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Sample records for included cranial irradiation

  1. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  2. Endocrinologic complications of cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has become one of the leading causes of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The risk and time of onset of GH deficiency depend mainly on the dose delivered to the hypothalamo-pituitary region: GH deficiency is infrequent after doses under 20 grays and nearly constant after doses above 45 grays. For a given dose, a younger age at the time of irradiation and administration of the dose over a shorter time period increase the risk of GH deficiency. GH secretion can be adequately evaluated using rapid stimulation tests and is usually well correlated with growth, except in patients with radiation-induced precocious puberty or growth delay due to radiation-induced cartilage lesions [fr

  3. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Bohndorf, W.

    1996-01-01

    To analyse if prophylactic cranial irradiation is small cell lung cancer for improved survival is indicated; if adjuvant irradiation could cure the microscopic disease; if and how late effects could be minimized. Data from randomized trials and retrospective studies are critically analysed related to the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in limited disease patients in complete remission with or without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The mechanisms of late effects on CNS of prophylactic cranial irradiation and combined treatment are presented. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could decrease the incidence of CNS metastases but could not improve survival. A subgroup of patients (9 to 14%) most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure. The actual used total dose in the range 30 to 40 Gy could only conditionally decrease the CNS failure. Higher total and/or daily doses and combined treatment are related with potentially devastating neurologic and intellectual disabilities. No prospective randomized trial has demonstrated a significant survival advantage for patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Prophylactic cranial irradiation is capable of reducing the incidence of cerebral metastases and delays CNS failure. A subgroup of patients most likely to benefit from prophylactic cranial irradiation (9 to 14%) includes patients who are likely to have an isolated CNS failure, but this had yet to be demonstrated. The toxicity of treatment is difficult to be influenced. Prophylactic cranial irradiation should not be given concurrently with chemotherapy, a larger interval after chemotherapy is indicated. The total dose should be in the range 30 to 36 Gy and the daily fraction size not larger than 2 Gy. (orig.) [de

  4. Lymphopenia caused by cranial irradiation in children receiving craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harisiadis, L.; Kopelson, G.; Chang, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    The peripheral blood changes were studied in 67 children who received craniospinal irradiation for posterior fossa tumors. At the completion of a cranial dose of about 3500 rad to the whole brain port, the lymphocytes were reduced to 858/mm 3 from 3084/mm 3 preoperatively. The counts of the remaining leukocytes stayed at a level somewhat higher than preoperatively; the eosinophils rose to 288/mm 3 from 125/mm 3 . With the initiation of the spinal field irradiation, which included a large proportion of the total bone marrow, the numbers of all the leukocytes decreased rapidly; the observed leukopenia was mainly secondary to neutropenia. A mechanism that was operating to restore the number of leukocytes became manifest immediately after the completion of radiotherapy, though the number of lymphocytes had not been totally restored to the preoperative level 6 years later. Irradiation of the lymphocytes that circulate through the vascular bed can explain the lymphopenia observed during cranial radiotherapy. Mild leukopenia observed in patients receiving radiotherapy through a relatively small port may be secondary to lymphopenia, and this does not necessarily indicate impaired bone marrow reserves

  5. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

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    Borg, M.F. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia); Probert, J.C. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zwi, L.J. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Medicine and Surgery

    1995-02-01

    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Is phenytoin contraindicated in patients receiving cranial irradiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, M.F.; Probert, J.C.; Zwi, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three recent publications have reported the development of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and sodium phenytoin. Some authors have recommended that patients receiving whole brain radiation therapy and who have had seizures should not be prescribed phenytoin but an alternative anticonvulsant. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the development of this potentially lethal complication in patients receiving whole brain radiation and phenytoin, with reference to the single recorded case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin in Auckland, New Zealand. While the clinical picture in the 16 patients reported in the literature and the current case report differed from the classical form of erythema multiforme, a similar pattern of presentation and outcome appeared in all patients reviewed, suggesting that the combination of phenytoin, cranial irradiation and the gradual reduction of concomitant steroids seem to lead to the development of erythema multiforme and/or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The data presented, although sparse, suggest that phenytoin should not be prescribed in patients receiving cranial irradiation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Cranial irradiation of young rats impairs later learning and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overmier, J.B.; Carroll, M.E.; Patten, R.; Krivit, W.; Kim, T.H.

    1979-01-01

    Young rats (26 days) were exposed to ionizing radiation of the head of 0, 1200, 2400 or 3000 rads total in 200 rads/day doses. The subsequent growth of irradiated rats was permanently impaired: such impairment was positively related to amount of irradiation. Beginning in adolescence, rats were trained on a horizontal/vertical visual discrimination in a runway task and although all four groups mastered the discrimination, they differed in their patterns of acquisition. These results indicated long term effects and are associated with a cranial irradiation regimen similar to that given to children suffering acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). (author)

  8. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Malgo, Frank; Neelis, Karen J.; Coremans, Ida; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  9. Cognitive effects of chemotherapy and/or cranial irradiation in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, G.; Wenz, F.; Steinvorth, S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: cognitive effects after cranial radiotherapy are widely discussed, but there is growing evidence that chemotherapy may also induce changes in neuropsychological functioning. This review summarizes the published literature regarding cognitive functioning after cancer therapy in adult patients. Material and methods: 63 reports from January 1980 to July 2003 assessing objective cognitive effects of irradiation and/or chemotherapy by neuropsychologic evaluation were analyzed. 57 studies with 3,424 patients were included for evaluation. Results: the results of this review confirm that both chemotherapy and irradiation can result in cognitive deficits. No clinically relevant differences are found for cognitive deficits, cognitive impairment rate, and single cognitive domains, when chemotherapy, cranial irradiation and combined radio- and chemotherapy were compared. Only 28 trials with 1,000 patients report quantitative data on patients with cognitive deficits after therapy. There are 44.1% (range 18-75%) of 451 patients in the chemotherapy group, 44.0% (range 29-83%) of 320 patients in the radiotherapy group, and 64.5% (range 30-100%) of 229 patients in the combined irradiation and chemotherapy group with cognitive deficits. Furthermore, cognitive functioning below average before chemo- or radiotherapy is found in subgroups of cancer patients. Conclusion: there is evidence of cognitive impairment in adult tumor patients after chemotherapy similar to effects after cranial irradiation. Cognitive functioning below average before therapy may be due to paraneoplastic effects. More prospective studies with a long-term follow-up using standardized neuropsychometric testing, assessment of premorbid intelligence, and suited control groups are needed. (orig.)

  10. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  11. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalm, Marie; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus; Nyman, Jan; Hietala, Max Albert; Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars; Elam, Mikael; Blennow, Kaj; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments

  12. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

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    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  13. Adrenocorticotrophin and cortisol secretion in children after low dose cranial irradiation

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    Crowne, E.C.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Gibson, S.; Moore, C.M.; White, A.; Shalet, S.M. (Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1993-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low dose cranial irradiation (18-24 Gy) on spontaneous ACTH and cortisol secretion in children. We analysed 24-hour plasma ACTH and cortisol profiles sampled at 20-minute intervals. Twenty long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were studied and results compared with those in 14 normal children. No significant disruption of spontaneous ACTH or cortisol secretion, either in the amount or pattern of hormones secreted, was found in children after low dose cranial irradiation. (Author).

  14. Cranial irradiation in acute leukemia: dose estimate in the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Kun, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    Cranial irradiation for subclinical arachnoid infiltration is standard treatment in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. The incidental dose received by the ocular lens is of potential importance since these children evidence a significant long-term survival rate. Comparison of the lens dose using 6MV and 4MV photon beams and a cobalt unit is presented in terms of ion chamber measurements in a water phantom and thermo-luminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements in a head phantom. TLD measurements on patients treated for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are examined and used to estimate the dose to the lens. It is demonstrated that the dose to the lens depends strongly on the choice of field margin and on the daily patient set-up. However, using parallel opposed beams in a clinically determined optimal set-up, the dose to the lens is approximately 20 to 30% of the midline central axis dose. By angling the treatment head to eliminate the geometrical divergence of the beam, it is possible to reduce the lens dose to approximately 15% of the midline dose

  15. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  16. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  17. Utility of cranial boost in addition to total body irradiation in the treatment of high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Brian M.; Wechsler, Daniel; Braun, Thomas M.; Levine, John; Herman, Joseph; Yanik, Gregory; Hutchinson, Raymond; Pierce, Lori J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) as part of a conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is an important component in the management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that has relapsed or has other certain high-risk features. Controversy exists, however, as to whether a cranial boost in addition to TBI is necessary to prevent central nervous system (CNS) recurrences in these high-risk cases. Previous national trials have included a cranial boost in the absence of data to justify its use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess risk of CNS recurrence in ALL patients treated with TBI, to identify subsets of these high-risk patients at an increased or decreased risk of CNS recurrence after TBI, and to investigate whether regimens with higher doses of cranial irradiation further reduce the risk of CNS recurrence. Methods and Materials: Charts of 67 consecutively treated patients with ALL who received TBI before HSCT were reviewed. Data including patient demographics, clinical features at presentation, conditioning regimen, donor source, use of a cranial boost, remission stage at transplant, histologic subtype, cytogenetics, and extramedullary site of presentation were retrospectively collected and correlated with the risk of subsequent CNS recurrence. Results: At the time of analysis, 30 (45%) patients were alive with no evidence of disease, 8 (12%) were alive with recurrence of leukemia, 7 (10.5%) had recurrent ALL but with successful salvage, 7 (11%) died subsequent to recurrence, 14 (21%) died from complications related to HCST, and 1 patient was lost to follow-up (1.5%). Of the patients who recurred after HSCT, the relapses were hematologic in 13 (57%), CNS with or without simultaneous marrow involvement in 3 (13%), and other sites in 7 (30%). Forty-one (61%) patients did not receive an extracranial boost of irradiation with TBI. Two of these patients (4.9%) suffered CNS failures compared with 1 of 26 (3.8%) who received a

  18. Practice guideline on prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotalik, Jaro; Yu, Edward; Markman, Barbara R.; Evans, William K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evidence-based clinical practice guideline that would address the following questions: (a) What is the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited or extensive stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) who have achieved complete remission in response to induction therapy (chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy)? (b) What dose and fractionation schedules of PCI are optimal? (c) Does the use of PCI in patients with SCLC in complete remission affect quality of life? Survival, disease-free survival, quality of life, and adverse effects were the outcomes of interest. Methods and Materials: A systematic review of the published literature was undertaken to provide the data for an evidence-based practice guideline. Results: Six randomized controlled trials and one fully published individual patient data meta-analysis were included in the systematic review of the evidence. For patients who have achieved complete response after induction therapy, there is evidence of a disease-free survival benefit (4 of 6 trials) and an overall survival benefit (meta-analysis). There is insufficient evidence to make a definitive recommendation with respect to dose. There is some indication that 30-36 Gy in 2-3 Gy per fraction, or a biologically equivalent dose, may produce a better outcome than a lower dose or less aggressive fractionation regimen. The schedule commonly used in Canada is 25 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Data from further research, including a trial currently ongoing that compares 25 Gy in 10 fractions with 36 Gy in 18 fractions, will be required to determine optimal dose of PCI. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations concerning the optimal timing of PCI in relation to the administration of chemotherapy. Lung DSG members generally felt that it should be given as soon as possible after completion of chemotherapy. There is evidence from trials with data for up to 2 years of follow-up that prophylactic cranial

  19. Brain damage following prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Marta; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Fuentes, Rafael; Cardenal, Felipe; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bruna, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Long-term toxic effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on cognition in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have not yet been well-established. The aim of our study was to examine the cognitive toxic effects together with brain structural changes in a group of long-term SCLC survivors treated with PCI. Eleven SCLC patients, who underwent PCI ≥ 2 years before, were compared with an age and education matched healthy control group. Both groups were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery and multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Tract-based Spatial Statistics were used to study gray matter density (GMD) and white matter (WM) microstructural changes. Cognitive deterioration was correlated with GMD and Fractional Anisotropy (FA). Finally, we carried out a single-subject analysis in order to evaluate individual structural brain changes. Nearly half of the SCLC met criteria for cognitive impairment, all exhibiting a global worsening of cognitive functioning. Patients showed significant decreases of GMD in basal ganglia bilaterally (putamen and caudate), bilateral thalamus and right insula, together with WM microstructural changes of the entire corpus callosum. Cognitive deterioration scores correlated positively with mean FA values in the corpus callosum. Single-subject analysis revealed that GMD and WM changes were consistently observed in nearly all patients. This study showed neuropsychological deficits together with brain-specific structural differences in long-term SCLC survivors. Our results suggest that PCI therapy, possibly together with platinum-based chemotherapy, was associated to permanent long-term cognitive and structural brain effects in a SCLC population.

  20. Growth in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with and without prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moell, C.; Garwicz, S.; Marky, L.; Melander, L.; Karlberg, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth and weight gain were studied longitudinally over a period of four years in thirty-nine children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The children were divided into two groups according to treatment. Twenty-eight children were given prophylactic cranial irradiation and eleven children were treated without such irradiation. The duration of cytostatic treatment was three years in all cases. Average growth during the first two years was similar in the two groups, and the standard deviation scores (SDS) were below average. The rate of growth during the fourth year was significantly higher among those children who had not received cranial irradiation. After four years the average attained height had declined 0.5 SD for children treated with cranial irradiation and 0.2 SD for children without such treatment. Attained weight after four years had increased 0.4 SD more among those children who had not received irradiation. The results suggest that prophylactic cranial irradiation is responsible for the greater part of the prepubertal growth inhibition in these children. (authors)

  1. Response to growth hormone treatment and final height after cranial or craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmont, V.; Brauner, R.; Fontoura, M.; Rappaport, R.

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) induced by cranial irradiation has become a frequent indication of hGH substitutive therapy. This study analyses the growth response to hGH therapy and the factors involved in the decrease in growth velocity observed after cranial irradiation. One hundred children given cranial radiation for pathology distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary area were studied. Fifty-six of them received hGH therapy for GHD resulting in decreased growth velocity. The initial annual height gain in the cranial-irradiated group was comparable to that of patients treated for idiopathic GHD; additional spinal irradiation significantly reduced the growth response. Twenty-eight hGH-treated patients reached final heights which were compared to those of 2 untreated irradiated groups, one with GHD (n=27) and the other with normal GH secretion (n=17). The height SD score changes observed in hGH therapy were +0.3 in the cranial (n=10) and -1.2 SD in the craniospinal (n=18) groups. GH deficiency had contributed to a mean height loss of 1 SD and spinal irradiation to a loss of 1.4SD. The small effect of hGH therapy on final height is probably linked to the small bone age retardation at onset of hGH therapy and to the fact that irradiated children entered puberty at a younger age in terms of chronological age and bone age than the idiopathic GHD patients. These data suggest that the results of gGH therapy in irradiated children might be improved with higher and more fractionated hGH doses and, in some patients, by delaying puberty using luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs

  2. A novel variant of growth hormone (GH) insufficiency following low dose cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowne, E.C.; Moore, C.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L.; Addison, G.M.; Morris-Jones, P.H.; Shalet, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of low dose (1800 cGy) prophylactic cranial irradiation on physiological growth hormone secretion. Forty-four children were studied, of whom 21 were long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 23 were normal children. In the normal children, there was a significant increase in the median (range) area under the curve (AUC) of the GH profile between the prepubertal and pubertal groups. There was also a change in the spectral analysis through puberty. The dominant frequencies were spread widely in the prepubertal and post-pubertal groups but sharply focused in the pubertal group. In the cranially irradiated children there was no significant increase in AUC between the prepubertal and pubertal groups. The wide range of dominant frequencies persisted in the pubertal cranially irradiated group due to the presence of additional high frequency pulses. The impression of a disturbance of the periodicity of GH secretion in the cranially irradiated pubertal group was further supported by the finding that the autocorrelation function in this group alone was not significantly different from that which would arise from random data. A novel form of GH insufficiency has been observed after low dose irradiation in childhood in which an abnormality of periodicity and a quantitative reduction in GH secretion appears restricted to puberty. (author)

  3. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  4. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...... survival (OS) and to investigate the influence of steroid dose on acute toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2010 a total of 118 consecutive patients underwent PCI (25 Gray in 10 fractions). In total, 114/118 received full PCI dose, all 118 were included in the study. Data were analyzed......-one patients out of 118 developed brain metastases after PCI: five of the twenty-one had metastases located in the limbic system. The study showed that prophylactic steroid use might reduce acute toxicity to PCI. Survival data and recurrence rates are comparable to other clinical studies....

  5. Single fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, A.E.; Hopwood, P.; Stout, R.; Burt, P.A.; Thatcher, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of a single 8-Gy fraction prophylactic cranial irradiation regime was assessed in 106 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the lung. All patients had limited stage disease and received combination chemotherapy consisting of either cisplatin or carboplatin with ifosfamide, etoposide, and vincristine (VICE). Cranial irradiation was administered 48 h after the first cycle of chemotherapy and was well tolerated. Actual 2-year survival was 35% and cranial relapse occurred in 22% of those patients who achieved complete remission. This compares favourably with a cranial relapse rate of 45% incomplete remitters previously reported with the same chemotherapy regime after a minimum follow-up of 2 years where PCI was not used. Formal psychometric testing was performed retrospectively on a series of 25 long-term survivors of whom 14 were taken from this reported series. Whilst 75% of patients were impaired on at least one test with 68% performing badly in the most complex task, this was not associated with clinically detectable neurological damage and the patients did not complain of memory or concentration difficulties. In conclusion, single fraction PCI, when used with platinum based combination chemotherapy, appears to be equally effective but may be less neurotoxic than the more standard fractionated regimes

  6. Enhanced cis-platinum ototoxicity in children with brain tumours who have received simultaneous or prior cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; Pillow, J.; Waters, K.D.; Keir, E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on four children who received cis-platinum simultaneously with, or in one case 10 months after, cranial irradiation and experienced exaggerated ototoxicity affecting all audible frequencies. The hearing loss was severe, affecting the critical areas for speech perception, and necessitated the provision of bilateral hearing aids. The audiograms of these patients are shown and compared to those of four children who had received cis-platinum as part of their treatment for neuroblastoma but without cranial irradiation. The precipitation of the exaggerated hearing loss with the administration of cis-platinum in one patient 10 months after finishing cranial irradiation suggests that care should be taken in the timing of cis-platinum administration in relation to concurrent or previous cranial irradiation

  7. A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with abnormal brain CT scan after cranial irradiation for central nervous system leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Junko; Abe, Takanori; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    1988-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presented with central neurologic symptoms immediately after the second irradiation (20 Gy to the brain and 10 Gy to the spinal cord) for central nervous system (CNS)-leukemia 3 years and 2 months after the first cranial irradiation with 20 Gy. White matter was depicted as diffusely high density area on CT; histology revealed necrosis of leukemic cells. In the present patient with repeated recurrent CNS-leukemia, leukemic cells seemed to have been damaged simultaneously after irradiation because of parenchymal widespread involvement of leukemic cells, resulting in brain edema, an increased intracranial pressure and parenchymal disturbance. This finding may have an important implication for the risk of cranial irradiation in the case of widespread involvement of leukemic cells. Re-evaluation of cranial irradiation in such cases is suggested. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Cranial irradiation alters dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus.

