence of phantom size on output, peak scatter factor, and percentage depth dose in large-field photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, C.; Evans, M.D.C.; Pla, M.

    1985-01-01

    Machine outputs, peak scatter factors, and central axis percentage depth dose distributions were measured for various phantom sizes in large radiation fields produced at extended distances by cobalt, 6-MV, and 10-MV photon beams. The results can be applied to practical total body irradiation procedures which usually involve treatment volumes smaller than the actual field sizes in order to provide a uniform total body exposure to radiation. Our study addresses the question of the appropriate phantom dimension to be used in the calibration of photon beams employed in total body irradiations. The measurements show that the machine outputs are only slightly dependent on phantom size; the percentage depth dose distributions, however, are strongly dependent on the phantom size, suggesting that machine data for total body irradiations should be measured in phantoms whose dimensions approximate the patient during the total body irradiation. Peak scatter factors measured in large-field/small-phantom configurations link up well with the published small-field/large-phantom data. The finite patient thickness lowers the dose to points close to the beam exit surface by a few percent, when compared to dose measured at the same depths in infinitely thick phantoms. The surface doses in large radiation fields are essentially independent of phantom cross sections and range from 40% for the 10-MV beam, to 65% for the 6-MV beam and 80% for the cobalt beam

  1. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  2. Influence of lifestyle factors on mammographic density in postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Brand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Apart from hormone replacement therapy (HRT, little is known about lifestyle factors that influence breast density. METHODS: We examined the effect of smoking, alcohol and physical activity on mammographic density in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women without breast cancer. Lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire and percentage and area measures of mammographic density were measured using computer-assisted software. General linear models were used to assess the association between lifestyle factors and mammographic density and effect modification by body mass index (BMI and HRT was studied. RESULTS: Overall, alcohol intake was positively associated with percent mammographic density (P trend  = 0.07. This association was modified by HRT use (P interaction  = 0.06: increasing alcohol intake was associated with increasing percent density in current HRT users (P trend  = 0.01 but not in non-current users (P trend  = 0.82. A similar interaction between alcohol and HRT was found for the absolute dense area, with a positive association being present in current HRT users only (P interaction  = 0.04. No differences in mammographic density were observed across categories of smoking and physical activity, neither overall nor in stratified analyses by BMI and HRT use. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with an increase in mammography density, whereas smoking and physical activity do not seem to influence density. The observed interaction between alcohol and HRT may pose an opportunity for HRT users to lower their mammographic density and breast cancer risk.

  3. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  4. Measurement of loose powder density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Ali, A.; Haider, A.; Farooque, M.

    2011-01-01

    Powder metallurgy is a conventional technique for making engineering articles from powders. Main objective is to produce final products with the highest possible uniform density, which depends on the initial loose powder characteristics. Producing, handling, characterizing and compacting materials in loose powder form are part of the manufacturing processes. Density of loose metallic or ceramic powder is an important parameter for die design. Loose powder density is required for calculating the exact mass of powder to fill the die cavity for producing intended green density of the powder compact. To fulfill this requirement of powder metallurgical processing, a loose powder density meter as per ASTM standards is designed and fabricated for measurement of density. The density of free flowing metallic powders can be determined using Hall flow meter funnel and density cup of 25 cm/sup 3/ volume. Density of metal powders like cobalt, manganese, spherical bronze and pure iron is measured and results are obtained with 99.9% accuracy. (author)

  5. The maximum percentage of fly ash to replace part of original Portland cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallisa, Harun; Turuallo, Gidion

    2017-11-01

    This research investigates the maximum percent of fly ash to replace part of Orginal Portland Cement (OPC) in producing high strength concrete. Many researchers have found that the incorporation of industrial by-products such as fly ash as in producing concrete can improve properties in both fresh and hardened state of concrete. The water-binder ratio was used 0.30. The used sand was medium sand with the maximum size of coarse aggregate was 20 mm. The cement was Type I, which was Bosowa Cement produced by PT Bosowa. The percentages of fly ash to the total of a binder, which were used in this research, were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%; while the super platicizer used was typed Naptha 511P. The results showed that the replacement cement up to 25 % of the total weight of binder resulted compressive strength higher than the minimum strength at one day of high-strength concrete.

  6. The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid  by  Streptococus  thermophillus and Lactobacillus  bulgaricus. Yoghurt  was  made from  skim milk 10 percent  inoculated  with  Streptococus  thermophillus and  Lactobacillus  bulgaricus different number  and  percentage.  The  research  was conducted  in a completely  randomzed design factorial  pattern  3 x 4.  The  first  factor was  different (R) of  Strepcocus  thermophillus and Lacto...

  7. [Association between the percentages of typical forms, acrosome abnormalities and the multiple anomalies indices: potential quality indicators?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudat, Antoine; Lecourbe, Karine; Joyeux, Claudine; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    In addition to NF EN ISO 15189, the second version of "GBEA AMP", published in the official journal of the French Republic, had set for "AMP" exams, the actions to be implemented in order to achieve an efficient quality management system. As part of continuous improvement of quality, and besides our external and internal quality systems, we have been developping indicators that will allow an early detection of potential drifts within operators performing sperm morphology testing. We have extracted nearly 1900 sperm morphology tests from our database. These tests were performed by three operators. The analysis of the data collected has shown a cross correlation between the percentages of typical forms, malformative acrosomes and "MAI". We have been using these correlations as quality indicators in our laboratory in order to highlight any potential drift in reading sperm morphology tests.

  8. Mammographic density measurements are not affected by mammography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damases, Christine N; Brennan, Patrick C; McEntee, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a significant risk factor for breast cancer and has been shown to reduce the sensitivity of mammography screening. Knowledge of a woman's density can be used to predict her risk of developing breast cancer and personalize her imaging pathway. However, measurement of breast density has proven to be troublesome with wide variations in density recorded using radiologists' visual Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS). Several automated methods for assessing breast density have been proposed, each with their own source of measurement error. The use of differing mammographic imaging systems further complicates MD measurement, especially for the same women imaged over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether having a mammogram on differing manufacturer's equipment affects a woman's MD measurement. Raw mammographic images were acquired on two mammography imaging systems (General Electric and Hologic) one year apart and processed using VolparaDensity™ to obtain the Volpara Density Grade (VDG) and average volumetric breast density percentage (AvBD%). Visual BIRADS scores were also obtained from 20 expert readers. BIRADS scores for both systems showed strong positive correlation ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), while the VDG ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) and AvBD% ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]) showed stronger positive correlations. Substantial agreement was shown between the systems for BIRADS ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]), however, the systems demonstrated an almost perfect agreement for VDG ([Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text]).

  9. Annual Screening Mammogram and its Relation to Breast Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabek EAS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current national screening programs totally depend on mammographic evaluation. After increased incidence of breast cancer in women under the age of 35, mammography sensitivity in now a question. Several factors added to decrease sensitivity of mammography, such as increased density in older age groups and increased aggressiveness of tumour biology. All these factors will change the reliability of the screening program. The study is a retrospective study conducted at Ain Shams University. Method: 138 patients diagnosed with cancer breast underwent both mammography and sonography to determine percentage of patient with more than one focus, age and density distribution breast cancer in the affected patient and accuracy of both mammography and US. Results: By studying this population, we found that around 61,44% have areas of density ranging from dense breast, heterogenous density or scattered density. These areas of density render the mammography a less sensitive tool as its sensitivity fall to 34.09%, while that of US was 77.27%. Conclusion: As breast cancer is prevalent in younger population, also with increased density in older population who are relatively insensitive to mammography, we recommended the use of Automated Breast Ultrasound (ABUS in the national screening program.

  10. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  11. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  12. Evaluation of intracellular anion superoxide level, heat shock protein A2 and protamine positive spermatozoa percentages in teratoasthenozoospermia

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    Parvin Sabeti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teratoasthenozoospermia (TA is a severe form of male infertility with no clear etiology. Objective: To compare the level of intracellular anion superoxide (O2–, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 and protamine deficiencies in ejaculated spermatozoa between teratoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men. Materials and Methods: In this case- control study, semen samples of 20 infertile men, with TA (with normal morphology lower than 4%_ and total motility lower than 40% as the case group and 20 normozoospermic fertile men as the control group were evaluated for intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 by flow cytometry and protamine deficiency by Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 test. Results: The rate of CMA3+ spermatozoa in the case group was higher than controls (p=0.001. The percentages of HSPA2+ spermatozoa in the cases were significantly lower than controls (p=0.001. Also, intracellular O2 – levels in the case group were significantly higher than controls (p=0.001 and had positive correlations with sperm apoptosis (r=0.79, p=0.01 and CMA3 positive sperm (r=0.76, p=0.01, but negative correlations with normal morphology (r=-0.81, p=0.01 and motility (r=-0.81, p=0.01. There was no significant correlation between intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 in the case group (r=0.041, p=0.79. Conclusion: We suggest that the increase in intracellular O2 –, decrease in spermatozoa HSPA2+, and high percentages of spermatozoa with immature chromatin might be considered as etiologies of infertility in TA patients

