WorldWideScience

Sample records for included crewmember assessments

  1. Assessment of Prone Positioning of Restrained, Seated Crewmembers in a Post Landing Stable 2 Orion Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Fogarty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    During the Orion landing and recovery subsystem design review, June 2009, it was noted that the human system and various vehicle systems, the environmental control and life support (ECLSS) and guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) systems for example, are negatively affected by Orion assuming a stable 2 (upside down; Figure A) configuration post landing. The stable 2 configuration is predicted to occur about 50% of the time based on Apollo landing data and modeling of the current capsule. The stable 2 configuration will be countered by an active up-righting system (crew module up-righting system; CMUS). Post landing balloons will deploy and inflate causing the vehicle to assume or maintain the stable 1 (up-right; Figure B) configuration. During the design review it was proposed that the up-righting system could be capable of righting the vehicle within 60 seconds. However, this time limit posed a series of constraints on the design which made it less robust than desired. The landing and recovery subsystem team requested an analysis of Orion vehicle systems as well as the human system with regard to the effect of stable 2 in order to determine if an up-righting response time greater than 60 seconds could be tolerated. The following report focuses on the assessment of the human system in the posture assumed when Orion is in the stable 2 configuration. Stable 2 will place suited, seated, and restrained crewmembers in a prone (facedown), head-up position for a period of time dependent on the functionality of the up-righting systems, ability of the crew to release themselves from the seat and restraints, and/or time to arrival of rescue forces. Given that the Orion seat and restraint system design is not complete and therefore, not available for evaluation, Space Medicine assessed how long a healthy but deconditioned crewmember could stay in this prone, restrained position and the physiological consequences of this posture by researching terrestrial analogs and

  2. Operational assessment of the 5-h on/10-h off watchstanding schedule on a US Navy ship: sleep patterns, mood and psychomotor vigilance performance of crewmembers in the nuclear reactor department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Nita Lewis; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2016-05-01

    We assessed sleep patterns, psychomotor vigilance performance, work demands and mood of 77 crewmembers of USS NIMITZ (CVN-68) on the rotating 5-h on/10-h off (5/10) watchstanding schedule. Within the 3-day cycle of the 5/10, sleep occurred at distinctly different times each day. On two of these days, sailors typically received only brief, 4-h sleep episodes followed by periods of sustained wakefulness (approximately 22 and 20 h). Crewmembers received approximately seven hours of sleep daily, but reported excessive fatigue and dissatisfaction with their schedule. Crewmembers' mood worsened significantly over the course of the underway phase. Psychomotor vigilance performance (reaction times, lapses) was significantly degraded compared to performance when working circadian-aligned schedules. Overall, standing watch on the 5/10 schedule, combined with other work duties, resulted in poor sleep hygiene. Crewmembers on the 5/10 experienced periodic bouts of sustained wakefulness and accrued a significant sleep debt due to extended workdays and circadian-misaligned sleep. Practitioner summary: We assessed crewmembers' sleep patterns, psychomotor vigilance performance and work demands when working a rotating 5-h on/10-h off (5/10) watchstanding schedule. The 5/10, combined with other work duties, resulted in poor sleep hygiene. Crewmembers experienced periodic bouts of sustained wakefulness and accrued a significant sleep debt due to extended workdays and circadian-misaligned sleep.

  3. Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...

  4. Status: Crewmember Noise Exposures on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo-Rodriguez, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique environment where crewmembers from the US and our international partners work and live for as long as 6 to 12 consecutive months. During these long-durations ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. It is crucial to control acoustical noise aboard ISS to acceptable noise exposure levels during the work-time period, and to also provide a restful sleep environment during the sleep-time period. Acoustic dosimeter measurements, obtained when the crewmember wears the dosimeter for 24-hour periods, are conducted onboard ISS every 60 days and compared to ISS flight rules. NASA personnel then assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed, and provide recommendations for hearing protection device usage. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of ISS noise exposure monitoring and hearing conservation strategies, as well as to summarize assessments of acoustic dosimeter data collected since the Increment 36 mission (April 2013). A description of the updated noise level constraints flight rule, as well as the Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and the Noise Hazard Inventory implementation for predicting crew noise exposures and recommending to ISS crewmembers when hearing protection devices are required, will be described.

  5. Does Aging or Endothelial Dysfunction Pose a Threat to Military Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Issues of Aging Crewmembers [les Consequences operationnelles du vieillissement des equipages] To order the complete compilation report, use: ADA388423... modification (4). It human health status, crewmembers including. The has become apparent, that the policy of primary end-stage occurs more earlier

  6. Assessing the Doctoral Thesis When It Includes Published Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmini, Sharon; Spronken-Smith, Rachel; Golding, Clinton; Harland, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore how examiners assess a thesis that includes published work. An online survey was used to gather data on approaches to assessing publication-based theses (PBTs). The respondents were 62 supervisors who had experience examining PBTs across a range of disciplines at a research-intensive university in New Zealand. Nearly…

  7. High versus low crewmember autonomy in space simulation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Saylor, Stephanie; Harris, Matthew; Neylan, Thomas; Boyd, Jennifer; Weiss, Daniel S.; Baskin, Pamela; Cook, Colleen; Marmar, Charles

    2010-10-01

    Given the long distances involved and the kinds of activities planned, crewmembers participating in long-duration exploratory space missions such as an expedition to Mars will have more autonomy than in previous space missions. In order to study the impact of high versus low crew autonomy on crewmembers and the crew-mission control interaction, we conducted a series of pilot studies involving three space simulation settings: NEEMO missions, the Haughton-Mars Project, and the pilot phase of the Mars 500 Program. As in our previous on-orbit studies on the Mir and International Space Station, crew and mission control subjects working in missions involving these three settings completed a weekly study questionnaire that assessed mood and interpersonal interactions using the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. The Mars 500 pilot study also directly assessed individual and group autonomy. In these studies, high autonomy periods were those where crewmembers planned much of their work schedule, whereas low autonomy periods were those where mission control personnel developed the schedule, much as happens now during actual space flight conditions. Our results suggested that high work autonomy was well-received by the crews, mission goals were accomplished, and there were no adverse effects. During high autonomy periods, crewmember mood was generally reported as being better and creativity was higher, but mission control personnel reported some confusion about their work role. The crewmember group environment in the Mars 500 pilot study was dependent on the nationality mix. Despite scoring lower in work pressure overall, the four Russian crewmembers reported a greater rise in work pressure from low to high autonomy than the two Europeans. In contrast, the European crewmembers reported a greater rise in dysphoric mood in going from low to high autonomy, whereas the Russians' emotional state remained the same or slightly

  8. 14 CFR 91.1053 - Crewmember experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember experience. 91.1053 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1053 Crewmember experience. (a) No program manager or owner may use any... person has met the applicable requirements of part 61 of this chapter and has the following experience...

  9. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  10. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  11. Assessing bias in osteoarthritis trials included in Cochrane reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Boutron, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    the first appearing forest plot for overall pain in the Cochrane review. Treatment effect sizes will be expressed as standardised mean differences (SMDs), where the difference in mean values available from the forest plots is divided by the pooled SD. To empirically assess the risk of bias in treatment......INTRODUCTION: The validity of systematic reviews and meta-analysis depends on methodological quality and unbiased dissemination of trials. Our objective is to evaluate the association of estimates of treatment effects with different bias-related study characteristics in meta...... benefits, we will perform stratified analyses of the trials from the included meta-analyses and assess the interaction between trial characteristics and treatment effect. A relevant study-level covariate is defined as one that decreases the between-study variance (τ(2), estimated as Tau...

  12. Medical Support for ISS Crewmember Training in Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Natacha; Pattarini, James; Cole, Richard; Patlach, Robert; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Medical support of spaceflight training operations across international lines is a unique circumstance with potential applications to other aerospace medicine support scenarios. KBRwyle's Star City Medical Support Group (SCMSG) has fulfilled this role since the Mir-Shuttle era, with extensive experience and updates to share with the greater AsMA community. OVERVIEW: The current Soyuz training flow for assigned ISS crewmembers takes place in Star City, Russia. Soyuz training flow involves numerous activities that pose potential physical and occupational risks to crewmembers, including centrifuge runs and pressurized suit simulations at ambient and hypobaric pressures. In addition, Star City is a relatively remote location in a host nation with variable access to reliable, Western-standard medical care. For these reasons, NASA's Human Health & Performance contract allocates full-time physician support to assigned ISS crewmembers training in Star City. The Star City physician also treats minor injuries and illnesses as needed for both long- and short-term NASA support personnel traveling in the area, while working to develop and maintain relationships with local health care resources in the event of more serious medical issues that cannot be treated on-site. The specifics of this unique scope of practice will be discussed. SIGNIFICANCE: ISS crewmembers training in Star City are at potential physical and occupational risk of trauma or dysbarism during nominal Soyuz training flow, requiring medical support from an on-duty aerospace medicine specialist. This support maintains human health and performance by preserving crewmember safety and well-being for mission success; sharing information regarding this operational model may contribute to advances in other areas of international, military, and civilian operational aerospace medicine.

  13. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  14. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  15. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  16. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  17. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael Lee; Hsu, John

    2016-01-01

    for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates...

  18. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  19. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  1. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation, however the nature of the phenomenon as it equilibrates over longer flights has not been determined. This dysregulation may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk (if any) for exploration-class space flight is unknown, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to determine the status of the immune system, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation (a clinical outcome that can be measured) during both short and long-duration spaceflight. In addition, this study will develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. Pre-mission, in-flight and post-flight blood and saliva samples will be obtained from participating crewmembers. Assays included peripheral immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles (RNA, intracellular, secreted), viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. This study is currently ongoing. To date, 10 short duration and 5 long-duration crewmembers have completed the study. Technically, the study is progressing well. In-flight blood samples are being collected, and returned for analysis, including functional assays that require live cells. For all in-flight samples to date, sample viability has been acceptable. Preliminary data (n = 4/7; long/short duration, respectively) indicate that distribution of most peripheral leukocyte subsets is largely unaltered during flight. Exceptions include elevated T cells, reduced B/NK cells, increased memory T cells and increased central memory CD8+ T cells. General T cell function, early blastogenesis response to mitogenic stimulation, is markedly

  2. 14 CFR 91.1083 - Crewmember emergency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operation of emergency equipment including— (i) Equipment used in ditching and evacuation; (ii) First aid... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember emergency training. 91.1083... Operations Program Management § 91.1083 Crewmember emergency training. (a) Each training program must provide...

  3. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function SDBI-1900, SMO-015 - Integrated Immune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Morukov, Boris; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2007-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk from prolonged immune dysregulation during space flight are not yet determined, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. Each of the clinical events resulting from immune dysfunction has the potential to impact mission critical objectives during exploration-class missions. To date, precious little in-flight immune data has been generated to assess this phenomenon. The majority of recent flight immune studies have been post-flight assessments, which may not accurately reflect the in-flight condition. There are no procedures currently in place to monitor immune function or its effect on crew health. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. This SMO will assess the clinical risks resulting from the adverse effects of space flight on the human immune system and will validate a flight-compatible immune monitoring strategy. Characterization of the clinical risk and the development of a monitoring strategy are necessary prerequisite activities prior to validating countermeasures. This study will determine, to the best level allowed by current technology, the in-flight status of crewmembers immune system. Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight assessments of immune status, immune function, viral reactivation and physiological stress will be performed. The in-flight samples will allow a distinction between legitimate in-flight alterations and the physiological stresses of landing and readaptation which are believed to alter landing day assessments. The overall status of the immune system during flight (activation

  4. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration space missions depends on the ability of crewmembers and mission support specialists to be alert and maintain high levels of cognitive function while operating complex, technical equipment. We examined sleep, nocturnal melatonin levels and cognitive function of crewmembers and the sleep and cognitive function of mission controllers who participated in a high-fidelity 105-day simulated spaceflight mission at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (Moscow). Crewmembers were required to perform daily mission duties and work one 24-h extended duration work shift every sixth day. Mission controllers nominally worked 24-h extended duration shifts. Supplemental lighting was provided to crewmembers and mission controllers. Participants' sleep was estimated by wrist-actigraphy recordings. Overall, results show that crewmembers and mission controllers obtained inadequate sleep and exhibited impaired cognitive function, despite countermeasure use, while working extended duration shifts. Crewmembers averaged 7.04±0.92 h (mean±SD) and 6.94±1.08 h (mean±SD) in the two workdays prior to the extended duration shifts, 1.88±0.40 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h work shift, and then slept 10.18±0.96 h (mean±SD) the day after the night shift. Although supplemental light was provided, crewmembers' average nocturnal melatonin levels remained elevated during extended 24-h work shifts. Naps and caffeine use were reported by crewmembers during ˜86% and 45% of extended night work shifts, respectively. Even with reported use of wake-promoting countermeasures, significant impairments in cognitive function were observed. Mission controllers slept 5.63±0.95 h (mean±SD) the night prior to their extended duration work shift. On an average, 89% of night shifts included naps with mission controllers sleeping an average of 3.4±1.0 h (mean±SD) during the 24-h extended duration work shift. Mission controllers also showed impaired cognitive function during extended

  5. STS-47 crewmembers during KSC terminal countdown demonstration test (TCDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 crewmembers participate in terminal countdown demonstration test (TCDT) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). On KSC Launch Complex (LC) Pad 39B tower, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee (wearing sunglasses) points to a distant location as Japanese Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri (center), and Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison look on. The crewmembers are standing on the launch tower's slidewire emergency egress system platform.

  6. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim

    2018-01-01

    body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. METHODS: A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts...... resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify......' paediatric basic life support and foreign body airway obstruction management skills was established. The assessment of these skills may help to determine when laypersons have acquired competencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant....

  7. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Globally, soil carbon sequestration is expected to hold a major potential to mitigate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. However, the majority of life cycle assessments (LCA) of agricultural products have not included possible changes in soil carbon sequestration. In the present study, a method...... production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20,100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0-100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the results were...... to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...

  8. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Emily; Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Lane, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2018-05-10

    Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW) projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA). We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health only at the EIA stage may be a significant

  9. Including Health in Environmental Assessments of Major Transport Infrastructure Projects: A Documentary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Riley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. Methods We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail. The coding framework was designed to capture how health was directly and indirectly included. Results We found that health was partially considered in all four EISs. In the three New South Wales (NSW projects, but not the one South Australian project, this was influenced by the requirements issued to proponents by the government which directed the content of the EIS. Health was assessed using human health risk assessment (HHRA. We found this to be narrow in focus and revealed a need for a broader social determinants of health approach, using multiple methods. The road assessments emphasised air quality and noise risks, concluding these were minimal or predicted to improve. The South Australian project was the only road project not to include health data explicitly. The light rail EIS considered the health benefits of the project whereas the others focused on risk. Only one project considered mental health, although in less detail than air quality or noise. Conclusion Our findings suggest EIAs lag behind the known evidence linking transport infrastructure to health. If health is to be comprehensively included, a more complete model of health is required, as well as a shift away from health risk assessment as the main method used. This needs to be mandatory for all significant developments. We also found that considering health

  10. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  11. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  12. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  13. The challenges of including impacts on biodiversity in agricultural life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Vanessa M; Meier, Matthias S; Köpke, Ulrich; Stolze, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    Agriculture is considered to be one of the main drivers for worldwide biodiversity loss but the impacts of agricultural production on biodiversity have not been extensively considered in Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs). Recent realisation that biodiversity impact should be included in comprehensive LCAs has led to attempts to develop and implement methods for biodiversity impact assessment. In this review, twenty-two different biodiversity impact assessment methods have been analysed to identify their strengths and weaknesses in terms of their comprehensiveness in the evaluation of agricultural products. Different criteria, which had to meet the specific requirements of biodiversity research, life cycle assessment methodology, and the evaluation of agricultural products, were selected to investigate the identified methods. Very few of the methods were developed with the specific intention of being used for agricultural LCAs. Furthermore, none of the methods can be applied globally while at the same time being able to differentiate between various agricultural intensities. Global value chains and the increasing awareness of different biodiversity impacts of agricultural production systems demand the development of evaluation methods that are able to overcome these shortcomings. Despite the progress that has already been achieved, there are still unresolved difficulties which need further research and improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  15. Interventions for rosacea: abridged updated Cochrane systematic review including GRADE assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuuren, E J; Fedorowicz, Z

    2015-09-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic facial dermatosis. This update of our Cochrane review on interventions for rosacea summarizes the evidence, including Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group assessments, of the effects of the currently available treatments. Searches included the following: Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Science Citation Index, and ongoing trials registries (July 2014). We included 106 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 13 631 participants, a more than 80% increase since the last update in 2011. Pooling of data was feasible for a few outcomes, for topical metronidazole and azelaic acid and both appeared to be more effective than placebo (moderate and high-quality evidence, respectively). Topical ivermectin was more effective than placebo based on two studies (high-quality evidence), and slightly more effective than metronidazole in one study. Brimonidine was more effective than vehicle in reducing erythema in rosacea (high-quality evidence). Ciclosporin ophthalmic emulsion was effective for ocular rosacea (low-quality evidence). For oral treatments there was moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of tetracycline based on two old studies, and high-quality evidence for doxycycline 40 mg compared with placebo according to physician assessments. One study at high risk of bias demonstrated equivalent effectiveness for azithromycin and doxycycline 100 mg. Minocycline 45 mg may be effective for papulopustular rosacea (low-quality evidence). Low-dose isotretinoin appeared to be slightly more effective than doxycycline 50-100 mg (high-quality evidence). Laser and light-based therapies for erythema in rosacea were effective (low-quality evidence). Further RCTs are required for ocular rosacea. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. STS-38 crewmembers eat meal on OV-104's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, holding spoon to his mouth, prepares to take a bite of food. Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar licks his upper lip in anticipation of his next bite. The two crewmembers are on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, while enjoying their meal. Behind them are the starboard wall-mounted sleep restraints.

  17. 14 CFR 135.331 - Crewmember emergency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency equipment including— (i) Equipment used in ditching and evacuation; (ii) First aid equipment and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember emergency training. 135.331... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training...

  18. SLS-1 crewmembers in high fidelity mockup of the Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    SLS-1 crewmembers training in the high fidelity mockup of the Spacelab at JSC. Dr. Millie Hughes-Fulford and Dr. Robert Ward Phillips practice operations with the baroreflex nex pressure chamber, a collar that stimulates the baroreceptors in the carotid artery.

  19. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  20. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  1. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  2. Reliability of the qualitative behavior assessment as included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Beilage, E Grosse; Henning, C; Krieter, J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions constitute a very important part of animal welfare. They are, however, also the most challenging elements to be objectively measured. Due to its feasibility, the qualitative behavior assessment (QBA) is included in the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for growing pigs as the animal-based measurement tool for positive emotions. Reliability testing on the QBA in the form as included in the protocols is, however, rare. Therefore, the present study aimed at the evaluation of the inter- and intraobserver as well as test-retest reliability of the QBA in growing pigs. This was done by trained observers based on 19 joint on-farm assessments, the repeated assessments of 24 farms during 2 growing periods, and 107 video sequences. The results were compared between the observers and the repeated farm visits. Therefore, millimeter values were directly compared by calculation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (RS), and furthermore, the results were subjected to a principal component analysis (PCA). The results identified 2 main principal components (PC; PC1 and PC2) together explaining from 42 to 75% of the variation in the recorded variables of the different PCA. The factor loadings that the adjectives reached on PC1 and PC2 were compared by calculation of RS between observers and farm visits, respectively. Reliability was interpreted as acceptable if at least a moderate correlation was detected; that is, RS was greater than or equal to 0.4. Regarding the on-farm assessments, and, therefore, under practical conditions, no sufficient interobserver reliability (RS = -0.16 for PC1 and RS = 0.13 for PC2) was found. In terms of the test-retest reliability, only 1 comparison of 2 farm visits showed a positive correlation for PC1 (RS = 0.79) as well as for PC2 (RS = 0.64). The other 5 comparisons presented negative to weak positive correlations. However, based on video sequences, good interobserver (RS = 0.67 for PC1 and RS = 0.60 for PC2) and

  3. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  4. 77 FR 61012 - Expansion of Importer Self-Assessment Program To Include Qualified Importers of Focused...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... announces changes to the Importer Self- Assessment (ISA) program and describes the requirements for... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Importer Self-Assessment Program and the Focused Assessment The Importer Self-Assessment (ISA) program is a joint government- business initiative designed to build cooperative...

  5. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  6. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  7. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  8. Important clinical descriptors to include in the examination and assessment of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, M P; Thorborg, K; Covington, K

    2017-01-01

    for diagnosis and assessment of FAIS. Diagnostic imaging was the domain with the highest level of agreement. Domains such as patient-reported outcome measures (PRO's) and physical examination were identified as non-diagnostic measures (rather as assessments of disease impact). CONCLUSION: Although it also had...... the greatest level of variability in description of examination domains, diagnostic imaging continues to be the preeminent diagnostic measure for FAIS. No single domain should be utilized as the sole diagnostic or assessment parameter for FAIS. While not all investigated domains provide diagnostic capability...... for FAIS, those that do not are able to serve purpose as a measure of disease impact (e.g., impairments and activity limitations). The clinical relevance of this Delphi survey is the understanding that a comprehensive assessment measuring both diagnostic capability and disease impact most accurately...

  9. The total assessment profile, volume 1. [including societal impact cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A methodology is described for the evaluation of societal impacts associated with the implementation of a new technology. Theoretical foundations for the methodology, called the total assessment profile, are established from both the economic and social science perspectives. The procedure provides for accountability of nonquantifiable factors and measures through the use of a comparative value matrix by assessing the impacts of the technology on the value system of the society.

  10. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  11. Including Life Cycle Assessment for decision-making in controlling wastewater nutrient removal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Flores-Alsina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    of the impact categories is conducted to assess how value choices (policy decisions) may affect the management of WWTPs. For the scenarios with only N-limitation, the LCA-based ranking of the control strategies is sensitive to the choice of weighting factors, whereas this is not the case for N&P or P......This paper focuses on the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the performance of seventeen control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). It tackles the importance of using site-specific factors for nutrient enrichment when decision-makers have to select best operating....../or energy savings present an environmental benefit for N&P and P-deficient systems. This is not the case when addressing N-deficient systems for which the use of chemicals (even for improving N removal efficiencies) is not always beneficial for the environment. A sensitivity analysis on using weighting...

  12. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-01-01

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [ 14 C]-labeled CO 2 in the presence of potentially volatile [ 14 C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [ 14 C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate

  13. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  14. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  15. Temperature Regulation in Crewmembers After a 115-Day Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Williams, W. J.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Mikhavlov, V.; Kobzev, Y.; Fortney, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Impaired thermoregulation, which has been observed during exercise following bed rest, may significantly impact crewmembers during space flight operations by decreasing exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance. Impaired temperature regulation would cause higher levels of core temperature, due to an attenuated cutaneous vasodilatory reflex and sweating response, for a given oxygen consumption. Two mate crewmembers of the Mir 18 mission performed supine cycle exercise se (20 min @ 40% and 20 min @ 65% preflight VO2pk) 145 days preflight and 5 days postflight. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured by an ingestible telemetry pill, skin blood flow (SBF) by laser Doppler velocimetry, and sweat rate (SR) by dew point hygrometry. Tcore at the time of test termination was similar (37.8 C) for both subjects before and after flight despite a shorter test duration (40 vs 28-29 minutes) postflight. The slopes of the SBF/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 396 vs 214; Subj 2: 704 vs 143 Perfusion Unit/degC) and SR/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 4.5 vs 2.1; Subj 2: 11.0 vs 3.6mg/min/sq cm/degC) were reduced postflight. Tcore thresholds for both SR (Subj 1: 37.4 vs 37.6; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.6 C) and SBF (Subj 1: 37.3 vs 37.5; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.7 C) were similar pre- to postflight. For these 2 crewmembers, it appeared that thermoregulation during exercise was impaired as evidenced by compromised heat loss responses after long-duration space flight.

  16. STS-34 crewmembers eat meal on OV-104's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers, on their first space flight, appear to enjoy mealtime in a zero-gravity environment. They are Pilot Michael J. McCulley and Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker. The two, who were in the 1984 class of NASA astronauts, balance their meal trays and attempt to eat in an area of Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck that pays tribute to their astronaut roots. The 'maggot' decal or insignia has direct reference to the group. During the flight, the two made former Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, now JSC Deputy Director, an honorary member of the 1984 class. Weitz's flight suit portrait hangs on the galley facing.

  17. Including ecosystem dynamics in risk assessment of radioactive waste in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.; Gilek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection has mainly focused on assessing and minimising risks of negative effects on human health. Although some efforts have been made to estimate effects on non-human populations, modelling of radiation risks to other components of the ecosystem have often lead to more or less disappointing results. In this paper an ecosystem approach is suggested and exemplified with a preliminary 14 C model of a coastal Baltic ecosystem. Advantages with the proposed ecosystem approach are for example the possibility to detect important but previously neglected pathways to humans since the whole ecosystem is analysed. The results from the model indicate that a rather small share of hypothetical released 14 C would accumulate in biota due to large water exchange in the modelled area. However, modelled future scenarios imply opposite results, i.e. relatively high doses in biota, due to changes of the physical properties in the area that makes a larger accumulation possible. (author)

  18. Probabilistic assessment of fatigue life including statistical uncertainties in the S-N curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, B.; Hornet, P.; Stephan, J.-M.; Guede, Z.; Lemaire, M.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic framework is set up to assess the fatigue life of components of nuclear power plants. It intends to incorporate all kinds of uncertainties such as those appearing in the specimen fatigue life, design sub-factor, mechanical model and applied loading. This paper details the first step, which corresponds to the statistical treatment of the fatigue specimen test data. The specimen fatigue life at stress amplitude S is represented by a lognormal random variable whose mean and standard deviation depend on S. This characterization is then used to compute the random fatigue life of a component submitted to a single kind of cycles. Precisely the mean and coefficient of variation of this quantity are studied, as well as the reliability associated with the (deterministic) design value. (author)

  19. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting.Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers.Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined.Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  20. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Amanda Vos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed a non-invasive, standardized instrument for comprehensive antenatal risk assessment. The current study presents the application-oriented development of a risk screening instrument for early antenatal detection of risk factors and tailored prevention in an integrated care setting. Methods: A review of published instruments complemented with evidence from cohort studies. Selection and standardization of risk factors associated with small for gestational age, preterm birth, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. Risk factors were weighted to obtain a cumulative risk score. Responses were then connected to corresponding care pathways. A cumulative risk threshold was defined, which can be adapted to the population and the availability of preventive facilities. A score above the threshold implies multidisciplinary consultation between caregivers. Results: The resulting digital score card consisted of 70 items, subdivided into four non-medical and two medical domains. Weighing of risk factors was based on existing evidence. Pilot-evidence from a cohort of 218 pregnancies in a multi-practice urban setting showed a cut-off of 16 points would imply 20% of all pregnant women to be assessed in a multidisciplinary setting. A total of 28 care pathways were defined. Conclusion: The resulting score card is a universal risk screening instrument which incorporates recent evidence on non-medical risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and enables systematic risk management in an integrated antenatal health care setting.