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    Ayanabha Chakraborti

    Full Text Available Therapeutic irradiation of the brain is a common treatment modality for brain tumors, but can lead to impairment of cognitive function. Dendritic spines are sites of excitatory synaptic transmission and changes in spine structure and number are thought to represent a morphological correlate of altered brain functions associated with hippocampal dependent learning and memory. To gain some insight into the temporal and sub region specific cellular changes in the hippocampus following brain irradiation, we investigated the effects of 10 Gy cranial irradiation on dendritic spines in young adult mice. One week or 1 month post irradiation, changes in spine density and morphology in dentate gyrus (DG granule and CA1 pyramidal neurons were quantified using Golgi staining. Our results showed that in the DG, there were significant reductions in spine density at both 1 week (11.9% and 1 month (26.9% after irradiation. In contrast, in the basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, irradiation resulted in a significant reduction (18.7% in spine density only at 1 week post irradiation. Analysis of spine morphology showed that irradiation led to significant decreases in the proportion of mushroom spines at both time points in the DG as well as CA1 basal dendrites. The proportions of stubby spines were significantly increased in both the areas at 1 month post irradiation. Irradiation did not alter spine density in the CA1 apical dendrites, but there were significant changes in the proportion of thin and mushroom spines at both time points post irradiation. Although the mechanisms involved are not clear, these findings are the first to show that brain irradiation of young adult animals leads to alterations in dendritic spine density and morphology in the hippocampus in a time dependent and region specific manner.

  9. Enhanced lithium-induced brain recovery following cranial irradiation is not impeded by inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaterre, Jordane; McPherson, Cameron S; Denoyer, Delphine; Lai, Emily; Hagekyriakou, Jim; Lightowler, Sally; Shudo, Koishi; Ernst, Matthias; Ashley, David M; Short, Jennifer L; Wheeler, Greg; Ramsay, Robert G

    2012-06-01

    Radiation-induced brain injury occurs in many patients receiving cranial radiation therapy, and these deleterious effects are most profound in younger patients. Impaired neurocognitive functions in both humans and rodents are associated with inflammation, demyelination, and neural stem cell dysfunction. Here we evaluated the utility of lithium and a synthetic retinoid receptor agonist in reducing damage in a model of brain-focused irradiation in juvenile mice. We found that lithium stimulated brain progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation following cranial irradiation while also preventing oligodendrocyte loss in the dentate gyrus of juvenile mice. In response to inflammation induced by radiation, which may have encumbered the optimal reparative action of lithium, we used the anti-inflammatory synthetic retinoid Am80 that is in clinical use in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Although Am80 reduced the number of cyclooxygenase-2-positive microglial cells following radiation treatment, it did not enhance lithium-induced neurogenesis recovery, and this alone was not significantly different from the effect of lithium on this proinflammatory response. Similarly, lithium was superior to Am80 in supporting the restoration of new doublecortin-positive neurons following irradiation. These data suggest that lithium is superior in its restorative effects to blocking inflammation alone, at least in the case of Am80. Because lithium has been in routine clinical practice for 60 years, these preclinical studies indicate that this drug might be beneficial in reducing post-therapy late effects in patients receiving cranial radiotherapy and that blocking inflammation in this context may not be as advantageous as previously suggested.

  10. Cranial irradiation is the major cause of learning problems in children treated for leukemia and lymphoma: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen-Melman, J E; De Groot, A; Van Dongen, J J; Verhulst, F C; Hählen, K

    1997-08-01

    Prophylactic treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has negative effects on intelligence. We investigated the clinical significance of this finding by comparing the effect of different types of CNS prophylaxis on the survivor's learning capabilities. To isolate the effect of different types of CNS prophylaxis from other treatment and disease variables on learning problems, children treated for leukemia or NHL who received CNS prophylaxis with cranial irradiation (n = 30) or without cranial irradiation (n = 36) were compared with children treated for solid tumors who received systemic chemotherapy without any CNS treatment (n = 30) and with matched healthy controls (n = 265). The identification of learning problems was based on the school system's assessment. Parents and teachers reported on the child's educational status in a standardized way. Learning problems were found in 80% of children who received CNS prophylaxis with cranial irradiation. This was significantly higher than the 14% found in children treated with CNS prophylaxis without cranial irradiation (P learning problems in this latter group did not differ significantly from that in childhood cancer survivors without any form of CNS prophylaxis (20%) and in healthy matched controls (17%). We conclude that the high prevalence of learning problems in survivors of childhood leukemia and NHL is directly related to CNS prophylaxis with cranial irradiation and not to CNS prophylaxis per se or to other treatment and disease variables.

  11. Scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Kachris, Stefanos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the scattered dose to thyroid from prophylactic cranial irradiation during childhood. The MCNP transport code and mathematical phantoms representing the average individual at ages 3, 5, 10, 15 and 18 years old were employed to simulate cranial radiotherapy using two lateral opposed fields. The mean radiation dose received by the thyroid gland was calculated. A 10 cm thick lead block placed on the patient's couch to shield the thyroid was simulated by MCNP code. The Monte Carlo model was validated by measuring the scattered dose to the unshielded and shielded thyroid using three different humanoid phantoms and thermoluminescense dosimetry. For a cranial dose of 18 Gy, the thyroid dose obtained by Monte Carlo calculations varied from 47 to 79 cGy depending upon the age of the child. Appropriate placement of the couch block resulted in a thyroid dose reduction by 39 to 54%. Thyroid dose values at all possible positions of the radiosensitive gland with respect to the inferior field edge at five different patient ages were found. The mean difference between Monte Carlo results and thyroid dose measurements was 9.6%. (note)

  12. Radioprotective effect of thymoquinone on salivary gland of rats exposed to total cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Baysal, Elif; Demir, Elif; Alkis, Hilal; Akan, Muslum; Binici, Habip; Karatas, Zeynel Abidin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of thymoquinone against radiation-induced damage in the salivary glands of rats exposed to total cranial gamma irradiation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups to test the radioprotective effectiveness of thymoquinone by intraperitoneal injection. An appropriate control group was also studied. Biochemical parameters in liver tissue of rats were determined by spectrophotometer. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total (enzymatic plus nonenzymatic) superoxide scavenger activity (TSSA), nonenzymatic superoxide scavenger activity (NSSA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased, whereas xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase activities, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite levels were significantly increased in the irradiation group when compared to the control and sham control groups. Results showed that thymoquinone reduces oxidative and nitrosative stress parameters and has antioxidant effects and a free radical scavenging activity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evolution of growth hormone neurosecretory disturbance after cranial irradiation for childhood brain tumours: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoudeas, H.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D.; Matthews, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the aetiopathology of post-irradiation growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we performed a mixed longitudinal analysis of 56 24 h serum GH concentration profiles and 45 paired insulin-induced hypoglycaemia tests (ITT) in 35 prepubertal children, aged 1.5-11.8 years, with brain tumours in the posterior foss (n = 25) or cerebral hemispheres (n 10). Assessments were made before (n = 16), 1 year (n = 25) and 2 to 5 years (n = 15) after a cranial irradiation (DXR) dose of at least 30 Gy. Fourier transforms, occupancy percentage, first-order derivatives (FOD) and mean concentrations were determined from the GH profiles taken after neurosurgery but before radiotherapy (n = 16) and in three treatment groups: Group 1: neurosurgery only without DXR 9n 9); Group 2: ≥ 30 Gy DXR only (n = 22); Group 3: ≥ 30 Gy DXR with additional chemotherapy (n = 9). Results were compared with those from 26 short normally growing (SN) children. (author)

  14. Brain sarcoma of meningeal origin after cranial irradiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberin, P.; Maor, E.; Zaizov, R.; Cohen, I.J.; Hirsch, M.; Yosefovich, T.; Ronen, J.; Goldstein, J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report their experience with an unusual case of intracerebral sarcoma of meningeal cell origin in an 8 1/2-year-old girl. This tumor occurred 6 1/2 years after cranial irradiation at relatively low dosage (2200 rads) had been delivered to the head in the course of a multimodality treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia. The tumor recurred approximately 10 months after the first surgical intervention. Macroscopic total excision of the recurrent growth followed by whole-brain irradiation (4500 rads) failed to eradicate it completely and local recurrence prompted reoperation 18 months later. This complication of treatment in long-term childhood leukemia survivors is briefly discussed, as well as the pathology of meningeal sarcomas

  15. Late effects of cranial irradiation on visual attention in children treated for hematologic illnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional design was employed to assess the effects of CNS therapy including cranial irradiation (CRT) on visual attention. Forty one children between the ages of 8 and 16 years, 24 with a history of CRT, were tested. The attentional measure was a set of 14 timed, age-normed visual cancellation tasks that permitted an assessment of task-relevant motor response speed in the measurement of attentional efficiency. CRT doses ranged from 1000 to 4800 rads, administered to whole brain between 1 and 12 years prior to testing. It was found that increasing doses of CRT were associated with slower motor responding. Motor speed accounted for a significant proportion of variance in attentional task performance: slowed motor responding must be controlled by covariation in the measurement of attentional abilities in CRT-treated children. No child receiving CRT before age 4 and more than 5 years prior to testing performed above the mean overall on the attentional task, compared to several children demonstrating above-average performance who received CRT less than 5 years prior to testing. Scores for the CRT group were highly correlated with IQ and achievement results. CRT variables (dose, age at earliest CRT, time since CRT) explained half the variance in attentional task performance. Children who received CRT performed significantly below the mean on subtests with the most complex, symbolic or sequential target stimuli, a pattern that has predicted poor academic achievement in non-medically ill children. It was concluded that children receiving CRT should continue to be evaluated more than five years after treatment to monitor potential late effects of neurotoxic treatment. Longitudinal, prospective, well-controlled dose-effect research using a developmentally sensitive, theoretically grounded battery of attentional measures is needed to best compare neurotoxicity of different treatment regima in children

  16. Cranial irradiation induces transient microglia accumulation, followed by long-lasting inflammation and loss of microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Umekawa, Takashi; Zhou, Kai; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Ohshima, Makiko; Dominguez, Cecilia A.; Harris, Robert A.; Zhu, Changlian; Blomgren, Klas

    2016-01-01

    The relative contribution of resident microglia and peripheral monocyte-derived macrophages in neuroinflammation after cranial irradiation is not known. A single dose of 8 Gy was administered to postnatal day 10 (juvenile) or 90 (adult) CX3CR1GFP/+ CCR2RFP/+ mouse brains. Microglia accumulated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal granule cell layer, where progenitor cell death was prominent. The peak was earlier (6 h vs. 24 h) but less pronounced in adult brains. The increase in juvenile, but not adult, brains was partly attributed to proliferation. Microglia numbers then decreased over time to 39% (juvenile) and 58% (adult) of controls 30 days after irradiation, largely as a result of cell death. CD68 was expressed in 90% of amoeboid microglia in juvenile hippocampi but only in 9% of adult ones. Isolated hippocampal microglia revealed reduced CD206 and increased IL1-beta expression after irradiation, more pronounced in juvenile brains. CCL2 and IL-1 beta increased after irradiation, more in juvenile hippocampi, and remained elevated at all time points. In summary, microglia activation after irradiation was more pronounced, protracted and pro-inflammatory by nature in juvenile than in adult hippocampi. Common to both ages was long-lasting inflammation and the absence of monocyte-derived macrophages. PMID:27793054

  17. A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Martin; Grimm, Jimm; McIntyre, Riley; Anderson-Keightly, Heather; Kleinberg, Lawrence R; Hales, Russell K; Moore, Joseph; Vannorsdall, Tracy; Redmond, Kristin J

    2017-11-01

    To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose-volume histograms were generated and dose-response data were fitted to a nonlinear model. Of 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose-response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline. This prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C.; Lingitz, H.; Eder, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  19. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Lingitz, H. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Eder, H.G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  20. Secondary intracranial meningiomas after high-dose cranial irradiation: report of five cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan, Primoz; Popovic, Mara; Jereb, Berta

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To review cases of secondary intracranial meningiomas following high-dose cranial irradiation (≥ 10 Gy) identified in Slovenia between 1968 and 1998, to determine their histological profile and to review the literature on this topic. Methods and Materials: Personal files of patients treated for secondary intracranial meningioma during a 31-year period were reviewed. In cases which met the criteria for radiation-induced tumors, steroid hormone receptor and Ki-67 status were analyzed. For the literature review, computerized database systems and reference lists from respective publications were used. Results: Five patients (2 females, 3 males), 3-11 years old at the time of cranial irradiation, developed secondary meningioma after a latency period of 9.5-31.5 years. Three patients had multiple tumors and 2 developed recurrent disease. Of 9 histologically examined tumors, 5 were graded as benign and 4 as atypical meningiomas, with Ki-67 proliferative index 3.2 ± 3.6 and 10 ± 6, respectively. The ratio between positive and negative meningiomas regarding immunostaining for progesterone and estrogen receptors was eight-to-one and six-to-three, respectively. Cumulative actuarial risk of secondary meningioma in a cohort of 445 children 16 years or younger treated with high-dose cranial irradiation between 1968 and 1990 in Slovenia at 10, 20, and 25 years was 0.53%, 1.2%, and 8.18%, respectively. Out of 126 cases of radiation-induced meningiomas reported, 57% were females and 43% were males, with mean age at presentation 33 ± 17.3 years. The majority (68%) of patients was irradiated during childhood. The latency period was significantly shorter in those who aged 5 years or less at the time of cranial irradiation (p = 0.04), and in those with atypical/anaplastic tumor (p = 0.01). Correlation between radiation dose and latency period could not be found. Conclusion: Secondary meningiomas following high-dose cranial irradiation are characterized by younger age at

  1. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Xue, Bei; Wang, Xinwen; Wang, Jiawen

    2016-07-01

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to bystander effect in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effect in distant organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in bystander effect. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male Balb/c and C57BL mice were cranial exposed to 40, 200, 2000mGy dose of carbon heavy-ion radiation, while the rest of the animal body was shielded. The γH2AX foci as the DNA damage biomarker in directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver were detected on 0, 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24h after radiation, respectively. Methylation-sensitive amplifcation polymorphism (MSAP) was used to monitor the level of polymorphic genomic DNA methylation changed with dose and time effects. The results show that cranial irradiated mice could induce the γH2AX foci and genomic DNA methylation changes significantly in both the directly irradiation organ ear and the distant organ liver. The percent of DNA methylation changes were time-dependent and tissue-specific. Demethylation polymorphism rate were highest separately at 1 h in 200 mGy and 6 h in 2000 mGy after irradiation in ear. The global DNA methylation changes tended to occur in the CG sites. We also found that the numbers of γH2AX foci and the genomic methylation changes of heavy-ion radiation-induced bystander effect in liver could be obvious 1 h after radiation and achieved the maximum at 6 h, while the changes could recover gradually at 12 h. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in both directly radiation organ ear and distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Bystander effect; DNA methylation; γH2

  2. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in non-small cell lung cancer patients: who might be the candidates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitropoulos C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Charalampos Dimitropoulos1, Georgios Hillas2, Sofia Nikolakopoulou2, Ioanna Kostara2, Konstantinos Sagris2, Fotis Vlastos2, Manos Alchanatis319th Respiratory Medicine Department; 2Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Research Unit; 3University of Athens, 1st Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Athens Medical School, “Sotiria” Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, GreeceObjectives: Brain metastases (BMs often advance the course of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We performed an observational study in order to investigate the possible correlation of selected clinical and epidemiological factors with BM appearance in patients suffering from different histological subtypes of NSCLC stage I–IV.Methods: The study included 161 consecutive patients with NSCLC. Analyzed data included patient- and tumor-related characteristics.Results: Thirty-nine patients (24.2% presented BMs within 12 (0–36 weeks of diagnosis. BMs decreased the mean overall survival significantly (15.6 versus 50.7 weeks, P < 0.001, with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval 3.60 (2.42–5.35. The age of the patients with BM was significantly lower than that of the patients without BM (60.8 ± 8.9 versus 66.5 ± 8.5, P < 0.001. Patients with BM had significantly higher pack-years consumption (75.9 ± 23.9 versus 58.9 ± 31.9, P = 0.003 and larger tumor size compared with patients without BM (size in mm: 55.1 ± 20.1 versus 45.9 ± 19.3, P = 0.012. The presence of BM was also correlated with the absence of lung (P < 0.001, bone (P = 0.005, and adrenal (P = 0.046 metastases.Conclusion: Younger NSCLC patients with high tobacco consumption, large tumor size, and absence of metastases in other organs (lung, bones, adrenal metastases are at high risk of BM appearance during the course of NSCLC and are candidates for prophylactic cranial irradiation early in the course of the disease.Keywords: NSCLC, brain metastases, clinical and epidemiological factors, PCI

  3. Association of 1800 cGy cranial irradiation with intellectual function in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, Momcilo; Masera, G.; Brouwers, Pim

    1994-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been associated with adverse neuropsychological effects, such as low intelligence. We evaluated 203 children for six years in a multi-centre European study. The patients were divided into two groups: 129 children treated with 1800 cGy of cranial radiation therapy and 74 children who received high-dose methotrexate but no radiation therapy. We found a significant decline in full scale intelligence quotient in the irradiated group that increased with the length of time from diagnosis. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower full scale intelligence quotient in the radiated group. Our results indicate that a radiation dose of 1800 cGy can have negative effects on neurocognitive function and we continue to question the benefit of low-dose cranial radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung: Indications and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.D.; Komaki, R.