  13. A Nation-Wide Study on the Percentage of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Patients Who Earn Minimum Wage or Above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael; Kapara, Ori; Goldberg, Shira; Yoffe, Rinat; Noy, Shlomo; Weiser, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Although it is undisputable that patients with severe mental illness have impaired ability to work, the extent of this is unclear. This is a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of patients who have been hospitalized with severe mental illness earning minimum wage or above. Data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry were linked with nation-wide data from the National Insurance Institute (the equivalent of US Social Security) on personal income. Hospitalization data were obtained on all consecutive admissions to any psychiatric hospital in the country between 1990-2008 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder (N = 35 673). Earning minimum wage or more was defined as earning at least 1000 USD/month, which was equivalent to minimum wage in Israel in December 2010. The percentages of patients with only 1 admission who were earning minimum wage or above in December 2010 were as follows: 10.6% of patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia; 21.6% of patients with a diagnosis of nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 24.2% of patients with bipolar disorder. The percentages of patients with multiple admissions who were earning minimum wage or above were as follows: 5.8% of patients with schizophrenia; 11.2% of patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders; and 19.9% of patients with bipolar disorder. Despite potential confounders, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia, nonaffective psychotic disorders, or bipolar disorder have a poor employment outcome, even if they have only been admitted once. These results emphasize the importance of improving interventions to re-integrate these individuals into the work force. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Combine body mass index and body fat percentage measures to improve the accuracy of obesity screening in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng

    Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal and spatial distribution of bacterial biomass and the percentage of viable cells in a reservoir of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, T.E.; Wetzel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial community dynamics of bacterioplankton were evaluated along the length of the former stream channel of Elledge Lake, a small reservoir in western Alabama. The reservoir was strongly stratified from April to October with up to a 10??C temperature difference across the 1 m deep metalimnion. Bacterial biomass was highest during late summer, with a general pattern of increasing abundance from the inflowing river (???10 ??g C l-1) to the dam (???20-30 ??g C l-1). Bacterial numbers also increased following a >10-fold increase in turbidity associated with a major precipitation event, although only ???10% of these cells were viable. The percentage of viable cells generally increased through the stratified period with 50-70% viable cells in late summer. Overall, an average of 38% of bacterial cells were viable, with a range from <20 to 70%. Although these values were similar to those found by others, additional patterns were identified that have not been previously observed: a marked decline in viable cells was found following turbid storm inflows and increases in the percentage of viable cells occurred during spring warming and following autumnal mixing events. Although a modest increase in abundance occurred along the gradient from inflow down-reservoir to the dam, bacterial abundance did not increase near the dam in a pattern coincident with the commonly observed increased algal biomass in the lacustrine portion of reservoir ecosystems. The increases observed in bacterial viability moving from the inflowing rivers towards the dam and later in stratified periods stress the importance of differences in environmental conditions in time and space in regulating bacterial biomass and development, as well as of shifts that would be anticipated accompanying altered hydrological regimes under climatic change.

  16. Differential percentage of serum prostate-specific antigen subforms suggests a new way to improve prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrats, Ariadna; Comet, Josep; Tabarés, Glòria; Ramírez, Manel; Aleixandre, R Núria; de Llorens, Rafael; Peracaula, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the tumor marker currently used for prostate cancer (PCa) screening and diagnosis. However, its use is controversial as serum PSA levels are also increased in other non-malignant prostatic diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PSA sialic acid content is altered in tumor situation and modifies PSA's isoelectric point (pI). Our goal has been to evaluate serum PSA subforms from PCa and BPH patients by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and to investigate whether they could be used to improve PCa diagnosis. PSA from 20 PCa and 20 BPH patients' sera was subjected to a four-step method to obtain serum PSA 2-DE subforms from free PSA (fPSA) plus PSA released from the complex with alpha-1-antichymotrypsin. Relative percentages of PSA spots were quantified and subjected to statistical analysis. Five PSA subforms (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) of different pI were obtained. Relative percentages of F3 (%F3) and F4 (%F4) were different between PCa and BPH groups. %F3 decreased in cancers and this decrease correlated with the cancer stage, while F4 behaved oppositely. These observations were also found when only focusing on the patients within the low total PSA (tPSA) range 2-20 ng/ml. %F3 showed a tendency of higher sensitivity and specificity than the currently used tPSA and %fPSA tests. Therefore, %F3 measurement should be investigated in a larger cohort of patients to study whether it could be introduced to improve PCa diagnosis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  18. Relative contribution of flap thickness and ablation depth to the percentage of tissue altered in ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Smajda, David; Wilson, Steven E; Randleman, J Bradley

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the contribution of flap thickness and ablation depth to the percentage of tissue altered (PTA) (flap thickness plus ablation depth divided by central corneal thickness) in determining the risk for ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, and Emory Vision at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Retrospective comparative study. The study included 1 group of eyes with bilateral normal preoperative topography that developed ectasia after LASIK (ectasia group) and 2 control groups of eyes that did not develop ectasia after LASIK, 1 with 40% or more of tissue altered (high-PTA group) and 1 with flaps 120 μm or thicker (thick-flap group). The 29 eyes (16 patients) in the ectasia group had thicker flaps (146 μm) than the 24 eyes (20 patients) in the high-PTA group (118 μm) and derived a higher portion of PTA from flap thickness. The ectasia group had a higher PTA (45%) than the 100 eyes (50 patients) in the thick-flap group (34%) and greater ablation depths (94 μm versus 43 μm) and derived a higher portion of the PTA from ablation depth. Flap thickness had more impact than ablation depth; however, thicker flaps were insufficient to create ectasia unless coupled with greater ablation depths and thus a high PTA. This percentage was a more significant factor than the variables it comprised. Drs. Santhiago and Smadja are consultants to Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ability of new octapolar bioimpedance spectroscopy analyzers to predict 4-component-model percentage body fat in Hispanic, black, and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Ann L; Holmes, Jason C; Desautels, Richard L; Edmonds, Lyndsay B; Nuudi, Laura

    2008-02-01

    New, vertical, 8-electrode bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) analyzers provide detailed body-composition and nutritional information within 2 min. This is the first report on BIS's accuracy in predicting relative fatness [percentage body fat (%BF)] in a heterogeneous sample according to a multicomponent model criterion. We compared %BF measurements from 2 BIS devices with those from a multicomponent model in a sample of Hispanic, black, and white adults. Equal numbers of apparently healthy men and women (n = 75 of each) from each racial-ethnic group, diverse in body mass index and age, volunteered. Reference %BF (%BF(4C)) was computed by using a 4-component (4C) model with total bone mineral content obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, body density from underwater weighing with measured residual lung volume, and total body water from traditional BIS. Estimations from InBody 720 (%BF(720)) and InBody 320 (%BF(320)) BIS analyzers were validated against %BF(4C). The %BF(720) (r = 0.85, SEE = 5.19%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.84, SEE = 5.17%BF) correlations were significant (P < 0.05) in the men; main effects were nonsignificant. Correlations for %BF(720) (r = 0.88, SEE = 4.85%BF) and %BF(320) (r = 0.89, SEE = 4.82%BF) also were significant in the women (P < 0.05); there was a main effect for method but not race-ethnicity. There were no sex-specific overestimations or underestimations at the extremes of the distributions. BIS estimates of %BF(4C) were well correlated in men and women. There were no significant methodologic differences in the men. The %BF(4C) was significantly underestimated by %BF(720) and %BF(320) in the women.

  20. On holographic entanglement density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushterov, Nikola I.; O'Bannon, Andy; Rodgers, Ronnie

    2017-10-01

    We use holographic duality to study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Conformal Field Theories (CFTs) in various spacetime dimensions d, in the presence of various deformations: a relevant Lorentz scalar operator with constant source, a temperature T , a chemical potential μ, a marginal Lorentz scalar operator with source linear in a spatial coordinate, and a circle-compactified spatial direction. We consider EE between a strip or sphere sub-region and the rest of the system, and define the "entanglement density" (ED) as the change in EE due to the deformation, divided by the sub-region's volume. Using the deformed CFTs above, we show how the ED's dependence on the strip width or sphere radius, L, is useful for characterizing states of matter. For example, the ED's small- L behavior is determined either by the dimension of the perturbing operator or by the first law of EE. For Lorentz-invariant renormalization group (RG) flows between CFTs, the "area theorem" states that the coefficient of the EE's area law term must be larger in the UV than in the IR. In these cases the ED must therefore approach zero from below as L→∞. However, when Lorentz symmetry is broken and the IR fixed point has different scaling from the UV, we find that the ED often approaches the thermal entropy density from above, indicating area theorem violation.

  1. Gluon density in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab

  2. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  3. Female high-school varsity athletics: an opportunity to improve bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth A

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated whether moderate, organized physical activity during high school has a positive residual effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in 30-35-year-old females. Seventy-three female former high-school varsity athletes and 67 self-reported low-activity age-matched controls completed a collegiate women's health survey and participated in a one-time clinical visit with bone scan. Lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD, total hip BMD, percentage body fat, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of osteoporosis, college alcohol consumption, number of high school varsity seasons, as well as current nutritional intake (including calcium), number of weekly weight training sessions, and caloric expenditure were assessed. Using a saturated linear regression model, current percentage body fat and number of high school seasons predicted 22% of the observed variation in total hip BMD and 25% of the observed variation of lumbar (L1-L4) spine BMD (Pschool athletes were more likely to be frequent adult exercisers (PAthletic participants were more likely to have denser hip and spine bones than low-activity controls. Results suggest that participation in high school athletics is associated with greater BMD. Additionally, the varsity athletes continued to exercise frequently in their early 30s.