  1. A Multiobjective Optimization Including Results of Life Cycle Assessment in Developing Biorenewables-Based Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmdach, Daniel; Yaseneva, Polina; Heer, Parminder K; Schweidtmann, Artur M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-22

    A decision support tool has been developed that uses global multiobjective optimization based on 1) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment; and 2) process costs, evaluated by using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing biorenewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, for which multiple criteria must be evaluated and optimization-based decision-making processes are particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated by using a case study of the conversion of terpenes derived from biowaste feedstocks into reactive intermediates. A two-step chemical conversion/separation sequence was implemented as a rigorous process model and combined with a life cycle model. A life cycle inventory for crude sulfate turpentine was developed, as well as a conceptual process of its separation into pure terpene feedstocks. The performed single- and multiobjective optimizations demonstrate the functionality of the optimization-based process development and illustrate the approach. The most significant advance is the ability to perform multiobjective global optimization, resulting in identification of a region of Pareto-optimal solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of the Treatment of Congenital Penile Curvature Including Psychosexual Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachalski, Wojciech; Krajka, Kazimierz; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Penile corporoplasty is a well-established treatment method of congenital penile deviation (CPD). Anatomical results are good with only slight differences between surgical procedures used. The disease however has huge influence on young male quality of life. This issue is not well analyzed in the literature. The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life of the patients affected with CPD before and after the surgical treatment Study population consisted of 107 patients with CPD referred for surgical management. Patients were evaluated with not only clinical assessment, but also by four questionnaires measuring various aspects of quality of life. They were: Short-Form Medical Outcomes, Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire for Man, Beck Depression Inventory, and International Index of Erectile Function. Quality of life measurements showed deep decrease in the general quality of life, sexual performance, depression scale, as well as in physical and mental health in men with CPD. All these parameters were restored to normal after the successful surgical treatment with any method. CPD deeply decreases the quality of life of the affected men in many aspects. Surgical treatment is able to repair the anatomical deformity and as well as significantly restore the patients' psychosocial well-being. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. 76 FR 58226 - Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing Vessels; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 28 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0887] RIN 1625-AB61 Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing Vessels; Correction... August 18, 2011, entitled ``Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing...

  4. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2012-0953] Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers AGENCY... regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This policy statement will enhance occupational safety and...

  5. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... crewmember. (a) No certificate holder conducting flag operations may schedule a pilot to fly, in an airplane... 12 hours during any 24 consecutive hours. (b) If a pilot has flown 20 or more hours during any 48... consecutive hours of rest during any seven consecutive days. (c) No pilot may fly as a flight crewmember more...

  6. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  7. QMRAcatch: Microbial Quality Simulation of Water Resources including Infection Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Derx, Julia; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2015-09-01

    Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  9. What should be included in the assessment of laypersons' paediatric basic life support skills? Results from a Delphi consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Lauritsen, Torsten; Kristensen, Tim; Bohnstedt, Cathrine; Sønderskov, Claus; Østergaard, Doris; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2018-01-18

    Assessment of laypersons' Paediatric Basic Life Support (PBLS) skills is important to ensure acquisition of effective PBLS competencies. However limited evidence exists on which PBLS skills are essential for laypersons. The same challenges exist with respect to the assessment of foreign body airway obstruction management (FBAOM) skills. We aimed to establish international consensus on how to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. A Delphi consensus survey was conducted. Out of a total of 84 invited experts, 28 agreed to participate. During the first Delphi round experts suggested items to assess laypersons' PBLS and FBAOM skills. In the second round, the suggested items received comments from and were rated by 26 experts (93%) on a 5-point scale (1 = not relevant to 5 = essential). Revised items were anonymously presented in a third round for comments and 23 (82%) experts completed a re-rating. Items with a score above 3 by more than 80% of the experts in the third round were included in an assessment instrument. In the first round, 19 and 15 items were identified to assess PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The ratings and comments from the last two rounds resulted in nine and eight essential assessment items for PBLS and FBAOM skills, respectively. The PBLS items included: "Responsiveness"," Call for help", "Open airway"," Check breathing", "Rescue breaths", "Compressions", "Ventilations", "Time factor" and "Use of AED". The FBAOM items included: "Identify different stages of foreign body airway obstruction", "Identify consciousness", "Call for help", "Back blows", "Chest thrusts/abdominal thrusts according to age", "Identify loss of consciousness and change to CPR", "Assessment of breathing" and "Ventilation". For assessment of laypersons some PBLS and FBAOM skills described in guidelines are more important than others. Four out of nine of PBLS skills focus on airway and breathing skills, supporting the major importance of these skills for

  10. USGS world petroleum assessment 2000; new estimates of undiscovered oil and natural gas, including reserve growth, outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Oil and natural gas account for approximately 63 percent of the world’s total energy consumption. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically estimates the amount of oil and gas remaining to be found in the world. Since 1981, each of the last four of these assessments has shown a slight increase in the combined volume of identified reserves and undiscovered resources. The latest assessment estimates the volume of technically recoverable conventional oil and gas that may be added to the world's reserves, exclusive of the United States, in the next 30 years. The USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000 reports an increase in global petroleum resources, including a 20-percent increase in undiscovered oil and a 14-percent decrease in undiscovered natural gas compared to the previous assessment (table 1). These results have important implications for energy prices, policy, security, and the global resource balance.

  11. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included

    OpenAIRE

    Bountziouka, V. (Vassiliki); Bathrellou, E. (Eirini); Zazpe, I. (Itziar); Ezquer, L. (Leyre); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Panagiotakos, D.B. (Demosthenes B.)

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accuracy of a measurement is a cornerstone in research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. Objective: To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of responses of consumption included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. Methods: During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, 37±13 yrs, 34% males and 150 participants from Spain, 39±17 yrs, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11-items a...

  12. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  13. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 1. Estimating the burden of disease associated with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2014-08-19

    The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.

  14. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute...... that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited......Abstract A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends...

  15. Robustness assessments are needed to reduce bias in meta-analyses that include zero-event randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, F; Wetterslev, J; Gluud, C

    2009-01-01

    of statistical method on inference. RESULTS: In seven meta-analyses of seven outcomes from 15 trials, there were zero-event trials in 0 to 71.4% of the trials. We found inconsistency in significance in one of seven outcomes (14%; 95% confidence limit 0.4%-57.9%). There was also considerable variability...... in the confidence limits, the intervention-effect estimates, and heterogeneity for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical method may influence the inference drawn from a meta-analysis that includes zero-event trials. Robustness assessments are needed to reduce bias in meta-analyses that include zero......OBJECTIVES: Meta-analysis of randomized trials with binary data can use a variety of statistical methods. Zero-event trials may create analytic problems. We explored how different methods may impact inferences from meta-analyses containing zero-event trials. METHODS: Five levels of statistical...

  16. Repeatability of food frequency assessment tools in relation to the number of items and response categories included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Bathrellou, Eirini; Zazpe, Itziar; Ezquer, Leyre; Martínez-González, Miguel-Angel; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2012-12-01

    Accuracy of measurement is a cornerstone of research in order to make robust conclusions about the research hypothesis. To examine whether the number of items (questions) and the number of consumption responses (the coding used to measure the frequency of consumption) included in nutritional assessment tools influence their repeatability. During 2009, 400 participants (250 from Greece, mean age 37 +/- 13 years, 34% males, and 150 from Spain, mean age 39 +/- 17 years, 41% males) completed a diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/ no) responses, a diet index with 11 items and 6-scale responses, and 36-item and 76-item food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) with 6-scale responses. The participants completed these tools twice, with 15 days between the two administrations of the tools. The Spearman-Brown coefficient (r(sb)), Kendall's tau coefficients, and the Bland-Altman method were applied to answer the research hypothesis. The highest repeatability coefficient was observed for the diet index with 11 items and binary (yes/no) responses (r(sb) = 0.948, p tools (p > .23), whereas these three tools had significantly higher repeatability coefficients than the 76-item FFQ (p = .002). Subgroup analyses by sex, education, smoking, and clinical status confirmed these results. Repeatability was found for all food frequency assessment tools used, irrespective of the number of items or the number of responses included.

  17. Development of a 'ready-to-use' tool that includes preventability, for the assessment of adverse drug events in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Guillaume; Netzer, Florence; Kouakou, Sylvain Landry; Lemare, François; Minvielle, Etienne

    2018-02-14

    Background Adverse drug events (ADEs) occur frequently in oncology and justify continuous assessment and monitoring. There are several methods for detecting them, but the trigger tool method seems the most appropriate. Although a generic tool exists, its use for ADEs in oncology has not been convincing. The development of a focused version is therefore necessary. Objective To provide an oncology-focused trigger tool that evaluates the prevalence, harm, and preventability in a standardised method for pragmatic use in ADE surveillance. Setting Hospitals with cancer care in France. Method The tool has been constructed in two steps: (1) constitution of an oncology-centred list of ADEs; 30 pharmacists/practitioners in cancer care from nine hospitals selected a list of ADEs using a method of agreement adapted from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method; and (2) construction of three standardised dimensions for the characterisation of each ADE (including causality, severity, and preventability). Main outcome measure The main outcome measure was validation of the tool, including preventability criteria. Results The tool is composed of a final list of 15 ADEs. For each ADE, a 'reviewer form' has been designed and validated by the panel. It comprises (1) the trigger(s), (2) flowcharts to guide the reviewer, (3) criteria for grading harm, and (4) a standardised assessment of preventability with 6-14 closed sentences for each ADE in terms of therapeutic management and/or prevention of side-effects. Conclusion A complete 'ready-to-use' tool for ADE monitoring in oncology has been developed that allows the assessment of three standardised dimensions.

  18. MODARIA WG5: Towards a practical guidance for including uncertainties in the results of dose assessment of routine releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Telleria, Diego [International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA (Austria); Al Neaimi, Ahmed [Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation - ENEC (United Arab Emirates); Blixt Buhr, Anna Ma [Vattenfall AB (Sweden); Bonchuk, Iurii [Radiation Protection Institute - RPI (Ukraine); Chouhan, Sohan [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - AECL (Canada); Chyly, Pavol [SE-VYZ (Slovakia); Curti, Adriana R. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN (Argentina); Da Costa, Dejanira [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD (Brazil); Duran, Juraj [VUJE Inc (Slovakia); Galeriu, Dan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH (Romania); Haegg, Ann- Christin; Lager, Charlotte [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Heling, Rudie [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG (Netherlands); Ivanis, Goran; Shen, Jige [Ecometrix Incorporated (Canada); Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Krajewski, Pawel M. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection - CLOR (Poland); Marang, Laura; Vermorel, Fabien [Electricite de France - EdF (France); Mourlon, Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Perez, Fabricio F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK (Belgium); Woodruffe, Andrew [Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation - FANR (United Arab Emirates); Zorko, Benjamin [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2014-07-01

    MODARIA (Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments) project was launched in 2012 with the aim of improving the capabilities in radiation dose assessment by means of acquisition of improved data for model testing, model testing and comparison, reaching consensus on modelling philosophies, approaches and parameter values, development of improved methods and exchange of information. The project focuses on areas where uncertainties remain in the predictive capability of environmental models, emphasizing in reducing associated uncertainties or developing new approaches to strengthen the evaluation of the radiological impact. Within MODARIA, four main areas were defined, one of them devoted to Uncertainty and Variability. In this area four working groups were included, Working Group 5 dealing with the 'uncertainty and variability analysis for assessments of radiological impacts arising from routine discharges of radionuclides'. Whether doses are estimated by using measurement data, by applying models, or through a combination of measurements and calculations, the variability and uncertainty contribute to a distribution of possible values. The degree of variability and uncertainty is represented by the shape and extent of that distribution. The main objective of WG5 is to explore how to consider uncertainties and variabilities in the results of assessment of doses in planned situations for controlling the impact of routine releases from radioactive and nuclear installations to the environment. The final aim is to produce guidance for the calculation of uncertainties in these exposure situations and for the presentation of such results to the different stakeholders. To achieve that objective the main tasks identified were: to find tools and methods for uncertainty and variability analysis applicable to dose assessments in routine radioactive discharges, to define scenarios where information on uncertainty and variability of parameters is available

  19. EAU Guidelines on the Assessment of Non-neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms including Benign Prostatic Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzke, Christian; Bachmann, Alexander; Descazeaud, Aurelien; Drake, Marcus J; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Oelke, Matthias; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Gravas, Stavros

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) represent one of the most common clinical complaints in adult men and have multifactorial aetiology. To develop European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on the assessment of men with non-neurogenic LUTS. A structured literature search on the assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS was conducted. Articles with the highest available level of evidence were selected. The Delphi technique consensus approach was used to develop the recommendations. As a routine part of the initial assessment of male LUTS, a medical history must be taken, a validated symptom score questionnaire with quality-of-life question(s) should be completed, a physical examination including digital rectal examination should be performed, urinalysis must be ordered, post-void residual urine (PVR) should be measured, and uroflowmetry may be performed. Micturition frequency-volume charts or bladder diaries should be used to assess male LUTS with a prominent storage component or nocturia. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be measured only if a diagnosis of prostate cancer will change the management or if PSA can assist in decision-making for patients at risk of symptom progression and complications. Renal function must be assessed if renal impairment is suspected from the history and clinical examination, if the patient has hydronephrosis, or when considering surgical treatment for male LUTS. Uroflowmetry should be performed before any treatment. Imaging of the upper urinary tract in men with LUTS should be performed in patients with large PVR, haematuria, or a history of urolithiasis. Imaging of the prostate should be performed if this assists in choosing the appropriate drug and when considering surgical treatment. Urethrocystoscopy should only be performed in men with LUTS to exclude suspected bladder or urethral pathology and/or before minimally invasive/surgical therapies if the findings may change treatment. Pressure-flow studies should be performed

  20. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  1. [The assessment of the dependence between antigen CA 125 and nicotinism in patients with benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzka, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Babczyk, Dorota; Knafel, Anna; Pityński, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    Cancer antigen CA-125 is a marker that is primarily used to differentiate benign from malignant tumors as well as to monitor response to ovarian cancer treatment. Taken as a separate marker, it displays low sensitivity and specificity in ovarian cancer diagnosis; however, in combination with other markers it may be successfully applied especially in postmenopausal women. Elevated CA-125 levels in blood serum indicate cancerous as well as non-cancerous diseases. Research aiming to determine environmental factors that may have influence on antigen CA-125 level, and thus on the assessment of this marker's application in gynecological and oncological diseases continues. the aim of the present research is an attempt to estimate the influence of nicotinism on antigen CA-125 in blood serum in patients with diagnosed benign ovarian tumors including endometrial cysts. 174 women aged 16-85 years with diagnosed benign ovarian tumor were qualified for the study. In all patients level of antigen CA-125 in blood serum was assessed preoperatively and nicotinism history was taken. Also transvaginal ultrasound was performed to obtain preliminary diagnosis. Smoking and non-smoking patients were classified into two groups, namely of those with histopathologically confirmed cysts of endometrial type and those with non-endometrial benign ovarian tumors. statistical analysis did not prove any dependence between the CS-125 antigen level and nicotinism in any of these groups. Also additional analysis with division into premenopausal and postmenopausal patients did not determine any statistically significant dependence. Nicotinism does not significantly influence the CA-125 antigen level in patients with benign However, the connection between the addiction severity and its influence on antigen CA-125 in blood serum cannot be excluded. ovarian tumors or endometrial cysts.

  2. An approach to including protein quality when assessing the net contribution of livestock to human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Knaus, W; Zollitsch, W

    2016-11-01

    The production of protein from animal sources is often criticized because of the low efficiency of converting plant protein from feeds into protein in the animal products. However, this critique does not consider the fact that large portions of the plant-based proteins fed to animals may be human-inedible and that the quality of animal proteins is usually superior as compared with plant proteins. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess changes in protein quality in the course of the transformation of potentially human-edible plant proteins into animal products via livestock production; data from 30 Austrian dairy farms were used as a case study. A second aim was to develop an approach for combining these changes with quantitative aspects (e.g. with the human-edible feed conversion efficiency (heFCE), defined as kilogram protein in the animal product divided by kilogram potentially human-edible protein in the feeds). Protein quality of potentially human-edible inputs and outputs was assessed using the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score and the digestible indispensable amino acid score, two methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to describe the nutritional value of proteins for humans. Depending on the method used, protein scores were between 1.40 and 1.87 times higher for the animal products than for the potentially human-edible plant protein input on a barn-gate level (=protein quality ratio (PQR)). Combining the PQR of 1.87 with the heFCE for the same farms resulted in heFCE×PQR of 2.15. Thus, considering both quantity and quality, the value of the proteins in the animal products for human consumption (in this case in milk and beef) is 2.15 times higher than that of proteins in the potentially human-edible plant protein inputs. The results of this study emphasize the necessity of including protein quality changes resulting from the transformation of plant proteins to animal proteins when

  3. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes. Workshop Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, 17-20 June 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident triggered discussions about the significance of external hazards and their treatment in safety analyses. In addition, stress tests results have shown vulnerabilities and potential of cliff-edge effects in plant responses to external hazards and have identified possibilities and priorities for improvements and safety measures' implementation at specific sites and designs. In order to address these issues and provide relevant conclusions and recommendations to CSNI and CNRA, the CSNI Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK) directed, in cooperation with the CSNI Working Group on Integrity and Ageing of Components and Structures (WGIAGE), a workshop hosted by UJV Rez. The key objectives of the workshop were to collect information from the OECD member states on methods and approaches being used, and experience gained in probabilistic safety assessment of natural external hazards, as well as to support the fulfillment of the CSNI task on 'PSA of natural external hazards including earthquakes'. These objectives are described more in detail in the introduction in Chapter 1 of this report. The WGRISK activities preceding the workshop and leading to the decision to organize it are described in Chapter 2 of this report. The focus of the workshop was on external events PSA for nuclear power plants, including all modes of operation. The workshop scope was generally limited to external, natural hazards, including those hazards where the distinction between natural and man-made hazards is not sharp. The detailed information about the presentations, discussions, and results of the workshop is presented in Chapter 3 of this report. Some general conclusions were agreed on during the workshop, which are presented in the following paragraphs. - The lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accidents and related actions at the national, regional, and global level have emphasized the importance to assess risks associated (authors) with

  4. The Role of Arsenic Speciation in Dietary Exposure Assessment and the Need to Include Bioaccessibility and Biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical form specific exposure assessment for arsenic has long been identified as a source of uncertainty in estimating the risk associated with the aggregate exposure for a population. Some speciation based assessments document occurrence within an exposure route; however, the...

  5. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.L.; Welman, C.J.; Celliers, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  6. STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 crewmembers use water hoses during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low with nozzle open directs water into the fire as fire/ security personnel coaches and instructs him on his attempt to extinguish the blaze. MS Bonnie J. Dunbar maneuvers the hose behind Low. A second group of crewmembers alongside Low and Dunbar, MS Marsha S. Ivins, holding hose nozzle, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, and Pilot James D. Wetherbee position themselves before opening hose nozzle.

  7. Including cetaceans in multi-species assessment models using strandings data: why, how and what can we do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Saavedra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-species models have been commonly used to assess fish stocks in the past. Since these models have relatively simple data requirements, they sometimes provide the only tool available to assess the status of a stock when data are not enough to develop more complex models. However, these models have been criticized for several reasons since they provide reference points independently for each species assessed ignoring their interactions. For example, several studies suggest that even more substantial reductions in fishing mortality may be necessary to ensure MSY is reached when taking into consideration multiespecies interactions. Therefore, and as Pauly et al. (1998 stated, single-species analysis may mislead researchers and managers into neglecting the gear and trophic interactions which ultimately determine stocks long-term yields and ecosystem health. Ecosystem or multispecies models offer a number of advantages over single-species models. As stated in the workshop “Incorporating ecosystem considerations into stock assessments and management advice” (Mace, 2000 two general improvements are: a better appreciation of the fishing on ecosystem structure and function, and a better appreciation of the need to consider de value of marine ecosystems for functions other than harvesting fish. As disadvantages, multispecies models are statistically complex and include trophic relationships requiring more information (e.g. good estimations of biological parameters of each species and generally a full quantification of the diet sometimes available though the analysis of stomach contents. To reduce the number of species and therefore the amount of information needed, Minimum Realistic Models (MRMs represent an intermediate level of complexity, where only the subset of the ecosystem, important for the issue under consideration, is modeled. This approach offers the advantage of allowing a refinement of our estimates and can help answer more targeted

  8. Quality assessment of delineation and dose planning of early breast cancer patients included in the randomized Skagen Trial 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francolini, Giulio; Thomsen, Mette S; Yates, Esben S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To report on a Quality assessment (QA) of Skagen Trial 1, exploring hypofractionation for breast cancer patients with indication for regional nodal radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Deviations from protocol regarding target volume delineations and dose parameters (Dmin...

  9. 76 FR 51317 - Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ...-AB50 Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing Vessels AGENCY: Coast... regulations a description of the procedures for requesting and processing waivers of citizenship requirements... above. Relief from these citizenship and permanent resident status requirements is provided in 46 U.S.C...

  10. 76 FR 3831 - Crew Resource Management Training for Crewmembers in Part 135 Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... training in the use of crew resource management principles, as appropriate for their operation. This final... incorporation of team management concepts in flight operations. This training focuses on communication and... document. Title: Crew Resource Management Training for Crewmembers in Part 135 Operations. Summary: This...

  11. The objective evaluation of aircrew protective breathing equipment : V., mask/goggles combinations for female crewmembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the degree of respiratory and visual protection given to the female crewmember by various crew oxygen mask/goggle combinations. The acceptance criteria for the mask/goggle combinations were for 10 of 12 test subject...

  12. 14 CFR 133.37 - Crewmember training, currency, and testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember training, currency, and testing..., currency, and testing requirements. (a) No certificate holder may use, nor may any person serve, as a pilot in operations conducted under this part unless that person— (1) Has successfully demonstrated, to the...

  13. Seismic reliability assessment of RC structures including soil–structure interaction using wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatibinia, Mohsen; Javad Fadaee, Mohammad; Salajegheh, Javad; Salajegheh, Eysa

    2013-01-01

    An efficient metamodeling framework in conjunction with the Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is introduced to reduce the computational cost in seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures. In order to achieve this purpose, the metamodel is designed by combining weighted least squares support vector machine (WLS-SVM) and a wavelet kernel function, called wavelet weighted least squares support vector machine (WWLS-SVM). In this study, the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures with consideration of soil–structure interaction (SSI) effects is investigated in accordance with Performance-Based Design (PBD). This study aims to incorporate the acceptable performance levels of PBD into reliability theory for comparing the obtained annual probability of non-performance with the target values for each performance level. The MCS method as the most reliable method is utilized to estimate the annual probability of failure associated with a given performance level in this study. In WWLS-SVM-based MCS, the structural seismic responses are accurately predicted by WWLS-SVM for reducing the computational cost. To show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed metamodel, two RC structures are studied. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and computational advantages of the proposed metamodel for the seismic reliability assessment of structures. Furthermore, the consideration of the SSI effects in the seismic reliability assessment of existing RC structures is compared to the fixed base model. It shows which SSI has the significant influence on the seismic reliability assessment of structures.

  14. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    experiments to assess the toxicity of fenthion following aerial application to control adult salt marsh mosquitoes at an estuarine site in Florida...Genotoxicity testing in sediments: Progress in developing a transgenic polychaete model. ERDC/TN EEDP-01-45. Ireland DS, Burton GA, Jr., and Hess GG, 1996

  15. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  16. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  17. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  18. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  19. Assessment of emerging contaminants including organophosphate esters and pyrethroids during DISCOVER-AQ in Houston, Texas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sascha; Clark, Addie; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) is a NASA-funded air quality research program that focused on Houston, Texas, United States in September 2013. In conjunction with DISCOVER-AQ, particulate matter was collected for the month of September from four ground-based sampling sites across the Houston metropolitan area. The Houston metropolitan area is one of the most populous cities in the United States. Sampling sites included an upwind and downwind site as well as an urban (i.e. downtown) and industrial/port areas (i.e. Houston Ship Channel). Particulate matter samples were collected to examine both spatial and temporal trends (including day versus night). Particulate matter was collected on quartz fiber filters, which were analyzed for emerging classes of concern including organophosphate esters (OPEs; including flame retardants) and pyrethroids. OPEs have in recent years increased in both use and production as they replaced polybrominated diphenyl ethers flame retardants. Permethrin is one of the most commonly used mosquito adulticides in the United States.

  20. Vulnerability assessment including tangible and intangible components in the index composition: An Amazon case study of flooding and flash flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena Marília Nogueira de; Szlafsztein, Claudio Fabian

    2018-02-27

    The vulnerability of cities and communities in the Amazon to flooding and flash flooding is increasing. The effects of extreme events on populations vary across landscapes, causing vulnerability to differ spatially. Traditional vulnerability studies in Brazil and across the world have used the vulnerability index for the country and, more recently, municipality scales. The vulnerability dimensions are exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. For each of these dimensions, there is a group of indicators that constitutes a vulnerability index using quantitative data. Several vulnerability assessments have used sensitivity and exposure analyses and, recently, adaptive capacity has been considered. The Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analysis allows spatial regional modeling using quantitative vulnerability indicators. This paper presents a local-scale vulnerability assessment in an urban Amazonian area, Santarém City, using interdisciplinary methods. Data for exposure and sensitivity were gathered by remote sensing and census data, respectively. However, adaptive capacity refers to local capacities, whether infrastructural or not, and the latter were gathered by qualitative participatory methods. For the mixed data used to study adaptive capacity, we consider tangible components for countable infrastructure that can cope with hazards, and intangible components that reflect social activities based on risk perceptions and collective action. The results indicate that over 80% of the area is highly or moderately vulnerable to flooding and flash flooding. Exposure and adaptive capacity were determinants of the results. Lower values of adaptive capacity play a significant role in vulnerability enhancement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities – Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2017-01-01

    % in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers.......Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff...

  2. Measured Properties of Turbulent Premixed Flames for Model Assessment, Including Burning Velocities, Stretch Rates, and Surface Densities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent burning velocity of Bunsen flames depends...burning velocity of Bunsen flames are inadequate because they should include two additional parameters: mean velocity Ū and burner width W. These...corru- gated) flame with well-defined boundary conditions was stabilized on a large two-dimensional slot Bunsen burner . It was found that the turbulent

  3. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  4. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornes John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas.