    1986-01-01

    Intracranial metastasis is one of the most morbid manifestations of cancer of the lung. The resulting seizures, headaches, and motor loss severely compromise the individual in the remaining days of his life. The median survival of patients with brain metastasis is only three to four months. Symptoms and signs resulting from brain metastasis are reversible to some degree with cranial irradiation in most patients. Headaches and seizures are most frequently controlled, but motor loss and impaired mentation are less reversible. The high frequency with which small cell carcinoma spreads to the brain has been recognized for many years. For the past decade, prophylactic cranial irradiation has been used widely in conjunction with combination chemotherapy for small cell carcinoma

  5. Asymptomatic cystic changes in the brain of children after cranial irradiation: frequency, latency, and relationship to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Mika; Hirai, Toshinori; Maruyama, Natsuki; Yamura, Masayuki; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Baba, Yuji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Ryuji; Korogi, Yukunori; Nakamura, Hideo; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Although radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of children with brain tumors, radiation-induced brain damage sometimes occurs after radiation therapy. In some pediatric patients who had undergone cranial radiation therapy, we noticed cystic changes in the brain on follow-up MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, latency, relationship with patient age, radiation dose, and serial change in the cystic changes in children after cranial irradiation. We retrospectively studied MRI in 33 children who had undergone cranial irradiation for their primary brain tumors. Postirradiation cystic change in the brain on follow-up MRI was defined as a well-demarcated, oval-shaped, CSF-like signal intensity area, and no contrast enhancement. Of the 33 patients, 6 (18.2%) had one or more cystic lesions. The latency of the cystic changes ranged from 1.5 to 7 years (mean 2.6 years). Cystic changes were found in the subcortical, periventricular and other deep white matter and the basal ganglia. The size of the lesions ranged from 1 to 10 mm at their first appearance; eight cystic lesions increased in size. None the cystic lesions reduced in size or resolved with time and none required intervention. All patients with cystic changes had received irradiation when they were 6 years of age or younger. The cystic changes occurred within the radiation field in patients treated with a radiation dose of 36 Gy or more. Asymptomatic brain parenchymal cystic changes appear to occur in children who have undergone cranial irradiation at 6 years of age or younger. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary studies of radiation port in children receiving cranial irradiation for preventing central nervous system (CNS) disease of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Takeyoshi; Sato, Takeyuki; Okimoto, Yuri; Sunami, Shosuke; Komori, Isao; Oda, Hideaki; Shima, Yukichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Nakajima, Hironori

    1986-01-01

    For preventing CNS leukemia in children with ALL, simple whole skull irradiation that included only retro-orbital spaces and not anterior part of the cribriform plate and first two cervical vertebrae had been given until March 1982 to patients who had remission after drug therapy. Since March 1982, however, such patients have received new modified cranial irradiation of Pinkel's method of preventive CNS therapy to include the cribriform plate. Pinkel's method usually includes first two cervical vertebrae in radiation port, but sometimes his method of radiation fails to reach the brain and the meninges on the anterior parts of the lamina cribrosa. In this study, a comparison of CNS-relapes ratio between these two methods of preventive CNS therapy was carried out. The frequency of CNS leukemia was remarkably high in patients given the simple whole skull irradiation. Of 18 patients, 7 developed CNS leukemia. Among these 7, 5 patients (71 %) had occurence of CNS-relapse within 1 year 7 months with the other one patient, making a total of 86 %, having CNS-relapse within 1 year 11 months. On the other hand, 17 of 39 patients who received new modified cranial irradiation were followed up for more than 1 year 9 months, and all patient had no CNS-relapse to date. This result showed that the irradiation of whole circulation areas of cerebrospinal fluid of the brain and the spine at first two cervical vertebra levels had great importance in preventing CNS-relapse after achievement of drug-induced remission. (author)

  7. WE-EF-BRA-10: Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Reduces the Incidence of Brain Metastasis in a Mouse Model of Metastatic Breast Cancerr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Larson, R; Diagaradjane, P; Woodward, W [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is a clinical technique used to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and improve overall survival in select patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and small-cell lung cancer. We examined whether PCI could benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases. Methods: We utilized our mouse model in which 500k green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled breast cancer cells injected into the tail vein of SCID/Beige mice resulted in brain metastases in approximately two-thirds of untreated mice. To test the efficacy of PCI, one set of mice was irradiated five days after cell injection with a single fraction of 4-Gy (two 2-Gy opposing fields) whole-brain irradiation on the XRAD 225Cx small-animal irradiator. Four controls were included: a non-irradiated group, a group irradiated two days prior to cell injection, and two groups irradiated 3 or 6 weeks after cell injection. Mice were sacrificed four and eight weeks post-injection and were evaluated for the presence of brain metastases on a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Results: The incidence of brain metastasis in the non-irradiated group was 77% and 90% at four and eight weeks, respectively. The PCI group had a significantly lower incidence, 20% and 30%, whereas the other three control groups had incidence rates similar to the non-treated control (70% to 100%). Further, the number of metastases and the metastatic burden were also significantly lower in the PCI group compared to all other groups. Conclusion: The timing of irradiation to treat subclinical disease is critical, as a small dose of whole-brain irradiation given five days after cell injection abrogated tumor burden by greater than 90%, but had no effect when administered twenty-one days after cell injection. PCI is likely to benefit breast cancer patients at high risk of developing brain metastases and should be strongly considered in the clinic.

  8. Differential effects of 18- and 24-Gy cranial irradiation on growth rate and growth hormone release in children with prolonged survival after acute lymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicognani, A.; Cacciari, E.; Vecchi, V.; Cau, M.; Balsamo, A.; Pirazzoli, P.; Tosi, M.T.; Rosito, P.; Paolucci, G.

    1988-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different doses of cranial irradiation on growth and growth hormone (GH) release, we studied 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had survived at least five years in continuous complete remission. Forty-three children received 24 Gy (group 1) and 18 children received 18 Gy (group 2). Height was evaluated at diagnosis, at the end of treatment, and 6, 12, and 24 months later. Growth hormone release was evaluated by arginine and levodopa tests after the end of treatment. After diagnosis, the height SD score decreased significantly in both groups; two years after the end of treatment, only group 1 showed an SD score for height that was still significantly lower than at diagnosis. Group 1 showed impaired GH responses to the tests and, compared with controls, group 1 in fact included a percentage of subjects with a normal response to levodopa (ie, greater than 8 micrograms/L) that was significantly lower (56.4% vs 83.3%) and a percentage of nonresponders to both tests that was significantly higher (21.6% vs 0%). These data indicate that only patients treated with lower cranial irradiation dosage (18 Gy) had complete growth recovery and normal GH responses to pharmacologic tests.

  9. The Role of DNA Methylation Changes in Radiation-Induced Transgenerational Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects in cranial irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Sun, Yeqing; Gao, Yinglong; Zhang, Baodong

    Heavy-ion radiation could lead to genome instability in the germline, and therefore to transgenerational genome and epigenome instability in offspring of exposed males. The exact mechanisms of radiation-induced genome instability in directly exposed and in bystander organ remain obscure, yet accumulating evidence points to the role of DNA methylation changes in genome instability development. The potential of localized body-part exposures to affect the germline and thus induce genome and epigenome changes in the progeny has not been studied. To investigate whether or not the paternal cranial irradiation can exert deleterious changes in the protected germline and the offsprings, we studied the alteration of DNA methylation in the shielded testes tissue. Here we report that the localized paternal cranial irradiation results in a significant altered DNA methylation in sperm cells and leads to a profound epigenetic dysregulation in the unexposed progeny conceived 3 months after paternal exposure. The possible molecular mechanisms and biological consequences of the observed changes are discussed. Keywords: Heavy-ion radiation; Transgenerational effect; Genomic Instability Bystander Effects; DNA methylation.

  10. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  11. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  12. Augmenting Total Body Irradiation with a Cranial Boost before Stem Cell Transplantation Protects Against Post-Transplant Central Nervous System Relapse in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Robert W; Dusenbery, Kathryn E; Cao, Qing; Smith, Angela R; Yuan, Jianling

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a pretransplant cranial boost (CB) on post-transplant central nervous system (CNS) relapse and survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using a total body irradiation (TBI)-containing preparation regimen. Two hundred thirteen ALL patients were treated consecutively at our institution with allogeneic HSCT. Conditioning included TBI (1320 cGy in 8 fractions given twice daily) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) with or without fludarabine (75 mg/m 2 ). Patients were divided into 4 groups based on history of CNS disease and whether a CB was given. Of the 160 patients with no history of CNS disease, none received a CB (CNS-/CB-). Of the 53 patients with prior CNS disease, 41 had not received prior cranial irradiation. Thirty of these 41 received a CB of 900 to 1000 cGy in 5 daily fractions (CNS+/CB+), whereas the other 11 did not receive a CB because of physician preference (CNS+/CB-). The remaining 12 patients with prior CNS involvement had previously received cranial irradiation and thus were not candidates for a CB (CNS + PriorRT). Two-year CNS relapse risk, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Seven patients experienced post-transplant CNS relapse: 4 in the CNS-/CB- group, 2 in the CNS+/CB- group, and 1 in the CNS + PriorRT group. None of the 30 patients who received a CB relapsed in the CNS. Two-year CNS relapse risk was 0% in the CNS+/CB+ group compared with 21% (95% CI, 0% to 45%) in the CNS+/CB- group (P = .03). Two-year OS and DFS did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, among ALL patients with prior CNS leukemia, there was a trend toward a reduced risk of post-transplant CNS relapse in patients who received a CB. However, the addition of a CB did not appear to have an impact on OS or DFS. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for

  13. Evaluation of growth hormone release and human growth hormone treatment in children with cranial irradiation-associated short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romshe, C.A.; Zipf, W.B.; Miser, A.; Miser, J.; Sotos, J.F.; Newton, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    We studied nine children who had received cranial irradiation for various malignancies and subsequently experienced decreased growth velocity. Their response to standard growth hormone stimulation and release tests were compared with that in seven children with classic GH deficiency and in 24 short normal control subjects. With arginine and L-dopa stimulation, six of nine patients who received radiation had a normal GH response (greater than 7 ng/ml), whereas by design none of the GH deficient and all of the normal children had a positive response. Only two of nine patients had a normal response to insulin hypoglycemia, with no significant differences in the mean maximal response of the radiation and the GH-deficient groups. Pulsatile secretion was not significantly different in the radiation and GH-deficient groups, but was different in the radiation and normal groups. All subjects in the GH-deficient and radiation groups were given human growth hormone for 1 year. Growth velocity increased in all, with no significant difference in the response of the two groups when comparing the z scores for growth velocity of each subject's bone age. We recommend a 6-month trial of hGH in children who have had cranial radiation and are in prolonged remission with a decreased growth velocity, as there is no completely reliable combination of GH stimulation or release tests to determine their response

  14. Postradiation motor neuron syndrome of the upper cervical region - a manifestation of the combined effect of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.V.; Pye, I.F. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom))

    1991-05-01

    The authors present a brief case report of neurogenic amyotropy apparently resulting from damage to the anterior horn cells of the upper cervical cord and lower brainstem during cranial irradiation which occurred as part of the patient's treatment for acute leukaemia. (Author).

  15. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time

  16. SU-F-T-188: A Robust Treatment Planning Technique for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Cranial Spinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, M; Mehta, M; Badiyan, S; Young, K; Malyapa, R; Regine, W; Langen, K [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yam, M [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) treatment planning technique robust against patient roll, isocenter offset and proton range uncertainty. Method: Proton PBS plans were created (Eclipse V11) for three previously treated CSI patients to 36 Gy (1.8 Gy/fractions). The target volume was separated into three regions: brain, upper spine and lower spine. One posterior-anterior (PA) beam was used for each spine region, and two posterior-oblique beams (15° apart from PA direction, denoted as 2PO-15) for the brain region. For comparison, another plan using one PA beam for the brain target (denoted as 1PA) was created. Using the same optimization objectives, 98% CTV was optimized to receive the prescription dose. To evaluate plan robustness against patient roll, the gantry angle was increased by 3° and dose was recalculated without changing the proton spot weights. On the re-calculated plan, doses were then calculated using 12 scenarios that are combinations of isocenter shift (±3mm in X, Y, and Z directions) and proton range variation (±3.5%). The worst-case-scenario (WCS) brain CTV dosimetric metrics were compared to the nominal plan. Results: For both beam arrangements, the brain field(s) and upper-spine field overlap in the T2–T5 region depending on patient anatomy. The maximum monitor unit per spot were 48.7%, 47.2%, and 40.0% higher for 1PA plans than 2PO-15 plans for the three patients. The 2PO-15 plans have better dose conformity. At the same level of CTV coverage, the 2PO-15 plans have lower maximum dose and higher minimum dose to the CTV. The 2PO-15 plans also showed lower WCS maximum dose to CTV, while the WCS minimum dose to CTV were comparable between the two techniques. Conclusion: Our method of using two posterior-oblique beams for brain target provides improved dose conformity and homogeneity, and plan robustness including patient roll.

  17. Cranial osteology of the pampathereHolmesina floridanus(Xenarthra: Cingulata; Blancan NALMA), including a description of an isolated petrosal bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Timothy J; Lyon, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    The present study entails descriptions of several well-preserved skulls from the pampathere species Holmesina floridanus , recovered from Pliocene localities in central Florida and housed in the collections of the Florida Museum of Natural History. Bone by bone descriptions have allowed detailed reconstructions of cranial morphology. Cranial foramina are described and illustrated in detail, and their contents inferred. The first ever description of an isolated pampathere petrosal is also included. Cranial osteology of Holmesina floridanus is compared to that of Pleistocene species of Holmesina from both North and South America ( Holmesina septentrionalis , Holmesina occidentalis ), as well as to the other well-known pampathere genera, to closely related taxa among glyptodonts ( Propalaehoplophorus ), and to extinct and extant armadillos ( Proeutatus, Euphractus ). This study identifies a suite of apomorphic cranial features that serve to diagnose a putative, progressive series of more inclusive monophyletic groups, including the species Holmesina floridanus , the genus Holmesina , pampatheres, pampatheres plus glyptodonts, and a clade formed by pampatheres, glyptodonts, and Proeutatus . The study highlights the need for further anatomical investigations of pampathere cranial anatomy, especially those using modern scanning technology, and for analyses of pampathere phylogenetic relationships.

  18. Cellular and behavioral effects of cranial irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Lazarini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear.In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair constitutive OB neurogenesis, and explored the functional impacts of this irradiation on the sense of smell. We found that focal irradiation of the SVZ greatly decreased the rate of production of new OB neurons, leaving other brain areas intact. This effect persisted for up to seven months after exposure to 15 Gray. Despite this robust impairment, the thresholds for detecting pure odorant molecules and short-term olfactory memory were not affected by irradiation. Similarly, the ability to distinguish between odorant molecules and the odorant-guided social behavior of irradiated mice were not affected by the decrease in the number of new neurons. Only long-term olfactory memory was found to be sensitive to SVZ irradiation.These findings suggest that the continuous production of adult-generated neurons is involved in consolidating or restituting long-lasting olfactory traces.

  19. Cellular and Behavioral Effects of Cranial Irradiation of the Subventricular Zone in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, Françoise; Mouthon, Marc-André; Gheusi, Gilles; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, Stéphanie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Boussin, François D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair constitutive OB neurogenesis, and explored the functional impacts of this irradiation on the sense of smell. We found that focal irradiation of the SVZ greatly decreased the rate of production of new OB neurons, leaving other brain areas intact. This effect persisted for up to seven months after exposure to 15 Gray. Despite this robust impairment, the thresholds for detecting pure odorant molecules and short-term olfactory memory were not affected by irradiation. Similarly, the ability to distinguish between odorant molecules and the odorant-guided social behavior of irradiated mice were not affected by the decrease in the number of new neurons. Only long-term olfactory memory was found to be sensitive to SVZ irradiation. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that the continuous production of adult-generated neurons is involved in consolidating or restituting long-lasting olfactory traces. PMID:19753118

  20. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina A.; Shin, Dong M.; Garden, Adam S.; Byrne, Kevin; Nickens, Judy A.; Cox, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration

  1. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a patient receiving anticonvulsant therapy during cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eralp, Y; Aydiner, A; Taş, F; Saip, P; Topuz, E

    2001-08-01

    A 28-year-old female patient with a recent history of breast carcinoma was referred to our clinic with generalized necrotic skin eruptions and severe mucosal erosions, which developed right after the completion of cranial radiotherapy for brain metastases. She had been receiving prophylactic diphenylhydantoin treatment 100 mg three times daily during radiation therapy. The extensive involvement of the oral mucosa with conjunctivitis and synechiae of the eyelids, facial swelling, and extension of the rash over the trunk and shoulders with bullous detachment of less than 10% of the total body surface strongly suggested Stevens-Johnson syndrome caused by phenytoin treatment in our patient. There has been conflicting evidence on the role of radiotherapy in the increased risk of severe drug reactions. Although various authors have emphasized the augmented rate of severe mucocutaneous reactions caused by anticonvulsants given during radiotherapy and suggested discontinuing the prophylactic use of such drugs in patients with no history of seizures, others have argued in favor of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Given the high risk of seizures, reaching 20% in patients with brain tumors, and the low incidence of drug reactions, the suggestion of refraining from prophylactic anticonvulsants in the setting of primary or metastatic brain tumors is controversial.

  2. Cellular and Behavioral Effects of Cranial Irradiation of the Subventricular Zone in Adult Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarini, Fran?oise; Mouthon, Marc-Andr?; Gheusi, Gilles; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Lamarque, St?phanie; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Boussin, Fran?ois D.; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: In mammals, new neurons are added to the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Most of these new neurons, granule and periglomerular cells originate from the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and migrate via the rostral migratory stream toward the OB. Thousands of new neurons appear each day, but the function of this ongoing neurogenesis remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we irradiated adult mice to impair c...