  4. An observational study of agreement between percentage pain reduction calculated from visual analog or numerical rating scales versus that reported by parturients during labor epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratici, E; Nebout, S; Merbai, N; Filippova, J; Hajage, D; Keita, H

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction, derived from visual analog or numerical rating scales, and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in patients having labor epidural analgesia. In a prospective observational study, parturients were asked to rate their pain intensity on a visual analog scale and numerical rating scale, before and 30min after initiation of epidural analgesia. The percentage pain reduction 30min after epidural analgesia was calculated by the formula: 100×(score before epidural analgesia-score 30min after epidural analgesia)/score before epidural analgesia. To evaluate agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction, we computed the concordance correlation coefficient and performed Bland-Altman analysis. Ninety-seven women in labor were enrolled in the study, most of whom were nulliparous, with a singleton fetus and in spontaneous labor. The concordance correlation coefficient with patient-reported percentage pain reduction was 0.76 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.8) for the visual analog and numerical rating scale, respectively. The Bland-Altman mean difference between calculated percentage pain reduction and patient-reported percentage pain reduction for the visual analog and numerical rating scales was -2.0% (limits of agreement at 29.8%) and 0 (limits of agreement at 28.2%), respectively. The agreement between calculated percentage pain reduction from a visual analog or numerical rating scale and patient-reported percentage pain reduction in the context of labor epidural analgesia was moderate. The difference could range up to 30%. Patient-reported percentage pain reduction has advantages as a measurement tool for assessing pain management for childbirth but differences compared with other assessment methods should be taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside ionosphere established

  6. Hormonal Determinants of Mammographic Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jennifer K; Modugno, Francemary; Weissfeld, Joel L; Kuller, Lewis; Vogel, Victor; Constantino, Joseph P

    2005-01-01

    .... However, not all women on HRT will experience an increase in breast density. We propose a novel hypothesis to explain in part the individual variability in breast density seen among women on HRT...

  7. 26 CFR 1.280F-3T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit when the business use percentage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit when the business use percentage of listed property is not greater than 50 percent... recovery deductions and the investment tax credit when the business use percentage of listed property is... limitations with respect to the amount allowable as an investment tax credit under section 46(a) and the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.613A-1 - Post-1974 limitations on percentage depletion in case of oil and gas wells; general rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.613A-1 Post-1974 limitations on percentage depletion in case of oil and gas wells; general... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Post-1974 limitations on percentage depletion in...

  9. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure calculations have a crucial importance in the multi-scale modelling scheme of materials: not only do they enable one to accurately determine physical and chemical properties of materials, they also provide data for the adjustment of parameters (or potentials) in higher-scale methods such as classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, cluster dynamics, etc. Most of the properties of a solid depend on the behaviour of its electrons, and in order to model or predict them it is necessary to have an accurate method to compute the electronic structure. DFT is based on quantum theory and does not make use of any adjustable or empirical parameter: the only input data are the atomic number of the constituent atoms and some initial structural information. The complicated many-body problem of interacting electrons is replaced by an equivalent single electron problem, in which each electron is moving in an effective potential. DFT has been successfully applied to the determination of structural or dynamical properties (lattice structure, charge density, magnetisation, phonon spectra, etc.) of a wide variety of solids. Its efficiency was acknowledged by the attribution of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 to one of its authors, Walter Kohn. A particular attention is given in this chapter to the ability of DFT to model the physical properties of nuclear materials such as actinide compounds. The specificities of the 5f electrons of actinides will be presented, i.e., their more or less high degree of localisation around the nuclei and correlations. The limitations of the DFT to treat the strong 5f correlations are one of the main issues for the DFT modelling of nuclear fuels. Various methods that exist to better treat strongly correlated materials will finally be presented. (author)

  10. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  11. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  12. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  13. Genome-wide association of coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, protein percentage, and acidity in milk from Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-05-01

    Cheese production is increasing in many countries, and a desire toward genetic selection for milk coagulation properties in dairy cattle breeding exists. However, measurements of individual cheesemaking properties are hampered by high costs and labor, whereas traditional single-point milk coagulation properties (MCP) are sometimes criticized. Nevertheless, new modeling of the entire curd firmness and syneresis process (CFt equation) offers new insight into the cheesemaking process. Moreover, identification of genomic regions regulating milk cheesemaking properties might enhance direct selection of individuals in breeding programs based on cheese ability rather than related milk components. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies to identify genomic regions linked to traditional MCP and new CFt parameters, milk acidity (pH), and milk protein percentage. Milk and DNA samples from 1,043 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Milk pH and 3 MCP traits were grouped together to represent the MCP set. Four CFt equation parameters, 2 derived traits, and protein percentage were considered as the second group of traits (CFt set). Animals were genotyped with the Illumina SNP50 BeadChip v.2 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Multitrait animal models were used to estimate variance components. For genome-wide association studies, the genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control approach was used. In total, 106 significant marker traits associations and 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified on 12 chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 26, and 28). Sharp peaks were detected at 84 to 88 Mbp on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, with a peak at 87.4 Mbp in the region harboring the casein genes. Evidence of quantitative trait loci at 82.6 and 88.4 Mbp on the same chromosome was found. All chromosomes but BTA6, BTA11, and BTA28 were associated with only one trait. Only BTA6 was in common between MCP

  14. Ficoll-400 density gradient method as an effective sperm preparation technique for assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Hyacinth N; Rishika, A Sharma; Almira, S Shaikh; Kanthi, P Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Infertility being a burning issue, the male itself contributes about 40% as a cause, as evident by statistical data. However, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has emerged as a powerful tool in the management of infertility. Sperm preparation techniques govern the selection procedure to separate functional spermatozoa which can then be used in IUI, IVF, and ART and for cryopreservation. The present study was aimed at evaluation of sperm preparation techniques for reliability, performance and to determine the most effective, feasible and economical technique. The subjects under study includes males with normal proven fertility (n=40) and the males with unexplained infertility (n=40). Four sperm separation techniques, viz., Swim-up, Swim-down, Sucrose and Ficoll-400 density gradient techniques were evaluated for their efficacy in separation of good quality fraction of spermatozoa. Sperm viability, morphology and maturation status of spermatozoa were taken as evaluation parameters following the standard methods (WHO 2010). Data was analyzed using student's t -test and the four selected techniques were compared with the normal semen samples for scoring the efficiency of the techniques. Out of the several techniques used, Ficoll-400 was found to be more efficient method for separation of spermatozoa. The percentage of change in each parameter was calculated and taken as the index for recovery of potent sperm from the original sperm. Ficoll-400 density gradient yielded higher percentage of live, mature, morphologically normal spermatozoa in an isolated fraction as compared to other three techniques. It was observed that a combination of Ficoll-400 gradient separation with Swim-up technique could give quality spermatozoa which in-turn would directly have an impact on the success of IVF and other ART techniques.

  15. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  16. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  17. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole helps to decrease the percentage of patients with off-target trough serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea, Jesús; Escribano, Pilar; Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Peláez, Teresa; Kestler, Marta; Muñoz, Patricia; Vena, Antonio; López-Fabal, Fátima; Bouza, Emilio

    2016-05-01

    We monitored trough voriconazole serum concentrations from 107 patients (n = 258 samples) at 6 hospitals in Madrid. Most of the patients were male (67%) and had the following underlying conditions: hematological cancer (42%), solid organ transplantation (15%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14%), human immunodeficiency virus infection (8.4%), solid cancer (5.6%), and other (29%). The indication for voriconazole administration was aspergillosis treatment (74.6%) and prophylaxis (14%). The main reasons for voriconazole trough drug monitoring were initiation of treatment/prophylaxis (33%), patient monitoring (47%), and suspected toxicity (3.5%). Levels (μg/ml) were subtherapeutic (5.5; 10.5%). The samples percentage with on-target levels was significantly lower for the first sample than for subsequent samples (62.6% vs. 77.5%). "Subsequent samples," "admission in nonpediatric wards," "voriconazole used for treatment of invasive aspergillosis," and "use of proton pump inhibitors" were predictors of voriconazole therapeutic levels (≥1 μg/ml). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Proteomics method to quantify the percentage of cow, goat, and sheep milks in raw materials for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  1. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a) the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b) the relationship between body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF) and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year) and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min-1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test (SAR), handgrip strength test (HST) and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ). Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28) of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7) of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027). BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs. PMID:23900100

  2. Coverage percentage and raman measurement of cross-tile and scaffold cross-tile based DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Ahn, Sang Jung; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Jang Ah; Amin, Rashid; Mitta, Sekhar Babu; Vellampatti, Srivithya; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Yun, Kyusik; LaBean, Thomas H; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-11-01

    We present two free-solution annealed DNA nanostructures consisting of either cross-tile CT1 or CT2. The proposed nanostructures exhibit two distinct structural morphologies, with one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes for CT1 and 2D nanolattices for CT2. When we perform mica-assisted growth annealing with CT1, a dramatic dimensional change occurs where the 1D nanotubes transform into 2D nanolattices due to the presence of the substrate. We assessed the coverage percentage of the 2D nanolattices grown on the mica substrate with CT1 and CT2 as a function of the concentration of the DNA monomer. Furthermore, we fabricated a scaffold cross-tile (SCT), which is a new design of a modified cross-tile that consists of four four-arm junctions with a square aspect ratio. For SCT, eight oligonucleotides are designed in such a way that adjacent strands with sticky ends can produce continuous arms in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The SCT was fabricated via free-solution annealing, and self-assembled SCT produces 2D nanolattices with periodic square cavities. All structures were observed via atomic force microscopy. Finally, we fabricated divalent nickel ion (Ni(2+))- and trivalent dysprosium ion (Dy(3+))-modified 2D nanolattices constructed with CT2 on a quartz substrate, and the ion coordinations were examined via Raman spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  4. The development and validation of new equations for estimating body fat percentage among Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Qi; Sun, Liang; Zong, Geng; Lu, Ling; Liu, Gang; Rosner, Bernard; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2015-05-14