  5. Metal load assessment in patient pulmonary lavages: towards a comprehensive mineralogical analysis including the nano-sized fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Valérie; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Guibert, Cyril; Bitounis, Dimitrios; Leclerc, Lara; Sarry, Gwendoline; Pourchez, Jérémie

    Mineralogical analyses of clinical samples have been proved useful to identify causal relationship between exposure to airborne particles and pulmonary diseases. The most striking example is asbestosis where the assessment of asbestos bodies in patient lung samples has allowed defining values specific of pathologies. However, this type of analyses only considers the micro-sized fraction of the particles, neglecting the specific impact of nano-sized particles which have been otherwise shown to be reactive and able to induce biological effects. Similarly, in nanotoxicology, the mineralogical analysis of pulmonary fluids could be used as an indicator of exposure to inhaled nanoparticles and could help investigations on the relationship between exposure to these nanoparticles and lung diseases. We designed this study first to demonstrate the technical feasibility of this approach, then to get a clear picture of the metals present, and in what form, in patient lungs and finally to determine if indeed it is worth investigating separately the micro, sub-micro and nano fractions. Broncho-alveolar lavages were recovered from 100 patients suffering from interstitial lung diseases. A protocol was specifically developed to isolate three fractions containing respectively microparticles, sub-microparticles and nanoparticles with ions. The metal content in each fraction was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Results showed significant differences between the three fractions in terms of metal load confirming that the separate analysis of the fractions is relevant. It also means that the assessment of the micro-sized fraction alone, as commonly done in clinical practice, only gives a partial view of the mineralogical analysis.

  6. [Training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology: Assessment of an educational program including formal lectures and practical sessions using simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A; El Haloui, O; Breaud, J; Chevalier, D; Antomarchi, J; Bongain, A; Boucoiran, I; Delotte, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate an educational program in the training of residents in gynecology-obstetrics (GO) with a theory session and a practical session on simulators and analyze their learning curve. Single-center prospective study, at the university hospital (CHU). Two-day sessions were leaded in April and July 2013. An evaluation on obstetric and gynecological surgery simulator was available to all residents. Theoretical knowledge principles of obstetrics were evaluated early in the session and after formal lectures was taught to them. At the end of the first session, a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Twenty residents agreed to participate to the training sessions. Evaluation of theoretical knowledge: at the end of the session, the residents obtained a significant improvement in their score on 20 testing knowledge. Obstetrical simulator: a statistically significant improvement in scores on assessments simulator vaginal delivery between the first and second session. Subjectively, a larger increase feeling was seen after breech delivery simulation than for the cephalic vaginal delivery. However, the confidence level of the resident after breech delivery simulation has not been improved at the end of the second session. Simulation in gynecological surgery: a trend towards improvement in the time realized on the peg-transfer between the two sessions was noted. In the virtual simulation, no statistically significant differences showed, no improvement for in salpingectomy's time. Subjectively, the residents felt an increase in the precision of their gesture. Satisfaction: All residents have tried the whole program. They considered the pursuit of these sessions on simulators was necessary and even mandatory. The approach chosen by this structured educational program allowed a progression for the residents, both objectively and subjectively. This simulation program type for the resident's training would use this tool in assessing their skills and develop

  7. Imaging Modalities Relevant to Intracranial Pressure Assessment in Astronauts: A Case-Based Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Kramer, Larry A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Fogarty, Jennifer; Polk, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation has been inferred or documented in a number of space crewmembers. Recent advances in noninvasive imaging technology offer new possibilities for ICP assessment. Most International Space Station (ISS) partner agencies have adopted a battery of occupational health monitoring tests including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre- and postflight, and high-resolution sonography of the orbital structures in all mission phases including during flight. We hypothesize that joint consideration of data from the two techniques has the potential to improve quality and continuity of crewmember monitoring and care. Methods: Specially designed MRI and sonographic protocols were used to image eyes and optic nerves (ON) including the meningeal sheaths. Specific crewmembers multi-modality imaging data were analyzed to identify points of mutual validation as well as unique features of complementary nature. Results and Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution sonography are both tomographic methods, however images obtained by the two modalities are based on different physical phenomena and use different acquisition principles. Consideration of the images acquired by these two modalities allows cross-validating findings related to the volume and fluid content of the ON subarachnoid space, shape of the globe, and other anatomical features of the orbit. Each of the imaging modalities also has unique advantages, making them complementary techniques.

  8. Environmental assessment of bioenergy technologies application in Russia, including their impact on the balance of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irina; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, Russia adopted a policy towards increasing of the share of renewable energy in total amount of used energy, albeit with some delay comparing to the EU countries and the USA. It was expected that the use of biofuels over time will reduce significantly the dependency of Russian economy on fossil fuels, increase its competitiveness, and increase Russian contribution to the prevention of global climate changes. Russia has significant bio-energy potential and resources which are characterized by great diversity due to the large extent of the territory, which require systematic studies and environmental assessment of used bio-energy technologies. Results of research carried at the Laboratory of agroecological monitoring, modeling and prediction of ecosystems RSAU-MTAA demonstrated significant differences in the assessment of the environmental, economic and social effects of biofuel production and use, depending on the species of bio-energy crops, regional soil-ecological and agro-climatic characteristics, applied farming systems and production processes. The total area of temporarily unused and fallow land, which could be allocated to the active agricultural use in Russia, according to various estimates, ranges from 20 to 33 million hectares, which removes the problem, typical of most European countries, of adverse agro-ecological changes in land use connected with the expansion of bio-energy crops cultivation. However, the expansion of biofuel production through the use of fallow land and conversion of natural lands has as a consequence the problem of greenhouse gas emissions due to land use changes, which, according to FAO, could be even higher than CO2 emission from fossil fuels for some of bio-energy raw materials and production systems. Assessment of the total impacts of biofuels on greenhouse gas emissions in the Russian conditions should be based on regionally adapted calculations of flows throughout the entire life cycle of production, taking

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE SPECIFIC LOCAL HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY INCLUDING CASES ASSOCIATED WITH GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In order to optimize the detection and diagnosis of genital tuberculosis evaluation of the specific local antituberculosis immunity in 39 patients with infertility entered to the Department of Gynecology for the implementation of therapeutic and diagnostic laparoscopy has been carried out. All patients were divided into 3 groups: the 1st one included patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility, the group 2 included patients with infertility not associated with the defeat of the fallopian tubes, the third group was presented by patients with tubal-peritoneal infertility associated with genital tuberculosis who completed the basic course of anti-tuberculosis treatment. It was established that in case of the tubal-peritoneal infertility the local humoral immunity was characterised by increasing of IgM in the whole peritoneal fluid. Among women who recovered from genital tuberculosis increasing of IgA and IgG to M. tuberculosis was revealed in contrast to patients with infertility not associated with damage of fallopian tubes (p < 0.05. In 25% of patients of the 1st group genital tuberculosis was diagnosed. The diagnostic criteria for early detection of genital tuberculosis were determined and the algorithm of genital tuberculosis identification have been proposed.

  10. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenzin, Elena [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, c/o VEGApark, Via della Liberta 5-12, 30175 Marghera-Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: semenzin.cvr@vegapark.ve.it; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M. [Wageningen University, Department of Environmental Science, Subdepartment of Soil Quality, PO Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: erwin.temminghoff@wur.nl; Marcomini, Antonio [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Santa Marta - Dorsoduro 2137, 30121 Venice (Italy)]. E-mail: marcom@unive.it

    2007-07-15

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

  11. Including exposure variability in the life cycle impact assessment of indoor chemical emissions: the case of metal degreasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Huizer, Daan; Hauck, Mara; van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2014-10-01

    The present paper describes a method that accounts for variation in indoor chemical exposure settings and accompanying human toxicity in life cycle assessment (LCA). Metal degreasing with dichloromethane was used as a case study to show method in practice. We compared the human toxicity related to the degreasing of 1m(2) of metal surface in different exposure scenarios for industrial workers, professional users outside industrial settings, and home consumers. The fraction of the chemical emission that is taken in by exposed individuals (i.e. the intake fraction) was estimated on the basis of operational conditions (e.g. exposure duration), and protective measures (e.g. local exhaust ventilation). The introduction of a time-dependency and a correction for protective measures resulted in reductions in the intake fraction of up to 1.5 orders of magnitude, compared to application of existing, less advanced models. In every exposure scenario, the life cycle impacts for human toxicity were mainly caused by indoor exposure to metal degreaser (>60%). Emissions released outdoors contributed up to 22% of the life cycle impacts for human toxicity, and the production of metal degreaser contributed up to 19%. These findings illustrate that human toxicity from indoor chemical exposure should not be disregarded in LCA case studies. Particularly when protective measures are taken or in the case of a short duration (1h or less), we recommend the use of our exposure scenario-specific approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 45 CFR 284.30 - What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessment of the impact of the TANF program(s) in the State on the increase in child poverty? 284.30 Section... TANF PROGRAM § 284.30 What information must the State include in its assessment of the impact of the... PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES METHODOLOGY...

  13. Incidental renal stones in potential live kidney donors: prevalence, assessment and donation, including role of ex vivo ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsburgh, Jonathon; Thomas, Kay; Wong, Kathie; Bultitude, Matthew; Glass, Jonathan; Rottenberg, Giles; Silas, Lisa; Hilton, Rachel; Koffman, Geoff

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Previously, donors with asymptomatic stones found incidentally on CT were not considered ideal donor candidates because of the presumed risk of morbidity to both the donor and recipient. Increasingly, studies show that these risks are low. This study aims to evaluate the long-term safety of using ex vivo ureteroscopy to remove the stones from the donor kidney on the bench before donation. Outcomes so far suggest that this technique can safely render a kidney stone-free before transplantation. This has led to 20 more transplants in our institution than would otherwise be possible. To evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones in our potential donor population. To assess the safety and success of ex vivo ureteroscopy (ExURS) to remove stones from explanted donor kidneys before transplantation. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 377 computed tomography (CT) angiograms of potential kidney donors between October 2004 and May 2007 to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones in our donor population. Between October 2005 and October 2011, kidneys from suitable donors underwent ExURS. Stones were removed using basket extraction or were fragmented with holmium laser on bench before transplantation. Immediate and long-term complications of the transplanted recipients were recorded. Donors were followed with yearly ultrasonography of the remaining kidney in addition to standard follow-up protocol. Review of 377 CT angiograms between October 2004 to May 2007 showed a 5% prevalence of asymptomatic renal stones. Out of 55 potential donors (19 identified between October 2004 to May 2007 and a further 36 identified since May 2007), 20 donors with stones proceeded to donation, with stone size ranging from 2 to 12 mm. Of the patients, 17 proceeded to ExURS. Stones were removed in 10 patients; five with basket retrieval, four with laser fragmentation and one with both laser fragmentation and basket

  14. Diagnostic instrumentation aboard ISS: just-in-time training for non-physician crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foale, C. Michael; Kaleri, Alexander Y.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed "just-in-time" training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This "just-in-time" concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete ultrasound examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). METHODS: An American and Russian ISS crewmember received 2 h of "hands on" ultrasound training 8 mo prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember 6 d prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. RESULTS: Results of the CD-ROM-based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35-min real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were adequate for clinical decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited preflight training and multimedia based in-flight review, despite a 2-s communication latency. In-flight application of multimedia proficiency enhancement software, coupled with real-time remote expert guidance, facilitates the successful performance of ultrasound examinations on orbit and may have additional terrestrial and space applications.

  15. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  16. Assessment of commercially available energy-efficient room air conditioners including models with low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    , the highest-efficiency RAC models employ the low-GWP refrigerants R-32 or R-290. • RACs are available in most regions and worldwide that surpass the highest efficiency levels recognized by labeling programs. • Fixed-speed RACs using high-GWP and ozone-depleting R-22 refrigerant still dominate the market in many emerging economies. There is significant scope to improve RAC efficiency and transition to low-GWP refrigerants using commercially available technology and to design market-transformation programs for high-efficiency, low-GWP equipment including standards, labeling, procurement, and incentive programs.

  17. Development of an In Flight Vision Self-Assessment Questionnaire for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Gibson, Charles R.; Pierpoline, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW A NASA Flight Medicine optometrist teamed with a human factors specialist to develop an electronic questionnaire for crewmembers to record their visual acuity test scores and perceived vision assessment. It will be implemented on the International Space Station (ISS) and administered as part of a suite of tools for early detection of potential vision changes. The goal of this effort was to rapidly develop a set of questions to help in early detection of visual (e.g. blurred vision) and/or non-visual (e.g. headaches) symptoms by allowing the ISS crewmembers to think about their own current vision during their spaceflight missions. PROCESS An iterative process began with a Space Shuttle one-page paper questionnaire generated by the optometrist that was updated by applying human factors design principles. It was used as a baseline to establish an electronic questionnaire for ISS missions. Additional questions needed for the ISS missions were included and the information was organized to take advantage of the computer-based file format available. Human factors heuristics were applied to the prototype and then they were reviewed by the optometrist and procedures specialists with rapid-turn around updates that lead to the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS With about only a month lead time, a usable tool to collect crewmember assessments was developed through this cross-discipline collaboration. With only a little expenditure of energy, the potential payoff is great. ISS crewmembers will complete the questionnaire at 30 days into the mission, 100 days into the mission and 30 days prior to return to Earth. The systematic layout may also facilitate physicians later data extraction for quick interpretation of the data. The data collected along with other measures (e.g. retinal and ultrasound imaging) at regular intervals could potentially lead to early detection and treatment of related vision problems than using the other measures alone.

  18. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  19. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  20. Medical microbiological analysis of Apollo-Soyuz test project crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    The procedures and results of the Microbial Exchange Experiment (AR-002) of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are described. Included in the discussion of procedural aspects are methods and materials, in-flight microbial specimen collection, and preliminary analysis of microbial specimens. Medically important microorganisms recovered from both Apollo and Soyuz crewmen are evaluated.

  1. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  2. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  3. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...... to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass......, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess...

  4. Eco-efficient production of spring barley in a changed climate: A Life Cycle Assessment including primary data from future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    and including earlier sowing and cultivar selection as measures of adaptation to a changed climate. A baseline scenario describing the current spring barley cultivation in Denmark was defined, and the expected main deviations were identified (differences in pesticide treatment index, modifications in nitrate...... leaching and change in crop yield). The main input data originate from experiments, where spring barley cultivars were cultivated in a climate phytotron under controlled and manipulated treatments. Effects of changed climate on both crop productivity and crop quality were represented, as well as impacts......The paper has two main objectives: (i) to assess the eco-efficiency of spring barley cultivation for malting in Denmark in a future changed climate (700 ppm [CO2] and +5 °C) through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (ii) to compare alternative future cultivation scenarios, both excluding...

  5. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... his base and who is a pilot on an airplane that has a crew of three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember. It shall also provide adequate sleeping quarters on the airplane whenever a pilot is scheduled to fly more than 12 hours during any 24 consecutive hours. (b) The certificate holder conducting...

  6. Should nutritional status evaluation be included in the initial needs assessment of leprosy patients with disability prior to socio-economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Diffey, B; Jacob, A J; Vaz, M

    2001-06-01

    Because of the large numbers of leprosy patients with disability and the limited resources available, it is important that socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) is targeted towards those who are most in need. Towards this purpose, current assessments of leprosy patients prior to initiating SER include the evaluation of income, assets and household possessions. Conspicuously absent is the nutritional assessment of the patient. In the absence of weight loss associated with illness, population studies indicate that undernutrition reflects poor socio-economic conditions. In this study of 151 cured leprosy patients with disability, 57% of the patients were found to be undernourished using body mass index (kg/m2) derived from body weight and height, and 10% of the patients were severely undernourished (grade III). Undernutrition in the patients was poorly though significantly correlated with personal income (r = 0.18, P nutritional status evaluation by anthropometry as part of the initial screening of leprosy patients prior to instituting SER. We believe that this simple and objective evaluation can add to the assessment of 'threat' of economic deprivation or actual economic 'dislocation', and thus help in the prioritization of leprosy patients for SER.

  7. Combined curative radiotherapy including HDR brachytherapy and androgen deprivation in localized prostate cancer: A prospective assessment of acute and late treatment toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Thomas; Nilsson, Sten; Ryberg, Marianne; Brandberg, Yvonne; Lennernaes, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Self-reported symptoms including urinary, bowel and sexual side effects were investigated prospectively at multiple assessment points before and after combined radiotherapy of prostate cancer including HDR brachytherapy and neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Between April 2000 and June 2003, patients with predominantly advanced localized prostate tumours subjected to this treatment were asked before treatment and on follow-up visits to complete a questionnaire covering urinary, bowel and sexual problems. The mainly descriptive analyses included 525 patients, responding to at least one questionnaire before or during the period 2-34 months after radiotherapy. Adding androgen deprivation before radiotherapy significantly worsened sexual function. During radiotherapy, urinary, bowel and sexual problems increased and were reported at higher levels up to 34 months, although there seemed to be a general tendency to less pronounced irritative bowel and urinary tract symptoms over time. No side effects requiring surgery were reported. Classic late irradiation effects such as mucosal bleeding were demonstrated mainly during the second year after therapy, but appear less pronounced in comparison with dose escalated EBRT series. In conclusion, despite the high radiation dose given, the toxicity seemed comparable with that of other series but long term (5-10 years) symptom outcome has to be determined

  8. Behavioral Assessment of Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent and Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dios, Y. E.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Peters, B. T.; Taylor, L. C.; Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Seidler, R. D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment during spaceflight missions impacts crewmembers' sensorimotor function. Bock et al. [1] studied the cognitive demands of human sensorimotor performance and dual tasking during long duration missions and concluded that both stress and scarcity of cognitive resources required for sensorimotor adaptation may be responsible for these deficits during spaceflight. Therefore, in consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers in- and post-flight, we are conducting this study to investigate the effects of spaceflight on the extent, longevity and neural bases of sensorimotor, cognitive, and neural changes. The data presented will focus on the behavioral measures that were collected pre-, in- and post-flight including spatial cognition, processing speed, bimanual coordination, functional mobility, computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), and vibrotactile induced vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). To date, data were collected over the course of two pre-flight sessions and four post-flight sessions on five crewmembers (n=13) using the protocol described in Koppelmans et al. [2]. Balance control was assessed using CDP, with eyes closed and a sway-referenced base of support (Sensory Organization Test 5), with and without head movements in the pitch plane. Spatial working memory was assessed using Thurston's Card Rotation Test and a Mental Rotation Test. The Rod and Frame Test was performed to test visual dependence. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test was performed to evaluate processing speed, and the Purdue Pegboard Task was performed to test bimanual coordination. Vestibular function was assessed by eliciting ocular VEMP via a hand held striker on the side of the head as subjects lay supine on a gurney. Subjects also performed the Functional Mobility Test of walking through an obstacle course to assess rate of early motor learning. Data were also collected on the same crewmembers during three in-flight sessions on

  9. STS-47 crewmembers eat on OV-105's middeck using chopsticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, with chopsticks in his mouth, juggles a handheld computer and a food container while trying to get a bite to eat. Commander Robert L. Gibson (right), holding chopsticks in his hand, watches Brown as Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, in the background, prepares to consume his meal in the manner he is accustomed to. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The three crewmembers are on the middeck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Several months of training, as well as the eight-days of sharing research on the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission, allowed the astronauts and payload specialist to learn a great deal about the two cultures.

  10. Exploration of Habitability Factors Influencing Short Duration Spaceflight: Structured Postflight Interviews of Shuttle Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, James; Leveton, Lauren; Keeton, Kathryn; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts report significant difficulties with sleep during Space missions. Psychological, physiological, and habitability factors are all thought to play a role in spaceflight insomnia. Crewmembers gain experience with the spaceflight sleep environment as their missions progress, but this knowledge is not formally collected and communicated to subsequent crews. This lack of information transfer prevents crews from optimizing their capability to sleep during mission, which leads to fatigue and its potentially deleterious effects. The goal of this project is astronauts with recent spaceflight experience to gather their knowledge of and insights into sleep in Space. Structured interviews consisting of standardized closed and open-ended questionnaires are administered to astronauts who have flown on the Space Shuttle since the Columbia disaster. It is hoped that review and analysis of the pooled responses to the interview questions will lead to greater understanding of the sleep environment during short duration spaceflight, with attention placed on problem aspects and their potential solutions.

  11. STS-65 crewmembers and backup participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 crewmembers, wearing clean suits, look over equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Surrounding a table full of equipment at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, and backup (alternate) payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Favier represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  12. Methodology in the Assessment of Construction and Development Investment Projects, Including the Graphic Multi-Criteria Analysis – a Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranko, Elżbieta

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of variant solutions developed for a building investment project needs to be made at the stage of planning. While considering alternative solutions, the investor defines various criteria, but a direct evaluation of the degree of their fulfilment by developed variant solutions can be very difficult. In practice, there are different methods which enable the user to include a large number of parameters into an analysis, but their implementation can be challenging. Some methods require advanced mathematical computations, preceded by complicating input data processing, and the generated results may not lend themselves easily to interpretation. Hence, during her research, the author has developed a systemic approach, which involves several methods and whose goal is to compare their outcome. The final stage of the proposed method consists of graphic interpretation of results. The method has been tested on a variety of building and development projects.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  16. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  18. Comprehensive Astronaut Immune Assessment Following a Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Immune system dysregulation has been demonstrated to occur during spaceflight and has the potential to cause serious health risks to crewmembers participating in exploration class missions. As a part of an ongoing NASA flight experiment assessing viral immunity (DSO-500), a generalized immune assessment was performed on 3 crewmembers who participated in the recent STS-114 Space Shuttle mission. The following assays were performed: (1) comprehensive immunophenotype analysis; (2) T cell function/intracellular cytokine profiles; (4) secreted Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles via cytometric bead array. Immunophenotype analysis included a leukocyte differential, lymphocyte subsets, T cell subsets, cytotoxic/effector CD8+ T cells, memory/naive T cell subsets and constitutively activated T cells. Study timepoints were L-180, L-65, L-10, R+0, R+3 and R+14. Detailed data are presented in the poster text. As expected from a limited number of human subjects, data tended to vary with respect to most parameters. Specific post-flight alterations were as follows (subject number in parentheses): Granulocytosis (2/3), reduced NK cells (3/3), elevated CD4/CD8 ratio (3/3), general CD8+ phenotype shift to a less differentiated phenotype (3/3), elevated levels of memory CD4+ T cells (3/3), loss of L-selectin on T cell subsets (3/3), increased levels of activated T cells (2/3), reduced IL-2 producing T cell subsets (3/3), levels of IFNg producing T cells were unchanged. CD8+ T cell expression of the CD69 activation markers following whole blood stimulation with SEA+SEB were dramatically reduced postflight (3/3), whereas other T cell function assessments were largely unchanged. Cytometric bead array assessment of secreted T cell cytokines was performed, following whole blood stimulation with either CD3/CD28 antibodies or PMA+ionomycin for 48 hours. Specific cytokines assessed were IFNg, TNFa, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10. Following CD3/CD28 stimulation, all three crewmembers had a mission

  19. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  20. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  1. Description and assessment of a registration-based approach to include bones for attenuation correction of whole-body PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry R; Patrick, John; Laidley, David; Prato, Frank S; Butler, John; Théberge, Jean; Thompson, R Terry; Stodilka, Robert Z

    2013-08-01

    Attenuation correction for whole-body PET/MRI is challenging. Most commercial systems compute the attenuation map from MRI using a four-tissue segmentation approach. Bones, the most electron-dense tissue, are neglected because they are difficult to segment. In this work, the authors build on this segmentation approach by adding bones using a registration technique and assessing its performance on human PET images. Twelve oncology patients were imaged with FDG PET/CT and MRI using a Turbo-FLASH pulse sequence. A database of 121 attenuation correction quality CT scans was also collected. Each patient MRI was compared to the CT database via weighted heuristic measures to find the "most similar" CT in terms of body geometry. The similar CT was aligned to the MRI with a deformable registration method. Two MRI-based attenuation maps were computed. One was a standard four-tissue segmentation (air, lung, fat, and lean tissue) using basic image processing techniques. The other was identical, except the bones from the aligned CT were added. The PET data were reconstructed with the patient's CT-based attenuation map (the silver standard) and both MRI-based attenuation maps. The relative errors of the MRI-based attenuation corrections were computed in 14 standardized volumes of interest, in lesions, and over whole tissues. The squared Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated over whole tissues. Statistical testing was done with ANOVAs and paired t-tests. The MRI-based attenuation correction ignoring bone had relative errors ranging from -37% to -8% in volumes of interest containing bone. By including bone, the magnitude of the relative error was reduced in all cases (pbone was improved from a mean of -7.5% to 2% (pbone reduced the magnitude of relative error in three cases (pbone slightly increased relative error in lung from 7.7% to 8.0% (p=0.002), in fat from 8.5% to 9.2% (pbone from -14.6% to 1.3% (pbone was included or not. The approach to include bones in MRI

  2. The effect of different operations modes on science capabilities during the 2010 Desert RATS test: Insights from the geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W.; Garry, W. Brent

    2013-10-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  3. Medication Use by U.S. Crewmembers on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined medication use during long-duration. Medication records from 24 crewmembers on 20 missions (greater than 30 days duration) were examined for trends in usage rates, efficacy, indication, as well as adverse event qualities, frequencies and severities. No controls were possible in this observational, retrospective analysis of available data; comparisons are made to similar studies of individuals on shortduration spaceflights and submarine deployments. The most frequently used medications were for sleep problems, pain, congestion or allergy. Medication use during spaceflight missions was similar to what is seen in adult ambulatory medicine; one notable exception is that usage of sleep aids was about 10 times higher in spaceflight. There were also two apparent treatment failures in cases of skin rash, raising questions about the efficacy or suitability of the treatments used. Many spaceflight-related medication uses were linked to extravehicular-activities and operationally-driven schedule changes. The data suggest that sleep and skin rash merit additional study prior to longer space exploration missions. It also seems likely that alterations in schedule-shifting or extravehicular activity suits would reduce the need for many medication uses, preserving resources as well as improving crew quality of life.