  3. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for preventing brain metastases in patients undergoing radical treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer: A Cochrane Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, Jason Francis; MacBeth, Fergus R.; Coles, Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a role in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: A search strategy was designed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PCI with no PCI in NSCLC patients treated with curative intent. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cancerlit were searched, along with relevant journals, books, and review articles to identify potentially eligible trials. Four RCTs were identified and reviewed. A total of 951 patients were randomized in these RCTs, of whom 833 were evaluable and reported. Forty-two patients with small-cell lung cancer were excluded, leaving 791 patients in total. Because of the small patient numbers and trial heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was attempted. Results: Prophylactic cranial irradiation did significantly reduce the incidence of brain metastases in three trials. No trial reported a survival advantage with PCI over observation. Toxicity data were poorly collected and no quality of life assessments were carried out in any trial. Conclusion: Prophylactic cranial irradiation may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of a survival benefit. It was not possible to evaluate whether any radiotherapy regimen is superior, and the effect of PCI on quality of life is not known. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of PCI in clinical practice. Where possible, patients should be offered entry into a clinical trial

  4. Dentate gyrus neurogenesis ablation via cranial irradiation enhances morphine self-administration and locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulin, Sarah E; Mendoza, Matthew L; Richardson, Devon R; Song, Kwang H; Solberg, Timothy D; Yun, Sanghee; Eisch, Amelia J

    2018-03-01

    Adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is important for hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, but the role of new neurons in addiction-relevant learning and memory is unclear. To test the hypothesis that neurogenesis is involved in the vulnerability to morphine addiction, we ablated adult DG neurogenesis and examined morphine self-administration (MSA) and locomotor sensitization. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hippocampal-focused, image-guided X-ray irradiation (IRR) to eliminate new DG neurons or sham treatment (Sham). Six weeks later, rats underwent either MSA (Sham = 16, IRR = 15) or locomotor sensitization (Sham = 12, IRR = 12). Over 21 days of MSA, IRR rats self-administered ~70 percent more morphine than Sham rats. After 28 days of withdrawal, IRR rats pressed the active lever 40 percent more than Sham during extinction. This was not a general enhancement of learning or locomotion, as IRR and Sham groups had similar operant learning and inactive lever presses. For locomotor sensitization, both IRR and Sham rats sensitized, but IRR rats sensitized faster and to a greater extent. Furthermore, dose-response revealed that IRR rats were more sensitive at a lower dose. Importantly, these increases in locomotor activity were not apparent after acute morphine administration and were not a byproduct of irradiation or post-irradiation recovery time. Therefore, these data, along with other previously published data, indicate that reduced hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability for multiple classes of drugs. Thus, therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Prophylactic cranial irradiation may impose a detrimental effect on overall survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuan-shuan Xie

    Full Text Available To determine the role of brain metastases (BM and overall survival (OS in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC by performing a meta-analysis of the RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials and non-RCTs (non-randomized controlled clinical trials published in the literature.A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included BM, OS, median survival (MS, response rate (RR, Hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs, and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled using ReMan software.Twelve trials (6 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs involving 1,718 NSCLC patients met the inclusion criteria. They were grouped on the basis of study design for separate Meta-analyses. The results showed that prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI reduced the risk of BM as compared with non-PCI in NSCLC patients (OR = 0.30, 95% [CI]: 0.21-0.43, p<0.00001. However, HRs for OS favored non-PCI (HR = 1.19, 95% [CI]: 1.06-1.33, p = 0.004, without evidence of heterogeneity between the studies.Our results suggest that although PCI decreased the risk of BM, it may impose a detrimental effect on OS of NSCLC patients.

  6. Comparison of intermediate-dose methotrexate with cranial irradiation for the post-induction treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.I.; Weinberg, V.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The authors compared two regimens with respect to their ability to prolong disease-free survival in 506 children and adolescents with acute lymphocytic leukemia. All responders to induction therapy were randomized to treatment with 2400 rad of cranial irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate or to treatment with intermediate-dose methotrexate plus intrathecal methotrexate, as prophylaxis for involvement of the central nervous system and other sanctuary areas. Complete responders were stratified into either standard-risk or increased-risk groups on the basis of age and white-cell count at presentation. Among patients with standard risk, hematologic relapses occurred in 9 of 117 given methotrexate and 24 of 120 given irradiation. The rate of central-nervous-system relapse was higher in the methotrexate group (23 of 117) than in the irradiation group. Among patients with increased risk, radiation offered greater protection to the central nervous system than methotrexate; there was no difference in the rate of hematologic relapse. Methotrexate offered better protection against systemic relapse in standard-risk patients and better protection against testicular relapse overall, but it offered less protection against relapses in the central nervous system than cranial irradiation

  7. Growth hormone response to GRF 1-44 in children following cranial irradiation for central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberfield, S.E.; Kirkland, J.L.; Frantz, A.; Allen, J.C.; Levine, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) responses to (A) GRF 1-44, 1 microgram/kg i.v., (B) L-dopa and either arginine, insulin, or glucagon, and (C) exercise were evaluated in 10 children (3 girls, 7 boys; ages 10 years to 15 years, 8 months), 2-10.75 years following cranial irradiation for medulloblastoma (8 patients), pineoblastoma (1 patient), and a fourth ventricular ependymoma (1 patient). Nine of the 10 children had abnormal growth rates. All children were euthyroid at the time of the study. The mean 0-60-min peak GH response to GRF (10.06 +/- 2.6 ng/ml) in the patients was less than the mean peak GH response (29 +/- 2.3 ng/ml) in the control children (n = 7). In 6 patients (5 with poor growth rates), a decreased GH response was noted to GRF and all other tests. Of the remaining patients, all with poor growth rates, two patients demonstrated an adequate response to GRF and pharmacologic testing; one patient had a normal GH response to GRF with a low GH response to pharmacologic testing; and one patient had a low response to GRF, despite a normal response to both exercise and pharmacologic testing. The decrease in mean peak GH response to GRF in the patient population confirms that radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary region produces abnormalities in growth hormone release. Furthermore, in these patients, discordant GH responses to GRF and pharmacologic or physiologic tests can be observed. The abnormality in growth hormone release may result from a hypothalamic dysfunction in GRF release and/or damage to GH secretory pituicytes

  8. Evaluation of FSE and FSPGR MRI imaging methods for planning cranial stereotactic irradiation of a metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Masaki; Tanoi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    Cranial stereotactic irradiation (STI) of a metastatic brain tumor (BT) was planned by fusing CT images with MRI images using the landmark method of the X-Knife System. The MRI images revealed the BT, the critical optic nerve and brain stem of structures and the eyeball and blood vessels that are landmarks. It was important to improve visibility of the BT with sufficient contrast. Therefore, comparison examinations were performed using the two dimensions fast spin echo (2DFSE), the two dimensions fast spoiled gradient echo (2DFSPGR), and the three dimensions fast spoiled gradient echo (3DFSPGR) methods of T1-weighted imaging with Gd-DTPA contrast. Critical structures and the internal structures of the landmark method were suitable for planning STI when the results of three or more points were combined in visual evaluations. However, the 2DFSE method could showed three or more points. The BT also be visually evaluated using three or less points by the FSPGR method, but had reduced visibility. From detailed contents, the fall of visual evaluation by the small thin and solid BT of the diameter of a BT was characteristic. In the whole signal noise ratio (SNR), the 3DFSPGR method is excellent in images analysis, and the 2DFSE method was excellent in contrast noise ratio (CNR) of a BT. The cystic BT accompanied by dropsy was images with clear and good depiction in all scan parameter. However, the FSPGR method was the boundary not clear in the small solid BT, the FSE method was able to recognize the maximum of the diameter of BT most, and depiction was good. Artifacts of blood flow and motion of the FSE method is a fault. However, the FSE method had the highest useful depiction ability of all BT in the STI plan. (author)

  9. Late neurological complications after prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer: The Toronto experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishner, M.; Feld, R.; Payne, D.G.; Sagman, U.; Sculier, J.P.; Pringle, J.F.; Yeoh, J.L.; Evans, W.K.; Shepherd, F.A.; Maki, E.

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 58 long-term survivors of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (greater than 2 years) for neurological complications and their impact on the well-being of these patients. We also attempted to have patients complete a questionnaire regarding any possible neurological problems. This was done in 14 patients. Metastasis to the CNS occurred significantly less often in patients who received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in a dose of 20 Gy in five equal fractions (two of 48), compared with patients who did not receive it (four of 10) (P less than .006). Delayed neurological complications occurred in nine of 48 (19%) patients who received PCI. However, in only two patients did PCI appear to be responsible for progressive dementia. In the other seven patients (one with weakness in the arms and legs, one with transient left hemiparesis, two with hearing loss, and three with various visual disturbances), chemotherapeutic agents (mainly cisplatin and vincristine) and underlying diseases probably contributed significantly to the occurrence of these complications. In addition, these neurological disturbances were transient or ran a stable course and did not adversely affect the daily life of these patients. In comparison, among the 10 patients who did not receive PCI one had progressive dementia and another had hemiparesis secondary to probable brain embolism. We conclude that the use of PCI in these doses was effective in reducing the frequency of CNS metastases and had an adverse effect on the daily life and well-being only in a minority of the patients. Until results of controlled randomized studies show otherwise, PCI should continue to be used as a part of the combined modality treatment of completely responding patients with limited SCLC

  10. Neuropsychological study in patients with ALL. Two different CNS prevention therapies--cranial irradiation plus IT methotrexate vs. IT methotrexate alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovsky, S.; Fisman, N.; Arizaga, R.; Castano, J.; Chamoles, N.; Leiguarda, R.; Moreno, R.

    1983-01-01

    Neurological, psychopedagogic, and psychologic long-term sequelae were evaluated in two groups of ALL patients in continuous CR for more than 2 years treated with two different CNS prophylaxis schemes. Group A, 19 patients received cranial irradiation 2400 rads plus IT MTX-DMT, and group B, 23 patients IT MTX-DMT only during induction and maintenance. All the patients were evaluated by performing neurological examination, EEG, EMG with nerve conduction velocity, CT scans, CSF studies, psychometric and psychologic studies, and neuropsychological evaluation. The most important findings were: 11 patients from group A (58%) showed abnormal CT and only one patient from group B showed CT abnormalities. The neuropsychologic evaluation (performed by L. Bender technique and Picq-Vayer scale) showed more severe impairment (grade 3-4) in eight patients from group A (42%) and none in group B (p less than 0.001). Higher incidence of abnormalities in group A suggests the existence of more severe sequelae in the patients treated with cranial irradiation plus IT MTX-DMT than with IT MTX-DMT alone

  11. Treatment Response and Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Are Prognostic Factors in a Real-life Limited-disease Small-cell Lung Cancer Patient Cohort Comprehensively Staged With Cranial Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Chukwuka; Roengvoraphoj, Olarn; Niyazi, Maximilian; Hildebrandt, Guido; Fietkau, Rainer; Belka, Claus; Manapov, Farkhad

    2017-07-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has proven to decrease the incidence of brain metastases (BMs), with a modest improvement in survival. The impact of PCI was evaluated in 184 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. PCI was applied to patients with disease with partial and complete response only when cranial magnetic resonance imaging before and after primary treatment revealed no BMs. Correlation between PCI and overall survival (OS), BM-free survival (BMFS), and time to progression (TTP) was analyzed to describe survival within subgroups. Concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy was applied in 71 patients (39%) and 113 patients (61%), respectively. Seventy-one patients (39%) with partial and complete response were treated with PCI. Metachronous BMs were detected in 16 (23%) of 71 patients in the PCI group compared to 42 (37%) of 113 patients in the non-PCI group. Median BMFS in the PCI group was not reached; it was 23.6 months in the non-PCI group. Median OS and TTP were 26 months (range, 19.4-32.6 months) in the PCI group versus 14 months (range, 11.4-16.6 months) in patients without PCI whose disease responded to therapy versus 9 months in patients with disease that did not respond to therapy (P < .0001), and 27 versus 14.5 months (range, 9.0-19.9 months) versus 8.8 months (range, 7.7-9.9 months) (P < .0001) in the PCI group versus those with response without PCI versus those with nonresponse. The effect of PCI was independent of gender. On multivariate analysis, PCI was a variable correlating with OS (hazard ratio = 1.899; 95% confidence interval, 1.370-2.632; P < .0001) and TTP (hazard ratio = 2.164; 95% confidence interval, 1.371-3.415; P = .001) after adjustment for other prognostic factors. In real-life patients comprehensively staged with cranial magnetic resonance imaging, treatment response and PCI strongly correlated with prolonged OS, TTP, and BMFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  13. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (including the orbit): results of orbital irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, B.; Haik, B.G.; Ong, R.; Ghavimi, F.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with parameningeal (including orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS)) were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) between July 1971 and January 1983. Twenty were children with a mean age of 6 and 3 were adults. In 6 patients, the primary tumor was from the orbit, whereas the remaining 17 had other parameningeal primary sites. The tumors were in a very progressive local stage, with extensive destruction of the facial bones in 19 patients. Eight patients were treated with T2 chemotherapy protocol and 15 received T6. Seven patients received 5,000 to 7,200 rad delivered to the primary tumor in 11-16 weeks, 15 patients received between 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4-7 weeks, and 1 patient received 3,000 rad in 3 weeks for residual microscopic disease following surgery. Two patients were treated with radiation to the whole brain; no patients received radiation of the whole central nervous axis (CNA). Fifteen of the 23 patients (65%) are alive and well with a medical follow-up time of 5 years. Two patients died of therapeutic complications and six died of tumor spread. In five patients, involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was the cause of death. The prognosis of orbital RMS with parameningeal involvement is no better than in other tumors of parameningeal sites. In those patients who had impaired vision because of optic nerve damage prior to treatment, the vision did not improve following treatment. There was no impaired vision seen due to radiation damage of eye structures except in the lens

  14. Extended intrathecal methotrexate may replace cranial irradiation for prevention of CNS relapse in children with intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-based intensive chemotherapy. The Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conter, V; Aricò, M; Valsecchi, M G; Rizzari, C; Testi, A M; Messina, C; Mori, P G; Miniero, R; Colella, R; Basso, G

    1995-10-01

    To assess the effect of treatment intensification and that of extended intrathecal methotrexate substitution for cranial irradiation in intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)-based intensive chemotherapy. Three hundred ninety-six children with non-B-ALL were enrolled onto the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologic Pediatrica (AIEOP) ALL 88 study. Standard risk (SR) included patients with low tumor burden (BFM risk index [RI], or = 0.8 but less than 1.2; and high risk (HR) were those with an RI > or = 1.2 or CNS involvement at diagnosis. The treatment schedule was a modified version of the ALL-BFM 86 study. CNS-directed treatment consisted of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX; 5 g/m2 for four courses) plus intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX; nine doses); IR patients additionally received extended IT-MTX (nine doses during continuation therapy); cranial irradiation was given only to HR patients. Of the 375 (94.7%) children who achieved remission, 1.3% had an adverse event other than relapse. The estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years was 66.6% (SE 2.4) overall; 80.7% (4.5) in the SR patients, 77.5% (3.9) in the IR patients, and 54.5% (3.7) in the HR patients. Relapse occurred in 107 children (27.0%). Isolated CNS relapse occurred in 20 children (5.0%): 5 (6.3%) in the SR group, 1 (0.8%) in the IR group, and 14 (7.1%) in the HR group. The estimated 6-year CNS leukemia-free survival was 94.6% (1.2) overall: 93.5% (2.8) in the SR group, 99.1% (0.9) in the IR group, and 92.3% (2.0) in the HR group. Cranial irradiation may be omitted safely in IR ALL patients treated with BFM-based intensive chemotherapy when extended intrathecal chemotherapy is given. Because the CNS disease control was less complete in the SR group, these data challenge the effectiveness of HD-MTX for protection from CNS disease and support the protective role of extended intrathecal chemotherapy.

  15. Simulating irradiation hardening in tungsten under fast neutron irradiation including Re production by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Gilbert, Mark R.; Marian, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Simulations of neutron damage under fusion energy conditions must capture the effects of transmutation, both in terms of accurate chemical inventory buildup as well as the physics of the interactions between transmutation elements and irradiation defect clusters. In this work, we integrate neutronics, primary damage calculations, molecular dynamics results, Re transmutation calculations, and stochastic cluster dynamics simulations to study neutron damage in single-crystal tungsten to mimic divertor materials. To gauge the accuracy and validity of the simulations, we first study the material response under experimental conditions at the JOYO fast reactor in Japan and the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for which measurements of cluster densities and hardening levels up to 2 dpa exist. We then provide calculations under expected DEMO fusion conditions. Several key mechanisms involving Re atoms and defect clusters are found to govern the accumulation of irradiation damage in each case. We use established correlations to translate damage accumulation into hardening increases and compare our results to the experimental measurements. We find hardening increases in excess of 5000 MPa in all cases, which casts doubts about the integrity of W-based materials under long-term fusion exposure.

  16. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum

  17. Short-term antioxidative responses of 15 microalgae exposed to excessive irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Paul J.; De Graaff, C. Marco; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Rijstenbil, Jan W.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term photosensitivity and oxidative stress responses were compared for three groups of marine microalgae: Antarctic microalgae, temperate diatoms and temperate flagellates. In total, 15 low-light-acclimated species were exposed to simulated surface irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

  18. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Moëll, Christian; Hjorth, Lars; Lindgren, Anna; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Wiebe, Thomas; Øra, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  19. SU-F-T-645: To Test Spatial Anddosimetric Accuracy of Small Cranial Target Irradiation Based On 1.5 T MRIscans Using Static Arcs with MLCDefined Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovich, I; Wu, X; Popple, R; Shen, S; Cardan, R; Bolding, M; Fiveash, J; Kraus, J; Spencer, S

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test spatial and dosimetric accuracy of small cranial target irradiation based on 1.5 T MRI scans using static arcs with MLC-defined fields Methods: A plastic (PMMA) phantom simulating a small brain lesion was mounted on a GammaKnife headframe equipped with MRI localizer. The lesion was a 3 mm long, 3.175 mm diameter cylindrical cavity filled with MRI contrast. Radiochromic film passing through the cavity was marked with pin pricks at the cavity center. The cavity was contoured on an MRI image and fused with CT to simulate treatment of a lesion not visible on CT. The transfer of the target to CT involved registering the MRI contrast cannels of the localizer that were visible on both modalities. Treatments were planned to deliver 800 cGy to the cavity center using multiple static arcs with 5.0×2.4 mm MLC-defined fields. The phantom was aligned on a STx accelerator by registering the conebeam CT with the planning CT. Films from coronal and sagittal planes were scanned and evaluated using ImageJ software Results: Geographic errors in treatment based on 1.5 T scans agreed within 0.33, −0.27 and 1.21 mm in the vertical, lateral and longitudinal dimensions, respectively. The doses delivered to the cavity center were 7.2% higher than planned. The dose distributions were similar to those of a GammaKnife. Conclusion: Radiation can be delivered with an accelerator at mm accuracy to small cranial targets based on 1.5 MRI scans fused to CTs using a standard GammaKnife headframe and MRI localizer. MLC-defined static arcs produce isodose lines very similar to the GammaKnife.

  20. Application of probabilistic fiber-tracking method of MR imaging to measure impact of cranial irradiation on structural brain connectivity in children treated for medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth C.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Hyun, Jung Won; Ji, Qing; Li, Yimei; Gajjar, Amar

    2016-03-01

    We applied a modified probabilistic fiber-tracking method for the extraction of fiber pathways to quantify decreased white matter integrity as a surrogate of structural loss in connectivity due to cranial radiation therapy (CRT) as treatment for pediatric medulloblastoma. Thirty subjects were examined (n=8 average-risk, n=22 high-risk) and the groups did not differ significantly in age at examination. The pathway analysis created a structural connectome focused on sub-networks within the central executive network (CEN) for comparison between baseline and post-CRT scans and for comparison between standard and high dose CRT. A paired-wise comparison of the connectivity between baseline and post-CRT scans showed the irradiation did have a significant detrimental impact on white matter integrity (decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased axial diffusivity (AX)) in most of the CEN sub-networks. Group comparisons of the change in the connectivity revealed that patients receiving high dose CRT experienced significant AX decreases in all sub-networks while the patients receiving standard dose CRT had relatively stable AX measures across time. This study on pediatric patients with medulloblastoma demonstrated the utility of this method to identify specific sub-networks within the developing brain affected by CRT.