    Equations based on simple anthropometric measurements to predict body fat percentage (BF%) are lacking in Chinese population with increasing prevalence of obesity and related abnormalities. We aimed to develop and validate BF% equations in two independent population-based samples of Chinese men and women. The equations were developed among 960 Chinese Hans living in Shanghai (age 46.2 (SD 5.3) years; 36.7% male) using a stepwise linear regression and were subsequently validated in 1150 Shanghai residents (58.7 (SD 6.0) years; 41.7% male; 99% Chinese Hans, 1% Chinese minorities). The associations of equation-derived BF% with changes of 6-year cardiometabolic outcomes and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated in a sub-cohort of 780 Chinese, compared with BF% measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; BF%-DXA). Sex-specific equations were established with age, BMI and waist circumference as independent variables. The BF% calculated using new sex-specific equations (BF%-CSS) were in reasonable agreement with BF%-DXA (mean difference: 0.08 (2 SD 6.64) %, P= 0.606 in men; 0.45 (2 SD 6.88) %, Pequations might be used as surrogates for DXA to estimate BF% among adult Chinese. More studies are needed to evaluate the application of our equations in different populations.

  5. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZiMian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Chen, Zhao; Zhu, Shankuan; Pierson, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated RST value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the RST concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA RST values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA RST value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body 40K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the RST values. The DXA RST values were strongly associated with the RST values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat. PMID:20393230

  6. [The percentage of regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and the correlations with clinical prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Pang, Nannan; Guo, Xinhong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Xiaona; Qu, Jianhua

    2013-12-01

    To explore the percentage of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and the correlations with clinical prognosis. The study enrolled 30 healthy individuals and 28 CLL patients. The CD4(+);CD25(+); Treg and CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg were detected by the flow cytometry in their peripheral blood. Of the 28 CLL patients, 19 received treatment and follow-up. The number of CD4(+);CD25(+); Treg in the pre-treated cases (n = 28) was higher than that in the healthy controls (n = 30) with significant statistical difference (P < 0.05). The number of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg was higher in the pre-treated cases (n = 28) than that in the treated cases (n = 19) and in the healthy controls (n = 30) (P < 0.05). Compared with the healthy controls, the treated cases (n = 19) had the higher level of CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg (P < 0.05). The CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg was positively correlated with the expressions of CD38, β2-microglobulin (β(2);-MG), zeta-associated protein 70(ZAP-70) and the clinical Binet and Rai stages. The CD4(+);CD25(+);Foxp3(+); Treg might be a valuable indicator for assessing the therapeutic efficacy, disease progression and prognosis of the CLL patients.

  7. How Critical is Patient Positioning in Radiographic Assessment of the Hip in Cerebral Palsy When Measuring Migration Percentage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Katie; Campbell, Donald M; Maclean, James G B; Read, Heather S; Barker, Simon L; Robb, James E; Gaston, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Migration percentage (MP) is an accepted method of assessing lateral displacement of the femoral head in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Difficulty in positioning of patients for pelvic radiography remains a concern for the reliability of the MP. This 2-part quantitative study examined 100 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs for children with CP. Fifty were from a region that had a positioning protocol for hip surveillance of children with CP and 50 images were from a region without. Images were assessed for acceptability of position in relation to hip abduction/adduction and/or pelvic rotation.Ten images deemed Acceptable or Borderline from the region with no protocol were then randomly selected. MP was measured on 2 separate occasions by 5 children's orthopaedic surgeons and statistically analyzed for intrarater and interrater reliability. There was no statistically significant difference in the acceptability of images between the 2 regions with 60% to 66% of the images meeting the criteria outright. When allowances were made for slight variation of abduction/adduction within 5 degrees, 74% to 80% of the images were acceptable.Reliability was variable with limits of agreement between 4.96% and 15.15%. Observers more familiar with the software measuring package had higher reliability within and between occasions. Variability within and between observers decreased as MP increased. Poor positioning did not appear to be the main reason for the variation in reliability of MP. Repeat measurements were reliable although standardized technique, training, and familiarity with software measuring programmes did influence outcomes.

  8. Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Yield, Yield Components and Protein Percentages of Chickpea Cultivars in Ilam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maleki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of supplementary irrigation on yield, yield components and protein percentages of three cultivars of chickpea an experiment carried out as split plot, based on randomized complete blocks design, with three replications in Ilam, in 2009-2010 growing season. Irrigation treatments were: control, without irrigation (I0, irrigation at the stage of %50 blooming, irrigation at the stage of %50 flowering, irrigation at the stage of pods filling, which were allocated to main plots and genotypes, ILC482, Filip93-93 and local variety to sub plots. Irrigation treatments had significantly effect on seed and biological yields, harvest index, pod numbers per plant, seed numbers per pod and 100 seed weight. The Filip93-93 produced highest (1140.51 kg/ha and the local variety lowest seed yields (1056.98 kg/ha.Irrigation at the stage of pod filling and blooming increased by seed yield %41.3 and %29.3 respectively as  compared to control .Irrigation at the pod filling period produced the highest seed yield. The Filip93-93 produced highest yield (1263.31 kg/ha when the field irrigated at pod filling stage and the local variety at control treatment (without irrigation the lowest seed yield (893.26 kg/ha.

  9. Relationship between percentages of heart rate reserve and oxygen uptake reserve during cycling and running: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Giovanna C; Farinatti, Paulo T V; Midgley, Adrian W; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Vigário, Patrícia; Cunha, Felipe A

    2017-06-22

    The present study investigated the relationship between percentages of heart rate reserve (%HRR) and oxygen uptake reserve (%VO2R) during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and discrete bouts of isocaloric cycling and treadmill running. Thirty men visited the laboratory three times for anthropometrical and resting VO2 assessments, and perform cycling and running CPETs. Ten men visited the laboratory twice more to investigate the validity of the %HRR-%VO2R relationships during isocaloric bouts of cycling and running at 75% VO2R with energy expenditures of 400 kcals. The %HRR was significantly higher than the %VO2R during both CPETs at all exercise intensities (P cycling and running, respectively (P = 0.007 to P cycling and running, respectively; however, observed VO2 was lower than predicted during all quartiles for cycling, and the first quartile for running. Consequently, time to achieve the target energy expenditure was greater than predicted (P cycling and running. Additionally, power outputs and speeds defined by the ACSM equations for cycling and running, respectively, overestimated VO2 and energy expenditure.

  10. Genetic parameters estimate for milk and mozzarella cheese yield, fat and protein percentage in dairy buffaloes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tonhati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was analyze the (covariance components and genetic and phenotypic relationships in the following traits: accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270, observed until 305 days of lactation; accumulated milk yield at 270 days (MY270/ A and at 305 days (MY305, observed until 335 days of lactation; mozzarella cheese yield (MCY and fat (FP and protein (PP percentage, observed until 335 days of lactation. The (covariance components were estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood methodology in analyses single, two and three-traits using animal models. Heritability estimated for MY270, MY270/A, MY305, MCY, FP and PP were 0.22; 0.24, 0.25, 0.14, 0.29 and 0.40 respectively. The genetic correlations between MCY and the variables MY270, MY270/A, MY305, PP and FP was: 0.85; 1.00; 0.89; 0.14 and 0.06, respectively. This way, the selection for the production of milk in long period should increase MCY. However, in the search of animals that produce milk with quality, the genetic parameters suggest that another index should be composed allying these studied traits.

  11. Advantage of early orchiopexy for undescended testis: Analysis of testicular growth percentage ratio in patients with unilateral undescended testicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chi-Shin; Chiang, I-Ni; Hong, Chung-Hung; Lu, Yu-Chuan; Hong, Jian-Hua; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Huang, Kuo-How; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2017-12-12

    This study reports the experience of our tertiary referral center and proposes a new indicator, the growth percentage ratio (GPR), for determining the optimal timing of surgical intervention. A retrospective review of boys who underwent orchiopexy for undescended testis from 2001 to 2013 was conducted. We analyzed testicular volumes in different age groups using the UDT to normally descended testis ratio and testicular GPR. A total of 134 boys with unilateral undescended testicle underwent regular ultrasonography follow-up examinations for more than a mean of 3.9 years. Forty-five (33.4%) of them underwent orchiopexy before the age of one year. Orchiopexy at this age resulted in a GPR (2.02 ± 0.40) that was significantly higher than the GPRs in the second (1  2 years, 1.24 ± 0.14 p = 0.008) age groups. The undescended testicle grew faster when orchiopexy was performed before one year of age. Orchiopexy performed within one year from birth significantly accelerates the growth of the UDT, as determined using the GPR, compared to other age groups. The present clinical evidence indicates that orchiopexy should be performed before one year of age.