  4. A comprehensive assessment protocol including patient reported outcomes, physical tests, and biological sampling in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer: is it feasible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, A.J.; Buffart, L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Braakhuis, B.J.; de Bree, R.; Leemans, C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Large cohort studies are needed taking into account cancer-related, personal, biological, psychobehavioral, and lifestyle-related factors, to guide future research to improve treatment and supportive care. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a comprehensive baseline assessment of a

  5. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwind, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gschwind@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Lefevre, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.lefevre@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Blanc, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.blanc@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Ranchin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.ranchin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Wyrwa, Artur, E-mail: awyrwa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Drebszok, Kamila [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Cofala, Janusz, E-mail: cofala@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Fuss, Sabine, E-mail: fuss@mcc-berlin.net [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, 10829 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  6. Including the temporal change in PM2.5 concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry; Wyrwa, Artur; Drebszok, Kamila; Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM 2.5 concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM 2.5 concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM 2.5 for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM 2.5 is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM 2.5 is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios

  7. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  8. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8

  9. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Chen, Jian; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer; Jammulapati, Srikanth; Perry, Michael; Morris, Brian; Roa, Benjamin; Timms, Kirsten

    2015-04-02

    Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic risk for cancer in 8 different tissues using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Twenty-five genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes were selected for development of a panel to screen for risk of these cancers using NGS. In an initial technical assessment, NGS results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were compared with Sanger sequencing in 1864 anonymized DNA samples from patients who had undergone previous clinical testing. Next, the entire gene panel was validated using parallel NGS and Sanger sequencing in 100 anonymized DNA samples. Large rearrangement analysis was validated using NGS, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses (MLPA). NGS identified 15,877 sequence variants, while Sanger sequencing identified 15,878 in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 comparison study of the same regions. Based on these results, the NGS process was refined prior to the validation of the full gene panel. In the validation study, NGS and Sanger sequencing were 100% concordant for the 3,923 collective variants across all genes for an analytical sensitivity of the NGS assay of >99.92% (lower limit of 95% confidence interval). NGS, microarray CGH and MLPA correctly identified all expected positive and negative large rearrangement results for the 25-gene panel. This study provides a thorough validation of the 25-gene NGS panel and indicates that this analysis tool can be used to collect clinically significant information related to risk of

  10. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  11. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  12. Potash: a global overview of evaporate-related potash resources, including spatial databases of deposits, occurrences, and permissive tracts: Chapter S in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, Greta J.; Cocker, Mark D.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wynn, Jeff C.; Spanski, Gregory T.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Gass, Leila; Bliss, James D.; Bolm, Karen S.; Yang, Chao; Lipin, Bruce R.; Ludington, Stephen; Miller, Robert J.; Słowakiewicz, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Potash is mined worldwide to provide potassium, an essential nutrient for food crops. Evaporite-hosted potash deposits are the largest source of salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form, including potassium chloride, potassium-magnesium chloride, potassium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Thick sections of evaporitic salt that form laterally continuous strata in sedimentary evaporite basins are the most common host for stratabound and halokinetic potash-bearing salt deposits. Potash-bearing basins may host tens of millions to more than 100 billion metric tons of potassium oxide (K2O). Examples of these deposits include those in the Elk Point Basin in Canada, the Pripyat Basin in Belarus, the Solikamsk Basin in Russia, and the Zechstein Basin in Germany.

  13. Tissue reactions to the separate implantation of individual constituent phases of dental amalgam, including assessment by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, B M; Garrett, J R

    1983-04-01

    Soft tissue degradation of the 3 principal amalgam phases have been investigated in relation to their role in the formation of the amalgam tattoo. Each phase, finely powdered, was implanted subcutaneously into the submandibular region of guinea-pigs for periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. The rates of breakdown were assessed radiographically and the final lesions were examined by light and electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. gamma 2 (Sn7Hg) phase degraded rapidly, mainly extracellularly, and did not produce a tattoo. Both mercury and tin disappeared from the lesion. gamma 1 (Ag2Hg3) phase degraded less rapidly, both extra and intracellularly, and produced a small tattoo. Mercury was lost from the lesion. gamma (Ag3Sn) phase degraded slowly, intracellularly, and produced a large tattoo. Tattoos always resulted from persistence of minute particles of silver and sulphur associated with basal lamina and connective tissue.

  14. Effects of MK-801 treatment across several pre-clinical analyses including a novel assessment of brain metabolic function utilizing PET and CT fused imaging in live rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, R P; Bhandari, J K; Hui, P A; Tian, Y; Farncombe, T; Mishra, R K

    2014-02-01

    Functional imaging studies in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated metabolic brain abnormalities during cognitive tasks. This study aimed to 1) introduce a novel analysis of brain metabolic function in live animals to characterize the hypo- and hyperfrontality phenomena observed in schizophrenia and following NMDA antagonist exposure, and 2) identify a robust and representative MK-801 treatment regimen that effectively models brain metabolic abnormalities as well as a range of established behavioural abnormalities representative of schizophrenia. The validity of the MK-801 animal model was examined across several established pre-clinical tests, and a novel assessment of brain metabolic function using PET/CT fused imaging. In the present study, MK-801 was administered acutely at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, and sub-chronically at 0.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Acute treatment at 0.5 mg/kg-disrupted facets of memory measured through performance in the 8-arm radial maze task and generated abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, social interaction and locomotor activity. Furthermore, this treatment regimen induced hyperfrontality (increased brain metabolic function in the prefrontal area) observed via PET/CT fused imaging in the live rat. While PET and CT fused imaging in the live rat offers a functional representation of metabolic function, more advanced PET/CT integration is required to analyze more discrete brain regions. These findings provide insight on the effectiveness of the MK-801 pre-clinical model of schizophrenia and provide an optimal regimen to model schizophrenia. PET/CT fused imaging offers a highly translatable tool to assess hypo- and hyperfrontality in live animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  16. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  17. The use of ‘ecological risk‘ for assessing effects of human activities: an example including eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nunneri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the move from the uncertainty surrounding ecosystem thresholds and addresses the issue of ecosystem-state assessment by means of ecological integrity indicators and ‘ecological risk‘. The concept of ‘ecological risk‘ gives a measure of the likelihood of ecosystem failure to provide the level of natural ecological goods and services expected/desired by human societies. As a consequence of human pressures (use of resources and discharge into the environment, ecosystem thresholds can be breached thus resulting in major threats to human health, safety and well-being. In this study we apply the concept of ‘ecological risk‘ to two case-studies in the German exclusive economic zone: eutrophication and construction of offshore wind farms. The effects of different future scenarios for single-uses upon ecosystem integrity are analysed as well as the effects of one combined scenario. We conclude that in the short term construction of offshore wind farms can influence some processes to a much larger degree than eutrophication, however, combined impacts deriving from eutrophication and offshore wind farm construction need a more detailed analysis. Due to non-linear ecosystem processes, effects of combined or multiple uses of marine resources in terms of ‘ecological risk‘, cannot be extrapolated from single-use scenarios.

  18. [Assessment of the technology of care relations in the health services: perception of the elderly included in the family health strategy in Bambuí, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Wagner Jorge dos; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-08-01

    In the health field, technologies of care relations are in the scope of the worker-user encounter, implying intersubjectivity with the development of relationships between subjects, resulting in action. Evaluation studies synthesize knowledge produced on the consequences of using these technologies for society. This anthropological study aims to understand the perception of the elderly regarding the resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts produced in health care relationships in the context of the Family Health Strategy (ESF). The group studied consisted of 57 elderly residents in Bambui, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The model of signs, meanings and actions was used for collecting and analyzing data and the semi-structured interview was applied as a research technique. Elderly individuals assess resolution capability and effectiveness of the acts of care in the ESF as negative, with relation to the quality of user and professional interaction. The ESF is not effective and the desired change in the health care model has not occurred in practice. It repeats the centrality of the medical-drug-procedure model that treats the disease rather than the patient, perceiving old age as a disease and illness as being related to aging.

  19. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  20. Deep tissue biopsy vs. superficial swab culture, including microbial loading determination, in the microbiological assessment of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Silvano; De Simone, Giuseppe; Gioia, Renato; Noviello, Silvana; Pagliara, Domenico; Campitiello, Nicola; Rubino, Corrado; Lo Pardo, Dante; Boccia, Giovanni; De Caro, Francesco; Ascione, Tiziana

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two patients affected by SSTIs including DFIs were enrolled between 2013 and 2014. Superficial swab was obtained before and after cleansing with sterile saline, and after ultrasonic debridement; deep tissue biopsy was obtained from ulcer base. Samples were diluted with 1 mL of saline, serial 10-fold dilutions to 10 -6 were made and 50 μL of each dilution was plated onto appropriate media. Bacteria were identified by Vitek II system. Microbial load was expressed as CFU/mL. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2. Incidence of Gram positives was higher than Gram negatives (S. aureus and P. aeruginosa being the most frequent); concordance (same bacteria isolated before and after debridement) never exceeded 60%. Ultrasonic debridement significantly reduced bacterial load or even suppressed bacterial growth. While reliability of superficial swab is poor for microbiological diagnosis of SSTIs, swabbing after ultrasonic debridement and biopsy of the ulcer base may be equally reliable.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Assessment and Evaluation Exercises Included in Geography Textbooks Written According to the 2005 Secondary Education Geography Curriculum and Textbooks of the Former Curriculum in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Okan

    2009-01-01

    This study conducts comparative analysis of the assessment and evaluation exercises in the geography textbooks written according to the Secondary Education Geography Curriculum for 2005 in Turkey with those in the former geography textbooks. In this respect, firstly, the assessment and evaluation studies included in geography textbooks written…

  2. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R

    2014-10-30

    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Fertility in Namibia. Changes in fertility levels in North-Central Namibia 1960-2001, including an assessment of the impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Shemeikka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the development of fertility in North-Central Namibia, former Ovamboland, from 1960 to 2001. Special attention was given to the onset of fertility decline and to the impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility. An additional aim was to introduce parish registers as a source of data for fertility research in Africa.  Data used consisted of parish registers from Evangelical Lutheran congregations, the 1991 and 2001 Population and Housing Censuses, the 1992 and 2000 Namibia Demographic and Health Surveys, and the HIV sentinel surveillances of 1992-2004. Both period and cohort fertility were analysed. The P/F ratio method was used when analysing census data. The impact of HIV infection on fertility was estimated indirectly by comparing the fertility histories of women who died at an age of less than 50 years with the fertility of other women. The impact of the HIV epidemic on fertility was assessed both among infected women and in the general population.  Fertility in the study population began to decline in 1980. The decline was rapid during the 1980s, levelled off in the early 1990s at the end of war of independence and then continued to decline until the end of the study period. According to parish registers, total fertility was 6.4 in the 1960s and 6.5 in the 1970s, and declined to 5.1 in the 1980s and 4.2 in the 1990s. Adjustment of these total fertility rates to correspond to levels of fertility based on data from the 1991 and 2001 censuses resulted in total fertility declining from 7.6 in 1960-79 to 6.0 in 1980-89, and to 4.9 in 1990-99. The decline was associated with increased age at first marriage, declining marital fertility and increasing premarital fertility. Fertility among adolescents increased, whereas the fertility of women in all other age groups declined.  During the 1980s, the war of independence contributed to declining fertility through spousal separation and delayed marriages. Contraception

  4. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    2016-01-01

    for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference...... between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from...

  5. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  6. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  7. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  8. Haughton-Mars Project/NASA 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation: Equipment and Methods for Medical Evacuation of an Injured Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, S. P.; Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chase, T.; Gernhardt M.; Wilkinson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving NASA's Space Exploration Vision scientific objectives will require human access into cratered and uneven terrain for the purpose of sample acquisition to assess geological, and perhaps even biological features and experiments. Operational risk management is critical to safely conduct the anticipated tasks. This strategy, along with associated contingency plans, will be a driver of EVA system requirements. Therefore, a medical contingency EVA scenario was performed with the Haughton-Mars Project/NASA to develop belay and medical evacuation techniques for exploration and rescue respectively. Methods: A rescue system to allow two rescuer astronauts to evacuate one in incapacitated astronaut was evaluated. The systems main components were a hard-bottomed rescue litter, hand-operated winch, rope, ground picket anchors, and a rover-winch attachment adapter. Evaluation was performed on 15-25deg slopes of dirt with embedded rock. The winch was anchored either by adapter to the rover or by pickets hammered into the ground. The litter was pulled over the surface by rope attached to the winch. Results: The rescue system was utilized effectively to extract the injured astronaut up a slope and to a waiting rover for transport to a simulated habitat for advanced medical care, although several challenges to implementation were identified and overcome. Rotational stabilization of the winch was found to be important to get maximize mechanical advantage from the extraction system. Discussion: Further research and testing needs to be performed to be able to fully consider synergies with the other Exploration surface systems, in conducting contingency operations. Structural attachment points on the surface EVA suits may be critical to assist in incapacitated evacuation. Such attach points could be helpful in microgravity incapacitated crewmember transport as well. Wheeled utility carts or wheels that may be attachable to a litter may also aid in extraction and

  9. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  10. Should Student Evaluation of Teaching Play a Significant Role in the Formal Assessment of Dental Faculty? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Formal Faculty Assessment Should Include Student Evaluation of Teaching and Viewpoint 2: Student Evaluation of Teaching Should Not Be Part of Formal Faculty Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Susan; Newness, Elmer J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Prasad, Joanne L; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sanchez, Arlene

    2017-11-01

    Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is often used in the assessment of faculty members' job performance and promotion and tenure decisions, but debate over this use of student evaluations has centered on the validity, reliability, and application of the data in assessing teaching performance. Additionally, the fear of student criticism has the potential of influencing course content delivery and testing measures. This Point/Counterpoint article reviews the potential utility of and controversy surrounding the use of SETs in the formal assessment of dental school faculty. Viewpoint 1 supports the view that SETs are reliable and should be included in those formal assessments. Proponents of this opinion contend that SETs serve to measure a school's effectiveness in support of its core mission, are valid measures based on feedback from the recipients of educational delivery, and provide formative feedback to improve faculty accountability to the institution. Viewpoint 2 argues that SETs should not be used for promotion and tenure decisions, asserting that higher SET ratings do not correlate with improved student learning. The advocates of this viewpoint contend that faculty members may be influenced to focus on student satisfaction rather than pedagogy, resulting in grade inflation. They also argue that SETs are prone to gender and racial biases and that SET results are frequently misinterpreted by administrators. Low response rates and monotonic response patterns are other factors that compromise the reliability of SETs.

  11. 78 FR 67799 - Qualification, Service, and Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... members who have demonstrated performance deficiencies or experienced failures in the training environment... Continuous Analysis Process CAST Commercial Aviation Safety Team CFR Code of Federal Regulations CRM Crew... deficiencies or experienced failures in the training environment. In addition, Public Law 111-216 included a...

  12. Radiation dosimetry for crewmember exposure to cosmic radiation during astronaut training operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavers, M.R.; Gersey, B.B.; Wilkins, R.T.; Semones, E.J.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    'Atmospheric exposures' of astronauts to cosmic ions and secondary particles during air-flight training are being measured and analytically modeled for inclusion in the astronaut medical records database. For many of the ∼170 astronauts currently in the astronaut corps, their occupational radiation exposure history will be dominated by cosmic ion exposures during air-travel rather than short-duration spaceflight. Relatively low (usually <10 μSv hr -1 ) and uniform organ dose rates result from the penetrating mix of cosmic particles during atmospheric exposures at all altitudes, but at rates that vary greatly due to differences in flight profiles and the geomagnetic conditions at the time of flight. The precision and accuracy to which possible deleterious effects of the exposures can be assessed suffers from limitations that similarly impact assessment of human exposures in low-Earth orbit: uncertainties associated with the environmental measurements and their interpretation, uncertainties associated with the analytical tools that transport the cosmic radiation environment, and uncertain biological responses to low-dose-rate exposures to radiation fields of mixed radiation 'quality'. Lineal energy spectra will be measured using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter designed for training and operational sorties frequently flown in T-38, Space Shuttle Trainer, and high altitude WB-57 aircraft. Linear energy spectra will be measured over multiple flights using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors, as well. Flight records are available for nearly 200,000 sorties flown in NASA aircraft by astronauts and flight officers in the Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division over the past 25 years, yet this database only partially documents the complete exposure histories. Age-dependent risk analysis indicates significant impact, particularly to young women who anticipate lengthy on-orbit careers

  13. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  14. VALIDATION OF A MODIFIED-MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROGNOSTIC INDEX (m-MPI) INCLUDING THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT SHORT-FORM (MNA-SF) FOR THE PREDICTION OF ONE-YEAR MORTALITY IN HOSPITALIZED ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANCARLO, D.; D’ONOFRIO, G.; FRANCESCHI, M.; SCARCELLI, C.; NIRO, V.; ADDANTE, F.; COPETTI, M.; FERRUCCI, L.; FONTANA, L.; PILOTTO, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mortality prediction represents a key factor in the managing of elderly hospitalized patients. Since in older subjects mortality results from a combination of biological, functional, nutritional, psychological and environmental factors, a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) that predict short- and long-term mortality based on a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has recently been developed and validated. Objective This study compares the accuracy in predicting the mortality of the MPI with a modified version of the MPI (m-MPI) that included the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) instead of the standard MNA. Design This prospective study with a one-year follow-up included 4088 hospitalized patients aged 65 years and older. A standardized CGA that included information on functional (Activities of Daily Living, ADL and Instrumental-ADL), cognitive (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire), risk of pressure sore (Exton-Smith Scale), comorbidities (CIRS Index), medications, living status and nutritional status (MNA and MNA-SF) was used to calculate the MPI using a previously validated algorithm. Results Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher mortality rates with a close agreement between the estimated and the observed mortality both after 1-month (MPI1=2.8% versus m-MPI1=2.8%, p=0.946; MPI2=8.9% versus m-MPI2=9%, p=0.904; MPI3=21.9% versus m-MPI3=21.9, p=0.978) and 1-year of follow-up (MPI1=10.8% versus m-MPI1=10.5%, p=0.686; MPI2=27.3% versus m-MPI2=28%, p=0.495; MPI3=52.8% versus m-MPI3=52.7%, p=0.945). The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves suggested a clinically negligible difference between the two indices. Conclusion The m-MPI is as sensitive as the MPI in stratifying hospitalized elderly patients into groups at varying risk of short- and long-term mortality, but with fewer items. PMID:21369662

  15. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient–physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01758380. Methods This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA1c and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. Results The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA1c was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and −0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was −1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. Conclusion In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific

  16. A double-blind, randomized trial, including frequent patient-physician contacts and Ramadan-focused advice, assessing vildagliptin and gliclazide in patients with type 2 diabetes fasting during Ramadan: the STEADFAST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mohamed; Abdallah, Khalifa; Schweizer, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Several observational studies were conducted with vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) fasting during Ramadan, showing significantly lower incidences of hypoglycemia with vildagliptin versus sulfonylureas, including gliclazide. It was of interest to complement the existing real-life evidence with data from a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. NCT01758380. This multiregional, double-blind study randomized 557 patients with T2DM (mean glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], 6.9%), previously treated with metformin and any sulfonylurea to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or gliclazide plus metformin. The study included four office visits (three pre-Ramadan) and multiple telephone contacts, as well as Ramadan-focused advice. Hypoglycemic events were assessed during Ramadan; HbA(1c) and weight were analyzed before and after Ramadan. The proportion of patients reporting confirmed (Ramadan was 3.0% with vildagliptin and 7.0% with gliclazide (P=0.039; one-sided test), and this was 6.0% and 8.7%, respectively, for any hypoglycemic events (P=0.173). The adjusted mean change pre- to post-Ramadan in HbA(1c) was 0.05%±0.04% with vildagliptin and -0.03%±0.04% with gliclazide, from baselines of 6.84% and 6.79%, respectively (P=0.165). In both groups, the adjusted mean decrease in weight was -1.1±0.2 kg (P=0.987). Overall safety was similar between the treatments. In line with the results from previous observational studies, vildagliptin was shown in this interventional study to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment in patients with T2DM fasting during Ramadan, with a consistently low incidence of hypoglycemia across studies, accompanied by good glycemic and weight control. In contrast, gliclazide showed a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in the present interventional than the previous observational studies. This is suggested to be linked to the specific circumstances of this study, including frequent patient-physician contacts

  17. Assessing Group Dynamics in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S. L.

    2007-10-01

    International interest in psychosocial functioning generally and issues of group and inter-group function for space crews has increased as focus has shifted towards longer duration spaceflight and, particularly, the issues involved in sending a human crew to Mars (Kanas, et al., 2001; Dawson, 2002). Planning documents for a human mission to Mars such as the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM 1.0) emphasize the need for adaptability of crewmembers and autonomy in the crew as a whole (Hoffman and Kaplan, 1997). Similarly a major study by the International Space University (ISU, 1991) emphasized the need for autonomy and initiative for a Mars crew given that many of the scenarios that will be encountered on Mars cannot be rehearsed on earth and given the lack of any realistic possibility for rescue of the crew. This research project was only one subset of data collected during the larger AustroMars Expedition at the Mars Desert Research Facility (MDRS) in 2006. The participating crew comprises part of a multi-year investigation on teams utilizing the MDRS facility. The program of research has included numerous researchers since 2002 with a progressive evolution of key foci addressing stress, personality, coping, adaptation, cognitive functioning, and group identity assessed across the duration period of the individual missions.

  18. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Towed-diver Surveys of Benthic Habitat, Key Benthic Species, including Marine Debris Sightings, of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The towed-diver method is used to conduct benthic surveys, assessing large-scale disturbances (e.g., bleaching) and quantifying benthic components such as habitat...

  19. Monitored Natural Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in Ground Water Volume 3 Assessment for Radionuclides IncludingTritium, Radon, Strontium, Technetium, Uranium, Iodine, Radium, Thorium, Cesium, and Plutonium-Americium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current document represents the third volume of a set of three volumes that address the technical basis and requirements for assessing the potential applicability of MNA as part of a ground-water remedy for plumes with nonradionuclide and/or radionuclide inorganic contamina...

  20. Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female

  1. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Karpowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W or general public (GP members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons. Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs, by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users. Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated. Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment.

  2. Modeling the Impact of Space Suit Components and Anthropometry on the Center of Mass of a Seated Crewmember

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Blackledge, Christopher; Ferrer, Mike; Margerum, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    subset of the possible maximum and minimum sized crewmembers, were segmented using point-cloud software to create 17 major body segments. The general approach used to calculate the human mass properties was to utilize center of volume outputs from the software for each body segment and apply a homogeneous density function to determine segment mass 3-D coordinates. Suit components, based on the current consensus regarding predicted suit configuration values, were treated as point masses and were positioned using vector mathematics along the body segments based on anthropometry and COM position. A custom MATLAB script then articulates the body segment and suit positions into a selected seated configuration, using joint angles that characterize a standard seated position and a CEV specific seated position. Additional MATLAB(r) scripts are finally used to calculate the composite COM positions in 3-D space for all 12 manikins in both suited and unsuited conditions for both seated configurations. The analysis focused on two aspects: (1) to quantify how much the whole body COM varied from the smallest to largest subject and (2) the impacts of the suit components on the overall COM in each seat configuration. The location across all boundary manikins of the anterior- posterior COM varied by approximately 7cm, the vertical COM varied by approximately 9-10cm, and the mediolateral COM varied by approximately 1.2 cm from the midline sagittal plane for both seat configurations. This variation was surprisingly large given the relative proportionality of the mass distribution of the human body. The suit components caused an anterior shift of the total COM by approximately 2 cm and a shift to the right along the mediolateral axis of 0.4 cm for both seat configurations. When the seat configuration is in the standard posture, the suited vertical COM shifts inferiorly by up to 1 cm whereas in the CEV posture the vertical COM has no appreciable change. These general differences were due the

  3. Development of a sophisticated information system including a metadatabase and regional radioecological cadastres for assessment of the radiation impact on the environment and population of the Northwest Russia and Krasnoyarsk Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.A.; Burykin, A.A.; Lebedev, O.G.; Popov, V.K.; Churaev, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the 'Radinfo' project is creation of a meta-database (MDB) and radioecological cadastres, geo-referenced information systems being a basic component of those ones, and conducting (using those systems) evaluation study of possible pathways of radionuclides from the radiation-hazardous objects, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, followed by the ranking of threats, for two priority regions of Russia selected on the basis of expert interrogation: the North-West of Russia and Krasnoyarsk region. In order to achieve the goal the following investigation tools are being created and/or applied for evaluation study on the two regions: - information data files (local databases, publications etc.) on radiation sources, radioactive waste, and contaminated areas, as well as on the environment characteristics in the studied regions; - radionuclide transfer pathways models; - sets of local geo-information systems (comprising a basic component of GIS cadastres), embracing (scanning) the areas of two regions of interest and allowing to assess the dynamics of real and probable migration of radionuclides. The RadInfo MDB development is based on use of multi-level architecture of the Web-technologies. The multi-level architecture, unlike that of conventional 'Client-Server' type, provides more versatility and scalability. In this particular case a three-level version is realized. A SQL-server (MySQL) is used as a database server. The well-known Apache Web-server is used as an application server. For its part it provides execution of scripts in the PHP language (the scripts are program extension of the server part)With such kind of configuration there is no need in using special software on the client side. Any browser (for instance, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator) can be used as a workplace. The configuration is very simple as far as as its installation, adjustment and use are concerned. The meta-database and the models of radionuclide transfer

  4. Physician Rating Websites: What Aspects Are Important to Identify a Good Doctor, and Are Patients Capable of Assessing Them? A Mixed-Methods Approach Including Physicians' and Health Care Consumers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    of care were also judged to be very important, but both parties agreed that they would not be evaluable by health care consumers. Health care consumers in Switzerland show a high appraisal of the importance of physician-approved criteria for assessing health care performance and a moderate self-perception of how capable they are of assessing the quality and performance of a physician. This study supports that health care consumers are differentiating between aspects they perceive they would be able to evaluate after a visit to a physician (such as attributes of structure and the interpersonal skills of a doctor), and others that lay beyond their ability to make an accurate judgment about (such as technical skills of a physician and outcome of care).

  5. The Additive Value of Femoral Ultrasound for Subclinical Atherosclerosis Assessment in a Single Center Cohort of 962 Adults, Including High Risk Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D Protogerou

    Full Text Available Presence of femoral atheromatic plaques, an emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarker additional to carotid plaques, is poorly investigated in conditions associating with accelerated atherosclerosis such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM.To assess the frequency of femoral/carotid subclinical atheromatosis phenotypes in RA, HIV and T2DM and search for each disease-specific probability of either femoral and/or carotid subclinical atheromatosis, we examined by ultrasound a single-center cohort of CVD-free individuals comprised of consecutive non-diabetic patients with RA (n=226 and HIV (n=133, T2DM patients (n=109 and non-diabetic individuals with suspected/known hypertension (n=494 who served as reference group.Subclinical atheromatosis--defined as local plaque presence in at least on arterial bed--was diagnosed in 50% of the overall population. Among them, femoral plaques only were found in 25% of either RA or HIV patients, as well as in 16% of T2DM patients and 35% of reference subjects. After adjusting for all classical CVD risk factors, RA and HIV patients had comparable probability to reference group of having femoral plaques, but higher probability (1.75; 1.17-2.63 (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals, 2.04; 1.14-3.64, respectively of having carotid plaques, whereas T2DM patients had higher probability to have femoral and carotid plaques, albeit, due to their pronounced dyslipidemic profile.RA and HIV accelerate predominantly carotid than femoral. A "two windows" carotid/femoral, rather than carotid alone ultrasound, screening improves substantially subclinical atheromatosis detection in patients at high CVD risk.