  1. Detection of irradiated ingredients included in low quantity in non-irradiated food matrix. 1. Extraction and ESR analysis of bones from mechanically recovered poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioni, Eric; Horvatovich, Péter; Charon, Helène; Kuntz, Florent

    2005-01-01

    Protocol EN 1786 for the detection of irradiated food by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was not conceived for the detection of irradiated bone-containing ingredients included in low concentration in non-irradiated food. An enzymatic hydrolysis method, realized at 55 degrees C, has been

  2. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: vgondi@chicagocancer.org [Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Paulus, Rebecca [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Nell Hodgson Woodfull School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Meyers, Christina A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gore, Elizabeth M. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wolfson, Aaron [University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sun, Alexander Y. [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choy, Hak [University of Texas Southwestern Moncreif Cancer Center, Fort Worth, Texas (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  3. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  4. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian; Wang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  5. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy in treatment of childhood leukemia: a MEG study of power spectrum and correlated cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylaxis to prevent relapses in the central nervous system after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) used to consist of both intrathecal chemotherapy (CT) and cranial irradiation (CRT). CRT was mostly abolished in the eighties because of its neurotoxicity, and replaced with more intensive intrathecal CT. In this study, a group of survivors treated with CRT before 1983 and another group treated without CRT thereafter are investigated 20–25 years later, giving a much stronger perspective on long-term quality of life than previous studies. The outcomes will help to better understand these groups’ current needs and will aid in anticipating late effects of prophylactic CRT that is currently applied for other diseases. This study evaluates oscillatory neuronal activity in these long-term survivors. Power spectrum deviations are hypothesized to correlate with cognitive dysfunction. Methods Resting state eyes-closed magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 14 ALL survivors treated with CT + CRT, 18 treated with CT alone and 35 controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the δ, θ, α1, α2, β and γ frequency bands. The Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program was used to assess cognition in the executive functions domain. MEG data and ANT scores were correlated. Results In the CT + CRT group, relative θ power was slightly increased (p = 0.069) and α2 power was significantly decreased (p = 0.006). The CT + CRT group performed worse on various cognitive tests. A deficiency in visuomotor accuracy, especially of the right hand, could be clearly associated with the deviating regional θ and α2 powers (0.471 < r < 0.697). A significant association between decreased regional α2 power and less attentional fluctuations was found for CT + CRT patients as well as controls (0.078 < r < 0.666). Patients treated with CT alone displayed a power spectrum similar to controls, except

  6. An improved technique for breast cancer irradiation including the locoregional lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, C. W.; Saarnak, A. E.; Pieters, B. R.; Borger, J. H.; Bruinvis, I. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To find an irradiation technique for locoregional irradiation of breast cancer patients which, compared with a standard technique, improves the dose distribution to the internal mammary-medial supraclavicular (IM-MS) lymph nodes. The improved technique is intended to minimize the lung dose

  7. Combined modality therapy including intraoperative electron irradiation for locally recurrent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael G; Miller, Robert C; Nelson, Heidi; Pemberton, John H; Dozois, Eric J; Alberts, Steven R; Gunderson, Leonard L

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate survival, relapse patterns, and prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer relapse treated with curative-intent therapy, including intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT). From April 1981 through January 2008, 607 patients with recurrent colorectal cancer received IOERT as a component of treatment. IOERT was preceded or followed by external radiation (median dose, 45.5 Gy) in 583 patients (96%). Resection was classified as R0 in 227 (37%), R1 in 224 (37%), and R2 in 156 (26%). The median IOERT dose was 15 Gy (range, 7.5-30 Gy). Median overall survival was 36 months. Five- and 10-year survival rates were 30% and 16%, respectively. Survival estimates at 5 years were 46%, 27%, and 16% for R0, R1, and R2 resection, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that R0 resection, no prior chemotherapy, and more recent treatment (in the second half of the series) were associated with improved survival. The 3-year cumulative incidence of central, local, and distant relapse was 12%, 23%, and 49%, respectively. Central and local relapse were more common in previously irradiated patients and in those with subtotal resection. Toxicity Grade 3 or higher partially attributable to IOERT was observed in 66 patients (11%). Neuropathy was observed in 94 patients (15%) and was more common with IOERT doses exceeding 12.5 Gy. Long-term survival and disease control was achievable in patients with locally recurrent colorectal cancer. Continued evaluation of curative-intent, combined-modality therapy that includes IOERT is warranted in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical neurological outcome and quality of life among patients with limited small-cell cancer treated with two different doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the intergroup phase III trial (PCI99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212 and IFCT 99-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechoux, C. Le; Laplanche, A.; Faivre-Finn, C.; Ciuleanu, T.; Wanders, R.; Lerouge, D.; Keus, R.; Hatton, M.; Videtic, G.M.; Senan, S.; Wolfson, A.; Jones, R.; Arriagada, R.; Quoix, E.; Dunant, A.; Bussink, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently published the results of the PCI99 randomised trial comparing the effect of a prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at 25 or 36 Gy on the incidence of brain metastases (BM) in 720 patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). As concerns about neurotoxicity were a

  9. Head and neck region consolidation radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation with hippocampal avoidance delivered with helical tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy for non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma of the upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Girelli, Giuseppe; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Pasquino, Massimo; Tofani, Santi; Ozzello, Franca; Ricardi, Umberto; Numico, Gianmauro; Migliaccio, Fernanda; Catuzzo, Paola; Cante, Domenico; Ceroni, Paola; Sciacero, Piera; Carassai, Pierpaolo; Canzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSNECs) of the head and neck are considered an unfrequent clinico-pathological entity. Combined modality treatment represents an established therapeutic option for undifferentiated forms where distant metastasis is a common pattern of failure. We report on a case of NSNEC treated with sequential chemo-radiation consisting of 6 cycles of cisplatin and etoposide followed by loco-regional radiation to the head and neck and simultaneous prophylactic cranial irradiation to prevent from intracranial spread, delivered with helical tomotherapy with the 'hippocampal avoidance' technique in order to reduce neuro-cognitive late effects. One year after the end of the whole combined modality approach, the patient achieved complete remission, with no treatment-related sub-acute and late effects. The present report highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management for NSNECs of the head and neck, as the possibility to achieve substantial cure rates with mild side effects with modern radiotherapy techniques

  10. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination.

  11. Cranial Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Hayriye Sorgun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that cranial neuropathy findings could be seen in the neurologic examination of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, although brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI may not reveal any lesion responsible for the cranial nerve involvement. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem and cranial nerve involvement, except for olfactory and optic nerves, during MS attacks, and to investigate the rate of an available explanation for the cranial neuropathy findings by lesion localization on brain MRI. METHODS: Ninety-five attacks of 86 MS patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a complete neurological examination, and cranial nerve palsies (CNP were determined during MS attacks. RESULTS: CNP were found as follows: 3rd CNP in 7 (7.4%, 4th CNP in 1 (1.1%, 5th CNP in 6 (6.3%, 6th CNP in 12 (12.6%, 7th CNP in 5 (5.3%, 8th CNP in 4 (4.2%, and 9th and 10th CNP in 2 (2.1% out of 95 attacks. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO was detected in 5 (5.4%, nystagmus in 37 (38.9%, vertigo in 9 (6.3%, and diplopia in 14 (14.7% out of 95 attacks. Pons, mesencephalon and bulbus lesions were detected in 58.7%, 41.5% and 21.1% of the patients, respectively, on the brain MRI. Cranial nerve palsy findings could not be explained by the localization of the lesions on brainstem MRI in 5 attacks; 2 of them were 3rd CNP (1 with INO, 2 were 6th CNP and 1 was a combination of 6th, 7th and 8th CNP. CONCLUSION: The most frequently affected cranial nerve and brainstem region in MS patients is the 6th cranial nerve and pons, respectively. A few of the MS patients have normal brainstem MRI, although they have cranial neuropathy findings in the neurologic examination

  12. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Daniel M.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Billups, Catherine A.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Broniscer, Alberto; Bartels, Ute; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hassall, Timothy E.; Gururangan, Sridharan; McCowage, Geoffrey B.; Heath, John A.; Cohn, Richard J.; Fisher, Michael J.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO corr ]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m 2 (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m 2 ). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO corr was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV 1 was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO corr was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO corr were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI. Continued monitoring of this cohort

  13. Pulmonary Function After Treatment for Embryonal Brain Tumors on SJMB03 That Included Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel.green@stjude.org [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Billups, Catherine A. [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Stokes, Dennis C. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee School of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Broniscer, Alberto [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Bartels, Ute [Department of Haematology and Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Hassall, Timothy E. [Department of Haematology and Oncology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Gururangan, Sridharan [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); McCowage, Geoffrey B. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Heath, John A. [Children' s Cancer Center, Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Cohn, Richard J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Sydney Children' s Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Fisher, Michael J. [Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation & Cellular Therapy, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Robinson, Giles W.; Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The treatment of children with embryonal brain tumors (EBT) includes craniospinal irradiation (CSI). There are limited data regarding the effect of CSI on pulmonary function. Methods: Protocol SJMB03 enrolled patients 3 to 21 years of age with EBT. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV{sub 1}] and forced vital capacity [FVC] by spirometry, total lung capacity [TLC] by nitrogen washout or plethysmography, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin [DLCO{sub corr}]) were obtained. Differences between PFTs obtained immediately after the completion of CSI and 24 or 60 months after the completion of treatment (ACT) were compared using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and repeated-measures models. Results: Between June 24, 2003, and March 1, 2010, 303 eligible patients (spine dose: ≤2345 cGy, 201; >2345 cGy, 102; proton beam, 20) were enrolled, 260 of whom had at least 1 PFT. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 years (range, 3.1-20.4 years). The median thoracic spinal radiation dose was 23.4 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 23.4-36.0 Gy). The median cyclophosphamide dose was 16.0 g/m{sup 2} (IQR, 15.7-16.0 g/m{sup 2}). At 24 and 60 months ACT, DLCO{sub corr} was <75% predicted in 23% (27/118) and 25% (21/84) of patients, FEV{sub 1} was <80% predicted in 20% (34/170) and 29% (32/109) of patients, FVC was <80% predicted in 27% (46/172) and 28% (30/108) of patients, and TLC was <75% predicted in 9% (13/138) and 11% (10/92) of patients. DLCO{sub corr} was significantly decreased 24 months ACT (median difference [MD] in % predicted, 3.00%; P=.028) and 60 months ACT (MD in % predicted, 6.00%; P=.033) compared with the end of radiation therapy. These significant decreases in DLCO{sub corr} were also observed in repeated-measures models (P=.011 and P=.032 at 24 and 60 months ACT, respectively). Conclusions: A significant minority of EBT survivors experience PFT deficits after CSI

  14. The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, N J; Chilton, J K

    2015-07-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Consultation on microbiological criteria for foods to be further processed including by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Many foods carry microorganisms that may have serious consequences for the health of the consumer. There is thus often a need for processing to eliminate the resulting health hazards. Concern has been expressed that treatments, especially irradiation, might be applied to clean up food that has not been hygienically processed. Adherence to good manufacturing practice can greatly assist food processors to ensure food quality and safety. Figs

  16. Invasive cranial mycosis our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumbhkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause serious cranial infections in immunocompromised and diabetic patients. Common pathogens mainly include Aspergillus and Mucor. These organisms cause tissue invasion and destruction of adjacent structures (e.g. orbit, ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary & cavernous sinuses. Mortality and morbidity rate is high despite combined surgical, antifungal and antidiabetic treatment. We present our experience of six cases with such infection.

  17. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. PMID:28534340

  18. Craniospinal axis irradiation in children. Treatment in supine position including field verification as a prerequisite for anesthesia without intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rades, D.; Holtzhauer, R.; Baumann, R.; Karstens, J.H.; Leuwer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For craniospinal axis irradiation in young children sometimes anesthesia is required. In order to minimize risks from the anesthesist's point of view supine position would be preferable to standard prone position. In case of irradiation in supine position verification of the 3-field junction in the cervical region causes problems, because there is no direct visual control. For such situations the clinical application of a new technique is presented. Patients and Methods: For treatment planning a modern 3D planning system was necessary. Patient's positioning was done by using a vacuum-form body immobilizer and an integrated head mask. Radiation fields were placed only by table movements being calculated by the planning system in relation to a reference point at the patient's surface. In addition to common verification films specially prepared small films were used for the 3-field junction in the cervical region. These films were placed close to the patient for the whole time of each radiation session being exposed by every radiation field. Results: Two children (age 3 and 5 years, respectively) were irradiated as described. Twenty-eight of those specially prepared films were exposed. Two films (7%) had to be excluded because of inadequate exposure. An overlap of radiation fields was seen on 1 of the 26 remaining films (4%), whereas an unacceptable gap was not found. Acute skin reactions were comparable to those observed in patients being irradiated in standard prone position. Conclusion: The presented technique for craniospinal axis irradiation in supine position including field verification was not only precise and reproducible, but also comfortable and safe for the patient. We suggest it as a new option for craniospinal axis irradiation in children. (orig.) [de

  19. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  20. Cranial irradiation for cerebral and nasopharyngeal tumours in children: evidence for the production of a hypothalmic defect in growth hormone release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacklay, A.; Grossman, A.; Ross, R.J.M.; Savage, M.O.; Davies, P.S.W.; Plowman, P.N.; Besser, G.M.; Coy, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A synthetic 29-amino acid analogue of human pancreatic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH(1-29)NH 2 ) has recently been shown to stimulate the release of GH in normal subjects. The authors have studied the GH reponse to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in nine children irradiated for brain and nasopharyngeal tumours, who were not growing and were deficient in GH as assessed by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Serum GH rose in response to GHRH(1-29)NH 2 in all the children, and in five the peak serum GH response was > 20 mu./1. The data suggest that when hypothalamo-pituitary irradiation results in GH deficiency, this is due to a failure of the synthesis or delivery of endogenous GHRH from the hypothalamus to the pituitary cells. It also suggests that it may be possible to treat such children using synthetic GHRH in place of exogenous GH. (author)

  1. Public status toward radiation and irradiated potatoes at 'Youngster's Science Festival' in several cities including Tokyo, Osaka, and Hiroshima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Hayashi, Toshio; Kakefu, Tomohisa; Nishihara, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    'Youngster's Science Festival' has been held in several big cities in various districts in Japan for the purpose of induction of young students' interests in science and scientific experiments. On the basis of the survey results from the participants of the 'Radiation Fair' in Osaka, Japan, which was presented at the last IMRP, we expanded the area of survey and distributed questionnaires to the visitors of the above event to inquire their status toward radiation and irradiated products including irradiated potatoes. The survey results indicated the same trends as that of the 'Radiation Fair' survey. That is, more than half of the older visitors (16 years old and upward) indicated that they recognized the word of 'radiation' when they were at elementary school and the most significant sources of this information were school lessons and the mass media. We will discuss the relationship between consumer's image toward radiation and the description of radiation related topic in school textbooks. (author)

  2. Head and neck region consolidation radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation with hippocampal avoidance delivered with helical tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy for non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma of the upper airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pierfrancesco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSNECs of the head and neck are considered an unfrequent clinico-pathological entity. Combined modality treatment represents an established therapeutic option for undifferentiated forms where distant metastasis is a common pattern of failure. Methods We report on a case of NSNEC treated with sequential chemo-radiation consisting of 6 cycles of cisplatin and etoposide followed by loco-regional radiation to the head and neck and simultaneous prophylactic cranial irradiation to prevent from intracranial spread, delivered with helical tomotherapy with the 'hippocampal avoidance' technique in order to reduce neuro-cognitive late effects. Results One year after the end of the whole combined modality approach, the patient achieved complete remission, with no treatment-related sub-acute and late effects. Conclusions The present report highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management for NSNECs of the head and neck, as the possibility to achieve substantial cure rates with mild side effects with modern radiotherapy techniques.

  3. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  4. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  5. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra; Carlos Alberto Duque Parra

    2006-01-01

    It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH). In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a co...

  6. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back). Viewing the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves emerge from the underside of the brain, ... eye movement. Eye movement is controlled by 3 pairs of muscles. These muscles move the eye up and down, right and ... nerve 4th cranial nerve 6th ...

  7. Cranial radiotherapy predisposes to abdominal adiposity in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Lee, Maria Lúcia de Martino; Andreoni, Solange; Geloneze, Bruno; Lederman, Henrique; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Advances in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia increased the likelihood of developing late treatment-associated effects, such as abdominal adiposity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Cranial radiotherapy is one of the factors that might be involved in this process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cranial radiotherapy on adiposity indexes in survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia. A comparative cross-sectional study of 56 acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, chronological age between 15 and 24 years, assigned into two groups according to the exposure to cranial radiotherapy (25 irradiated and 31 non-irradiated), assessed according to body fat (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), computed tomography scan-derived abdominal adipose tissue, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. Cranial radiotherapy increased body fat and abdominal adipose tissue and altered lipid panel. Yet, lipids showed no clinical relevance so far. There were significantly more obese patients among those who received cranial radiotherapy (52% irradiated versus 22.6% non-irradiated), based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body fat measurements. Nonetheless, no association was observed between cranial radiotherapy and body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio or insulin resistance. Adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia showed an increase in body fat and an alteration of fat distribution, which were related to cranial radiotherapy. Fat compartment modifications possibly indicate a disease of adipose tissue, and cranial radiotherapy imports in this process

  8. Long-term consequences of growth hormone replacement and cranial radiation on pituitary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha Mireille

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the consequences of cranial irradiation of non-pituitary tumors, eg nasopharyngeal carcinoma, on pituitary function. In chapter 2 we have performed a meta-analysis of available data reported in literature on pituitary function after cranial radiotherapy for head and neck and

  9. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  10. Imaging findings in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafael Martins; Amaral, Lazaro L F; Gonçalves, Marcus V M; Lin, Katia

    2011-12-01

    In 2002, the term congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) was proposed to group heterogeneous syndromes with congenital abnormalities of ocular muscle and facial innervations. The concept of neurogenic etiology has been supported by discovery of genes that are essential to the normal development of brainstem, cranial nerves, and their axonal connections. The CCDDs include Duane retraction syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, the human homeobox-related disorders, pontine cap tegmental dysplasia, and an expanding list. The purpose of this review was to update the imaging features, as well as clinical and genetic information, regarding cases of CCDDs.

  11. State-of-the-art cranial sonography: Part 1, modern techniques and image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Lisa H; Bailey, Zachary

    2011-05-01

    In this era of radiation awareness, high-quality ultrasound is more important than ever. Although cranial sonography equipment has advanced greatly, application of modern techniques has not been utilized in a fashion commensurate to other cross-sectional modalities. This article will describe modern cranial sonography techniques, including the utility of linear imaging, use of additional fontanels, and screening Doppler imaging. When modern protocols are used, cranial sonography is highly accurate for the detection of cranial abnormalities.