  12. Headspace volume and percentage of carbon monoxide affects carboxymyoglobin layer development of modified atmosphere packaged beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymyoglobin (COMb) development of beef Longissimus lumborum as related to molecular CO availability and package headspace volume was evaluated. Steaks from six pairs of USDA Select strip loins were packaged in modified atmosphere packages with 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8% CO and 30% CO(2) and balanced with N(2) to obtain meat-to-gas ratios of 0.4, 0.7, and 1.1, and CO molar concentrations of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.20 mMol. Steak redness (CIE a*), COMb layer thickness, percentage of CO in the headspace, visual display color, and bloom intensity scores were evaluated 4 and 7 d after packaging. Greater concentration of CO in a smaller headspace resulted in a thicker COMb layer compared with lesser concentration of CO in a larger headspace, regardless of moles CO available. The combined effects of concentration of CO and headspace volume had a greater impact on COMb development than millimoles of CO in the package headspace. Package headspace can be reduced and the concentration of CO can be increased without detriment to fresh beef color or consumer safety.

  13. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  14. Excess density compensation of island herpetofaunal assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Dean-Bradley, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim Some species reach extraordinary densities on islands. Island assemblages have fewer species, however, and it is possible that island species differ from their mainland counterparts in average mass. Island assemblages could be partitioned differently (fewer species or smaller individuals) from mainland sites without differing in aggregate biomass (density compensation). Our objective was to determine the generality of excess density compensation in island herpetofaunal assemblages.Location Our bounded removal plot data were obtained from Pacific Island sites (Guam, Saipan and Rota), the West Indies (British Virgin Islands), and the Indian Ocean (Ile aux Aigrettes off Mauritius). The literature values were taken from several locales. Other island locations included Barro Colorado Island, Bonaire, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Seychelle Islands, Barrow Island (Australia), North Brother Island (New Zealand), Dominica and Puerto Rico. Mainland sites included Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Australia, Thailand, Peru, Brazil, Panama and the USA.Method We added our thirty-nine bounded total removal plots from sixteen island habitats to fifteen literature records to obtain seventy-five venues with estimable density and biomass of arboreal or terrestrial herpetofaunal assemblages. These biomass estimates were evaluated geographically and in relation to sampling method, insularity, latitude, disturbance regime, seasonality, community richness, vegetative structure and climate. Direct data on trophic interactions (food availability, parasitism and predation pressure) were generally unavailable. Sampling problems were frequent for arboreal, cryptic and evasive species.Results and main conclusions We found strong evidence that herpetofaunal assemblages on small islands (mostly lizards) exhibit a much greater aggregate density of biomass (kg ha−1) than those of larger islands or mainland assemblages (small islands show excess density compensation). High aggregate biomass

  15. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens......Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results...... of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (Playing...

  16. Comparison of different statin therapy to change low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in Korean patients with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Ah Reum; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to apply the proper intensity of statin for new treatment guidelines in clinical settings because of few data about the statin efficacy in Asians. We conducted a retrospective, observational study to estimate the percentage changes in lipid parameters and glucose induced by different statins. We analyzed 3854 patients including those with nondiabetes and diabetes treated at the outpatient clinic between 2003 and 2013 who were statin-naïve and maintained fixed-dose of statin for at least 18 months. Moderate- and low-intensity statin therapy was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to statin group. The effects of statins in elevating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar in each statin groups, except the ezetimibe-simvastatin group (4.5 ± 2.1%) and high-dose atorvastatin groups (9.7 ± 3.3% and 8.7 ± 2.4% for 40 mg and 80 mg of atorvastatin/day, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased less and LDL-C decreased more in diabetes than in nondiabetes. There were no significant changes of fasting glucose after statin use in nondiabetic patients. Moderate- or low-intensity statin was effective enough in reaching National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III LDL-C target goals in Koreans. Low-intensity statin showed around 30% LDL-C reduction from the baseline level in Koreans, which is comparable to moderate-intensity statin in new guideline. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mechanical Properties of Medium Density Rigid Polyurethane Biofoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ernie Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the effect of empty fruit bunch (EFB loading in the medium density rigid foam, which was prepared from the palm kernel oil based polyol. The grounded 300μm EFB fiber was used as filler and its composition were varied from 3, 6, 9 and 12 weight percent. EFB filled PU shown good dimensional stability at 70°C and -15°C due expending and shrinking percentage are less than 0.8% and 0.4% respectively. The mechanical properties were increased linearly with the EFB loading until it reached an optimum percentage of the EFB. SEM images shows the usage of big size cylindrical particle suggested that the fiber pull out will responsible for the synergistic effect of flexibility and strength of the biofoam produced.

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of the Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised in the identification of speech sound disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrozo, Tatiane Faria; Pagan-Neves, Luciana de Oliveira; Pinheiro da Silva, Joyce; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein

    2017-05-22

    The purpose of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity, and to establish cutoff points for the severity index Percentage of Consonants Correct - Revised (PCC-R) in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children with and without speech sound disorders. 72 children between 5:00 and 7:11 years old - 36 children without speech and language complaints and 36 children with speech sound disorders. The PCC-R was applied to the figure naming and word imitation tasks that are part of the ABFW Child Language Test. Results were statistically analyzed. The ROC curve was performed and sensitivity and specificity values ​​of the index were verified. The group of children without speech sound disorders presented greater PCC-R values in both tasks, regardless of the gender of the participants. The cutoff value observed for the picture naming task was 93.4%, with a sensitivity value of 0.89 and specificity of 0.94 (age independent). For the word imitation task, results were age-dependent: for age group ≤6:5 years old, the cutoff value was 91.0% (sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.94) and for age group >6:5 years-old, the cutoff value was 93.9% (sensitivity of 0.93 and specificity of 0.94). Given the high sensitivity and specificity of PCC-R, we can conclude that the index was effective in discriminating and identifying children with and without speech sound disorders.

  19. Association of Smoke-Free Laws With Lower Percentages of New and Current Smokers Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Dutra, Lauren M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Smoke-free laws are associated with a lower prevalence of smoking. OBJECTIVE To quantify the effect of 100% smoke-free laws on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young adults in a longitudinal analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pooled logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis of participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (data from 1997 to 2007), with complete data on initiation of smoking (n = 4098) and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days (n = 3913). EXPOSURES Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, laws for 100% smoke-free bars, and state cigarette taxes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Smoking initiation (first report of smoking cigarette), current (for 30 days) smoking, and number of days respondents reported smoking in the past 30 days among current smokers. RESULTS Laws for 100% smoke-free workplaces, but not bars, were associated with significantly lower odds of initiating smoking (odds ratio, 0.66 [95%CI, 0.44-0.99]). Laws for 100% smoke-free bars were associated with lower odds of being a current smoker (odds ratio, 0.80 [95%CI, 0.71-0.90]) and fewer days of smoking (incidence rate ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.90]) among current smokers. Taxes were associated with a lower percentage of new smokers but not current smokers among adolescents and young adults. The effect of smoke-free workplace laws on smoking initiation is equivalent to a $1.57 (in 2007 dollars) tax increase. Smoke-free bar laws are associated with lower rates of current smoking, as well as a decrease in the number of days reported smoking among current smokers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Smoke-free laws are an important tobacco control tool. They not only protect bystanders from secondhand smoke but also contribute to less smoking among adolescents and young adults. PMID:26348866

  20. IN VITRO COMPARISON OF GUTTA-PERCHA-FILLED AREA PERCENTAGES IN ROOT CANALS INSTRUMENTED AND OBTURATED WITH DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça YILMAZ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of different obturation techniques in root canals instrumented either by hand or rotary instruments with regard to the percentage of gutta- percha-filled area (PGFA. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty extracted mandibular premolars with single, straight root canals were studied. Root canals were prepared to an apical size of 30 by hand with a modified crown-down technique or the ProTaper and HEROShaper systems. Teeth were divided into eight groups (n=20 according to the following instrumentation and obturation techniques: G1: Hand files+lateral condensation (LC, G2: Hand files+Thermafil, G3: ProTaper+LC, G4: ProTaper+single-cone, G5: ProTaper+ProTaper-Obturator, G6: HEROShaper+LC, G7: HEROShaper+single-cone, G8: HEROShaper+HEROfill. Horizontal sections were cut at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 mm from the apical foramen. A total of 1120 sections obtained were digitally photographed under a stereomicroscope set at 48X magnification. The cross-sectional area of the canal and the gutta-percha was measured by digital image analysis and the PGFA was calculated for each section. Results: The mean of the PGFA in Thermafil (G2, ProTaper-Obturator (G5 and HEROfill (G8 groups was significantly higher than the other groups. In G3 and G4, PGFA showed no significant difference in the apical segments whereas PGFA was significantly higher at the middle and coronal segments in G3. In G6 and G7, PGFA showed no significant difference in the apical and middle segments whereas PGFA was significantly higher at the coronal segments in G6. Conclusion: The carrier-based gutta-percha obturation systems revealed significantly higher PGFA in comparison to single-cone and lateral condensation techniques.