  6. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  7. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  8. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  9. Safety Assessment of Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Takada, Satomi; Murata, Kosei; Ozawa, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2010-09-01

    We are reporting summary of preliminary safety assessment for Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR), which is one of the micro gravity experiment facilities that are being developed for the 2nd phase JEM utilization(JEM: Japanese Experiment Module) that will be launched on H-II Transfer Vehicle(HTV) 2nd flight in 2011. MSPR is used for multi-purpose micro-g experiment providing experimental spaces and work stations. MSPR has three experimental spaces; first, there is a space called Work Volume(WV) with capacity volume of approximately 350 litters, in which multiple resources including electricity, communication, and moving image functions can be used. Within this space, installation of devices can be done by simple, prompt attachment by Velcro and pins with high degree of flexibility. Second, there is Small Experiment Area(SEA), with capacity volume of approximately 70 litters, in which electricity, communication, and moving image functions can also be used in the same way as WV. These spaces protect experiment devices and specimens from contingent loads by the crewmembers. Third, there is Work Bench with area of 0.5 square meters, on which can be used for maintenance, inspection and data operations of installed devices, etc. This bench can be stored in the rack during contingency. Chamber for Combustion Experiment(CCE) that is planned to be installed in WV is a pressure-resistant experimental container that can be used to seal hazardous materials from combustion experiments. This CCE has double sealing design in chamber itself, which resist gas leakage under normal the temperature and pressure. Electricity, communication, moving image function can be used in the same way as WV. JAXA Phase 2 Safety Review Panel(SRP) has been held in April, 2010. For safety analysis of MSPR, hazards were identified based on Fault Tree Analysis methodology and then these hazards were classified into either eight ISS standard-type hazards or eight unique-type hazards that requires

  10. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  11. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  12. The effects of long-term microgravity on autonomic regulation of blood circulation in crewmembers of the international space station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman М. Baevsky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of space experiment “Pneumocard”. The investigation involved all 25 Russian members of the ISS crew. The total of 226 sessions were made including 130 aboard the ISS, 50 prior to launch and 46 on return from mission. The objective was to study effects of the spaceflight factors on autonomic regulation of blood circulation, respiration and cardiac contractility during long-duration mission. The purpose was to secure new research data that would clarify our present view of adaptation mechanisms. Registered were the following signals: electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram, seismic cardiogram, pneumotachogram, finger photoplethysmogram. A set of hard- and software was used. Autonomic regulation of blood circulation by HRV analysis was investigated. It was shown that at the onset of a space mission parasympathetic involvement in regulation increases typically with subsequent mobilization of additional functional reserve. It guided the development of a functional states mathematical model incorporating the established types of autonomic regulation. Our data evidence that the combination of HRV analysis, pre-nosology diagnosis and probabilistic estimate of the pathology risk can reinforce the medical care program in space missions.

  13. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  14. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  15. A Parametric Model of Shoulder Articulation for Virtual Assessment of Space Suit Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Han; Young, Karen S.; Bernal, Yaritza; Boppana, Abhishektha; Vu, Linh Q.; Benson, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Sarah; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal suit fit is a known risk factor for crewmember shoulder injury. Suit fit assessment is however prohibitively time consuming and cannot be generalized across wide variations of body shapes and poses. In this work, we have developed a new design tool based on the statistical analysis of body shape scans. This tool is aimed at predicting the skin deformation and shape variations for any body size and shoulder pose for a target population. This new process, when incorporated with CAD software, will enable virtual suit fit assessments, predictively quantifying the contact volume, and clearance between the suit and body surface at reduced time and cost.

  16. Nutritional Status Assessment During the Phase IIA and Phase III Lunar/Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Block, Gladys; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; Fanselow, Stephanie A.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Gillman, Patricia L.; Nillen, Jeannie I.; Rice, Barbara L.; Smith, Myra D.

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition is a critical concern for extended-duration space missions (Smith and Lane, 1999). Loss of body weight is a primary consequence of altered nutrition, and is frequently observed during space flight (Smith and Lane; 1999). Other existing dietary concerns for space flight include excessive intakes of sodium and iron, and insufficient intakes of water and vitamin D (Smith and Lane, 1999). Furthermore, dependence on closed or semi-closed food systems increases the likelihood of inadequate intakes of key nutrients. This is a significant concern for extended-duration space missions. Space nutrition research often necessitates detailed recording of all food consumption. While this yields extremely accurate data, it requires considerable time and effort, and thus is not suitable for routine medical monitoring during space flight. To alleviate this problem, a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was designed to provide a quick and easy, yet reasonably accurate, method for crewmembers to provide dietary intake information to the ground. We report here a study which was designed to assess nutritional status before, during, and after the 60-d and 91-d chamber stays. An additional goal of the study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire designed specifically for use with space flight food systems.

  17. Assessing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    Assessment not only places value, it also identifies which elements to value. In this era of accountability, the constituents of educational assessment are not just students, faculty, and administrators, but also parents, legislators, journalists, and the public. For these broader audiences, simple numerical indicators of student performance take…

  18. Barotite média em tripulantes da aviação civil Barotitis media in crewmembers of commercial airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Geórgia Davim Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O barotrauma da orelha média ou barotite média (BM é definido, segundo Armstrong & Hein, como uma inflamação traumática aguda ou crônica causada por alterações da pressão atmosférica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os aspectos clínicos relacionados ao barotrauma da orelha média em tripulantes da aviação civil. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 17 casos de BM no período de dezembro de 2002 a setembro de 2003, entre tripulantes atendidos no ambulatório de ORL do serviço médico da Fundação Ruben Berta/RJ (FRB/RJ. Em revisão dos prontuários foram colhidos e analisados dados relacionados ao sexo, idade, quadro clínico, evolução e tratamento. RESULTADOS: No total dos casos, 11 eram homens e 6 mulheres; idade média de 37,3 anos. Todos apresentaram otalgia durante a descida do avião. Catorze pacientes (82,4% apresentavam queixa de plenitude aural. Zumbidos ocorreram em 2 pacientes. No momento do vôo, onze pacientes (64,7% apresentavam quadro sugestivo de infecção de vias aéreas superiores associada. O barotrauma foi de grau 1 de Teed em 17,6% dos casos, grau 2 em 58,8% dos casos e 23,6% grau 3. Nenhum paciente apresentou BM grau 4. O tratamento foi conservador em todos os casos, sendo preferida à utilização de antibióticos, corticosteróides e descongestionantes, por via oral. CONCLUSÃO: A BM é uma doença peculiar à medicina aeroespacial e a otorrinolaringologia. A compreensão da fisiopatologia e mecanismos de prevenção do barotrauma da orelha média é fundamental para manejo adequado destes pacientes.Barotitis media (BM is defined, by Armstrong & Hein, as a chronic or acute traumatic inflammation caused by variations of atmospheric pressure. AIM: The purpose of the present study was to analyze clinical aspects related to BM in crewmembers of commercial airlines. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A group of 17 patients with BM

  19. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  20. [Contracts including performance and management of uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, G; Garassus, P; Auray, J-P

    2013-09-01

    Since many decades in France, the most important part of ambulatory health care expenditure is represented by drug consumption. By the fact, French patient is indeed the greatest world consumer of pharmaceuticals treatments. Therefore, the regulation authorities by successive strategies, attempt to limit or even restrict market access for new drugs in the health care sector secured by public social insurance coverage. Common objectives are to assess the reimbursement to scientific studies and to fix the price of therapeutics at an acceptable level for both industries and government. New trends try then to determine recently the drug price in a dual approach, as a component of global and effective contract, including performance and outcome. The first diffusion authorization is diffusion concerned, but this concept takes into account the eventual success of new produces in long-term survey. Signed for a fixed period as reciprocal partnership between regulation authorities and pharmaceutics industries, the contract integrates two dimensions of incertitude. The first one is represented by the strategy of new treatments development according to efficacy and adapted price, and the second one is linked to the result of diffusion and determines adapted rules if eventual non-respects of the previous engagement are registered. This paper discusses problems related to this new dimension of incertitude affected by conditional drug prices in market access strategy and the adapted follow-up of new treatment diffusion fixed by "outcome" contract between French regulation administration and pharmaceutics industries in our recent economic context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Guidance for the application of an assessment methodology for innovative nuclear energy systems. INPRO manual - Overview of the methodology. Vol. 1 of 9 of the final report of phase 1 of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) including a CD-ROM comprising all volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    INPRO requirements reflect the goals of sustainable development in chapter 2. It provides an overview or summary of the INPRO requirements in all subject areas, in chapter 3. It presents an overview of the INPRO method of assessment in Chapter 4, including basic features and terminology, and a description of screening and comparative assessment. In chapter 5 it describes the use of energy scenarios and modelling in defining an INS (innovative nuclear energy system) that would become the subject of an INPRO assessment. Annex A provides tables provided with INPRO basic principles, user requirements and criteria in all areas. Annex B discusses additional examples of approaches to aggregate INPRO results and Annex C lays out the objectives of the INPRO portal. An INPRO assessment of an INS is intended to be a comprehensive and holistic assessment, and hence will require the participation of a team of experts (i.e. persons with a general background in the INPRO areas). An INPRO assessor responsible for a given INPRO area should be familiar with the information presented in this overview volume and with the detailed information presented in the volume dealing with his/her area of interest

  2. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  5. Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,

  6. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  7. Composite Pressure Vessel Including Crack Arresting Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A pressure vessel includes a ported fitting having an annular flange formed on an end thereof and a tank that envelopes the annular flange. A crack arresting barrier is bonded to and forming a lining of the tank within the outer surface thereof. The crack arresting barrier includes a cured resin having a post-curing ductility rating of at least approximately 60% through the cured resin, and further includes randomly-oriented fibers positioned in and throughout the cured resin.

  8. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    .... In order to represent the organizational impact on the work process, five organizational cultural parameters were identified and included in an algorithm for modeling and simulation of cultural...

  9. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis ... Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, can cause many different kinds of infections . Symptoms depend on ...

  10. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...

  11. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  12. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Resources Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  13. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  14. Including Students with Severe Disabilities in General Education Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Alper, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents five systematic phases for bringing about successful regular education inclusion of students with severe disabilities. Phases include develop networks within the community, assess school and community resources, review strategies for integration, install strategies that lead to integration, and develop a system of feedback and…

  15. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  16. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  17. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  18. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  19. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  20. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  2. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Against this baseline data, they will endeavor to identify success stories or examples of interventions that ensure small farmers' access to modernizing agrifood markets. The research will inform a set of policy recommendations to be promoted through policy platforms in a large number of developing countries, including but ...

  3. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  4. Numerical simulation of spark ignition including ionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, M; Selle, S; Riedel, U; Warnatz, J; Maas, U

    2000-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the processes associated Midi spark ignition, as a first step during combustion, is of great importance fur clean operation of spark ignition engines. In the past 10 years. a growing concern for environmental protection, including low emission of pollutants, has increased

  5. Nonlinear Progressive Collapse Analysis Including Distributed Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Osama Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity in nonlinear analytical models used to assess the potential for progressive collapse of steel framed regular building structures. Emphasis on this paper is on the deformation response under the notionally removed column, in a typical Alternate Path (AP method. The AP method employed in this paper is based on the provisions of the Unified Facilities Criteria – Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse, developed and updated by the U.S. Department of Defense [1]. The AP method is often used for to assess the potential for progressive collapse of building structures that fall under Occupancy Category III or IV. A case study steel building is used to examine the effect of incorporating distributed plasticity, where moment frames were used on perimeter as well as the interior of the three dimensional structural system. It is concluded that the use of moment resisting frames within the structural system will enhance resistance to progressive collapse through ductile deformation response and that it is conserative to ignore the effects of distributed plasticity in determining peak displacement response under the notionally removed column.

  6. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  7. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  8. Power generation method including membrane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  9. Should Trade Agreements Include Environmental Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which environmental and trade policies should be treated equally, or symmetrically, in international negotiations. It reviews the recent economics literature on trade and the environment to address two questions. First, should trade negotiations include negotiations over environmental policies and the setting of binding environmental standards? Second, if there are grounds for international environmental negotiations, should environmental agreements b...

  10. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  11. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Maldonado, Ana; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-11-03

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy and enthalpy, several corrections are suggested that make the methodology thermodynamically sound without losing its ease of use. The most important corrections include accounting for the solvent molecules' size, the destruction of the solid's crystal structure, and the specificity of hydrogen-bonding interactions, as well as opportunities to predict the solubility at extrapolated temperatures. Testing the original and the improved methods on a large industrial dataset including solvent blends, fit qualities improved from 0.89 to 0.97 and the percentage of correct predictions rose from 54 % to 78 %. Full Matlab scripts are included in the Supporting Information, allowing readers to implement these improvements on their own datasets. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  13. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  14. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  15. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  16. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  17. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  18. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  19. Pulmonary disorders, including vocal cord dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A; Grammer, Leslie C

    2010-02-01

    The lung is a very complex immunologic organ and responds in a variety of ways to inhaled antigens, organic or inorganic materials, infectious or saprophytic agents, fumes, and irritants. There might be airways obstruction, restriction, neither, or both accompanied by inflammatory destruction of the pulmonary interstitium, alveoli, or bronchioles. This review focuses on diseases organized by their predominant immunologic responses, either innate or acquired. Pulmonary innate immune conditions include transfusion-related acute lung injury, World Trade Center cough, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adaptive immunity responses involve the systemic and mucosal immune systems, activated lymphocytes, cytokines, and antibodies that produce CD4(+) T(H)1 phenotypes, such as for tuberculosis or acute forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and CD4(+) T(H)2 phenotypes, such as for asthma, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course pr...

  1. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" trainings have been recently changed to include, respectively, an introduction and an expert training on the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to develop expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepare...

  2. CERN Technical Training: LABVIEW courses include RADE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The contents of the "LabView Basic I" and "LabView Intermediate II" courses have recently been changed to include, respectively, an introduction to and expert training in the Rapid Application Development Environment (RADE). RADE is a LabView-based application developed at CERN to integrate LabView in the accelerator and experiment control infrastructure. It is a suitable solution to developing expert tools, machine development analysis and independent test facilities. The course names have also been changed to "LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" and "LabVIEW Intermediate II with Advanced RADE Application". " LabVIEW Basics I with RADE Introduction" is designed for: Users preparing to develop applications using LabVIEW, or NI Developer Suite; users and technical managers evaluating LabVIEW or NI Developer Suite in purchasing decisions; users pursuing the Certified LabVIEW Developer certification. The course prepares participants to develop test and measurement, da...

  3. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; King, S.J.; Day, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of 26 Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 59 Ni and 129 I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs

  4. AMS at the ANU including biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, L.K.; Allan, G.L.; Cresswell, R.G.; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); King, S.J.; Day, J.P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    An extensive accelerator mass spectrometry program has been conducted on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University since 1986. In the two years since the previous conference, the research program has expanded significantly to include biomedical applications of {sup 26}Al and studies of landform evolution using isotopes produced in situ in surface rocks by cosmic ray bombardment. The system is now used for the measurement of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni and {sup 129}I, and research is being undertaken in hydrology, environmental geochemistry, archaeology and biomedicine. On the technical side, a new test system has permitted the successful off-line development of a high-intensity ion source. A new injection line to the 14UD has been established and the new source is now in position and providing beams to the accelerator. 4 refs.

  5. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Tsang, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  6. Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Li; C. Tsang

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in

  7. A micromanipulation cell including a tool changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clévy, Cédric; Hubert, Arnaud; Agnus, Joël; Chaillet, Nicolas

    2005-10-01

    This paper deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a tool changer for micromanipulation cells. This tool changer is part of a manipulation cell including a three linear axes robot and a piezoelectric microgripper. All these parts are designed to perform micromanipulation tasks in confined spaces such as a microfactory or in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tool changer principle is to fix a pair of tools (i.e. the gripper tips) either on the tips of the microgripper actuator (piezoceramic bulk) or on a tool magazine. The temperature control of a thermal glue enables one to fix or release this pair of tools. Liquefaction and solidification are generated by surface mounted device (SMD) resistances fixed on the surface of the actuator or magazine. Based on this principle, the tool changer can be adapted to other kinds of micromanipulation cells. Hundreds of automatic tool exchanges were performed with a maximum positioning error between two consecutive tool exchanges of 3.2 µm, 2.3 µm and 2.8 µm on the X, Y and Z axes respectively (Z refers to the vertical axis). Finally, temperature measurements achieved under atmospheric pressure and in a vacuum environment and pressure measurements confirm the possibility of using this device in the air as well as in a SEM.

  8. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  9. Unifying all elementary particle forces including gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is a final goal in physics to unify all four basic forces, strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. First, the unified gauge theories of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed. There are two standard models, the model of Pati and Salam in which leptons have the fourth color, and the model of Georgi and Glashow in which a simple group SU (5) is assumed for grand unification. Two mass relations for leptons and quarks were derived, and the extension of the Georgi-Glashow model to a grand unified model of SU (6) gauge group has been made. The quantization of the electric charge of elementary particles is one of the most satisfactory features in grand unified gauge theories. The constraint relations between the gauge couplings, the weak mixing angle and the mass scale of symmetry breaking owing to the renormalization effect are not so severe as those in the grand unified models. However, the mass scale becomes far above the Planck mass in some cases. The baryon number non-conservation is one of the most intriguing features common to grand unified gauge theories. The unified models of all elementary particle forces including gravity are discussed. The discovery of weak vector bosons and the production of subquark pairs are anticipated. (Kako, I.)

  10. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis with fuzzy probabilistic risk assessment for produced water management[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofarrah, A.; Husain, T.; Hawboldt, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented an integrated approach for management of produced water (PW) from oil and gas production. A multi-criteria analysis technique was integrated with risk assessment methodology to enhance the decision making process. As an integral part of overall environmental risk analyses, risk management involves selecting the most appropriate action, and integrating the results of risk assessment with engineering data, social, economic, and political concerns to make an acceptable decision. The risk assessment process involves objectivity, whereas risk management involves preferences and attitudes, which have objective and subjective elements. Choosing an alternative based on risk criteria is challenging for decision makers. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) can be used for this purpose. The proposed decision analysis framework integrates fuzzy-probabilistic risk assessment (FPRA) methodology into a fuzzy multi-criteria decision making (FMCDM) analysis. The centroid method was used for defuzzification and ranking alternatives. The efficacy of the integrated technique was demonstrated in an application where 3 types of PW management systems for offshore oil and gas operations were evaluated. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  13. Assessment of the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Thomson, J.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Aktar, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    2009-07-01

    In 2003, there were 54 fixed-crest lamprey barriers used in the Great Lakes region, with more construction planned. Although the barriers are relatively small structures of about 1-2 m in height, they present a drowning hazard. On the downstream side of the structure, a submerged hydraulic jump creates a strong vortex flow that even an experienced swimmer cannot escape. This study developed a method to assess the risk of hazardous flows at the barrier sites to enable dam owners to decide whether or not mitigative measures need to be undertaken at their sites. This hazard assessment was demonstrated for 2 existing lamprey barriers in Ontario, namely the Duffins Creek Barrier at Ajax and the Little Otter Creek Barrier near Straffordville. However, the work can be applied to the dam safety assessment and the development of potential mitigative strategies for drowning at other low-head dams and weirs. A flow-duration curves was developed for each site in order to determine the risk of having a drowning hazard at the barrier sites. In the flow-duration analysis, the percentage time, or probability, that a given flow rate was equalled or exceeded was calculated directly from observations of the average daily discharge in the channel. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  14. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  15. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  16. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  17. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  18. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  19. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  20. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  1. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  2. Locating Interim Assessments within Teachers' Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggan, Matthew; Olah, Leslie Nabors

    2011-01-01

    Promising research on the teaching and learning impact of classroom-embedded formative assessment has spawned interest in a broader array of assessment tools and practices, including interim assessment. Although researchers have begun to explore the impact of interim assessments in the classroom, like other assessment tools and practices, they…

  3. Electrolyte solutions including a phosphoranimine compound, and energy storage devices including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Dufek, Eric J.; Rollins, Harry W.; Harrup, Mason K.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2017-09-12

    An electrolyte solution comprising at least one phosphoranimine compound and a metal salt. The at least one phosphoranimine compound comprises a compound of the chemical structure ##STR00001## where X is an organosilyl group or a tert-butyl group and each of R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 is independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl group, an aryl group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. An energy storage device including the electrolyte solution is also disclosed.

  4. Assessing Teacher Technology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    2000-01-01

    Advocates the assessment of teachers' technology skills by school media and technology specialists who are involved in staff training. Discusses what should be assessed, including level of curricular integration and attitudes; assessment objectives; informal assessments; formal assessments; assessment tools; and administrators as role models for…

  5. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  6. Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Buhrman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is a major health problem and behavioral based treatments have been shown to be effective. However, the availability of these kinds of treatments is scarce and internet-based treatments have been shown to be promising in this area. The objective of the present systematic review is to evaluate internet-based interventions for persons with chronic pain. The specific aims are to do an updated review with a broad inclusion of different chronic pain diagnoses and to assess disability and pain and also measures of catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. A systematic search identified 891 studies and 22 trials were selected as eligible for review. Two of the selected trials included children/youth and five included individuals with chronic headache and/or migraine. The most frequently measured domain reflected in the primary outcomes was interference/disability, followed by catastrophizing. Result across the studies showed a number of beneficial effects. Twelve trials reported significant effects on disability/interference outcomes and pain intensity. Positive effects were also found on psychological variable such as catastrophizing, depression and anxiety. Several studies (n = 12 were assessed to have an unclear level of risk bias. The attrition levels ranged from 4% to 54% where the headache trials had the highest drop-out levels. However, findings suggest that internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT are efficacious measured with different outcome variables. Results are in line with trials in clinical settings. Meta-analytic statistics were calculated for interference/disability, pain intensity, catastrophizing and mood ratings. Results showed that the effect size for interference/disability was Hedge's g = −0.39, for pain intensity Hedge's g = −0.33, for catastrophizing Hedge's g = −0.49 and for mood variables (depression Hedge's g = −0.26.

  7. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  8. Early Course in Obstetrics Increases Likelihood of Practice Including Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Westra, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice. Cross-tabulations with Fisher's exact test were applied and odds ratios calculated for factors affecting likelihood of eventual practice including obstetrics. Participation in the OBLC was successful in increasing exposure, awareness, and comfort in caring for obstetrical patients and feeling more prepared for the OB-GYN Clerkship. A total of 50.5% of course participants felt the OBLC influenced their choice of specialty. For participants who are currently physicians, 51% are practicing family medicine with obstetrics or OB-GYN. Of the cohort of family physicians, 65.2% made the decision whether to include obstetrics in practice during medical school. Odds ratios show the likelihood of practicing obstetrics is higher when participants have completed the OBLC and also are practicing in a rural community. Early exposure to obstetrics, as provided by the OBLC, appears to increase the likelihood of including obstetrics in practice, especially if eventual practice is in a rural community. This course may be a tool to help create a pipeline for future rural family physicians providing obstetrical care.

  9. An instrument for broadened risk assessment in antenatal health care including non-medical issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber); M.J. van Veen (Mieke); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGrowing evidence on the risk contributing role of non-medical factors on pregnancy outcomes urged for a new approach in early antenatal risk selection. The evidence invites to more integration, in particular between the clinical working area and the public health domain. We developed

  10. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge management options including long-term impacts after land application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2018-01-01

    happened. In general, the INC scenario performed better than or comparably to the scenarios with land application of the sludge. Human toxicity (non-carcinogenic) and eco-toxicity showed the highest normalised impact potentials for all the scenarios with land application. In both categories, impacts were...

  11. Test Development Procedures for Including Handicapped Students in New Jersey's State Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Lydia

    Reading and mathematics tests of the New Jersey Minimum Basic Skills Tests were modified to accomodate handicapped students, in order to determine whether or not students would perform better on the modified test forms. Changes were made in the format of the test booklets, answer sheets, and administration instructions to accomodate the following…

  12. Comparative life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment in Denmark including sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Pizzol, Massimo; Gundorph Bruun, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in a comparative LCA of four types of WWTPs, representative of mainstream treatment options in Denmark. The four plant types differ regarding size and treatment technology: aerobic versus anaerobic, chemical vs. combined chemical and biological. Trade-offs in their environmental performance were identified......Wastewater treatment has nowadays multiple functions and produces both clean effluents and sludge, which is increasingly seen as a resource rather than a waste product. Technological as well as management choices influence the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the multiple...... considering system expansion to model the avoided impacts achievable in different end-of-life scenarios for sludge: combustion with energy production versus agricultural application. To account for the variability in quality of effluents and sludge, and to address the related uncertainties, Monte Carlo...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1311 - Environmental information to be included in the environmental assessment (EA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a residential area, the EA must also address the impact of this lighting upon the residents. (2) A... concerning the proposal's environmental impact, if any. The EA shall deal specifically with any feature of... land utilized (e.g., deforestation, water diversion, wetland fill, or other extensive change of surface...

  14. Integrative Analysis of Gene Expression Data Including an Assessment of Pathway Enrichment for Predicting Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microarray technology has been previously used to identify genes that are differentially expressed between tumour and normal samples in a single study, as well as in syntheses involving multiple studies. When integrating results from several Affymetrix microarray datasets, previous studies summarized probeset-level data, which may potentially lead to a loss of information available at the probe-level. In this paper, we present an approach for integrating results across studies while taking probe-level data into account. Additionally, we follow a new direction in the analysis of microarray expression data, namely to focus on the variation of expression phenotypes in predefined gene sets, such as pathways. This targeted approach can be helpful for revealing information that is not easily visible from the changes in the individual genes. Results: We used a recently developed method to integrate Affymetrix expression data across studies. The idea is based on a probe-level based test statistic developed for testing for differentially expressed genes in individual studies. We incorporated this test statistic into a classic random-effects model for integrating data across studies. Subsequently, we used a gene set enrichment test to evaluate the significance of enriched biological pathways in the differentially expressed genes identified from the integrative analysis. We compared statistical and biological significance of the prognostic gene expression signatures and pathways identified in the probe-level model (PLM with those in the probeset-level model (PSLM. Our integrative analysis of Affymetrix microarray data from 110 prostate cancer samples obtained from three studies reveals thousands of genes significantly correlated with tumour cell differentiation. The bioinformatics analysis, mapping these genes to the publicly available KEGG database, reveals evidence that tumour cell differentiation is significantly associated with many biological pathways. In particular, we observed that by integrating information from the insulin signalling pathway into our prediction model, we achieved better prediction of prostate cancer. Conclusions: Our data integration methodology provides an efficient way to identify biologically sound and statistically significant pathways from gene expression data. The significant gene expression phenotypes identified in our study have the potential to characterize complex genetic alterations in prostate cancer.