  12. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamura Ken-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus; one closed colony strain (ICR from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation.

  13. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the relationship between genetic variance and cranial shape evolution. The lack of a quantified framework for comparing and analyzing mouse cranial shape has been a problem. For this reason, we performed quantitative analysis of cranial shape morphology between several mouse strains. Results This article reports on a craniometric assay of seven mouse strains: four inbred strains (C57BL/6J, BALB/cA, C3H/HeJ, and CBA/JNCr) from Mus musculus domesticus (M. m. domesticus); one closed colony strain (ICR) from M. m. domesticus; one inbred strain (MSM/Ms) from Mus musculus molossinus; and, Mus spretus as a strain from a species other than M. m. domesticus. We performed linear measurements and geometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics revealed that the cranial characteristics of each strains were clearly distinguishable. We obtained mean scores for each species using the tpsRelw Program and plotted them. Conclusion Geometric morphometrics proved to be useful for identifying and classifying variations in form, and it revealed that M. spretus has a slender cranium when compared with our other strains. The mean cranial shape of C3H or CBA was more similar to MSM/Ms, which is derived from M. m. molossinus, than to either C57BL/6J, BALB, or ICR which are derived from M. m. domesticus. Future work in this field will aid in elucidating the mechanism of whole cranial shape regulation. PMID:18307817

  14. Comparison of normal tissue dose with three-dimensional conformal techniques for breast cancer irradiation including the internal mammary nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Hans Paul; Dolsma, Willemtje; van t Veld, Aart; Bijl, HP; Langendijk, JA

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the Para Mixed technique for irradiation of the internal mammary nodes (IMN) with three commonly used strategies, by analyzing the dose to the heart and other organs at risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four different three-dimensional conformal dose plans were created for 30 breast

  15. Effects of cranial radiation on hearing in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibadoux, G.M.; Pereira, W.V.; Hodges, J.M.; Aur, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The hearing sensitivity of 61 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia who were admitted to our Total Therapy IX study between December 1975 and July 1977 was studied. Their treatment included combined chemotherapy, 2400 rads of cranial radiation, and intrathecal methotrexate. Subjects initially received an otologic examination and middle ear function testing. Audiometric testing was not done until ears were free of outer or middle ear pathology. If the child had no outer or middle ear disease, audiometric thresholds were obtained for the test frequencies: 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Pure-tone thresholds were obtained before irradiation (61 patients) and at 6, 12, and 36 months thereafter (49, 46, and 22 patients, respectively). The median age of time of baseline testing was 10 years, 2 months. A paired sample test based on group data was used to test whether there were any significant changes from the threshold values at 6, 12, and 36 months after irradiation. Thresholds were not significantly affected for any test frequency at any test time. Assessments of individual audiograms indicated that none of the children had any significant reductions in hearing levels at the end of the third year after cranial irradiation

  16. Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Pandey, P K; Agrawal, Ajai; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Rana, Kartik Maheshbhai; Bahuguna, Chirag

    2017-12-01

    The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility. Over the last few decades, evidence has accumulated to support that the primary pathologic process of these disorders is neuropathic rather than myopathic. This is believed that for normal development of extra ocular muscles and for preservation of muscle fiber anatomy, normal intra-uterine development of the innervation to these muscles is essential. Congenital dysinnervation to these EOMs can lead to abnormal muscle structure depending upon the stage and the extent of such innervational defects. Over last few years new genes responsible for CCDD have been identified, permitting a better understanding of associated phenotypes, which can further lead to better classification of these disorders. Introduction of high-resolution MRI has led to detailed study of cranial nerves courses and muscles supplied by them. Thus, due to better understanding of pathophysiology and genetics of CCDDs, various treatment modalities can be developed to ensure good ocular alignment and better quality of life for patients suffering from the same.

  17. Long-term creep properties, including irradiation effects, of DIN 1.4948 steel from SNR-300 primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    1986-01-01

    Since 1968, the ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft warmfeste Staehle in VDEH'', sponsored by KfK/PSB, performs creep tests on austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948. Wrought materials both in the solution-annealed condition and in weldments are investigated. The DIN 1.4948 steel was finally chosen for the permanent primary structures of the SNR-300, such as the reactor vessel, the grid plate and the primary piping. The chemical specification of DIN 1.4948 steel has been narrowed for application in the SNR-300. The long-term programme at KfK on SNR-300 heats has reached times to rupture of up to 90,000 h for parent metal. At 823 K, the operating temperature of the SNR-300, the mean creep rupture strengths of standard DIN 1.4948 and SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 are equal, but the scatter of data for standard DIN 1.4948 parent metal is twice as large as that for SNR-300-grade parent metal. The strength of SNR-300 weldments falls within the scatter band for parent metal. At times to rupture of more than 10 4 h, all parent metals have ductilities of between 10% and 20%, whereas the welded joints show ductilities below 1%. The neutron irradiation effects on SNR-300-grade DIN 1.4948 heats and weldments have been studied with times to rupture of up to 10,000 h in the range from 723 K to 923 K. After irradiation the creep strength is reduced to values below the minimum stress rupture values according to the ASME B + PV Code. The ductility values of parent metal after irradiation are in the range of 4% to 10%. The ductility of welded joints is sometimes below 1%. With increasing Larson-Miller parameter the reduction in creep strength decreases. Therefore, long-term post-irradiation creep tests have been started at KfK and ECN in order to verify experimentally the creep strength reduction factor due to irradiation, for times to rupture of between 10 4 and 5x10 4 h. (author)

  18. Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis following cranial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Dmitriy; Uohara, Michael Y; Ichord, Rebecca; Ali, Zarina; Jastrzab, Laura; Lang, Shih-Shan; Billinghurst, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is an important, though less common subtype of pediatric stroke. It has been linked to several risk factors, including cranial procedures, with few studies highlighting this relationship. The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of CSVT after cranial surgery. An institutional pediatric stroke research database was used to identify all CSVT cases diagnosed within 30 days of cranial surgery from November 2004 to December 2014. Thirteen subjects were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentation, surgical details, radiographic characteristics, laboratory study results, treatment, and outcome. Diagnostic testing and treatment adhered to a consensus-based institutional stroke protocol. Cranial vault reconstruction, subdural empyema evacuation, and tumor resection were each observed in three subjects. Eleven (85%) subjects had sinus exposure during surgery, and eight (73%) developed thrombus in a sinus within or adjacent to the operative field. Two (15%) had documented iatrogenic sinus injury. On post-operative testing, ten (77%) subjects had prothrombotic abnormalities. Seven (54%) were treated with anti-coagulation therapy (ACT) starting on a median of post-operative day (POD) 3 (IQR 1-3) for a median of 2.9 months (IQR 2.4-5.4). Median time to imaging evidence of partial or complete recanalization was 2.4 months (IQR 0.7-5.1). No symptomatic hemorrhagic complications were encountered. Pediatric CSVT may be encountered after cranial surgery, and decisions related to anti-coagulation are challenging. The risk of CSVT should be considered in pre-surgical planning and post-operative evaluation of cases with known risk factors. In our study, judicious use of ACT was safe in the post-operative period.

  19. Review of cranial radiotherapy-induced vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Erin S; Xie, Hao; Merchant, Thomas E; Yu, Jennifer S; Chao, Samuel T; Suh, John H

    2015-05-01

    Cranial radiation can impact the cerebral vasculature in many ways, with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The incidence of these late effects including cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), lacunar lesions, vascular occlusive disease including moyamoya syndrome, vascular malformations, and hemorrhage is not well known. This article reviews the preclinical findings regarding the pathophysiology of late radiation-induced vascular damage, and discusses the clinical incidence and risk factors for each type of vasculopathy. The pathophysiology is complex and dependent on the targeted blood vessels, and upregulation of pro-inflammatory and hypoxia-related genes. The risk factors for adult CVAs are similar to those for patients not exposed to cranial radiotherapy. For children, risks for late vascular complications include young age at radiotherapy, radiotherapy dose, NF1, tumor location, chemotherapy, and endocrine abnormalities. The incidence of late vascular complications of radiotherapy may be impacted by improved technology, therapeutic interventions, and appropriate follow up.

  20. Cranial Autonomic Symptoms in Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS in patients with migraine and cluster headaches (CH were characterized and compared in a prospective study of consecutive patients attending a headache clinic at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.

  1. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  2. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  3. Therapeutic effects of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Anne; von Hauenschild, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) involves the manipulation of the primary respiratory mechanism to improve structure and function in children and adults. To identify and critically evaluate the literature regarding the clinical efficacy of cranial OMM. The clinical keywords "cranial manipulation" OR "osteopathy in the cranial field" OR "cranial osteopathy" OR "craniosacral technique" were searched in the following electronic databases: EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and AMED (Alternative Medicine). Searches were conducted in April 2011 with no date restriction for when the studies were completed. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that measured the effectiveness of cranial OMM on humans were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included non-English language articles, studies not relevant to cranial OMM, animal studies, and studies in which there was no clear indication of the use of cranial OMM. Studies that described the use of cranial OMM with other treatment modalities and that did not perform subgroup analysis were also excluded. The present study did not have criteria regarding type of disease. Outcome measures on pain, sleep, quality of life, motor function, and autonomic nervous system function were extracted. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 7 were randomized controlled trials and 1 was an observational study. A range of cranial OMM techniques used for the management of a variety of conditions were identified in the included studies. Positive clinical outcomes were reported for pain reduction, change in autonomic nervous system function, and improvement of sleeping patterns. Methodological Downs and Black quality scores ranged from 14 to 23 points out of a maximum of

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  5. Neurologic, neuropsychologic, and computed cranial tomography scan abnormalities in 2- to 10-year survivors of small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Becker, B; Goff, W B; Petronas, N; Krehbiel, M A; Makuch, R W; McKenna, G; Glatstein, E; Ihde, D C

    1985-12-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between neurologic function and cranial irradiation, 20 patients treated on National Cancer Institute (NCI) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) trials who were alive and free of cancer 2.4 to 10.6 years (median, 6.2) from the start of therapy were studied. All were tested with a neurologic history and examination, mental status examination, neuropsychologic testing, and review of serial computed cranial tomography (CCT) scans. Fifteen patients had been treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), two patients with therapeutic cranial irradiation, and three received no cranial irradiation. All patients but one were ambulatory and none were institutionalized. Fifteen patients (75%) had neurologic complaints, 13 (65%) had abnormal neurologic examinations, 12 (60%) had abnormal mental status examinations, 13 (65%) had abnormal neuropsychologic testing, and 15 (75%) had abnormal CCT scans. Compared with those given low-dose maintenance chemotherapy during PCI using 200 to 300 rad per fraction, patients who were given high-dose induction chemotherapy during the time of cranial irradiation or large radiotherapy fractions (400 rad) were more likely to have abnormal mental status examinations (6/6 v 4/9) and abnormal neuropsychologic tests (6/6 v 4/9), but no major difference in CCT findings was present. CCT scans in the majority of cases (11/18) showed progressive ventricular dilatation or cerebral atrophy up to 8 years after stopping therapy. We conclude neurologic abnormalities are common in long-term survivors of SCLC, and may be more prominent in patients given high-dose chemotherapy during cranial irradiation or treated with large radiotherapy fractions. The CCT scan abnormalities are common and progressive years after prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy are stopped.

  6. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series.

  7. Causes and treatment outcomes of third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachatkumtonekul, Thammanoon; Soontrapa, Pennapa; Kampanartsanyakorn, Suchada; Dulayajinda, Dhaivadee

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the causes and the treatment outcomes of third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsy Medical records of 157 cases with extra-ocular muscle palsy from third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve palsy between January 1995 and December 2009 were reviewed. Demographic data, age, causes of extra-ocular muscle palsy and treatment outcomes were record and analyzed. The patients who were followed-up less than 6 months, myasthenia gravis and extra-ocular muscles fibrosis were excluded from the present study. One hundred and fifty-seven cases from 600 cases were included in the present study. The most common cranial nerve palsy was the sixth cranial nerve with 63 cases (40.1%). Of 157 cases, the causes were trauma 41 cases (26.1%), microvascular occlusion cause 34 cases (21.7%) and congenital cause 21 cases (13.4%). Cranial nerve palsy patients from microvascular occlusion cause spontaneously improved 25 of 34 cases (73.50%) in 6 months. All patients (21 cases)from congenital cranial nerve palsy had extra-ocular muscle surgery and 17 patients (80.9%) were successful. Sixth cranial nerve palsy was the most common cranial nerve palsy. Most patients with cranial nerve palsy from vascular cause spontaneously improved in 6 months. Congenital cranial nerve palsy patients need extra-ocular muscle surgery and most cases were successful

  8. [Computed tomography and cranial paleoanthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain; Badawi-Fayad, Jackie; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Istoc, Adrian; de Lumley, Henry; de Lumley, Marie-Antoinette; Coppens, Yves

    2007-06-01

    Since its invention in 1972, computed tomography (C.T.) has significantly evolved. With the advent of multi-slice detectors (500 times more sensitive than conventional radiography) and high-powered computer programs, medical applications have also improved. CT is now contributing to paleoanthropological research. Its non-destructive nature is the biggest advantage for studying fossil skulls. The second advantage is the possibility of image analysis, storage, and transmission. Potential disadvantages include the possible loss of files and the need to keep up with rapid technological advances. Our experience since the late 1970s, and a recent PhD thesis, led us to describe routine applications of this method. The main contributions of CT to cranial paleoanthropology are five-fold: --Numerical anatomy with rapid acquisition and high spatial resolution (helicoidal and multidetector CT) offering digital storage and stereolithography (3D printing). --Numerical biometry (2D and 3D) can be used to create "normograms" such as the 3D craniofacial reference model used in maxillofacial surgery. --Numerical analysis offers thorough characterization of the specimen and its state of conservation and/or restoration. --From "surrealism" to virtual imaging, anatomical structures can be reconstructed, providing access to hidden or dangerous zones. --The time dimension (4D imaging) confers movement and the possibility for endoscopic simulation and internal navigation (see Iconography). New technical developments will focus on data processing and networking. It remains our duty to deal respectfully with human fossils.

  9. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, B.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Elsas, L.J. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Wyly, J.B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Pasquali, M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1994-03-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  10. Leukoencephalopathy and cortical leminar necrosis associated with intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irridiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Al-Sudairy, Reem; Abdullah, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of chemotherapy, mortality rates in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia have decreased . Though prophylactic treatment of central nervous system (CNS) to prevent leukemic infiltration has reduced the incidence of CNS relapse and improved the survival in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We studied a unique case of neurotoxicity associated with prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal MTX. This is the first reported case of pure MTX-related CLN.Perhaps the combination of MTX along with cranial irradiation, can result in increased neurotoxic effects. (author)

  11. Cranial nerve damage in patients after alpha (heavy)-particle radiation to the pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J.; Wei, W.C.; Chong, C.Y.

    1979-06-01

    The records of 161 patients were reviewed to determine if radiation damage had occurred following cranial irradiation. All of these patients had received alpha-particle radiation to their pituitary glands for diabetic retinopathy. Extraocular muscle palsy developed in 11 of these patients, iridoplegia in six, and fifth nerve damage in six. All of the palsies developed within a short period following their irradiation, and a definite dose relationship was present. The estimated doses to the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves was calculated at a saggital plane 13 to 15 mm from the pituitary by using computer-drawn dosimetry charts for the respective aperture size.

  12. Cranial nerve damage in patients after alpha (heavy)-particle radiation to the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.; Wei, W.C.; Chong, C.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The records of 161 patients were reviewed to determine if radiation damage had occurred following cranial irradiation. All of these patients had received alpha-particle radiation to their pituitary glands for diabetic retinopathy. Extraocular muscle palsy developed in 11 of these patients, iridoplegia in six, and fifth nerve damage in six. All of the palsies developed within a short period following their irradiation, and a definite dose relationship was present. The estimated doses to the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves was calculated at a saggital plane 13 to 15 mm from the pituitary by using computer-drawn dosimetry charts for the respective aperture size

  13. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazliha, M; Boo, Y L; Chin, P W

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

  14. [Cranial nerve palsy caused by tumours of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy is a diagnostic guiding symptom, but often goes unrecognized. The differential diagnosis includes a variety of diseases, including malignant tumours of the head and neck. Here we describe three cases of cranial nerve palsy. In two of the cases the palsy was recognized following

  15. Pictorial essay: Vascular interventions in extra cranial head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyash S Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicine is an ever changing field and interventional radiology (IR procedures are becoming increasingly popular because of high efficacy and its minimally invasive nature of the procedure. Management of disease processes in the extra cranial head and neck (ECHN has always been a challenge due to the complex anatomy of the region. Cross sectional imaging of the ECHN has grown and evolved tremendously and occupies a pivotal and integral position in the clinical management of variety of head and neck pathologies. Advances in angiographic technologies including flat panel detector systems, biplane, and 3-dimensional rotational angiography have consolidated and expanded the role of IR in the management of various ECHN pathologies. The ECHN is at cross roads between the origins of great vessels and the cerebral vasculature. Thorough knowledge of functional and technical aspects of neuroangiography is essential before embarking on head and neck vascular interventions. The vessels of the head and neck can be involved by infectious and inflammatory conditions, get irradiated during radiotherapy and injured due to trauma or iatrogenic cause. The ECHN is also a common site for various hypervascular neoplasms and vascular malformations, which can be treated with endovascular and percutaneous embolization. This pictorial essay provides a review of variety of ECHN pathologies which were managed by various IR procedures using different approaches.

  16. CT measurements of cranial growth: microcephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Torkelson, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) head scans were measured to determine the cranial dimensions of four children with microcephaly. These measurements were compared with cranial dimensions of normal children. CT proved to be useful in determining the developmental status of children with neurologic problems relative to their normal counterparts on the basis on cranial dimensions

  17. Cranial hemihypertrophy and neurodevelopmental prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J C; Cole, G F; Appleton, R E; Burn, J; Roberts, S A; Donnai, D

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of congenital cranial hemihypertrophy are described. CT or ultrasound scans showed unilateral cerebral enlargement with dilatation of the ipsilateral ventricle. Seizures occurred in two patients and the neurodevelopmental outlook appears poor. These patients represent a poor prognosis subgroup of the congenital hemihypertrophies. Images PMID:2325089

  18. Cranial hemihypertrophy and neurodevelopmental prognosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, J C; Cole, G F; Appleton, R E; Burn, J; Roberts, S A; Donnai, D

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of congenital cranial hemihypertrophy are described. CT or ultrasound scans showed unilateral cerebral enlargement with dilatation of the ipsilateral ventricle. Seizures occurred in two patients and the neurodevelopmental outlook appears poor. These patients represent a poor prognosis subgroup of the congenital hemihypertrophies.