  1. Particle acceleration in near critical density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y.J.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Nagashima, T.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration schemes driven by ultra intense laser and near critical density plasma interactions are presented. They include electron acceleration in a plasma channel, ion acceleration by the Coulomb explosion and high energy electron beam driven ion acceleration. It is found that under the near critical density plasma both ions and electrons are accelerated with a high acceleration gradient. The electron beam containing a large charge quantity is accelerated well with 23 GeV/cm. The collimated ion bunch reaches 1 GeV. The investigations and discussions are based on 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. (author)

  2. Planck intermediate results - LII. Planet flux densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of flux density are described for five planets, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, across the six Planck High Frequency Instrument frequency bands (100–857 GHz) and these are then compared with models and existing data. In our analysis, we have also included estimates of the...... experiments. In particular, we observe that the flux densities measured by Planck HFI and WMAP agree to within 2%. These results allow experiments operating in the mm-wavelength range to cross-calibrate against Planck and improve models of radiative transport used in planetary science....

  3. A quantitative and efficient approach to select MIRU-VNTR loci based on accumulation of the percentage differences of strains for discriminating divergent Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Nakajima, Chie; Fu, Jin; Shao, Chang-Xia; Zhao, Li-Na; Cui, Jia-Yi; Jiao, Na; Fan, Chang-Long; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio; Li, Di; Ling, Hong

    2017-07-26

    Although several optimal mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci have been suggested for genotyping homogenous Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the Beijing genotype, a more efficient and convenient selection strategy for identifying optimal VNTR loci is needed. Here 281 M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed. Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotypes were identified, as well as Beijing sublineages, according to single nucleotide polymorphisms. A total of 22 MIRU-VNTR loci were used for genotyping. To efficiently select optimal MIRU-VNTR loci, we established accumulations of percentage differences (APDs) between the strains among the different genotypes. In addition, we constructed a minimum spanning tree for clustering analysis of the VNTR profiles. Our findings showed that eight MIRU-VNTR loci displayed disparities in h values of ≥0.2 between the Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotype isolates. To efficiently discriminate Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes, an optimal VNTR set was established by adding loci with APDs ranging from 87.2% to 58.8%, resulting in the construction of a nine-locus set. We also found that QUB11a is a powerful locus for separating ST10s (including ST10, STF and STCH1) and ST22s (including ST22 and ST8) strains, whereas a combination of QUB11a, QUB4156, QUB18, Mtub21 and QUB26 could efficiently discriminate Beijing sublineages. Our findings suggested that two nine-locus sets were not only efficient for distinguishing the Beijing genotype from non-Beijing genotype strains, but were also suitable for sublineage genotyping with different discriminatory powers. These results indicate that APD represents a quantitative and efficient approach for selecting MIRU-VNTR loci to discriminate between divergent M. tuberculosis sublineages.

  4. A quantitative and efficient approach to select MIRU–VNTR loci based on accumulation of the percentage differences of strains for discriminating divergent Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Nakajima, Chie; Fu, Jin; Shao, Chang-Xia; Zhao, Li-Na; Cui, Jia-Yi; Jiao, Na; Fan, Chang-Long; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Hattori, Toshio; Li, Di; Ling, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Although several optimal mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeat (MIRU–VNTR) loci have been suggested for genotyping homogenous Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the Beijing genotype, a more efficient and convenient selection strategy for identifying optimal VNTR loci is needed. Here 281 M. tuberculosis isolates were analyzed. Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotypes were identified, as well as Beijing sublineages, according to single nucleotide polymorphisms. A total of 22 MIRU–VNTR loci were used for genotyping. To efficiently select optimal MIRU–VNTR loci, we established accumulations of percentage differences (APDs) between the strains among the different genotypes. In addition, we constructed a minimum spanning tree for clustering analysis of the VNTR profiles. Our findings showed that eight MIRU–VNTR loci displayed disparities in h values of ≥0.2 between the Beijing genotype and non-Beijing genotype isolates. To efficiently discriminate Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes, an optimal VNTR set was established by adding loci with APDs ranging from 87.2% to 58.8%, resulting in the construction of a nine-locus set. We also found that QUB11a is a powerful locus for separating ST10s (including ST10, STF and STCH1) and ST22s (including ST22 and ST8) strains, whereas a combination of QUB11a, QUB4156, QUB18, Mtub21 and QUB26 could efficiently discriminate Beijing sublineages. Our findings suggested that two nine-locus sets were not only efficient for distinguishing the Beijing genotype from non-Beijing genotype strains, but were also suitable for sublineage genotyping with different discriminatory powers. These results indicate that APD represents a quantitative and efficient approach for selecting MIRU–VNTR loci to discriminate between divergent M. tuberculosis sublineages. PMID:28745309

  5. The influence of high stocking density on the utilization of a number ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of a high stocking density for a short period of stay on the utilization of 11 species in the Central Upper Karroo. Utilization was determined by comparing the mean dry mass of 50 plants per species before and after grazing. The results showed that the percentage ...

  6. BDEN: A timesaving computer program for calculating soil bulk density and water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn G. Starr; Michael J. Geist

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive computer program written in BASIC language that will calculate soil bulk density and moisture percentage by weight and volume. Coarse fragment weights are required. The program will also summarize the resulting data giving mean, standard deviation, and 95-percent confidence interval on one or more groupings of data.

  7. Analysis of parenchymal patterns using conspicuous spatial frequency features in mammograms applied to the BI-RADS density rating scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perconti, Philip; Loew, Murray

    2006-03-01

    Automatic classification of the density of breast parenchyma is shown using a measure that is correlated to the human observer performance, and compared against the BI-RADS density rating. Increasingly popular in the United States, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) is used to draw attention to the increased screening difficulty associated with greater breast density; however, the BI-RADS rating scheme is subjective and is not intended as an objective measure of breast density. So, while popular, BI-RADS does not define density classes using a standardized measure, which leads to increased variability among observers. The adaptive thresholding technique is a more quantitative approach for assessing the percentage breast density, but considerable reader interaction is required. We calculate an objective density rating that is derived using a measure of local feature salience. Previously, this measure was shown to correlate well with radiologists' localization and discrimination of true positive and true negative regions-of-interest. Using conspicuous spatial frequency features, an objective density rating is obtained and correlated with adaptive thresholding, and the subjectively ascertained BI-RADS density ratings. Using 100 cases, obtained from the University of South Florida's DDSM database, we show that an automated breast density measure can be derived that is correlated with the interactive thresholding method for continuous percentage breast density, but not with the BI-RADS density rating categories for the selected cases. Comparison between interactive thresholding and the new salience percentage density resulted in a Pearson correlation of 76.7%. Using a four-category scale equivalent to the BI-RADS density categories, a Spearman correlation coefficient of 79.8% was found.

  8. BMI and an Anthropometry-Based Estimate of Fat Mass Percentage Are Both Valid Discriminators of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Comparison with DXA and Bioimpedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völgyi, Eszter; Savonen, Kai; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether categories of obesity based on BMI and an anthropometry-based estimate of fat mass percentage (FM% equation) have similar discriminative ability for markers of cardiometabolic risk as measurements of FM% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Design and Methods. A study of 40–79-year-old male (n = 205) and female (n = 388) Finns. Weight, height, blood pressure, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Body composition was assessed by DXA and BIA and a FM%-equation. Results. For grade 1 hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose >6.1 mmol/L, the categories of obesity as defined by BMI and the FM% equation had 1.9% to 3.7% (P < 0.01) higher discriminative power compared to DXA. For grade 2 hypertension the FM% equation discriminated 1.2% (P = 0.05) lower than DXA and 2.8% (P < 0.01) lower than BIA. Receiver operation characteristics confirmed BIA as best predictor of grade 2 hypertension and the FM% equation as best predictor of grade 1 hypertension. All other differences in area under curve were small (≤0.04) and 95% confidence intervals included 0. Conclusions. Both BMI and FM% equations may predict cardiometabolic risk with similar discriminative ability as FM% measured by DXA or BIA. PMID:24455216

  9. Combination of Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process Techniques to Assess Potassium Saturation Percentage of Some Calcareous Soils (Case Study: Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mokarram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the capability of a combined fuzzy logic-based approach and analytical hierarchy process (AHP for potassium saturation percentage (KSP estimation in some calcareous soils of southern Iran. Based on a reconnaissance soil survey, 52 soil series were selected and different physical and chemical properties were determined. Five soil parameters including clay, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate equivalent, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon were chosen for analysis. Mapping was developed with the kriging method for each parameter. Different fuzzy membership functions were employed and weights for all parameters were calculated according to AHP. Finally, KSP classes were provided for each land unit. Results indicated that about 60% of the studied area is classified as having moderate to high KSP content (>3% and 40% of had low or very low KSP content (<3%. Then 15 sample points were used for determination of the accuracy of the fuzzy method. Results showed that the fuzzy and AHP methods have a high accuracy for KSP estimation in the studied soils. Further development of the fuzzy and AHP methods would be worthwhile for improving the accuracy of KSP analysis.