  15. Enhancing Historical Reasoning: A Strategy Including Formative Assessment with Systematic Continuous Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Sergio; Tirado, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Learning History promotes students' reasoning. According to Van Drie & Van Boxtel (2008), historical reasoning involves six elements: substantive concepts, metaconcepts, asking historical questions, using sources, contextualization, and argumentation. Although there are didactic strategies that promote historical reasoning, these do not…

  16. Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Duncan, Michael; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Alferova, Irina V.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this joint U.S. - Russian project was the development and validation of an in-flight methodology to assess a number of cardiac and vascular parameters associated with circulating volume and its manipulation in long-duration space flight. Responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (US) before, during, and after temporary volume reduction by means of Braslet-M thigh occlusion cuffs (Russia). Materials and Methods: The study protocol was conducted in 14 sessions on 9 ISS crewmembers, with an average exposure to microgravity of 122 days. Baseline cardiovascular measurements were taken by echocardiography in multiple modes (including tissue Doppler of both ventricles) and femoral and jugular vein imaging on the International Space Station (ISS). The Braslet devices were then applied and measurements were repeated after >10 minutes. The cuffs were then released and the hemodynamic recovery process was monitored. Modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers were used throughout the protocol. All US data were acquired by the HDI-5000 ultrasound system aboard the ISS (ATL/Philips, USA) during remotely guided sessions. The study protocol, including the use of Braslet-M for this purpose, was approved by the ISS Human Research Multilateral Review Board (HRMRB). Results: The effects of fluid sequestration on a number of echocardiographic and vascular parameters were readily detectable by in-flight US, as were responses to respiratory maneuvers. The overall volume status assessment methodology appears to be valid and practical, with a decrease in left heart lateral E (tissue Doppler) as one of the most reliable measures. Increase in the femoral vein cross-sectional areas was consistently observed with Braslet application. Other significant differences and trends within the extensive cardiovascular data were also observed. (Decreased - RV and LV preload indices, Cardiac Output, LV E all maneuvers, LV Stroke

  17. Virtual Suit Fit Assessment Using Body Shape Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shoulder injury is one of the most serious risks for crewmembers in long-duration spaceflight. While suboptimal suit fit and contact pressures between the shoulder...

  18. Understanding type 2 diabetes: including the family member's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological and social factors and diabetes outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes and their family members. METHODS: A total of 153 patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed at a diabetes outpatient clinic and postal questionnaires were sent to nominated family members. The measures examined were diabetes knowledge, social support, well-being, and illness perceptions. RESULTS: When compared with those with diabetes, family members reported lower positive well-being and lower levels of satisfaction with support. They also perceived diabetes as a more cyclical illness, which was controlled more by treatment than by the individual. Family members also reported that the person with diabetes was more emotionally distressed and knew more about diabetes than the patient had actually reported himself or herself. There were no differences between the family members of those in good or poor glycaemic control. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of understanding social context and illness beliefs in diabetes management. It also highlights the potential for including family members in discussions and education about diabetes management.

  19. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  20. Including geological information in the inverse problem of palaeothermal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, S.; Nielsen, S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A reliable reconstruction of sediment thermal history is of central importance to the assessment of hydrocarbon potential and the understanding of basin evolution. However, only rarely do sedimentation history and borehole data in the form of present day temperatures and vitrinite reflectance constrain the past thermal evolution to a useful level of accuracy (Gallagher and Sambridge,1992; Nielsen,1998; Trautner and Nielsen,2003). This is reflected in the inverse solutions to the problem of determining heat flow history from borehole data: The recent heat flow is constrained by data while older values are governed by the chosen a prior heat flow. In this paper we reduce this problem by including geological information in the inverse problem. Through a careful analysis of geological and geophysical data the timing of the tectonic processes, which may influence heat flow, can be inferred. The heat flow history is then parameterised to allow for the temporal variations characteristic of the different tectonic events. The inversion scheme applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach (Nielsen and Gallagher, 1999; Ferrero and Gallagher,2002), which efficiently explores the model space and futhermore samples the posterior probability distribution of the model. The technique is demonstrated on wells in the northern North Sea with emphasis on the stretching event in Late Jurassic. The wells are characterised by maximum sediment temperature at the present day, which is the worst case for resolution of the past thermal history because vitrinite reflectance is determined mainly by the maximum temperature. Including geological information significantly improves the thermal resolution. Ferrero, C. and Gallagher,K.,2002. Stochastic thermal history modelling.1. Constraining heat flow histories and their uncertainty. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 19, 633-648. Gallagher,K. and Sambridge, M., 1992. The resolution of past heat flow in sedimentary basins from non-linear inversion

  1. Monitoring of tritium-contaminated surfaces, including skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1994-05-01

    We have examined various commercially available tritium surface contamination monitors along with different swipe media and techniques for direct and indirect (swipe) monitoring of contaminated surfaces, including skin. None of the methods or instruments evaluated were more sensitive than the swipe and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method. Swipe measurements with open-window proportional counters were, in general, less than half as sensitive as LSC, but have the advantages of having the results available almost immediately, and no sample preparation is required. The Nuclear Measurement Corporation's PC-55 is the most suitable instrument we tested for the analysis of routine swipe measurement. The PC-55 was about one third as sensitive as LSC when used with Ontario Hydro filter paper swipe media. Surface contamination measurement results can be obtained within minutes using the PC-55, compared to hours using LSC. The selection of swipe media for use with proportional counter-based instruments is critical. A medium that is electrically insulating can develop an electrostatic charge on its surface; this may alter the field gradient in the detector and may adversely influence the results. Although the PC-55 is sufficiently sensitive and very convenient, operational experience with the instrument is needed before recommending that it replace current LSC methods. The PC-55's susceptibility to internal tritium contamination may limit its practical usefulness. Because of the complexity of using live animals to evaluate direct and indirect methods for assessing skin contamination, pig skin was investigated as a possible substitute. We concluded that, for the first few hours post-exposure, pig skin mimics the kinetics of animal skin that has contacted a tritium-contaminated surface. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. Responsive Assessment: Assessing Student Nurses' Clinical Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Mary

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 300 nursing students, 155 nurse practitioners, and 80 assessors tested a model of responsive assessment that includes identification of learning needs and potential, assignment to suitable placements, continuous assessment of clinical practice and patient care, and alignment of teaching and assessment with patient needs and…

  3. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my Safety Management... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my Safety Management System...

  4. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Page Diagnosis Treatment Complications Diagnosis Doctors usually diagnose Haemophilus influenzae , including H. influenzae type b or Hib, infection ...

  5. Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [ed.

    1976-09-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.

  6. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  7. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  8. 75 FR 16513 - B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70, 975A] B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, Including B&C Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From B&C Services... October 2, 2009, applicable to workers of B&C Corporation, JR Engineering Division, including on-site...

  9. Assessing the Health and Performance Risks of Carbon Dioxide Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Meyers, V. E.; Alexander, D.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an anthropogenic gas that accumulates in spacecraft to much higher levels than earth-normal levels. Controlling concentrations of this gas to acceptable levels to ensure crew health and optimal performance demands major commitment of resources. NASA has many decades of experience monitoring and controlling CO2, yet we are uncertain of the levels at which subtle performance decrements develop. There is limited evidence from ground-based studies that visual disturbances can occur during brief exposures and visual changes have been noted in spaceflight crews. These changes may be due to CO2 alone or in combination with other known spaceflight factors such as increased intracranial pressure due to fluid shifts. Discerning the comparative contribution of each to performance decrements is an urgent issue if we hope to optimize astronaut performance aboard the ISS. Long-term, we must know the appropriate control levels for exploration-class missions to ensure that crewmembers can remain cooperative and productive in a highly stressful environment. Furthermore, we must know the magnitude of interindividual variability in susceptibility to the adverse effects of CO2 so that the most tolerant crewmembers can be identified. Ground-based studies have been conducted for many years to set exposure limits for submariners; however, these studies are typically limited and incompletely reported. Nonetheless, NASA, in cooperation with the National Research Council, has set exposure limits for astronauts using this limited database. These studies do not consider the interactions of spaceflight-induced fluid shifts and CO2 exposures. In an attempt to discern whether CO2 levels affect the incidence of headache and visual disturbances in astronauts we performed a retrospective study comparing average CO2 levels and the prevalence of headache and visual disturbances. Our goal is to narrow gaps in the risk profile for in-flight CO2 exposures. Such studies can

  10. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    .... Extensively referenced and filled with numerous tables and figures, this timely book focuses on the nutritional assessment of both recreational and professional athletes, including children, adolescents, and adults...

  11. Systems dependability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Presents recent developments of probabilistic assessment of systems dependability based on stochastic models, including graph theory, finite state automaton and language theory, for both dynamic and hybrid contexts.

  12. Education outcomes related to including genomics activities in nursing practice in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Lim, Swee Hia; Png, Hong Hock

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of a genomic educational intervention by measuring the extent participants could apply the class content to practice. A sample of 76 nurses employed by Singapore Health Services, Singapore, participated in a nursing genomics seminar in 2008 and completed a survey form with a response rate of 89%. Every respondent was able to identify use of a genomic assessment or intervention item with a patient from their clinical practice. The mean use of genomic assessment and intervention items was 5.8 out of a possible 10. The most frequently used items were assessment of family history information, environmental factors and genomic physical findings. Findings provide evidence that nurses are able to include genomic assessments and interventions in their practice following targeted education. This study highlights how informed nurses are able to apply genomic assessments and interventions to individualize patient care.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1312 - World War II service included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service included. 404.1312... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1312 World War II service included. Your service was in the active service of the United...

  14. 24 CFR 220.822 - Claim computation; items included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim computation; items included. 220.822 Section 220.822 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... computation; items included. (a) Assignment of loan. Upon an acceptable assignment of the note and security...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  16. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a) Aquaculture is a value loss crop and is compensable only in accord with restrictions set in this section...

  17. Including Exceptional Students in Your Instrumental Music Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the method and adaptations used by the author in including students with special needs in an instrumental music program. To ensure success in the program, the author shares the method he uses to include exceptional students and enumerates some possible adaptations. There are certainly other methods and modifications that…

  18. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory are...

  19. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  20. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  1. Grazing capacity estimates: why include biomass estimates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forage for ruminants in the dry season were assessed and matched with feed requirements in three villages in Zimbabwe, namely; Chiweshe, Makande and Mudzimu. Stocking rates were compared with grazing capacity to determine grazing intensities. Grazing capacities were estimated with and without crop residues to ...

  2. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites, Including Material Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochetov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer

  3. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  4. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  5. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  6. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  7. Including estimates of the future in today's financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Barth

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains why the question is how, not if, today's financial statements should include estimates of the future. Including such estimates is not new, but their use is increasing. This increase results primarily because standard setters believe asset and liability measures that reflect current economic conditions and up-to-date expectations of the future will result in more useful information for making economic decisions, which is the objective of financial reporting. This is why sta...

  8. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  9. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  10. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  11. Ceramic substrate including thin film multilayer surface conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Joseph Ambrose; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-09

    A ceramic substrate comprises a plurality of ceramic sheets, a plurality of inner conductive layers, a plurality of vias, and an upper conductive layer. The ceramic sheets are stacked one on top of another and include a top ceramic sheet. The inner conductive layers include electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of each ceramic sheet excluding the top ceramic sheet. The vias are formed in each of the ceramic sheets with each via being filled with electrically conductive material. The upper conductive layer includes electrically conductive material that forms electrically conductive features on an upper surface of the top ceramic sheet. The upper conductive layer is constructed from a stack of four sublayers. A first sublayer is formed from titanium. A second sublayer is formed from copper. A third sublayer is formed from platinum. A fourth sublayer is formed from gold.

  12. Including information technology project management in the nursing informatics curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Bowles, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    Project management is a critical skill for nurse informaticists who are in prominent roles developing and implementing clinical information systems. It should be included in the nursing informatics curriculum, as evidenced by its inclusion in informatics competencies and surveys of important skills for informaticists. The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing includes project management in two of the four courses in the master's level informatics minor. Course content includes the phases of the project management process; the iterative unified process methodology; and related systems analysis and project management skills. During the introductory course, students learn about the project plan, requirements development, project feasibility, and executive summary documents. In the capstone course, students apply the system development life cycle and project management skills during precepted informatics projects. During this in situ experience, students learn, the preceptors benefit, and the institution better prepares its students for the real world.

  13. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

  14. Modification of a fire drought index for tropical wetland ecosystems by including water table depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Muh; Setiawan, B.I.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an existing empirical drought index, i.e. the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) that is commonly used for assessing forest fire danger, has been adjusted and modified for improved use in tropical wetland ecosystems. The improvement included: (i) adjustment of the

  15. Deliverable 4.2: Methodology for including specific biological effects and pathogen aspects into LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Olsen, Stig Irving; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    .e. endocrine disruptors) and the possibilities and relevance of including impact categories on land use and site-specific assessments have been addressed. Further, the special problems on how to deal with land fill and how to do normalization and weighting of impact potentials are also dealt with. The problem...

  16. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of

  17. Dynamical criteria for a unified gauge theory (including gravity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that local gauge invariance together with dynamical (and possibly Higgs) symmetry breaking can be taken as a basis for a unified gauge theory including gravity. The criterion for the breakdown of the linear gauge symmetry of the space-time sector turns out to be the absence of a prior geometry. The usual postulates of general relativity, such as general coordinate invariance, etc., follow from the above two criteria. Gravity actions that are natural from the point of view are discussed. The extension to superspace relevant to gauge supergroups is also given, including a large number of linear and quadratic superspace invariants

  18. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  19. Meta-structure and tunable optical device including the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Papadakis, Georgia Theano; Atwater, Harry

    2017-12-26

    A meta-structure and a tunable optical device including the same are provided. The meta-structure includes a plurality of metal layers spaced apart from one another, an active layer spaced apart from the plurality of metal layers and having a carrier concentration that is tuned according to an electric signal applied to the active layer and the plurality of metal layers, and a plurality of dielectric layers spaced apart from one another and each having one surface contacting a metal layer among the plurality of metal layers and another surface contacting the active layer.

  20. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  1. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  2. 20 CFR 655.531 - Who may submit attestations for locations in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... longshore activities by alien crewmembers under the Alaska exception, “employer” includes any agent or... Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in U.S. Ports Alaska Exception § 655.531 Who may submit attestations for...

  3. Meaningful Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Jon E.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines critical weaknesses of many assessment procedures. Argues that, to be meaningful, the act of assessment must in some way enhance the learning process. Discusses establishing purpose for assessment and selecting criteria. Outlines alternative assessment techniques. (SR)

  4. Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal Of Quality Of Life Of Diabetic Patients, Including Life Expectancy. ... of long-term complications, development of short-term complications, and physical symptoms and lifestyle changes resulting from the demands of the diabetic ... Key words: Type 2 Diabetes, quality of life, life expectancy, diabetic complications.

  5. 25 CFR 20.308 - What does earned income include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does earned income include? 20.308 Section 20.308 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND..., the sale of farm crops, livestock, or professional artists producing art work); and (b) With regard to...

  6. 34 CFR 661.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 661.20 Section 661.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BUSINESS AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM How Does One Apply for a...

  7. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  8. Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin

    Purpose Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep

  9. 25 CFR 20.403 - What do protective services include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....403 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE... services, which may include, but are not limited to, the following: (i) Investigating and reporting on... for assistance in solving the social problems of individuals, families, and children. (5) Coordinating...

  10. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  11. Including Leap Year in the Canonical Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandor, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest benefit of including leap year in the calculation is not to increase precision, but to show students that a problem can be solved without such presumption. A birthday problem is analyzed showing that calculating a leap-year birthday probability is not a frivolous computation.

  12. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MG van Veen; FDH Koedijk; IVF van der Broek; ELM Op de Coul; IM de Boer; AI van Sighem; MAB van der Sande; soa-centra; Stichting HIV Monitoring; EPI/Cib

    2007-01-01

    The nationally covered low threshold STI centres offering STI care targeted at high risk groups, provide surveillance data to monitor national trends in STI, including HIV. In 2006, chlamydia remained the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in the Netherlands in the STI centres, in spite of

  13. Three-humped fission barrier transmission including vibrational damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabretta, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Ingrao, G.

    1978-01-01

    The total penetrability through a three-humped fission barrier including vibrational damping is calculated by using an optical model for fission. The Bondorf's stationary probability current theory is used for transitions among class-1, class-2 and class-3 phases. A method to calculate the partial-transmission coefficients is developed

  14. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  15. Smart Antenna Skins, including Conformal Array, MMICs and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost technologies are presented for future space-borne and airborne SAR systems. These technologies include state-of-the art highly integrated circuits to miniaturise front-end, solutions to lower-cost interconnection technologies, new beamforming aspects and new architectures. The MMICs address

  16. Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2013-01-01

    Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper ...

  17. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  18. 10 CFR 905.11 - What must an IRP include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.11 What must an IRP include? (a) General. Integrated resource planning is a planning process for new energy... projected durability of such savings measured over time; and must treat demand and supply resources on a...

  19. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  20. Visual Impairments, "Including Blindness." NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #13

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Vision is one of the five senses. Being able to see gives tremendous access to learning about the world around--people's faces and the subtleties of expression, what different things look like and how big they are, and the physical environments, including approaching hazards. When a child has a visual impairment, it is cause for immediate…

  1. 34 CFR 429.20 - What must an application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must an application include? 429.20 Section 429.20 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND TECHNIQUES PROGRAM...

  2. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  3. Oat have multifunctional uses including animal feed, human food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akademia Rolnicza

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... Abstract. The objective of the work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and mechanical removal of hulls from oat grains on their nutrient content. The studies included three cultivars and six lines of oat grains. In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the ...

  4. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  5. Including the gifted learner: perceptions of South African teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative content analysis revealed the following themes: inclusive education and the learner who is gifted; curriculum differentiation; obstacles to curriculum differentiation; and possible solutions for more effectively including the gifted learner. Despite their diversity in terms of culture, language and positioning by the ...

  6. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  7. Restructuring the Public School Curriculum To Include Parenting Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others

    Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…

  8. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Can We Include The Third Dimension During Image Mining? Retrieve An Image · Content-Based Retrieval · Problem Statement · Slide 5 · CBIR Methodology · Slide 7 · Illustration : Logo Search · Illustration: Arbitrary Query · Limitations · Illustration: Change in View · Slide 12 · Illustration: Depth Variation.

  9. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  10. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  11. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  13. How Do We Include Underrepresented Voices in the Sustainability Conversation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virajita Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In a speech given at the Regional Sustainable Development Partnerships 20th Anniversary Statewide Event in the Cargill Building on the St. Paul Campus of the University of Minnesota on November 21, 2017, Virajita Singh, Assistant Vice Provost in the Office for Equity and Diversity, addressed the question, “How do we include underrepresented voices in the sustainability conversation?” The speech describes the work of The Partnerships as observed by the speaker, and its connection to the Design for Community Resilience program. It also introduces the concepts of Partnership and Design Thinking, and suggests a process for including underrepresented voices in the work informed by Design Thinking.  

  14. 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of hohlraums including fill tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J.; Hammel, B. A.; Macphee, A. G.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sepke, S.; Patel, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of fill tube perturbations from hydro growth radiography (HGR) experiments on the National Ignition Facility show spoke perturbations in the ablator radiating from the base of the tube. These correspond to the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill tube cast by hot spots at early time. We present 3D integrated HYDRA simulations of these experiments which include the fill tube. Meshing techniques are described which were employed to resolve the fill tube structure and associated perturbations in the simulations. We examine the extent to which the specific illumination geometry necessary to accommodate a backlighter in the HGR experiment contributes to the spoke pattern. Simulations presented include high resolution calculations run on the Trinity machine operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES) partnership. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  16. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  17. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  18. QCD Reggeon field theory for every day: Pomeron loops included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Peressutti, Javier; Lublinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We derive the evolution equation for hadronic scattering amplitude at high energy. Our derivation includes the nonlinear effects of finite partonic density in the hadronic wave function as well as the effect of multiple scatterings for scattering on dense hadronic target. It thus includes Pomeron loops. It is based on the evolution of the hadronic wave function derived in /cite{foam}. The kernel of the evolution equation defines the second quantized Hamiltonian of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory, H RFT beyond the limits considered so far. The two previously known limits of the evolution: dilute target (JIMWLK limit) and dilute projectile (KLWMIJ limit) are recovered directly from our final result. The Hamiltonian H RFT is applicable for the evolution of scattering amplitude for arbitrarily dense hadronic projectiles/targets - from 'dipole-dipole' to 'nucleus-nucleus' scattering processes.

  19. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming i...

  20. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  1. Information to Include in Curriculum Vitae | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applicants are encouraged to use their current curriculum vitae and to add any necessary information. Please include your name and a page number on each page of the curriculum vitae. Some of the information requested below will not be applicable to all individuals. Please do not print or type your information on this page. Personal Information Name (First middle last) Gender (optional) Race (optional) Date of birth Place of birth (city,

  2. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  3. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20% reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launc...

  4. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  5. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients’ family networks. It has been suggested that these “health spillovers” should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the “health care perspective”). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. PMID:26377370

  6. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  8. Electrolytes including fluorinated solvents for use in electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan

    2015-07-07

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include ion-supplying salts and fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions with the salts at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and increase safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Fluorinated salts, such as fluoroalkyl-substituted LiPF.sub.6, fluoroalkyl-substituted LiBF.sub.4 salts, linear and cyclic imide salts as well as methide salts including fluorinated alkyl groups, may be used due to their solubility in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene or, more specifically, a cyclic phosphazene and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  9. The COG database: an updated version includes eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverdlov Alexander V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple, essentially complete genome sequences of prokaryotes and eukaryotes spurred both the demand and the opportunity for the construction of an evolutionary classification of genes from these genomes. Such a classification system based on orthologous relationships between genes appears to be a natural framework for comparative genomics and should facilitate both functional annotation of genomes and large-scale evolutionary studies. Results We describe here a major update of the previously developed system for delineation of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs from the sequenced genomes of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes and the construction of clusters of predicted orthologs for 7 eukaryotic genomes, which we named KOGs after eukaryotic orthologous groups. The COG collection currently consists of 138,458 proteins, which form 4873 COGs and comprise 75% of the 185,505 (predicted proteins encoded in 66 genomes of unicellular organisms. The eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOGs include proteins from 7 eukaryotic genomes: three animals (the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens, one plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the intracellular microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The current KOG set consists of 4852 clusters of orthologs, which include 59,838 proteins, or ~54% of the analyzed eukaryotic 110,655 gene products. Compared to the coverage of the prokaryotic genomes with COGs, a considerably smaller fraction of eukaryotic genes could be included into the KOGs; addition of new eukaryotic genomes is expected to result in substantial increase in the coverage of eukaryotic genomes with KOGs. Examination of the phyletic patterns of KOGs reveals a conserved core represented in all analyzed species and consisting of ~20% of the KOG set. This conserved portion of the

  10. Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacard, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results

  11. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  12. Smart Farming: Including Rights Holders for Responsible Agricultural Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bronson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the literature of responsible innovation to suggest concrete processes for including rights holders in the “smart” agricultural revolution. It first draws upon historical agricultural research in Canada to highlight how productivist values drove seed innovations with particular consequences for the distribution of power in the food system. Next, the article uses document analysis to suggest that a similar value framework is motivating public investment in smart farming innovations. The article is of interest to smart farming’s decision makers (from farmers to governance actors and a broader audience – anyone interested in engendering equity through innovation-led societal transitions.

  13. Luminous variable stars with naked eye: data reduction including extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The observation of variable stars from urban contexts is hampered by city lights and field of view. Some bright stars like Betelgeuse and Antares are visible from the majority of cities, and during clear nights can be accurately estimated with the naked eye. The reference stars should be bright stars, not necessarily at the same altitude, including the atmospheric extinction in the data reduction. The software Stellarium 0.12.4 calculates well the standard atmospheric extinction with stars at least 10 degrees above the horizon. The accuracy of visual estimations is better than 0.1 magnitudes.

  14. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  15. Including investment risk in large-scale power market models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.

    2003-01-01

    can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...

  16. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  17. Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Canonical and Microcanonical Reaction Path Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-09

    We reformulate multistructural variational transition state theory by removing the approximation of calculating torsional anharmonicity only at stationary points. The multistructural method with torsional anharmonicity is applied to calculate the reaction-path free energy of the hydrogen abstraction from the carbon-1 position in isobutanol by OH radical. The torsional potential anharmonicity along the reaction path is taken into account by a coupled torsional potential. The calculations show that it can be critical to include torsional anharmonicity in searching for canonical and microcanonical variational transition states. The harmonic-oscillator approximation fails to yield reasonable free energy curves along the reaction path.

  18. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  19. Computer Simulation of the Solidification Process Including Air Gap Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach of numerical modelling of alloy solidification in permanent mold and transient heat transport between the casting and the mold in two-dimensional space. The gap of time-dependent width called "air gap", filled with heat conducting gaseous medium is included in the model. The coefficient of thermal conductivity of the gas filling the space between the casting and the mold is small enough to introduce significant thermal resistance into the heat transport process. The mathematical model of heat transport is based on the partial differential equation of heat conduction written independently for the solidifying region and the mold. Appropriate solidification model based on the latent heat of solidification is also included in the mathematical description. These equations are supplemented by appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The formation process of air gap depends on the thermal deformations of the mold and the casting. The numerical model is based on the finite element method (FEM with independent spatial discretization of interacting regions. It results in multi-mesh problem because the considered regions are disconnected.

  20. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  1. Proposal to Include Electrical Energy in the Industrial Return Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    At its 108th session on the 20 June 1997, the Council approved the Report of the Finance Committee Working Group on the Review of CERN Purchasing Policy and Procedures. Among other topics, the report recommended the inclusion of utility supplies in the calculation of the return statistics as soon as the relevant markets were deregulated, without reaching a consensus on the exact method of calculation. At its 296th meeting on the 18 June 2003, the Finance Committee approved a proposal to award a contract for the supply of electrical energy (CERN/FC/4693). The purpose of the proposal in this document is to clarify the way electrical energy will be included in future calculations of the return statistics. The Finance Committee is invited: 1. to agree that the full cost to CERN of electrical energy (excluding the cost of transport) be included in the Industrial Service return statistics; 2. to recommend that the Council approves the corresponding amendment to the Financial Rules set out in section 2 of this docum...