  19. Overview of the Cranial Nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swallowing, the gag reflex, and speech Control of muscle in some internal organs and the heart rate This function is not tested as part of the cranial nerve examination. 11th Accessory Neck turning and shoulder shrugging The person is asked to turn the ...

  20. MRI findings in cranial eumycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Munawwar; Sureka, Jyoti; Chacko, Geeta; Eapen, Anu

    2011-01-01

    Cranial eumycetoma (CE) due to direct inoculation of Madurella grisea into the scalp is extremely rare. We describe a case of CE caused by direct inoculation of M. grisea with the characteristic MRI findings of the “dot-in-circle” sign and a conglomeration of multiple, extremely hypointense “dots.”

  1. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilula, Marshall F

    2007-07-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.

  2. Intermittent cranial lung herniation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Carlo; De Simone, Antonio; Valbonetti, Luca; Diana, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    Two aged dogs with chronic obstructive airway disease were evaluated because of intermittent swelling of the ventral cervical region. Radiographs made at expiration and caudal positioning of the forelimbs allowed identification of intermittent cervical lung herniation of the left and right cranial lung lobe in both dogs. Pulmonary hyperinflation, increased expiratory effort, and chronic coughing were considered responsible for the lung herniation. Cervical lung hernia should be included in the differential diagnoses of intermittent cervical swelling in dogs with chronic respiratory disorders associated with increased expiratory effort and chronic coughing.

  3. Cranial ultrasound and chronological changes in molybdenum cofactor deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Dias, Anna P.; Perez-Duenas, Belen; Campistol, Jaume; Garcia-Cazorla, Angels [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Paseo de Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Lizarraga, Isabel [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Department of Neonatology, Barcelona (Spain); Reiss, Jochen [University of Goettingen, Institute for Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Vilaseca, Maria A.; Artuch, Rafael [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    Molybdenum cofactor is essential for the function of three human enzymes: sulphite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disease. Disturbed development and damage to the brain may occur as a result of accumulation of toxic levels of sulphite. The CT and MRI findings include severe early brain abnormalities and have been widely reported, but the cranial US imaging findings have seldom been reported. We report a chronological series of cranial US images obtained from an affected infant that show the rapid development of cerebral atrophy, calcifications and white matter cysts. Our report supports the utility of cranial US, a noninvasive bed-side technique, in the detection and follow-up of these rapidly changing lesions. (orig.)

  4. Posttraumatic Cranial Cystic Fibrous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Tomiyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old was girl admitted to our hospital with a subcutaneous mass of the occipital head. The mass had grown for 6 years, after she had sustained a head injury at the age of 6, and was located directly under a previous wound. Skull X-ray Photograph (xp, computed tomography (CT, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a bony defect and cystic changes in the skull corresponding to a subcutaneous mass. Bone scintigraphy revealed partial accumulation. The patient underwent total removal of the skull mass, and the diagnosis from the pathological findings of the cyst wall was fibrous dysplasia (FD. The radiographic findings for cystic cranial FD can be various. Progressive skull disease has been reported to be associated with head trauma, but the relationship between cranial FD and head trauma has not been previously reported. Previous studies have suggested that c-fos gene expression is a key mechanism in injury-induced FD.

  5. Serial cranial computed-tomography scans in children with leukemia given two different forms of central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, J.J.; Parvey, L.S.; Whitaker, J.N.; Bowman, W.P.; Ch'ien, L.; Campbell, M.; Coburn, T.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) was used to estimate the frequency and permanence of brain abnormalities in 108 consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Fifty-five patients received cranial irradiation (1,800 rad) with intrathecal methotrexate (RT group) and 53 patients received intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate without irradiation (IVIT group). Continuation treatment included sequential drug pairs for the RT group and periodic IVIT methotrexate for the other group. After 12 to 24 months of serial evaluation, five (9%) of the 55 patients in the RT group have had CT scan abnormalities, compared to 10 (19%) of 52 in the IVIT group (p . 0.171). Fourteen of the 15 patients with CT scan abnormalities had focal or diffuse white-matter hypodensity; these have reverted to normal in most cases, reflecting a dynamic process. While such CT findings are of concern and may be an early indicator of central nervous system toxicity, this remains to be proven. Therapy should not be altered on the basis of abnormal CT scans alone but in the context of the entire clinical situation

  6. Cranial computed tomography in patients with Bourneville-Pringle phacomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Minoru; Kurata, Yukio; Hirone, Takae

    1987-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography (CT) was undertaken in 17 patients (0 - 38 years) with Bourneville-Pringle phacomatosis, some of whom presented with epilepsy episodes and mental retardation. Intracranial calcification was seen on CT in 10 patients (59 %), including a 2-month-old baby. This suggests the potential of CT in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis for infants, which has been considered difficult by conventional roentgenography. The most frequent site of calcilfication was ventricular wall. High incidences of eye lesions (67 %), psycho-neurologic symptoms (80 %), and abnormal EEG (50 %) were found in patients with cranial calficication on CT, in contrast to patients without it (0 %, 0 %, and 40 %, respectively). (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Executive Dysfunction 25 Years after Treatment with Cranial Radiotherapy for Pediatric Lymphoid Malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Ilse; de Sonneville, Leo; Kaspers, Gertjan; van der Pal, Helena; Uyttebroeck, Anne; van den Bos, Cor; Veerman, Anjo

    2015-01-01

    The first cohorts to survive childhood lymphoid malignancies treated with cranial irradiation are now aging into adulthood, and concerns are growing about the development of radiotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in the aging brain. These deficits are hypothesized to increase over time. Their

  8. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Casteels, I. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-04-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  9. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Wilms, G.; Casteels, I.

    2002-01-01

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  10. Cranial Chordoma: A New Preoperative Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito da Silva, Harley; Straus, David; Barber, Jason K; Rostomily, Robert C; Ferreira, Manuel; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-11-03

    Chordomas are rare but challenging neoplasms involving the skull base. A preoperative grading system will be useful to identify both areas for treatment and risk factors, and correlate to the degree of resection, complications, and recurrence. To propose a new grading system for cranial chordomas designed by the senior author. Its purpose is to enable comparison of different tumors with a similar pathology to clivus chordoma, and statistically correlate with postoperative outcomes. The numerical grading system included tumor size, site of the tumor, vascular encasement, intradural extension, brainstem invasion, and recurrence of the tumor either after surgery or radiotherapy with a range of 2 to 25 points; it was used in 42 patients with cranial chordoma. The grading system was correlated with number of operations for resection, degree of resection, number and type of complications, recurrence, and survival. We found 3 groups: low-risk 0 to 7 points, intermediate-risk 8 to 12 points, and high-risk ≥13 points in the grading system. The 3 groups were correlated with the following: extent of resection (partial, subtotal, or complete; P system itself correlated with the outcome (P = .005). The proposed chordoma grading system can help surgeons to predict the difficulty of the case and know which areas of the skull base will need attention to plan further therapy. © Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017.

  11. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet

  12. Multiple cranial neuropathy: a common diagnostic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Karak, B

    1999-10-01

    Syndrome of multiple cranial palsies is a common clinical problem routinely encountered in neurological practice. Anatomical patterns of cranial nerves involvement help in localizing the lesion. Various infections, malignant neoplasms and autoimmune vasculitis are common disorders leading to various syndromes of multiple cranial nerve palsies. A large number of diffuse neurological disorders (e.g. Gullian-Barre syndrome, myopathies) may also present with syndrome of multiple cranial nerve palsies. Despite extensive biochemical and radiological work-up the accurate diagnosis may not be established. Few such patients represent "idiopathic" variety of multiple cranial nerve involvement and show good response to corticosteroids. Widespread and sequential involvements of cranial nerves frequently suggest possibility of malignant infiltration of meninges, however, confirmation of diagnosis may not be possible before autopsy.

  13. Anti-emetic effect of granisetron in patients undergoing cranial and craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke; Nosaka, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30-59% of patients undergoing cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy experience nausea and/or vomiting. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of granisetron for controlling emesis in patients treated with cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Between December 2011 and January 2013, 34 patients (19 males, 15 females; age range, 3-80 years) received cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy at our department. All but one male patient, who developed meningitis during the irradiation period were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients who experienced irradiation-induced vomiting (grade 1) or nausea (grade 2) were treated with granisetron as a rescue anti-emetic. Episodes were graded as no vomiting, no nausea, no anti-emetic; no vomiting, nausea, no anti-emetic; no vomiting, nausea with anti-emetic; and vomiting. Of the 9 patients who underwent whole-brain or whole neural-axis irradiation, 5 (55.6%) experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Two of 6 patients (33.3%) treated with whole ventricle irradiation experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Three of 18 patients (16.7%) who underwent local-field irradiation experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Patients who underwent wide-field irradiation experienced nausea, vomiting, and anorexia (p<0.05). Complete response (no vomiting, no additional rescue anti-emetic, and no nausea) was observed in 5 of 9 patients treated with granisetron. Four of 9 patients (44.4%) treated with granisetron experienced constipation (grade 1 or 2); its administration had no major adverse effects in our study population. Rescue therapy with granisetron is safe and effective to treat nausea and vomiting in patients subjected to cranial or craniospinal irradiation. (author)

  14. The cranial-spinal junction in medulloblastoma: does it matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Ashwatha; Jeswani, Sam; Paulino, Arnold C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Late effects of treatment in children and young adults with medulloblastoma can be influenced by the technique employed in radiating the craniospinal axis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the placement of the cranial-spinal junction has an impact on dose to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs. Methods and Materials: Five patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation in the prone position for craniospinal irradiation. A dose of 36 Gy was prescribed to the entire neuraxis. The doses to the cervical spinal cord and surrounding organs were calculated using a cranial-spinal junction at the C1-C2 vertebral interspace (high junction) or at the lowest point in the neck, with exclusion of the shoulders in the lateral cranial fields (low junction).The volume of critical organs at risk, as well as dose to these structures using the cranial and spinal field(s) were outlined and calculated using the CMS FOCUS 3-dimensional treatment planning system. Results: The average dose to the cervical spinal cord was 11.9% higher than the prescribed dose with the low junction, and 6.7% higher with the high junction. However, doses to the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx were increased by an average of 29.6%, 75.8%, 70.6%, and 227.7%, respectively, by the use of the high junction compared to the low junction. Conclusion: A higher dose to the cervical spinal cord can be minimized by using a high junction. However, this would be at the cost of substantially increased doses to surrounding organs such as the thyroid gland, mandible, pharynx, and larynx. This can be critical in children and young adults, where hypothyroidism, mandibular hypoplasia, and development of second malignancies may be a late sequela of radiation therapy

  15. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abayomi, O.K.

    1996-01-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.)

  16. Pathogenesis of irradiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abayomi, O.K. [Howard Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1996-12-31

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a common sequela of cranial irradiation that is especially severe in young children. The underlying mechanisms of this disorder have not been described. The present review describes the role of the hippocampus and the anatomically related cortex in memory function and its marked susceptibility to ischemic and hypoxic injury. Based on studies of animal models of human amnesia and histopathological findings in the irradiated brain, the neurocognitive sequela of cranial irradiation can be seen to be mediated through vascular injury, resulting in ischemia and hypoxia in the hippocampal region. Recognition of the site and mechanisms of this injury may lead to the development of techniques to minimize the risks. (orig.).

  17. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M.; Steinvorth, S.; MIT, Cambridge, MT; Sehlleier, S.; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg; Fuss, M.; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX; Wenz, F.; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [de

  18. Cranial injuries and computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    Patients, especially personal patients, with cerebral contusion and intracerebral hematoma were studied. Of 388 patients with cranial injuries who received computer tomography (CT) in our institute, 53 had cerebral contusion and 15 had intracerebral hematoma. CT revealed even hematoma at the parietal lobe or the inside of the cerebral hemispherium due to the cerebral contusion. The CT findings of cerebral contusion were classified into 3, that is, those with low density, those with high density, and those with non-homogenous density. From these findings cerebral edema rather than cerebral contusion was suspected. In patients with severe symptoms the basal cistern of the brain deformed and disappeared, frequently indicating that they had cerebral swellings. Only 20% of the patients with contusion at the brain-stem had abnormal CT findigns. Many patients with intracerebral hematoma complained headache, and these patients could be diagnosed easily by CT. In general it is believed that contrast enhancement is not necessary for patients with cranial injuries, but it was reported that 90% of patients with contusion showed enhancement after the use of contrast medium. (Ichikawa, K.)

  19. Multiple cranial nerve palsies complicating tympanomastoiditis: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otitis media either acute or chronic, is not uncommon in childhood. Multiple cranial nerve palsies occuring as a complication of either form of otitis media is unusual. A case of a nine year old boy with chronic suppurative otitis media with associated mastoiditis complicated with ipsilateral multiple cranial nerve palsies is ...

  20. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  1. The cranial anatomy of the neornithischian dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Though the dinosaur Thescelosaurus neglectus was first described in 1913 and is known from the relatively fossiliferous Lance and Hell Creek formations in the Western Interior Basin of North America, the cranial anatomy of this species remains poorly understood. The only cranial material confidently referred to this species are three fragmentary bones preserved with the paratype, hindering attempts to understand the systematic relationships of this taxon within Neornithischia. Here the cranial anatomy of T. neglectus is fully described for the first time based on two specimens that include well-preserved cranial material (NCSM 15728 and TLAM.BA.2014.027.0001). Visual inspection of exposed cranial elements of these specimens is supplemented by detailed CT data from NCSM 15728 that enabled the examination of otherwise unexposed surfaces, facilitating a complete description of the cranial anatomy of this species. The skull of T. neglectus displays a unique combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. The premaxillary and ‘cheek’ tooth morphologies are relatively derived, though less so than the condition seen in basal iguanodontians, suggesting that the high tooth count present in the premaxillae, maxillae, and dentaries may be related to the extreme elongation of the skull of this species rather than a retention of the plesiomorphic condition. The morphology of the braincase most closely resembles the iguanodontians Dryosaurus and Dysalotosaurus, especially with regard to the morphology of the prootic. One autapomorphic feature is recognized for the first time, along with several additional cranial features that differentiate this species from the closely related and contemporaneous Thescelosaurus assiniboiensis. Published phylogenetic hypotheses of neornithischian dinosaur relationships often differ in the placement of the North American taxon Parksosaurus, with some recovering a close relationship with Thescelosaurus and others with the South American

  2. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Incidence of Intracranial Hemorrhage After a Cranial Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert; Sparrow, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of patients who underwent a cranial operation and postoperatively suffered an intracranial hemorrhage significant enough to require evacuation. Materials & methods  3,109 cranial operations were performed at Houston Methodist Hospital (Texas Medical Center campus) between January 2009 and December 2013. Of these, 59 cases required a second operation for evacuation of an intracranial hemorrhage. The information gathered included the patients’ age, gender, past medical history, medications and laboratory data, initial diagnosis, date/type of first and second operations, duration of hospitalization, discharge condition, and discharge destination. Results The study found a 1.90% rate of a postoperative hemorrhage significant enough to require evacuation after a cranial operation. The average age in the cohort requiring reoperation was 63 +/- 14 years with 42 male and 17 female. Hematoma evacuations were performed at various time intervals depending on the pathology treated at the initial operation. The time to second operation was 2.7 days after intraparenchymal hematoma evacuation, 6.0 days after cerebrovascular surgery, 6.2 days after tumor surgery and 9.7 days after subdural hematoma evacuation. The rate of postoperative hematoma development was 9.1% after a subdural hematoma evacuation, while it was only 1.1% in all other operations. Overall, those requiring hematoma evacuation had a 15% mortality rate, 64% were non-ambulatory, and 54% were discharged to long-term acute care facility, skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation facility or hospice. Conclusions  Neurological outcomes were poor in patients who underwent a cranial operation and required a second operation to remove a hematoma. This study suggests close observation of elderly males after a cranial operation, especially after subdural hematoma evacuation, and longer observation time for patients undergoing subdural hematoma evacuation than intraparenchymal

  4. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor.

  5. Tumors Presenting as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Ahmed, Rafeeq; Bajantri, Bharat; Singh, Amandeep; Abbas, Hafsa; Dejesus, Eddy; Khan, Rana Raheel; Niazi, Masooma; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    Cranial nerve palsy could be one of the presenting features of underlying benign or malignant tumors of the head and neck. The tumor can involve the cranial nerves by local compression, direct infiltration or by paraneoplastic process. Cranial nerve involvement depends on the anatomical course of the cranial nerve and the site of the tumor. Patients may present with single or multiple cranial nerve palsies. Multiple cranial nerve involvement could be sequential or discrete, unilateral or bilateral, painless or painful. The presentation could be acute, subacute or recurrent. Anatomic localization is the first step in the evaluation of these patients. The lesion could be in the brain stem, meninges, base of skull, extracranial or systemic disease itself. We present 3 cases of underlying neoplasms presenting as cranial nerve palsies: a case of glomus tumor presenting as cochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus and hypoglossal nerve palsies, clivus tumor presenting as abducens nerve palsy, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal and abducens nerve palsies due to paraneoplastic involvement. History and physical examination, imaging, autoantibodies and biopsy if feasible are useful for the diagnosis. Management outcomes depend on the treatment of the underlying tumor. PMID:28553221

  6. Ten-year outcome including patterns of failure and toxicity for adjuvant whole abdominopelvic irradiation in high-risk and poor histologic feature patients with endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kimberly D.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Weiner, Sheldon; Podratz, Karl; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Schray, Mark; Mitchell, Christina; Sherman, Alfred; Chen, Peter; Brabbins, Donald A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term results of treatment using adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation (WAPI) with a pelvic/vaginal boost in patients with Stage I-III endometrial carcinoma at high risk of intra-abdominopelvic recurrence, including clear cell (CC) and serous-papillary (SP) histologic features. Methods and Materials: In a prospective nonrandomized trial, 119 patients were treated with adjuvant WAPI between November 1981 and April 2000. All patients were analyzed, including those who did not complete therapy. The mean age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 39-88). Thirty-eight patients (32%) had 1989 FIGO Stage I-II disease and 81 (68%) had Stage III. The pathologic features included the following: 64 (54%) with deep myometrial invasion, 48 (40%) with positive peritoneal cytologic findings, 69 (58%) with high-grade lesions, 21 (18%) with positive pelvic/para-aortic lymph nodes, and 44 (37%) with SP or CC histologic findings. Results: The mean follow-up was 5.8 years (range 0.2-14.7). For the entire group, the 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS) rate was 75% and 69% and the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 58% and 48%, respectively. When stratified by histologic features, the 5- and 10-year CSS rate for adenocarcinoma was 76% and 71%, and for serous papillary/CC subtypes, it was 74% and 63%, respectively (p=0.917). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate for adenocarcinoma was 60% and 50% and was 54% and 37% serous papillary/CC subtypes, respectively (p=0.498). For surgical Stage I-II, the 5-year CSS rate was 82% for adenocarcinoma and 87% for SP/CC features (p=0.480). For Stage III, it was 75% and 57%, respectively (p=0.129). Thirty-seven patients had a relapse, with the first site of failure the abdomen/pelvis in 14 (38%), lung in 8 (22%), extraabdominal lymph nodes in 7 (19%), vagina in 6 (16%), and other in 2 (5%). When stratified by histologic variant, 32% of patients with adenocarcinoma and 30% with the SP/CC subtype developed recurrent disease. Most

  7. Modeling tumor growth and irradiation response in vitro--a combination of high-performance computing and web-based technologies including VRML visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, G S; Zacharaki, E I; Makropoulou, M I; Mouravliansky, N A; Marsh, A; Nikita, K S; Uzunoglu, N K

    2001-12-01

    A simplified three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation model of in vitro tumor growth and response to fractionated radiotherapeutic schemes is presented in this paper. The paper aims at both the optimization of radiotherapy and the provision of insight into the biological mechanisms involved in tumor development. The basics of the modeling philosophy of Duechting have been adopted and substantially extended. The main processes taken into account by the model are the transitions between the cell cycle phases, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and the cell survival probabilities following irradiation. Specific algorithms satisfactorily describing tumor expansion and shrinkage have been applied, whereas a novel approach to the modeling of the tumor response to irradiation has been proposed and implemented. High-performance computing systems in conjunction with Web technologies have coped with the particularly high computer memory and processing demands. A visualization system based on the MATLAB software package and the virtual-reality modeling language has been employed. Its utilization has led to a spectacular representation of both the external surface and the internal structure of the developing tumor. The simulation model has been applied to the special case of small cell lung carcinoma in vitro irradiated according to both the standard and accelerated fractionation schemes. A good qualitative agreement with laboratory experience has been observed in all cases. Accordingly, the hypothesis that advanced simulation models for the in silico testing of tumor irradiation schemes could substantially enhance the radiotherapy optimization process is further strengthened. Currently, our group is investigating extensions of the presented algorithms so that efficient descriptions of the corresponding clinical (in vivo) cases are achieved.