  10. Development of a fibre-optic dosemeter to measure the skin dose and percentage depth dose in the build-up region of therapeutic photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. A.; Yoo, W. J.; Jang, K. W.; Moon, J.; Han, K. T.; Jeon, D.; Park, J. Y.; Cha, E. J.; Lee, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a fibre-optic dosemeter (FOD) using an organic scintillator with a diameter of 0.5 mm for photon-beam therapy dosimetry was fabricated. The fabricated dosemeter has many advantages, including water equivalence, high spatial resolution, remote sensing and real-time measurement. The scintillating light generated from an organic-dosemeter probe embedded in a solid-water stack phantom is guided to a photomultiplier tube and an electrometer via 20 m of plastic optical fibre. Using this FOD, the skin dose and the percentage depth dose in the build-up region according to the depths of a solid-water stack phantom are measured with 6- and 15-MV photon-beam energies with field sizes of 10310 and 20320 cm 2 , respectively. The results are compared with those measured using conventional dosimetry films. It is expected that the proposed FOD can be effectively used in radiotherapy dosimetry for accurate measurement of the skin dose and the depth dose distribution in the build-up region due to its high spatial resolution. (authors)

  11. Induced density correlations in a sonic black hole condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsieh Wang, Ted Jacobson, Mark Edwards, Charles W. Clark

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analog black/white hole pairs, consisting of a region of supersonic flow, have been achieved in a recent experiment by J. Steinhauer using an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. A growing standing density wave, and a checkerboard feature in the density-density correlation function, were observed in the supersonic region. We model the density-density correlation function, taking into account both quantum fluctuations and the shot-to-shot variation of atom number normally present in ultracold-atom experiments. We find that quantum fluctuations alone produce some, but not all, of the features of the correlation function, whereas atom-number fluctuation alone can produce all the observed features, and agreement is best when both are included. In both cases, the density-density correlation is not intrinsic to the fluctuations, but rather is induced by modulation of the standing wave caused by the fluctuations.

  12. Super liquid density target designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.L.; Bailey, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The success of laser fusion depends on obtaining near isentropic compression of fuel to very high densities and igniting this fuel. To date, the results of laser fusion experiments have been based mainly on the exploding pusher implosion of fusion capsules consisting of thin glass microballoons (wall thickness of less than 1 micron) filled with low density DT gas (initial density of a few mg/cc). Maximum DT densities of a few tenths of g/cc and temperatures of a few keV have been achieved in these experiments. We will discuss the results of LASNEX target design calculations for targets which: (a) can compress fuel to much higher densities using the capabilities of existing Nd-glass systems at LLL; (b) allow experimental measurement of the peak fuel density achieved

  13. Low-Density Granulocytes Are Elevated in Mycobacterial Infection and Associated with the Severity of Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Deng

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains a global health problem caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous studies have established a close correlation between the development of tuberculosis and the roles of neutrophils. Recently, a distinct population of CD15+ granulocytes was found to be present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC fraction in humans. This population of granulocytes, termed low-density granulocytes (LDGs, was reported to be elevated and associated with disease activity or severity in a number of different conditions including SLE, asthma and HIV infection. However, both the frequency and clinical significance of LDGs associated with tuberculosis are unclear. Here we determined LDG levels and made comparisons between subjects with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and healthy controls, between PTB patients with mild-to-moderate disease and patients with advanced disease, and among PTB patients following anti-tuberculous therapy of varying durations. The direct correlation between M. tuberculosis infection and LDG levels was confirmed by in vitro infection of whole peripheral blood and isolated granulocytes with mycobacteria. Our results demonstrated that PBMCs in PTB patients contained significantly elevated percentages of LDGs compared with control subjects. LDGs in tuberculosis expressed higher levels of activation markers compared to normal-density granulocytes (NDGs. M. tuberculosis induced the generation of LDGs in both whole blood and isolated NDGs from control subjects, which suggests that LDGs associated with M. tuberculosis infection are likely to originate from in situ activation. Furthermore, our results revealed that the frequency of LDGs is associated with the severity of tuberculosis.

  14. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  15. Density, form and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.

    2011-01-01

    A redefinition of building economics towards sustainability will include the spatial approach of green field investments and most of all necessary intensification of brown field development. For large parts of Western Europe and the US the latter will be, according to economic principles of

  16. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...

  17. Combinatorial nuclear level-density model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrenholt, H.; Åberg, S.; Dobrowolski, A.; Døssing, Th.; Ichikawa, T.; Möller, P.

    2013-01-01

    A microscopic nuclear level-density model is presented. The model is a completely combinatorial (micro-canonical) model based on the folded-Yukawa single-particle potential and includes explicit treatment of pairing, rotational and vibrational states. The microscopic character of all states enables extraction of level-distribution functions with respect to pairing gaps, parity and angular momentum. The results of the model are compared to available experimental data: level spacings at neutron separation energy, data on total level-density functions from the Oslo method, cumulative level densities from low-lying discrete states, and data on parity ratios. Spherical and deformed nuclei follow basically different coupling schemes, and we focus on deformed nuclei

  18. Alternative ideas to increase the percentage of filled seats in nephrology fellowships [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2sa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nephrology has been decreasing for the last decade. In this opinion piece, the author provides four unconventional, outside-the-box strategies to increase the percentage of filled nephrology training positions.

  19. Planktonic percentage of foraminiferal fauna in surface sediments of the Arabian sea (Indian Ocean) and a regional model for paleodepth determination

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    that in spite of diversity between various areas, the over-all pattern indicate a positive correlation between planktonic percentage and depth. Based on the above relationship, a regional model has been constructed for the western continental margin of India...

  20. Heterogeneity of spine bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskey, M.A.; Crisp, A.J.; Compston, J.E.; Khaw, K.-T. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    This short communication investigates how accurate bone density measured in the lumbar spine (L1-L4 or L2-L4) reflects the bone density of vertebrae where many compression fractures occur (T12 and L1). The ability of two dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers (Lunar DPX and Hologic QDR-1000) to determine the bone density of T12 was also investigated. (Author).

  1. 76 FR 45805 - Calculation of Annual Federal Medical Assistance Percentages for Indian Tribes for Use in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... be based on the per capita income of the service population of the Indian tribe, tribal organization... income includes tribal payments to members (it does) and whether the data source makes any adjustments to..., noting that it was the only data source we identified that included per capita income data for all the...

  2. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...

  3. Estimation of percentage body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry: evaluation by in vivo human elemental composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zimian; Pierson, Richard N [Obesity Research Center, St Luke' s-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States); Heymsfield, Steven B [Clinical Research, Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ (United States); Chen Zhao [Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Zhu Shankuan, E-mail: zw28@columbia.ed [Obesity and Body Composition Research Center, Zhejiang University, School of Public Health, Hangzhou (China)

    2010-05-07

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely applied for estimating body fat. The percentage of body mass as fat (%fat) is predicted from a DXA-estimated R{sub ST} value defined as the ratio of soft tissue attenuation at two photon energies (e.g., 40 keV and 70 keV). Theoretically, the R{sub ST} concept depends on the mass of each major element in the human body. The DXA R{sub ST} values, however, have never been fully evaluated by measured human elemental composition. The present investigation evaluated the DXA R{sub ST} value by the total body mass of 11 major elements and the DXA %fat by the five-component (5C) model, respectively. Six elements (i.e. C, N, Na, P, Cl and Ca) were measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis, and potassium (i.e. K) by whole-body {sup 40}K counting in 27 healthy adults. Models were developed for predicting the total body mass of four additional elements (i.e. H, O, Mg and S). The elemental content of soft tissue, after correction for bone mineral elements, was used to predict the R{sub ST} values. The DXA R{sub ST} values were strongly associated with the R{sub ST} values predicted from elemental content (r = 0.976, P < 0.001), although there was a tendency for the elemental-predicted R{sub ST} to systematically exceed the DXA-measured R{sub ST} (mean {+-} SD, 1.389 {+-} 0.024 versus 1.341 {+-} 0.024). DXA-estimated %fat was strongly associated with 5C %fat (24.4 {+-} 12.0% versus 24.9 {+-} 11.1%, r = 0.983, P < 0.001). DXA R{sub ST} is evaluated by in vivo elemental composition, and the present study supports the underlying physical concept and accuracy of the DXA method for estimating %fat.

  4. Body mass index and body fat percentage are associated with decreased physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Theo Nikolaidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectives of this study were to examine (a the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and (b the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF and physical fitness in adolescent and adult female volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Adolescent (n = 102, aged 15.2 ± 2.0 year and adult (n = 57, 25.9 ± 5.0 year players were examined for anthropometric characteristics and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity in heart rate 170 min -1 test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, sit-and-reach test (SAR, handgrip strength test (HST and countermovement vertical jump (CVJ. Results: Based on international BMI cut-off points, 27.5% (n = 28 of adolescent and 12.3% (n = 7 of adult participants were classified as overweight, with the prevalence of overweight being higher in girls than in women (χ2 = 4.90, P = 0.027. BMI was correlated with BF in both age groups (r = 0.72, P < 0.001 in girls; r = 0.75, P < 0.001 in women. Normal participants had superior certain physical and physiological characteristics than those who were overweight. For instance, normal girls and women had higher mean power during WAnT than their overweight counterparts (P = 0.003 and P = 0.009 respectively. Except for flexibility, BMI and BF were inversely related with physical fitness (e.g., BMI vs. HST r = -0.39, P < 0.001 in girls; BF vs. CVJ r = -0.45, P < 0.001 in women. Conclusion: The findings confirmed the negative effect of overweight and fatness on selected parameters of physical fitness. The prevalence of overweight in adolescent volleyball players was higher than in general population, which was a novel finding, suggesting that proper exercise interventions should be developed to target the excess of body mass in youth volleyball clubs.

  5. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  6. Density, distribution and feeding strategies of roan antelope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen plant species are used for food by H. equinus in the Park, including Andropogon gayanus, A. schirensis, A. tectorum, Hyparrhenia rufa, H. dissoluta, H. diplandra and H. cyanescens. Their percentage crude protein and fat ranged between 4.8 and 8.8, and between 4.7 and 18.9, respectively. Measures to sustain ...