  2. Study on 'Tannix' an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ''Tannix'' was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ''Tannix'' was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  3. Study on `Tannix` an absorbent for heavy metals including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasuo [Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    To treat radioactive wastes including uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium, americium etc., development of an absorbent which can be used to absorb and isolate these elements without producing secondary wastes after treatment was attempted. And an absorbent has been successfully developed by polymerizing tannin, a natural product. It is known that tannin binds heavy metals including uranium resulting to produce their precipitates. There are some reports suggesting its absorption ability for uranium. However, tannin has not been used to isolate a heavy metal from a solution because it is soluble in water. Here, insolubilization of tannin was attempted and a manufacturing method for a gelatinized insoluble tannin named as ``Tannix`` was established. Wattle tannin extracted from Mimosa pudica produced in Africa was dissolved in an alkaline solution and gelatinized by heating after the addition of formalin. Thus obtained insoluble tannin was used after crushing and sieving. This product, ``Tannix`` was able to absorb more than 99% of uranium in the waste. And the absorbed Tannin could be degraded by incineration even at a low temperature, leaving only uranium, but not producing any secondary product. (M.N.)

  4. APORTACIONES DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EUROPEA INCLUD-ED PARA LA REDUCCIÓN DEL ABANDONO ESCOLAR PREMATURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Padrós Cuxart

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of reducing early school leaving in Europe, with special pressure in Spain, leads to the need of evidence based educational policies and measures. This paper presents measures to prevend and reduce early school leaving that have been identified within the research Project INCLUD-ED. Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion in Europe from education. This is the research Project with a higher level and resources developed  since now  in Europe regarding school education. The identified solutions are already being addressed in documents of the European Commission, such as the recent Communication to the European Parliament "Tackiling early school leaving: a key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda".

  5. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  6. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  7. Conceptual Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Design for Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiwala, Samira A.; Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of developing human space launch and exploration systems is minimizing and mitigating the many potential risk factors to ensure the safest possible design while also meeting the required cost, weight, and performance criteria. In order to accomplish this, effective risk analyses and trade studies are needed to identify key risk drivers, dependencies, and sensitivities as the design evolves. The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) develops advanced risk analysis approaches, models, and tools to provide such meaningful risk and reliability data throughout vehicle development. The goal of the project presented in this memorandum is to design a generic launch 7 vehicle and spacecraft architecture that can be used to develop and demonstrate these new risk analysis techniques without relying on other proprietary or sensitive vehicle designs. To accomplish this, initial spacecraft and launch vehicle (LV) designs were established using historical sizing relationships for a mission delivering four crewmembers and equipment to the International Space Station (ISS). Mass-estimating relationships (MERs) were used to size the crew capsule and launch vehicle, and a combination of optimization techniques and iterative design processes were employed to determine a possible two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch trajectory into a 350-kilometer orbit. Primary subsystems were also designed for the crewed capsule architecture, based on a 24-hour on-orbit mission with a 7-day contingency. Safety analysis was also performed to identify major risks to crew survivability and assess the system's overall reliability. These procedures and analyses validate that the architecture's basic design and performance are reasonable to be used for risk trade studies. While the vehicle designs presented are not intended to represent a viable architecture, they will provide a valuable initial platform for developing and demonstrating

  8. Incorporating Emerging Voices into the Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Ashli A.; Stolzenberg, Ellen Bara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses emerging voices in the assessment process. These emerging voices include a variety of newly assessed aspects of student identity. Emerging voices also include new institutional participants and unique collaborations previously not commonly considered in the assessment process.

  9. PASCAL for engineers: A course including OMEGASOFT PASCAL for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausch, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    These are the notes of a PASCAL course for controls engineers at CERN. The course starts with 'Standard Pascal' and includes OMEGASOFT Pascal, a powerful extension of Pascal towards real-time and systems applications. It demonstrates how a language such as Pascal, with adequate extensions for systems programming and embedded microprocessor-driven systems, can substantially increase the productivity of programmers and the reliability of their products. Also enhanced will be the legibility of the programs and their maintainability, since programming in Pascal automatically leads to autodocumentation. Simple examples show how OMEGASOFT-PASCAL can be used for efficient programming of embedded systems for real-time data acquisition and control using the MC6809 microprocessor. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    blades and includes the effect of centrifugal stiffening due to rotation. The foundation of the structure is modeled as a rigid gravity based foundation with two DOF whose movement is related to the surrounding soil by means of complex impedance functions generated using cone model. Transfer functions...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...... blade element momentum theory and the Kaimal spectrum, have been considered. Soil stiffness and damping properties acquired from DNV/Risø standards are used as a comparison. The soil-structure interaction is shown to affect the response of the wind turbine. This is examined in terms of the turbine...

  11. The physics of semiconductors an introduction including nanophysics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better under...

  12. Benefits of including methane measurements in selection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Oddy, V H

    2016-09-01

    Estimates of genetic/phenotypic covariances and economic values for slaughter weight, growth, feed intake and efficiency, and three potential methane traits were compiled to explore the effect of incorporating methane measurements in breeding objectives for cattle and meat sheep. The cost of methane emissions was assumed to be zero (scenario A), A$476/t (based on A$14/t CO equivalent and methane's 100-yr global warming potential [GWP] of 34; scenario B), or A$2,580/t (A$30/t CO equivalent combined with methane's 20-yr GWP of 86; scenario C). Methane traits were methane yield (MY; methane production divided by feed intake based on measurements over 1 d in respiration chambers) or short-term measurements of methane production adjusted for live weight (MPadjWt) in grazing animals, e.g., 40-60 min measurements in portable accumulation chambers (PAC) on 1 or 3 occasions, or measurements for 1 wk using a GreenFeed Emissions Monitor (GEM) on 1 or 3 occasions. Feed costs included the cost of maintaining the breeding herd and growth from weaning to slaughter. Sheep were assumed to be grown and finished on pasture (A$50/t DM). Feed costs for cattle included 365 d on pasture for the breeding herd and averages of 200 d postweaning grow-out on pasture and 100 d feedlot finishing. The greatest benefit of including methane in the breeding objective for both sheep and cattle was as a proxy for feed intake. For cattle, 3 GEM measurements were estimated to increase profit from 1 round of selection in scenario A (no payment for methane) by A$6.24/animal (from A$20.69 to A$26.93) because of reduced feed costs relative to gains in slaughter weight and by A$7.16 and A$12.09/animal, respectively, for scenarios B and C, which have payments for reduced methane emissions. For sheep, the improvements were more modest. Returns from 1 round of selection (no methane measurements) were A$5.06 (scenario A), A$4.85 (scenario B), and A$3.89 (scenario C) compared to A$5.26 (scenario A), A$5

  13. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  14. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  15. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  16. The Physics of Semiconductors An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Marius

    2010-01-01

    The Physics of Semiconductors contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two...

  17. Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsch H.P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.

  18. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  19. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  20. Optimage central organised image quality control including statistics and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnen, A.; Schilz, C.; Shannoun, F.; Schreiner, A.; Hermen, J.; Moll, C.

    2008-01-01

    Quality control of medical imaging systems is performed using dedicated phantoms. As the imaging systems are more and more digital, adequate image processing methods might help to save evaluation time and to receive objective results. The developed software package OPTIMAGE is focusing on this with a central approach: On one hand, OPTIMAGE provides a framework, which includes functions like database integration, DICOM data sources, multilingual user interface and image processing functionality. On the other hand, the test methods are implemented using modules which are able to process the images automatically for the common imaging systems. The integration of statistics and reporting into this environment is paramount: This is the only way to provide these functions in an interactive, user-friendly way. These features enable the users to discover degradation in performance quickly and document performed measurements easily. (authors)

  1. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  2. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  3. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  4. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  5. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  6. Including a learner with physical disabilities: stressful for teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Eloff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Learners with physical disabilities have been entering mainstream schools for some years now. Whereas early research on inclusive education necessitated a strong focus on the needs of the learners, there has also been a recent interest in the role of the teachers in inclusive education. By adopting constructivism as the paradigm for inquiry a study was undertaken to establish the stress factors for teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability in their mainstream classes. The rationale for the study is threefold: i Learners with physical disabilities are entering mainstream schools increasingly, ii it is often assumed that inclusive education is too stressful for teachers to cope with, and iii related research has shown that increased contact with individuals with disabilities has a positive effect on attitudes towards individuals with disabilities. In accordance with the dialectical methodology of constructivism, the Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire and in-depth interviews were utilised to establish the stress factors and the extent of the stress factors that may be present. The aim of the constructivist inquiry process is to promote understanding and reconstruction. In this article the quantitative results indicate overall low or non-existent levels of stress in teachers who have to include a learner with a physical disability, and the results therefore contribute to our understanding of this situation. The qualitative results reconstruct the meanings that these teachers attach to the inclusion of a learner with a physical disability and reveal some albeit limited concerns about the communication processes between parents and teachers and a perceived lack of pre-service training.

  7. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment, including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of, (1) commercially available equivalent component, (2) modification of a commercial available component, (3) reverse engineering of the original component and finally (4) design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: 1) Missing, misleading or no information on the original component. 2) Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant. 3) Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering. 4) Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  8. Strategies for replacement of obsolete equipment - including reverse engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation shall detail the challenges facing nuclear power plants with the replacement of obsolete equipment and the strategies used to overcome those challenges. The presentation will outline the common equipment types which are either obsolete or are becoming obsolete, with a focus on safety related components. The four options of the obsolete equipment replacement philosophy will be presented with replacement examples from each of the options shown for discussion purposes. Detailed examples from each of the four obsolete equipment replacement options of: commercially available equivalent component; modification of a commercial available component; reverse engineering of the original component; and finally, design changes using a new component, shall be presented to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option. The presentation will include the technical challenges, cost and schedule concerns for each of the four options. Emphasis will be placed on the technological challenges associated with replacing old and obsolete equipment. The following is a bullet list of the challenges which will be discussed: Missing, misleading or no information on the original component; Acquiring information from the original equipment manufacturer and the plant; Using a sample component for the replacement evaluation and or reverse engineering; and Reverse engineering old equipment with newly available discrete components. The presentation will include the equivalency documentation using the EPRI guidelines when replacing an original component with a different yet form, fit and functional equivalent component. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the replacement of the obsolete component with a form, fit and functional equivalent component vs. the replacement of the original component with a new component with today's technology. (author)

  9. Solving the high energy evolution equation including running coupling corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2007-01-01

    We study the solution of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation with the recently calculated running coupling corrections [I. I. Balitsky, Phys. Rev. D 75, 014001 (2007). and Y. Kovchegov and H. Weigert, Nucl. Phys. A784, 188 (2007).]. Performing a numerical solution we confirm the earlier result of Albacete et al. [Phys. Rev. D 71, 014003 (2005).] (obtained by exploring several possible scales for the running coupling) that the high energy evolution with the running coupling leads to a universal scaling behavior for the dipole-nucleus scattering amplitude, which is independent of the initial conditions. It is important to stress that the running coupling corrections calculated recently significantly change the shape of the scaling function as compared to the fixed coupling case, in particular, leading to a considerable increase in the anomalous dimension and to a slow-down of the evolution with rapidity. We then concentrate on elucidating the differences between the two recent calculations of the running coupling corrections. We explain that the difference is due to an extra contribution to the evolution kernel, referred to as the subtraction term, which arises when running coupling corrections are included. These subtraction terms were neglected in both recent calculations. We evaluate numerically the subtraction terms for both calculations, and demonstrate that when the subtraction terms are added back to the evolution kernels obtained in the two works the resulting dipole amplitudes agree with each other. We then use the complete running coupling kernel including the subtraction term to find the numerical solution of the resulting full nonlinear evolution equation with the running coupling corrections. Again the scaling regime is recovered at very large rapidity with the scaling function unaltered by the subtraction term

  10. STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamberger, Hannah; Nikanorova, Marina; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Accorsi, Patrizia; Angriman, Marco; Baier, Hartmut; Benkel-Herrenbrueck, Ira; Benoit, Valérie; Budetta, Mauro; Caliebe, Almuth; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Casara, Gianluca; Courage, Carolina; Deprez, Marie; Destrée, Anne; Dilena, Robertino; Erasmus, Corrie E; Fannemel, Madeleine; Fjær, Roar; Giordano, Lucio; Helbig, Katherine L; Heyne, Henrike O; Klepper, Joerg; Kluger, Gerhard J; Lederer, Damien; Lodi, Monica; Maier, Oliver; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Michelberger, Nina; Minetti, Carlo; Muhle, Hiltrud; Phalin, Judith; Ramsey, Keri; Romeo, Antonino; Schallner, Jens; Schanze, Ina; Shinawi, Marwan; Sleegers, Kristel; Sterbova, Katalin; Syrbe, Steffen; Traverso, Monica; Tzschach, Andreas; Uldall, Peter; Van Coster, Rudy; Verhelst, Helene; Viri, Maurizio; Winter, Susan; Wolff, Markus; Zenker, Martin; Zoccante, Leonardo; De Jonghe, Peter; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Lemke, Johannes R; Møller, Rikke S; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-03-08

    To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network of clinicians and geneticists. Furthermore, we performed a systematic literature search to review the phenotypes of all previously reported patients. We describe the phenotypic features of 147 patients with STXBP1-E including 45 previously unreported patients with 33 novel STXBP1 mutations. All patients have intellectual disability (ID), which is mostly severe to profound (88%). Ninety-five percent of patients have epilepsy. While one-third of patients presented with Ohtahara syndrome (21%) or West syndrome (9.5%), the majority has a nonsyndromic early-onset epilepsy and encephalopathy (53%) with epileptic spasms or tonic seizures as main seizure type. We found no correlation between severity of seizures and severity of ID or between mutation type and seizure characteristics or cognitive outcome. Neurologic comorbidities including autistic features and movement disorders are frequent. We also report 2 previously unreported adult patients with prominent extrapyramidal features. De novo STXBP1 mutations are among the most frequent causes of epilepsy and encephalopathy. Most patients have severe to profound ID with little correlation among seizure onset, seizure severity, and the degree of ID. Accordingly, we hypothesize that seizure severity and ID present 2 independent dimensions of the STXBP1-E phenotype. STXBP1-E may be conceptualized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a primary epileptic encephalopathy. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Assessing and Promoting Functional Resilience in Flight Crews During Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    NASA plans to send humans to Mars in about 20 years. The NASA Human Research Program supports research to mitigate the major risks to human health and performance on extended missions. However, there will undoubtedly be unforeseen events on any mission of this nature - thus mitigation of known risks alone is not sufficient to ensure optimal crew health and performance. Research should be directed not only to mitigating known risks, but also to providing crews with the tools to assess and enhance resilience, as a group and individually. We can draw on ideas from complexity theory and network theory to assess crew and individual resilience. The entire crew or the individual crewmember can be viewed as a complex system that is composed of subsystems (individual crewmembers or physiological subsystems), and the interactions between subsystems are of crucial importance for overall health and performance. An understanding of the structure of the interactions can provide important information even in the absence of complete information on the component subsystems. This is critical in human spaceflight, since insufficient flight opportunities exist to elucidate the details of each subsystem. Enabled by recent advances in noninvasive measurement of physiological and behavioral parameters, subsystem monitoring can be implemented within a mission and also during preflight training to establish baseline values and ranges. Coupled with appropriate mathematical modeling, this can provide real-time assessment of health and function, and detect early indications of imminent breakdown. Since the interconnected web of physiological systems (and crewmembers) can be interpreted as a network in mathematical terms, we can draw on recent work that relates the structure of such networks to their resilience (ability to self-organize in the face of perturbation). There are many parameters and interactions to choose from. Normal variability is an established characteristic of a healthy

  12. Novel associations for hypothyroidism include known autoimmune risk loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Eriksson

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome-wide association study of hypothyroidism, in 3,736 cases and 35,546 controls. Hypothyroidism was assessed via web-based questionnaires. We identify five genome-wide significant associations, three of which are well known to be involved in a large spectrum of autoimmune diseases: rs6679677 near PTPN22, rs3184504 in SH2B3, and rs2517532 in the HLA class I region (p-values 2.8·10(-13, 2.6·10(-12, and 1.3·10(-8, respectively. We also report associations with rs4915077 near VAV3 (p-value 7.5·10(-10 and rs925489 near FOXE1 (p value 2.4·10(-19. VAV3 is involved in immune function, and FOXE1 and PTPN22 have previously been associated with hypothyroidism. Although the HLA class I region and SH2B3 have previously been linked with a number of autoimmune diseases, this is the first report of their association with thyroid disease. The VAV3 association is also novel. We also show suggestive evidence of association for hypothyroidism with a SNP in the HLA class II region (independent of the other HLA association as well as SNPs in CAPZB, PDE8B, and CTLA4. CAPZB and PDE8B have been linked to TSH levels and CTLA4 to a variety of autoimmune diseases. These results suggest heterogeneity in the genetic etiology of hypothyroidism, implicating genes involved in both autoimmune disorders and thyroid function. Using a genetic risk profile score based on the top association from each of the five genome-wide significant regions in our study, the relative risk between the highest and lowest deciles of genetic risk is 2.0.

  13. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  14. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  15. The protean nature of Whipple's disease includes multiorgan arteriopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T N

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge about the arterial abnormalities in Whipple's disease can be useful for our better understanding of both Whipple's disease and the more general question of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are several notable morphological features of Whipple's arteriopathy. First, it appears to involve primarily arteries one millimeter or less in diameter. Second, there is very little evidence of inflammation accompanying invasion of any or all three layers of the walls of affected arteries, and there is almost no evidence of local attraction of platelets to these sites of arterial injury. Third, the nature of arterial injury appears to be one of slow progression. The few sites of actual arteritis are most likely attributable to some other coinciding microbial organism not yet identified. Although the arteriopathy in Whipple's disease is seen mainly in small arteries (the aorta is a notable exception), their significance can be illustrated by consideration of this fact as it applies to the coronary circulation (and probably the arteries of all other organs). In the heart these small arteries comprise almost the entire collateral circulation, the principal blood supply to each component of the conduction system, and most pragmatically, these small arteries represent the terminal distribution of every larger epicardial artery. Small arteries are important. The "cardiomyopathy" so often a feature of Whipple's disease (very much including his original case) is most logically attributable to recurring bouts of focal ischemia and subsequent focal fibrosis ending in myocardial incompetence. However, direct bacillary invasion of cardiac myocytes (22) also occurs. In lamina propria of jejunum, there is also arteriopathy, as there is in brain, lung, kidney, spleen, liver, gall bladder, rectum, stomach, lymph nodes and testis. It is likely that no organ in the body is spared. There is growing evidence that a wide variety of chronic infections (occurring concomitantly or

  16. Designing monitoring programs for chemicals of emerging concern in potable reuse ⋯ What to include and what not to include?

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    This study discussed a proposed process to prioritize chemicals for reclaimed water monitoring programs, selection of analytical methods required for their quantification, toxicological relevance of chemicals of emerging concern regarding human health, and related issues. Given that thousands of chemicals are potentially present in reclaimed water and that information about those chemicals is rapidly evolving, a transparent, science-based framework was developed to guide prioritization of which compounds of emerging concern (CECs) should be included in reclaimed water monitoring programs. The recommended framework includes four steps: (1) compile environmental concentrations (e.g., measured environmental concentration or MEC) of CECs in the source water for reuse projects; (2) develop a monitoring trigger level (MTL) for each of these compounds (or groups thereof) based on toxicological relevance; (3) compare the environmental concentration (e.g., MEC) to the MTL; CECs with a MEC/MTL ratio greater than 1 should be prioritized for monitoring, compounds with a ratio less than \\'1\\' should only be considered if they represent viable treatment process performance indicators; and (4) screen the priority list to ensure that a commercially available robust analytical method is available for that compound. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  17. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    special focus is on the production stage but upstream emissions assessed to be of possible significant importance are included (e.g. estimated emissions from pigment production) or handled in the sensitivity analysis. The functional unit is 1 ton of sheet feed offset produced printed matter, i.e. printed......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...

  18. Accounting assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka S.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper evaluation of accounting objects influences essentially upon the reliability of assessing the financial situation of a company. Thus, the problem in accounting estimate is quite relevant. The works of home and foreign scholars on the issues of assessment of accounting objects, regulatory and legal acts of Ukraine controlling the accounting and compiling financial reporting are a methodological basis for the research. The author uses the theoretical methods of cognition (abstraction and generalization, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and other methods producing conceptual knowledge for the synthesis of theoretical and methodological principles in the evaluation of assets accounting, liabilities and equity. The tabular presentation and information comparison methods are used for analytical researches. The article considers the modern approaches to the issue of evaluation of accounting objects and financial statements items. The expedience to keep records under historical value is proved and the articles of financial statements are to be presented according to the evaluation on the reporting date. In connection with the evaluation the depreciation of fixed assets is considered as a process of systematic return into circulation of the before advanced funds on the purchase (production, improvement of fixed assets and intangible assets by means of including the amount of wear in production costs. Therefore it is proposed to amortize only the actual costs incurred, i.e. not to depreciate the fixed assets received free of charge and surplus valuation of different kinds.

  19. Technology assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwer, P.S.; Anderson, D.L.; Christian, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical studies in assessment methodology have concentrated in the past year on computerization of state-of-the-art models for internal radiation dosimetry and development and evaluation of environmental transport models. Methodology applications continued to cover a broad spectrum of radiation exposure scenarios. Potential exposure situations requiring assessment arise from assorted deployments of all parts of nuclear fuel cycles, including comparisons of alternative uranium and thorium based cycles, and preliminary evaluations of advanced reactor fuel concepts. Measurements and samples were collected characterizing and documenting the current radiological status of formerly used Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites. This survey program encompasses research activities in the areas of survey design, instrumentation development, sample analysis, and data reduction and analysis. Other laboratory activities within TAS center around the unique capabilities of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as an irradiation source. Typically the HPRR was involved in testing and intercomparison of dosimetry and criticality alarm systems and in exposure of physical and biological experiments

  20. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  1. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  3. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  4. Falling vertical chain of oscillators, including collisions, damping, and pretensioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, R. H.; Borum, A. D.; Holmes, D. P.; Dillard, D. A.

    2015-08-01

    A chain of point masses connected by linear springs and sometimes dashpots is considered. The chain hangs in a vertical equilibrium configuration, held by its top mass. Then the top mass is released, and the chain falls. Internal damping, modeled by the dashpots, causes the bottom mass to move faster. As the system falls, upper masses sometimes accelerate faster than gravitational acceleration, and collisions may occur between adjacent masses. The types of collisions treated here include elastic, inelastic, and perfectly inelastic (in which colliding masses often stick together thereafter). The unstretched lengths of the springs, and a compressive force caused by pretensioning, may significantly affect the characteristics of the motion. Analytical and numerical results are presented for cases involving a few masses, and some generalizations are made for systems with an arbitrary number of masses. Also, the vertical chain may be used to model the motion of a falling Slinky after release at its top end. The bottom of the continuous Slinky does not move until the coils above it have collapsed onto it, and the collapse time is estimated here using the discrete chain model. For a metal Slinky with 86 masses, the estimated time is close to that previously obtained by a continuous elastic analysis.

  5. Cosmological constraints on the neutrino mass including systematic uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchot, F.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Spinelli, M.; Tristram, M.

    2017-10-01

    When combining cosmological and oscillations results to constrain the neutrino sector, the question of the propagation of systematic uncertainties is often raised. We address this issue in the context of the derivation of an upper bound on the sum of the neutrino masses (Σmν) with recent cosmological data. This work is performed within the ΛCDM model extended to Σmν, for which we advocate the use of three mass-degenerate neutrinos. We focus on the study of systematic uncertainties linked to the foregrounds modelling in cosmological microwave background (CMB) data analysis, and on the impact of the present knowledge of the reionisation optical depth. This is done through the use of different likelihoods built from Planck data. Limits on Σmν are derived with various combinations of data, including the latest baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) results. We also discuss the impact of the preference for current CMB data for amplitudes of the gravitational lensing distortions higher than expected within the ΛCDM model, and add the Planck CMB lensing. We then derive a robust upper limit: Σmνcosmological parameters is also reported, for different assumptions on the neutrino mass repartition, and different high and low multipole CMB likelihoods.

  6. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  7. Apparatus including concave reflectors and a line of optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus including a radiation source which emits in a multiplicity of directions for focusing radiation on an object which may receive radiation within a certain solid angle. It comprises a first reflector and a second reflector, the first reflector being elliptical in cross section and having a first focus and a second focus, the second reflector being circular in cross section and having a center, and a radius equal to the distance between the second reflector and the first focus, the first reflector and the second reflector being arranged so that a concave reflecting surface of the first reflector faces a concave reflecting surface of the second reflector, and so arranged that the first focus of the first reflector corresponds to the center of the second reflector, the radiation source being an elongated discharge bulb, the object being a group of two or more optical fibers defining at least one line of optical fibers which are located at the second focus of the first reflector

  8. Efficient Algorithms for Electrostatic Interactions Including Dielectric Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Coarse-grained models of soft matter are usually combined with implicit solvent models that take the electrostatic polarizability into account via a dielectric background. In biophysical or nanoscale simulations that include water, this constant can vary greatly within the system. Performing molecular dynamics or other simulations that need to compute exact electrostatic interactions between charges in those systems is computationally demanding. We review here several algorithms developed by us that perform exactly this task. For planar dielectric surfaces in partial periodic boundary conditions, the arising image charges can be either treated with the MMM2D algorithm in a very efficient and accurate way or with the electrostatic layer correction term, which enables the user to use his favorite 3D periodic Coulomb solver. Arbitrarily-shaped interfaces can be dealt with using induced surface charges with the induced charge calculation (ICC* algorithm. Finally, the local electrostatics algorithm, MEMD(Maxwell Equations Molecular Dynamics, even allows one to employ a smoothly varying dielectric constant in the systems. We introduce the concepts of these three algorithms and an extension for the inclusion of boundaries that are to be held fixed at a constant potential (metal conditions. For each method, we present a showcase application to highlight the importance of dielectric interfaces.

  9. Pubertal induction in hypogonadism: Current approaches including use of gonadotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2015-06-01

    Primary disorders of the gonad or those secondary to abnormalities of the hypothalamic pituitary axis result in hypogonadism. The range of health problems of childhood and adolescence that affect this axis has increased, as most children now survive chronic illness, but many have persisting deficits in gonadal function as a result of their underlying condition or its treatment. An integrated approach to hormone replacement is needed to optimize adult hormonal and bone health, and to offer opportunities for fertility induction and preservation that were not considered possible in the past. Timing of presentation ranges from birth, with disorders of sexual development, through adolescent pubertal failure, to adult fertility problems. This review addresses diagnosis and management of hypogonadism and focuses on new management strategies to address current concerns with fertility preservation. These include Turner syndrome, and fertility presevation prior to childhood cancer treatment. New strategies for male hormone replacement therapy that may impinge upon future fertility are emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  11. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  12. A Reformed CDM - including new mechanisms for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Olsen, K.; Fenhann, J.