  7. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  8. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  9. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  10. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  11. Optimizing multiple sequence alignments using a genetic algorithm based on three objectives: structural information, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Francisco M; Valenzuela, Olga; Rojas, Fernando; Pomares, Hector; Florido, Javier P; Urquiza, Jose M; Rojas, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are widely used approaches in bioinformatics to carry out other tasks such as structure predictions, biological function analyses or phylogenetic modeling. However, current tools usually provide partially optimal alignments, as each one is focused on specific biological features. Thus, the same set of sequences can produce different alignments, above all when sequences are less similar. Consequently, researchers and biologists do not agree about which is the most suitable way to evaluate MSAs. Recent evaluations tend to use more complex scores including further biological features. Among them, 3D structures are increasingly being used to evaluate alignments. Because structures are more conserved in proteins than sequences, scores with structural information are better suited to evaluate more distant relationships between sequences. The proposed multiobjective algorithm, based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, aims to jointly optimize three objectives: STRIKE score, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns. It was significantly assessed on the BAliBASE benchmark according to the Kruskal-Wallis test (P algorithm also outperforms other aligners, such as ClustalW, Multiple Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (MSA-GA), PRRP, DIALIGN, Hidden Markov Model Training (HMMT), Pattern-Induced Multi-sequence Alignment (PIMA), MULTIALIGN, Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (SAGA), PILEUP, Rubber Band Technique Genetic Algorithm (RBT-GA) and Vertical Decomposition Genetic Algorithm (VDGA), according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P 0.05) with the advantage of being able to use less structures. Structural information is included within the objective function to evaluate more accurately the obtained alignments. The source code is available at http://www.ugr.es/~fortuno/MOSAStrE/MO-SAStrE.zip.

  12. Behaviors of the percentage depth dose curves along the beam axis of a phantom filled with different clinical PTO objects, a Monte Carlo Geant4 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Bakkali, Jaafar; EL Bardouni, Tarek; Safavi, Seyedmostafa; Mohammed, Maged; Saeed, Mroan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the capabilities of Monte Carlo Geant4 code to reproduce the real percentage depth dose (PDD) curves generated in phantoms which mimic three important clinical treatment situations that include lung slab, bone slab, bone-lung slab geometries. It is hoped that this work will lead us to a better understanding of dose distributions in an inhomogeneous medium, and to identify any limitations of dose calculation algorithm implemented in the Geant4 code. For this purpose, the PDD dosimetric functions associated to the three clinical situations described above, were compared to one produced in a homogeneous water phantom. Our results show, firstly, that the Geant4 simulation shows potential mistakes on the shape of the calculated PDD curve of the first physical test object (PTO), and it is obviously not able to successfully predict dose values in regions near to the boundaries between two different materials. This is, surely due to the electron transport algorithm and it is well-known as the artifacts at interface phenomenon. To deal with this issue, we have added and optimized the StepMax parameter to the dose calculation program; consequently the artifacts due to the electron transport were quasi disappeared. However, the Geant4 simulation becomes painfully slow when we attempt to completely resolve the electron artifact problems by considering a smaller value of an electron StepMax parameter. After electron transport optimization, our results demonstrate the medium-level capabilities of the Geant4 code to modeling dose distribution in clinical PTO objects. - Highlights: • Assessment of the capabilities of Geant4 code to reproduce the PDD curves in heterogeneities. • Resolving artifacts due to the electron transport. • Understanding in dose distribution differences in interfaces which include water, bone, and lung interfaces.

  13. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedman, Annika; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Drewnowski, Adam; Edman, Anna-Karin Modin

    2010-08-23

    The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO(2)-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI) index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28) and soy drink (0.25). Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54) than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  14. Nutrient density of beverages in relation to climate impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Smedman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The food chain contributes to a substantial part of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and growing evidence points to the urgent need to reduce GHGs emissions worldwide. Among suggestions were proposals to alter food consumption patterns by replacing animal foods with more plant-based foods. However, the nutritional dimensions of changing consumption patterns to lower GHG emissions still remains relatively unexplored. This study is the first to estimate the composite nutrient density, expressed as percentage of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR for 21 essential nutrients, in relation to cost in GHG emissions of the production from a life cycle perspective, expressed in grams of CO2-equivalents, using an index called the Nutrient Density to Climate Impact (NDCI index. The NDCI index was calculated for milk, soft drink, orange juice, beer, wine, bottled carbonated water, soy drink, and oat drink. Due to low-nutrient density, the NDCI index was 0 for carbonated water, soft drink, and beer and below 0.1 for red wine and oat drink. The NDCI index was similar for orange juice (0.28 and soy drink (0.25. Due to a very high-nutrient density, the NDCI index for milk was substantially higher (0.54 than for the other beverages. Future discussion on how changes in food consumption patterns might help avert climate change need to take both GHG emission and nutrient density of foods and beverages into account.

  15. Central depression in nucleonic densities: Trend analysis in the nuclear density functional theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.; Reinhard, P.-G.

    2017-08-01

    Background: The central depression of nucleonic density, i.e., a reduction of density in the nuclear interior, has been attributed to many factors. For instance, bubble structures in superheavy nuclei are believed to be due to the electrostatic repulsion. In light nuclei, the mechanism behind the density reduction in the interior has been discussed in terms of shell effects associated with occupations of s orbits. Purpose: The main objective of this work is to reveal mechanisms behind the formation of central depression in nucleonic densities in light and heavy nuclei. To this end, we introduce several measures of the internal nucleonic density. Through the statistical analysis, we study the information content of these measures with respect to nuclear matter properties. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme functionals. Using the statistical tools of linear least square regression, we inspect correlations between various measures of central depression and model parameters, including nuclear matter properties. We study bivariate correlations with selected quantities as well as multiple correlations with groups of parameters. Detailed correlation analysis is carried out for 34Si for which a bubble structure has been reported recently, 48Ca, and N =82 , 126, and 184 isotonic chains. Results: We show that the central depression in medium-mass nuclei is very sensitive to shell effects, whereas for superheavy systems it is firmly driven by the electrostatic repulsion. An appreciable semibubble structure in proton density is predicted for 294Og, which is currently the heaviest nucleus known experimentally. Conclusion: Our correlation analysis reveals that the central density indicators in nuclei below 208Pb carry little information on parameters of nuclear matter; they are predominantly driven by shell structure. On the other hand, in the superheavy nuclei there exists a clear relationship between the central nucleonic density and symmetry energy.

  16. Investigation the effects of soil texture and density on corm characteristics and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of soil texture and density on corm and flower yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. an experiment was conducted as a factorial layout based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Treatment included 6 soil textures (clay loam, silty loam, loam, sandy loam, loamy sand and silt with 2 plant densities (100 and 150 corms.m-2. Results indicated that the corm number and dry weight were affected by soil texture, significantly (p≤0.01. The highest number and dry weight of corms were observed in loamy sand texture. Loamy sand, sandy loam and silty texture had the maximum flower number. The highest stigma yield was obtained in silty texture (1.22 g.m-2, but with no significant difference with sandy loam. The lowest stigma yield was obtained in clay loam, loam and silty loam textures. A negative significant correlation was observed between clay percentage of soil and corm number and dry weight, flower number and flower and stigma yield. In two growing seasons, plant density didn’t have significant effect on flower number, flower and stigma dry weight.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging, percentage of dense cells and serum prostanoids as tools for objective assessment of pain crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankad, V.N.; Williams, J.P.; Harpen, M.; Longenecker, G.; Brogdon, B.; Moore, B.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has added a new dimension to the identification of soft tissue abnormalities. Chemical and histological characteristics of the tissues can be separated by computerized reconstruction algorithms which produce images and quantitative data. This technique, which is now becoming available in many centers, determines the density of protons of hydrogen in various tissues. If the infarction of the tissues leads to changes in chemical composition of the cells, it may produce changes in the image or in the quantitative data about the resonance of protons. Studies correlating hematologic parameters, radiologic changes in the bones or bone marrow and pain crises are scarce. It is likely that presence of abnormal hemoglobin in the red cell, which produces changes in red cells and rheology of blood, would produce changes in hematological parameters and MRI during pain crisis. The authors, therefore, undertook an evaluation of MRI of bones in sickle cell patients during pain-free and painful periods and obtained measurements of dense sickle cells and prostanoids derived from platelets and endothelium

  18. Determination of densities from chemical composition and X-Ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, A.L.T. de

    1980-01-01

    X-ray diffraction method applied to retained austenite measurements gives volume per cent results, whereas the same kind of measurement made by Moessbauer Effect gives iron percentages. To compare both results one needs to convert the volume % to weight % or vice-versa. This necessitates, among other things, in determining the densities of the α and #betta# phases in the steel being studied. A method for calculating the densities, based on the application of the definition of density to just one unit cell, using X-ray diffraction and chemical results, are described. (Author) [pt

  19. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND DENSITY FUNCTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    KEY WORDS: Monoacyl aniline, Synthesis, Density functional theory, Rotation barrier. INTRODUCTION ... on the electron density in the phenyl ring and the respective accelerating and decelerating effects on the rate of ... compounds were determined using Nujol mulls and of liquids either in dichloromethane or chloroform ...

  20. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...