    2009-07-01

    The annual CD4CDM Perspectives Series features a topic of pivotal importance to the global carbon market. The series seeks to communicate the diverse insights and visions of leading actors in the carbon market to better inform the decisions of professionals and policymakers in developing countries. The second theme of the series focuses on how the CDM can be reformed in a post-2012 climate regime, including new mechanism for sustainable development. Seventeen contributors from the private sector, Designated National Authorities, the Executive Board, research, and development agencies present their perspective on meeting challenges such as the unequal regional distribution of CDM projects, concerns about environmental integrity and technology transfer, complex governance procedures, and questions about the CDM's contribution to sustainable development. The new ideas and solutions to these challenges proposed by the authors in this edition of Perspectives have been solicited to help professionals and policy makers make the best decisions in the lead-up to COP 15 in Copenhagen and beyond. (au)

  13. Advocacy for women's health should include lesbian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Dibble, Suzanne L; Hagan, H Jennifer J; Davids, Rachel

    2004-03-01

    Although research confirms that homosexuality is a normal expression of human sexuality, established scientific studies are often not reflected in laws and judicial opinions for lesbians with regard to employment, taxation, pensions, disability, healthcare, immigration, military service, marriage, custody, and adoption. The expression of homosexual attraction or behavior is sometimes met by disdain or violence. Psychological and epidemiological research confirms that the public discriminatory attitudes and second-class legal status cause physical, emotional, and financial harm to lesbians, their families, and their children. Some lesbians experience discrimination in healthcare and avoid routine primary healthcare. To decrease the harm, and improve the health of lesbians, medical institutions can include sexual orientation and gender identity in their nondiscrimination policies and offer domestic partner coverage in employment benefits. Our specialty societies should review current laws and judicial opinions and advocate for change. Further, specialty societies can effect change by issuing policy statements about issues of orientation and by writing orientation/identity curricula for public schools, colleges, and postcollegiate education to improve their accuracy, reduce sexually transmitted diseases, delay sexual activity, and reduce morbidity from homophobic violence.

  14. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  15. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  16. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  17. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  18. Why include phenomenological analysis in a Research Methods course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for Spanish university curricula include the descriptor Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, but the latter are still poorly represented. To inform the argument for phenomenological methods, the last 20-year interval of ISI databases has been content-analyzed with the following codes: discourse analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis, phenomenological analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, that is, four qualitative methods and a prototypical quantitative one. In absolute terms, the most frequent qualitative method is grounded theory, followed by discourse analysis, phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. However, taking into account content categories, only phenomenological analysis shows a clear psychological profile, similar to confirmatory factor analysis. We recommend starting qualitative training with a method that does not require either big groups, or big funding, and that has a procedural core that is simple, relatively well-delimited and "secularizable," a variety of thematic analysis. Historical reasons and the clear psychological profile evidenced by our results enhance our argument to foster the inclusion of phenomenological analysis in research method courses in psychology.

  19. Practical Privacy Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peen, Søren; Jansen, Thejs Willem; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes a privacy assessment model called the Operational Privacy Assessment Model that includes organizational, operational and technical factors for the protection of personal data stored in an IT system. The factors can be evaluated in a simple scale so that not only the resulting...... graphical depiction can be easily created for an IT system, but graphical comparisons across multiple IT systems are also possible. Examples of factors presented in a Kiviat graph are also presented. This assessment tool may be used to standardize privacy assessment criteria, making it less painful...... for the management to assess privacy risks on their systems....

  20. Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2013-11-01

    Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from

  1. Four new massive pulsating white dwarfs including an ultramassive DAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Brandon; Gianninas, A.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Romero, A. D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of four massive (M > 0.8 M⊙) ZZ Ceti white dwarfs, including an ultramassive 1.16 M⊙ star. We obtained ground-based, time series photometry for 13 white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Data Release 10 whose atmospheric parameters place them within the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We detect monoperiodic pulsations in three of our targets (J1015, J1554 and J2038) and identify three periods of pulsation in J0840 (173, 327 and 797 s). Fourier analysis of the remaining nine objects does not indicate variability above the 4 detection threshold. Our preliminary asteroseismic analysis of J0840 yields a stellar mass M = 1.14 ± 0.01 M⊙, hydrogen and helium envelope masses of MH = 5.8 × 10-7 M⊙ and MHe = 4.5 × 10-4 M⊙ and an expected core crystallized mass ratio of 50-70 per cent. J1015, J1554 and J2038 have masses in the range 0.84-0.91 M⊙ and are expected to have a CO core; however, the core of J0840 could consist of highly crystallized CO or ONeMg given its high mass. These newly discovered massive pulsators represent a significant increase in the number of known ZZ Ceti white dwarfs with mass M > 0.85 M⊙, and detailed asteroseismic modelling of J0840 will allow for significant tests of crystallization theory in CO and ONeMg core white dwarfs.

  2. A study of helicopter stability and control including blade dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A linearized model of rotorcraft dynamics has been developed through the use of symbolic automatic equation generating techniques. The dynamic model has been formulated in a unique way such that it can be used to analyze a variety of rotor/body coupling problems including a rotor mounted on a flexible shaft with a number of modes as well as free-flight stability and control characteristics. Direct comparison of the time response to longitudinal, lateral and directional control inputs at various trim conditions shows that the linear model yields good to very good correlation with flight test. In particular it is shown that a dynamic inflow model is essential to obtain good time response correlation, especially for the hover trim condition. It also is shown that the main rotor wake interaction with the tail rotor and fixed tail surfaces is a significant contributor to the response at translational flight trim conditions. A relatively simple model for the downwash and sidewash at the tail surfaces based on flat vortex wake theory is shown to produce good agreement. Then, the influence of rotor flap and lag dynamics on automatic control systems feedback gain limitations is investigated with the model. It is shown that the blade dynamics, especially lagging dynamics, can severly limit the useable values of the feedback gain for simple feedback control and that multivariable optimal control theory is a powerful tool to design high gain augmentation control system. The frequency-shaped optimal control design can offer much better flight dynamic characteristics and a stable margin for the feedback system without need to model the lagging dynamics.

  3. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  4. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Medina, J A; Trelles, O

    2016-10-25

    DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB) and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  5. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  6. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  7. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  8. 46 CFR 16.401 - Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution of the employer's policy regarding drug and alcohol use in the workplace. (b) EAP training program: An EAP training program must be conducted for the employer's crewmembers and supervisory personnel... crewmember. Each EAP must include education and training on drug use for crewmembers and the employer's...

  9. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch

    2017-04-01

    criticism. Generating unique variance in irony detection, ironic praise can be postulated as worthwhile to include in future studies—especially when studying the role of mental ability, personality, and humor in irony detection.

  10. Including collisions in gyrokinetic tokamak and stellarator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffmann, Karla

    2012-04-10

    ITGs and TEMs in a tokamak configuration. The results show that collisions reduce the growth rate of slab ITGs in cylinder geometry, whereas they do not affect ITGs in a tokamak, which are mainly curvature-driven. However it is important to note that the pitch-angle scattering operator does not conserve momentum, which is most critical in the parallel direction. Therefore, the damping found in a cylinder could be the consequence of this missing feature and not a physical result [Dimits and Cohen 1994]. Nonetheless, the results are useful to determine whether the instability is mainly being driven by a slab or toroidal ITG mode. EUTERPE also has the feature of including kinetic electrons, which made simulations of TEMs with collisions possible. The combination of collisions and kinetic electrons made the numerical calculations extremely time-consuming, since the time step had to be small enough to resolve the fast electron motion. In contrast to the ITG results, it was observed that collisions are extremely important for TEMs in a tokamak, and in some special cases, depending on whether they were mainly driven by density or temperature gradients, collisions could even suppress the mode (in agreement with [Angioni et al. 2005, Connor et al. 2006]). In the case of stellarators it was found that ITGs are highly dependent on the device configuration. For LHD it was shown that collisions slightly reduce the growth rate of the instability, but for Wendelstein 7-X they do not affect it and the growth rate showed a similar trend with collisionality to that of the tokamak case. Collisions also tend to make the ballooning structure of the modes less pronounced.

  11. Competencies and Their Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores competencies and methods for their assessment in higher education and in social work's accreditation standards. Many contemporary policy and educational accreditation efforts employ the model of competency assessment. The current emphasis on accountability in higher education, including the Council on Social Work…

  12. Quantitative MR imaging for the in vivo assessment of trabecular bone quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffanin, Renato; Strolka, Igor; Cova, Maria; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    A major concern for space flight crews during long duration space mission is the effect of weightlessness on the skeletal system. In particular, bone loss has been noted in astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity from a few weeks to six months. Bone loss, which appears to increase in general proportion to mission length, may seriously enhance the risk of fracture during and after extended space flight. In past MIR and ISS missions, X-rays based techniques were used to assess pre- and post-flight cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD). It has been shown, however, that BMD can explain only about 60% of the bone mechanical competence. Other methods are, therefore, required for the evaluation of bone quality. To this end, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be a promising technique, being able to provide information pertaining both to trabecular bone density and structure. The main purpose of this study was to assess the use of quantitative MRI of the calcaneus for the prediction of vertebral fractures. The results show that the effective transverse relaxation time (T2*) is sensitive to alterations in bone quality not capture by density. The potential application of MRI for the study of skeletal alterations in crewmembers after prolonged space mission is proposed.

  13. State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.

  14. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed.......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  15. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed......This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed...

  16. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenzin, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Marcomini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2)

  17. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    demonstrated that algae represent an interesting alternative to terrestrial energy crops. This study provides GHG emission factors for a wide number of bioenergy scenarios. The aim is to inform decision/policy makers on the environmental consequences of producing biofuels from different sources...... generation biofuels produced from residual biomass promise important environmental savings. However, since these residues are today in-use for specific purposes (e.g., feeding), a detailed modelling of the consequences (e.g., on the feed-market) induced by their diversion to energy should be performed...... at identifying all the consequences associated with the establishment of bioenergy systems compared with the reference (current use of fossil and biomass resource). The modelling was facilitated with the LCA-model EASETECH. The functional unit was 1 unit-energy produced (i.e., 1 kWh electricity, 1 MJ heat or 1...

  18. Tissue reactions to implanted dental amalgam, including assessment by energy dispersive x-ray micro-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, B M

    1982-11-01

    Dental amalgam, either in the form of a solid rod or as a fine powder was implanted subcutaneously into guinea-pigs and the tissue reactions were examined after varying time periods. The solid rods were enclosed by fibrous capsules within which only extremely limited breakdown occurred. This appears to result from electrolytic corrosion of the gamma 2 (SnHg) phase of the rod's surface. Powdered amalgam induced granulomata and most of the particles of amalgam were actively digested by macrophages and giant cells. This resulted in the progressive loss of mercury and tin from the lesion and the formation of minute particles containing silver and sulphur which became widely distributed throughout the lesion, being associated with basal lamina, collagen and elastic tissue and giving rise to the formation of a tattoo. In contrast, some particles of amalgam, too large to be interiorised, were encapsulated by collagen and persisted almost unchanged. Intracellular small amalgam particles and aggregates of fine particles, resulting from their degradation, were seen within lymph node macrophages. It is extremely likely that the sequence of events leadng to the formation of an amalgam tattoo of the oral mucosa in Man are the same.

  19. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    pollution removal efficiency is observed. Also, a scenario analysis is conducted to examine i) the influence of sludge retention time (SRT), the external recirculation flow rate (Qr) and the air flow rate in the bioreactor (modelled as kLa) as factors promoting bulking sludge, and ii) the effect...

  20. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  1. A comprehensive study including monitoring, assessment of health effects and development of a remediation method for chromium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Al Hossain, M M Aeorangajeb; Sudo, Makoto; Akhand, Anwarul Azim; Ahsan, Nazmul; Alim, Md Abdul; Khalequzzaman, Md; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi

    2018-06-01

    Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]. Our biological study then showed that coexposure to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) at possible ratios in canal water at Hazaribagh synergistically promotes transforming activity of human non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes with activated MEK/ERK and AKT. Our environmental engineering study finally indicated that a magnesium and iron-based hydrotalcite-like compound (MF-HT), our original depurative, can maximally adsorb 9.0 mg/g Cr(VI) and 1041 mg/g Cr(III). Our results suggested the importance of removal of Cr(III) as well as Cr(VI) by showing that Cr(III), which is generally recognized as a chemical with low toxicity, synergistically promoted carcinogenicity of a low level of Cr(VI). Therefore, we propose the use of our original high-efficient and low-cost depurative as a countermeasure to address the worldwide problem of environmental Cr pollution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-II: Assessing Community Awareness of Legionnaires' Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal

    2012-01-01

    For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires' disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The 456 questionnaires completed by the participants were sorted into yes and no sets based on responses obtained to…

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE NATIVE EMPLOYMENT WORKS (NEW) PROGRAM...) Communication with any training, research, or educational agencies that have produced economic development plans...-sufficiency of program participants; (6) Surveys to collect information regarding client characteristics; and...

  4. Assessment of furnaces including fuel storage facilities according to the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, G.; Ott, H.; Wunderlich, O.; Mair, K.

    1990-01-01

    Existing quantities of substances pursuant to Annex II of the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance in furnaces or in fuel storage facilities do not present a general hazard for fireplaces fired with coal, wood, heavy and light fuel oil within the meaning of the Accident Ordinance. In case of a fire in a storage facility for black coal, brown coal, untreated wood, light and heavy fuel oil, a general hazard on account of the release of developed substances is obviously excluded. Dispersion calculations pursuant to VDI 3783 have shown that concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, nickel, cobalt and mercury compounds in the vicinity of the fire source are so small that a general hazard can be excluded. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Quality assessment and consistency check of measured nuclear data up to 20 MeV including the range of resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedy, Z.T.

    1984-09-01

    This is the final report of a research contract with the IAEA. The object is the compilation and evaluation of all the data on (n,t) and (n,3He) reactions cross-sections, respectively. The main results of the research are given (some discrepancies in the experimental data; analytic formulas for an empirical description of the data, separately for the even and odd nuclei with z>20; methods to extrapolate to energies where measurements are missing; mass regions where data are needed), and publications by the authors with the detailed results are quoted

  6. Geographic divergence of "Sulfolobus islandicus" strains assessed by genomic analyses including electronic DNA hybridization confirms they are geovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guanghong; Hao, Bailin; Staley, James T

    2014-02-01

    Ten well-annotated genomes of "Sulfolobus islandicus" strains from different geographic locations have been released at the NCBI database. Whole genome based composition vector trees indicate that these strains show the same branching patterns as originally reported by multi-locus sequence analysis. To determine whether the ten strains meet the criteria for separate species, DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) was performed in silico. DDH values of strains from the same geographic location, i.e., Iceland, Kamchatka and North America, ranged from 82.4 to 95.4 %, clearly qualifying them as members of the same species. The lowest DDH values found between locations ranged from 75.5 to 76.6 %, which exceed the 70 % DDH threshold for a species thereby indicating they are all members of the same species based on the currently accepted definition. The clear divergences of strains from the different geographic locations are sufficiently great to consider them as separate geovars. "S. islandicus" has not yet been validly named and a type strain has not been deposited in culture collections. We urgently recommend that those who study the organism fulfill the criteria of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria in order to designate a type strain and to identify and deposit related strains of this species to make them available to the broader scientific community.

  7. Robustness Assessments Are Needed to Reduce Bias in Meta-Analyses That Include Zero-Event Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, F.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Gooszen, H. G.; van Laarhoven, C. J. H. M.

    OBJECTIVES: Meta-analysis of randomized trials with binary data can use a variety of statistical methods. Zero-event trials may create analytic problems. We explored how different methods may impact inferences from meta-analyses containing zero-event trials. METHODS: Five levels of statistical

  8. Robustness assessments are needed to reduce bias in meta-analyses that include zero-event randomized trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, F.; Wetterslev, J.; Gluud, C.; Gooszen, H.G.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Meta-analysis of randomized trials with binary data can use a variety of statistical methods. Zero-event trials may create analytic problems. We explored how different methods may impact inferences from meta-analyses containing zero-event trials. METHODS: Five levels of statistical

  9. CERCLA site assessment workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This contains comments for each chapter of exercises (in Vol. 1) which illustrate how to conduct site assessments for CERCLA regulation. A through analysis of the exercises is provided so that work and solutions from Vol 1 can be critiqued and comments are also included on the strategy of site assessment whereas the exercises illustrate the principles involved. Covered exercises include the following: A preliminary assessment of a ground water site; waste characteristics and characterization of sources; documentation of observed releases and actual contamination of targets; the strategy of an SI at a surface water site; the soil exposure pathway; the air pathway

  10. Record of the first meeting of the working group, London, 6-7 December 1977 (includes terms of reference)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The items discussed include the presentation and adoption of the Group Working Paper on: terms of reference, prime objectives, topics and assessments, criteria for proliferation resistance, the organization of the Group, including the establishment of two sub-groups, schedule of work, assignment of work to be done, and the contributions to be made by international organizations

  11. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  12. Dynamic Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoel, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Adventure therapists are often asked to assess clients in a manner that differs from their therapeutic approach, resulting in assessment being perceived as burdensome. Project Adventure's Decision Tree combines assessment with activity selection to create a dynamic tool that is responsive to group, individual, and leader needs. Example focuses on…

  13. A Study of Career Planning Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Firkola, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of career planning assessments. Background on key career concepts is first introduced. A number of career planning assessments are then examined. These assessments included reviewing ones personal history, interest inventories, values assessments, personality assessments, and aptitude tests. The importance and limitations of these career assessments is then discussed.

  14. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  15. On the use of risk-informed regulation including organizational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, S.M.O.; Alvarenga, M.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk-Informed Regulation (RIR) can be applied by using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a basic tool. Traditionally, PSA methodology encompasses the calculation of failure probabilities of Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) and direct associated human errors. However, there are indirect causes related to human failures, associated with Organizational Factors, which are normally not included in fault trees, that may influence plant risk evaluation. This paper discusses on possible applications of RIR and on Organizational Factors. It also presents a classification of Angra-1 NPP unresolved issues, aiming a future inclusion of these factors into a PSA calculation. (author)

  16. Metabolic Assessment of Suited Mobility Using Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating extravehicular activity (EVA) suit mobility have typically focused on isolated joint range of motion or torque, but these techniques have little to do with how well a crewmember functionally performs in an EVA suit. To evaluate suited mobility at the system level through measuring metabolic cost (MC) of functional tasks.

  17. Educational Assessment Reassessed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Sanders

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the assessment of educational entities--school systems, individual schools, and teachers--has evoked strong and sometimes violent emotions from the educational community, the general public, and their legislative representatives. In spite of attempts to codify standards for the evaluation of these entities, assessment experts remain denominationalized--often religiously so. Methods of assessment based on the use of standardized tests have come under intense fire in recent years with some critics going so far as to call for their complete elimination. Those who advocate alternative methods of assessment have become increasingly outspoken in establishing exclusive rights to the legitimate assessment paradigm. However, some of the most respected advocates of alternative assessment have taken a more moderate view, warning against an "either-or" mentality (Brandt, 1992, p. 35. Reflecting this more moderate perspective, this paper strongly advocates the use of multiple indicators of student learning, including those provided by standardized tests.

  18. Effect of including liquid vinasse in the diet of rabbits on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid vinasse (LV in the diet for growing rabbits on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were assessed. Eighty New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomized block design with five treatments (LV inclusion at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg diet and four replications. There was no effect of the treatment on final weight, daily weight gain, mortality rate and carcass yield characteristics. The daily intakes of feed, dry matter, crude protein and energy and feed conversion decreased linearly with increase in LV in the diet. Including LV affected the duodenum crypt depth and the ilium villus perimeter and height linearly and affected the duodenum villus perimeter, height and the absorption surfaces and ilium crypt depth and absorption surface quadratically. There was no effect of including LV on jejunum morphometry. Vinasse can be used to feed growing rabbits at up to 87.8 g per kilogram of diet.

  19. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  20. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  1. Radiological risk assessment of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Fletcher F; Roszell, Laurie E; Daxon, Eric G; Guilmette, Raymond A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann

    2009-03-01

    Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-y doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth, and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crewmembers and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation.

  2. Development of sorption database (JAEA-SDB). Update of sorption data including soil and cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Tadahiro; Tachi, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Sorption of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks is the key process in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in this barrier is expected to be controlled by sorption processes. Distribution coefficient (K d ) is therefore important parameter in the performance assessment (PA) of geological disposal. The sorption database including extensive compilations of K d data measured by batch sorption experiments plays key roles in PA-related K d setting and predictive model development under a variety of geochemical conditions. For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as an important basis for the PA of high-level radioactive waste disposal. This sorption database was firstly developed for the H12 PA, and was improved and updated in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to PA-related parameter setting. The present report focuses on updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) by adding K d data for various systems including soil and cement systems, to apply JAEA-SDB for the PA-related K d setting for disposal of low level radioactive wastes including TRU wastes and the evaluation of radionuclide transport in surface soil systems. The updated data includes K d data for soil and cement systems extracted from mainly previous published database, and K d data related to our recent activities on the K d setting and mechanistic model development. As a result, 16,000 K d data from 334 references are added, total K d values in the JAEA-SDB are about 46,000. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data, and to have suitable access to the respective data for the performance assessment of various types of radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  5. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  6. Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro

    2015-01-01

    Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)

  7. Innovation Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Current regulatory approaches are ill-equipped to address the challenges of governing through periods of disruptive technological change. This article hones in on the use of assessment regimes at the level of the European Union, particularly in the work of the Commission, to argue for a missing...... middle between technology assessment and impact assessment. Technology assessment focuses on the upstream governance of science and technology, while impact assessment focuses on the downstream governance of the impacts of specific policy options. What is missing is a form of midstream governance, which...... I label innovation assessment, to steer polities through periods of disruptive technological change, during which innovations have taken concrete forms and are beginning to diffuse, but still exhibit much scope for rapid, unexpected change and alternative trajectories of development. By juxtaposing...

  8. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  9. Assessing the assessment in emergency care training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E W Dankbaar

    Full Text Available Each year over 1.5 million health care professionals attend emergency care courses. Despite high stakes for patients and extensive resources involved, little evidence exists on the quality of assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of commonly used formats in assessing emergency care skills.Residents were assessed at the end of a 2-week emergency course; a subgroup was videotaped. Psychometric analyses were conducted to assess the validity and inter-rater reliability of the assessment instrument, which included a checklist, a 9-item competency scale and a global performance scale.A group of 144 residents and 12 raters participated in the study; 22 residents were videotaped and re-assessed by 8 raters. The checklists showed limited validity and poor inter-rater reliability for the dimensions "correct" and "timely" (ICC = .30 and.39 resp.. The competency scale had good construct validity, consisting of a clinical and a communication subscale. The internal consistency of the (subscales was high (α = .93/.91/.86. The inter-rater reliability was moderate for the clinical competency subscale (.49 and the global performance scale (.50, but poor for the communication subscale (.27. A generalizability study showed that for a reliable assessment 5-13 raters are needed when using checklists, and four when using the clinical competency scale or the global performance scale.This study shows poor validity and reliability for assessing emergency skills with checklists but good validity and moderate reliability with clinical competency or global performance scales. Involving more raters can improve the reliability substantially. Recommendations are made to improve this high stakes skill assessment.

  10. Assessing Believability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Karakovskiy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We discuss what it means for a non-player character (NPC) to be believable or human-like, and how we can accurately assess believability. We argue that participatory observation, where the human assessing believability takes part in the game, is prone to distortion effects. For many games, a fairer...... (or at least complementary) assessment might be made by an external observer that does not participate in the game, through comparing and ranking the performance of human and non-human agents playing a game. This assessment philosophy was embodied in the Turing Test Track of the recent Mario AI...

  11. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  12. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silady, F.A.; Everline, C.J.; Houghton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  13. Organizational Assessment | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... We have developed an organizational performance assessment framework, including a guide for self-assessment. ORGANIZATIONAL ... McGill University, and IDRC. This website aims to improve organizational learning by using organizational assessment frameworks, models, and tools for self-reflection.

  14. Psychobiographical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munter, Pamela Osborne

    1975-01-01

    Psychobiography, the analysis of public persons by competent clinicians, is discussed as a possible assessment technique. Its position in relation to traditional personality assessment is considered as well as major previous efforts. Psychobiography is a part of the curriculum at several leading universities and suggestions are made for future…

  15. Portfolio Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagavarian, Debra A.

    The portfolio assessment process at Thomas A. Edison State College is described in this report. Through portfolio assessment, the school helps students identify and gain credit for college-level skills and knowledge acquired through work, volunteer activities, independent reading, military or corporate training, and life experiences that may be…

  16. Operational risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Vicky L

    2017-06-01

    In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on. At times, insurance carriers will assess internal hazards, but seldom do these assessments include more than a cursory look at other types of operational risk. In heavily regulated environments, risk assessments are required but may not always include thorough assessments of operational exposures. Vulnerabilities may linger or go unnoticed, only to become the catalyst for a business disruption at a later time, some of which are so severe that business recovery becomes nearly impossible. Businesses may suffer loss of clients as the result of a prolonged disruption of services. Comprehensive operational risk assessments can assist in identifying such vulnerabilities, exposures and threats so that the risk can be minimised or removed. This paper lays out how an assessment of this type can be successfully conducted.

  17. Assessment of childhood phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N J; Ollendick, T H; Murphy, G C

    1997-11-01

    Childhood phobias can be successfully treated using a variety of behavioral strategies, provided there has been a psychometrically sound assessment. Measures are also important for the evaluation of treatment efficacy and the testing of hypotheses generated by new ideas and theories of children's phobias. This paper outlines broad-based assessment procedures used in the evaluation of children's phobias, including the behavioral or problem-focused interview, the diagnostic interview, self-report inventories, caregiver completed instruments, behavioral observations, self-monitoring and physiological assessment. Reflecting recent theoretical and clinical advances in the study of childhood internalizing disorders, we also explore laboratory-based measures and family assessment measures. Particular attention is given to psychometric issues and developmental sensitivity in our discussion of these assessment procedures.

  18. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  19. Deconstructing programmatic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson TJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tim J Wilkinson,1 Michael J Tweed2 1Education Unit, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 2Education Unit, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: We describe programmatic assessment and the problems it might solve in relation to assessment and learning, identify some models implemented internationally, and then outline what we believe are programmatic assessment’s key components and what these components might achieve. We then outline some issues around implementation, which include blueprinting, data collection, decision making, staff support, and evaluation. Rather than adopting an all-or-nothing approach, we suggest that elements of programmatic assessment can be gradually introduced into traditional assessment systems. Keywords: assessment, implementation, medicine, decision making

  20. [Characteristics and cardiovascular events in a general population included in the RICARTO (RIesgo CARdiovascular TOledo) study: Data from the first 1,500 individuals included in the study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J

    2017-08-28

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.