  8. Neurologic disturbances in case of breast cancer disseminated into cranial bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasyuk, S.V.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents data on 52 cases of breast cancer disseminated into cranial vault bones (2 into the orbit). Metastases into the brain (2) and meninges (6) were detected in 17 cases with the aid of computerized tomography of the brain and examination of cerebrospinal fluid. The latter cases were not included into the study group. Metastases into cranial bones were identified by craniography and scanning of the skeleton. Half the patients (18 out of 35) revealed the following neurologic syndromes which were determined by the site of metastases into cranial vault bones and tumour growth pattern (into cranial cavity or soft tissues of the head): lesions in ramus primus nervi trigemini, greater occipital nerve, migraine, pseudotumorous and pseudoencephalitic syndromes. Cases of such neurologic disorders require an all-round examination including ophthalmooscopy, EEG, computerized tomography of the brain, craniography and scanning of the skeleton

  9. Prediction of temperature and damage in an irradiated human eye-Utilization of a detailed computer model which includes a vectorial blood stream in the choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, Nico; Holl, Lukas; Nowak, Timo; Beuth, Thorsten; Spitzer, Martin S; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-08-01

    The work presented here describes the development and use of a three-dimensional thermo-dynamic model of the human eye for the prediction of temperatures and damage thresholds under irradiation. This model takes into account the blood flow by the implementation of a vectorial blood stream in the choroid and also uses the actual physiological extensions and tissue parameters of the eye. Furthermore it considers evaporation, radiation and convection at the cornea as well as the eye lid. The predicted temperatures were successfully validated against existing eye models in terms of corneal and global thermal behaviour. The model׳s predictions were additionally checked for consistency with in-vivo temperature measurements of the cornea, the irradiated retina and its damage thresholds. These thresholds were calculated from the retinal temperatures using the Arrhenius integral. Hence the model can be used to predict the temperature increase and irradiation hazard within the human eye as long as the absorption values and the Arrhenius coefficients are known and the damage mechanism is in the thermal regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CT measurments of cranial growth: normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Chu, W.K.; Cheung, J.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Growth patterns of the cranium measured directly as head circumference have been well documented. With the availability of computed tomography (CT) , cranial dimensions can be obtained easily. The objective of this project was to establish the mean values and their normal variance of CT cranial area of subjects at different ages. Cranial area and its long and short axes were measured on CT scans for 215 neurologic patients of a wide age range who presented no evidence of abnormal growth of head size. Growth patterns of the cranial area as well as the numeric product of it linear dimensions were determined via a curve fitting process. The patterns resemble that of the head circumference growth chart, with the most rapid growth observed in the first 12 months of age and reaching full size during adolescence

  11. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, A.; Yigit, S.; Oran, O. [Neonatology Unit, University of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey); Firat, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-05-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia. (orig.)

  12. Cranial MRI in neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Yigit, S.; Oran, O.; Firat, M.

    2000-01-01

    Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an older child, but have not been described in newborn infants. We report the cranial MRI findings in a newborn infant with acute renal failure and severe hypernatraemia. (orig.)

  13. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little ho...

  14. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liang Boo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

  15. Cranial trepanation in The Egyptian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2014-09-01

    Medicine and literature have been linked from ancient times; proof of this shown by the many doctors who have made contributions to literature and the many writers who have described medical activities and illnesses in their works. An example is The Egyptian, the book by Mika Waltari that provides a masterly narration of the protagonist's medical activity and describes the trepanation technique. The present work begins with the analysis of trepanations since prehistory and illustrates the practice of the trepanation in The Egyptian. The book mentions trepanation frequently and illustrates how to practice it and which instruments are required to perform it. Trepanation is one of the oldest surgical interventions carried out as treatment for cranial trauma and neurological diseases, but it also had the magical and religious purpose of expelling the evil spirits which caused the mental illness, epilepsy, or migraine symptoms. Trepanation is a surgical practice that has been carried out since prehistory to treat post-traumatic epilepsy, migraine, and psychiatric illness. The Egyptian is a book that illustrates the trepan, the trepanation technique, and the required set of instruments in full detail. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. MR of acoustic neuromas; Relationship to cranial nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-08-01

    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author).

  17. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  18. Cranial vasculature in zebrafish forms by angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Kira; Lu, Annie; Sumanas, Saulius

    2010-12-01

    Formation of embryonic vasculature involves vasculogenesis as endothelial cells differentiate and aggregate into vascular cords and angiogenesis which includes branching from the existing vessels. In the zebrafish which has emerged as an advantageous model to study vasculogenesis, cranial vasculature is thought to originate by a combination of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, but how these processes are coordinated is not well understood. To determine how angioblasts assemble into cranial vasculature, we generated an etsrp:GFP transgenic line in which GFP reporter is expressed under the promoter control of an early regulator of vascular and myeloid development, etsrp/etv2. By utilizing time-lapse imaging we show that cranial vessels originate by angiogenesis from angioblast clusters, which themselves form by the mechanism of vasculogenesis. The two major pairs of bilateral clusters include the rostral organizing center (ROC) which gives rise to the most rostral cranial vessels and the midbrain organizing center (MOC) which gives rise to the posterior cranial vessels and to the myeloid and endocardial lineages. In Etsrp knockdown embryos initial cranial vasculogenesis proceeds normally but endothelial and myeloid progenitors fail to initiate differentiation, migration and angiogenesis. Such angioblast cluster-derived angiogenesis is likely to be involved during vasculature formation in other vertebrate systems as well. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Moderate climate signature in cranial anatomy of late holocene human populations from Southern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Menéndez, Lumila

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association between cranial variation and climate in order to discuss their role during the diversification of southern South American populations. Therefore, the specific objectives are: (1) to explore the spatial pattern of cranial variation with regard to the climatic diversity of the region, and (2) to evaluate the differential impact that the climatic factors may have had on the shape and size of the diverse cranial structures studied. The variation in shape and size of 361 crania was studied, registering 62 3D landmarks that capture shape and size variation in the face, cranial vault, and base. Mean, minimum, and maximum annual temperature, as well as mean annual precipitation, but also diet and altitude, were matched for each population sample. A PCA, as well as spatial statistical techniques, including kriging, regression, and multimodel inference were employed. The facial skeleton size presents a latitudinal pattern which is partially associated with temperature diversity. Both diet and altitude are the variables that mainly explain the skull shape variation, although mean annual temperature also plays a role. The association between climate factors and cranial variation is low to moderate, mean annual temperature explains almost 40% of the entire skull, facial skeleton and cranial vault shape variation, while annual precipitation and minimum annual temperature only contribute to the morphological variation when considered together with maximum annual temperature. The cranial base is the structure less associated with climate diversity. These results suggest that climate factors may have had a partial impact on the facial and vault shape, and therefore contributed moderately to the diversification of southern South American populations, while diet and altitude might have had a stronger impact. Therefore, cranial variation at the southern cone has been shaped both by random and nonrandom factors. Particularly, the

  20. Morphometric Analysis of Cranial Shape in Fossil and Recent Euprimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Verity Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of morphology allows for identification of subtle evolutionary patterns or convergences in anatomy that can aid ecological reconstructions of extinct taxa. This study explores diversity and convergence in cranial morphology across living and fossil primates using geometric morphometrics. 33 3D landmarks were gathered from 34 genera of euprimates (382 specimens, including the Eocene adapiforms Adapis and Leptadapis and Quaternary lemurs Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, and Megaladapis. Landmark data was treated with Procrustes superimposition to remove all nonshape differences and then subjected to principal components analysis and linear discriminant function analysis. Haplorhines and strepsirrhines were well separated in morphospace along the major components of variation, largely reflecting differences in relative skull length and width and facial depth. Most adapiforms fell within or close to strepsirrhine space, while Quaternary lemurs deviated from extant strepsirrhines, either exploring new regions of morphospace or converging on haplorhines. Fossil taxa significantly increased the area of morphospace occupied by strepsirrhines. However, recent haplorhines showed significantly greater cranial disparity than strepsirrhines, even with the inclusion of the unusual Quaternary lemurs, demonstrating that differences in primate cranial disparity are likely real and not simply an artefact of recent megafaunal extinctions.

  1. Cranial skeletogenesis and osteology of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, B E

    2013-01-01

    The skeletogenesis and osteology of the syncranium of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae is described. Skeletal development is rapid, with many elements of the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium well formed prior to the onset of ossification. The chondrocranium develops from an initial set of cartilaginous precursors, and continued elaboration proceeds from a series of processes which expand and converge to form the floor of the cranial vault, the otic capsule, the supraorbital bridge and the ethmoid region. Prodigious growth is observed for a number of splanchnocranial elements, including the Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. Ossification occurs in overlapping phases with initial ossification of the jaws and neurocranial floor followed by the splanchnocranium, the supraorbital bridges and the ethmoid and cranial vault. Teeth are observed primarily on the premaxilla and dentary, while a single tooth is present on the maxilla. Particular cartilages, which had originally formed in the early larva, appear to degenerate and have no ossified representative in the adult syncranium. The cranial development for M. sanctaefilomenae is compared to those of other characiforms. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Surgical pitfalls with custom-made porous hydroxyapatite cranial implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zanotti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cranioplasty implants are used primarily in cases of surgical cranial decompression following pathological elevations of intracranial pressure. Available bone substitutes include porous hydroxyapatite (HA and polymethylmethacrylate. Whichever material is used, however, prosthetic cranial implants are susceptible to intra- and postsurgical complications and even failure. The aim of this study was to investigate such occurrences in HA cranioplasty implants, seeking not only to determine the likely causes (whether correlated or not with the device itself but also, where possible, to suggest countermeasures. Methods: We analyzed information regarding failures or complications reported in postmarketing surveillance and clinical studies of patients treated worldwide with custom-made HA cranial implants (Custom Bone Service Fin-Ceramica Faenza, Italy in the period 1997-2013. Results: The two most common complications were implant fractures (84 cases, 2.9% of the total fitted and infections (51 cases, 1.77%. Conclusion: Although cranioplasties are superficial and not difficult types of surgery, and use of custom-made implants are often considered the "easy" option from a surgical perspective, these procedures are nonetheless plagued by potential pitfalls. If performed well they yield more than satisfactory results from the points of view of both the patient and surgeon, but lack of appropriate care can open the door to numerous potential sources of failure, which can compromise-even irreparably-the ability to heal.

  3. Multiple cranial neuropathies without limb involvements: guillain-barre syndrome variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju Young; Jung, Han Young; Kim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Hyo Sang; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2013-10-01

    Acute multiple cranial neuropathies are considered as variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which are immune-mediated diseases triggered by various cases. It is a rare disease which is related to infectious, inflammatory or systemic diseases. According to previous case reports, those affected can exhibit almost bilateral facial nerve palsy, then followed by bulbar dysfunctions (cranial nerves IX and X) accompanied by limb weakness and walking difficulties due to motor and/or sensory dysfunctions. Furthermore, reported cases of the acute multiple cranial neuropathies show electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with the typical Guillain-Barre syndromes (GBS). We recently experienced a patient with a benign infectious disease who subsequently developed symptoms of variant GBS. Here, we describe the case of a 48-year-old male patient who developed multiple symptoms of cranial neuropathy without limb weakness. His laboratory findings showed a positive result for anti-GQ1b IgG antibody. As compared with previously described variants of GBS, the patient exhibited widespread cranial neuropathy, which included neuropathies of cranial nerves III-XII, without limb involvement or ataxia.

  4. Pediatric neuroradiology: Cerebral and cranial diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebler, C.; Dulac, O.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, a neuroradiologist and a neuropediatrician have combined forces to provide the widest possible knowledge in investigating cranial and cerebral disorders in infancy and childhood. Based on more than 20,000 pediatric CT examinations, with a follow-up time often exceeding ten years, the book aims to bridge interdisciplinary gaps and help radiologists, pediatricians and neurosurgeons solve the various problems of pediatric neuroradiology that frequently confront them. For each disease, the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathological lesions and radiological presentations are discussed, supported by extensive illustrations. Malformative, vascular, traumatic, tumoral, infectious and metabolic diseases are reviewed. Miscellaneous conditions presenting particular symptoms or syndromes are also studied, such as hydrocephalus and neurological complications of leukemia. Contents: Cerebral and cranial malformations; neurocutaneous syndromes; inherited metabolic diseases; infectious diseases - vascular disorders; intracranial tumors; cranial trauma - miscellaneous and subject index

  5. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steve E

    2006-01-01

    Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere. PMID:16762070

  6. Cranial osteopathy: its fate seems clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartman Steve E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the original model of cranial osteopathy, intrinsic rhythmic movements of the human brain cause rhythmic fluctuations of cerebrospinal fluid and specific relational changes among dural membranes, cranial bones, and the sacrum. Practitioners believe they can palpably modify parameters of this mechanism to a patient's health advantage. Discussion This treatment regime lacks a biologically plausible mechanism, shows no diagnostic reliability, and offers little hope that any direct clinical effect will ever be shown. In spite of almost uniformly negative research findings, "cranial" methods remain popular with many practitioners and patients. Summary Until outcome studies show that these techniques produce a direct and positive clinical effect, they should be dropped from all academic curricula; insurance companies should stop paying for them; and patients should invest their time, money, and health elsewhere.

  7. Adenosine kinase inhibition protects against cranial radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal M Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical radiation therapy for the treatment of CNS cancers leads to unintended and debilitating impairments in cognition. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction is long lasting, however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are still not well established. Since ionizing radiation causes microglial and astroglial activation, we hypothesized that maladaptive changes in astrocyte function might be implicated in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Among other gliotransmitters, astrocytes control the availability of adenosine, an endogenous neuroprotectant and modulator of cognition, via metabolic clearance through adenosine kinase (ADK. Adult rats exposed to cranial irradiation (10 Gy showed significant declines in performance of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function tasks (novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning 1 month after exposure to ionizing radiation using a clinically relevant regimen. Irradiated rats spent less time exploring a novel place or object. Cranial irradiation also led to reduction in freezing behavior compared to controls in the fear conditioning task. Importantly, immunohistochemical analyses of irradiated brains showed significant elevation of ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus that was related to astrogliosis and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Conversely, rats treated with the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-ITU, 3.1 mg/kg, i.p., for 6 days prior to cranial irradiation showed significantly improved behavioral performance in all cognitive tasks 1 month post exposure. Treatment with 5-ITU attenuated radiation-induced astrogliosis and elevated ADK immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. These results confirm an astrocyte-mediated mechanism where preservation of extracellular adenosine can exert neuroprotection also against radiation-induced pathology. These innovative findings link radiation-induced changes in cognition and CNS

  8. Isovaleric acidaemia: cranial CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Acun, Ceyda; Tomsac, Nazan; Demirel, Fatma [Department of Paediatrics, Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey); Aydin, Kubilay [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Camlikyolu, B. mehmetpasa sokak yavuz apt. No:10/10, Etiler, Istanbul (Turkey); Aktuglu, Cigdem [Department of Paediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-02-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia is an inborn error of leucine metabolism due to deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of isovaleric acid in body fluids. There are acute and chronic-intermittent forms of the disease. We present the cranial CT and MRI findings of a 19-month-old girl with the chronic-intermittent form of isovaleric acidaemia. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis, hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ketonuria and acute encephalopathy. Cranial CT revealed bilateral hypodensity of the globi pallidi. MRI showed signal changes in the globi pallidi and corticospinal tracts of the mesencephalon, which were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  9. Neurosyphilis Involving Cranial Nerves in Brain Stem: 2 Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Woo Suk; Kim, Eui Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sung Sang; Heo, Sung Hyuk [Dept. of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Neurosyphilis uncommonly presents with cranial neuropathies in acute syphilitic meningitis and meningovascular neurosyphilis. We now report two cases in which the meningeal form of neurosyphilis involved cranial nerves in the brain stem: the oculomotor and trigeminal nerve.

  10. Cranial-base morphology in children with class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Po; Hsieh, Shu-Hui; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Tsau-Mau

    2005-04-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranial-base morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  11. Localized cranial hyperostosis of meningiomas: a result of neoplastic enzymatic activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.; Mosdal, C.; Klinken, Leif

    1993-01-01

    Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity......Neuropathology, alkaline phosphatase, cranial hyperostosis, meningioma, ossifying enzymatic activity...

  12. Anatomically shaped cranial collimation (ACC) for lateral cephalometric radiography: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, R C; van der Stelt, P F; Berkhout, W E R

    2014-01-01

    Lateral cephalograms in orthodontic practice display an area cranial of the base of the skull that is not required for diagnostic evaluation. Attempts have been made to reduce the radiation dose to the patient using collimators combining the shielding of the areas above the base of the skull and below the mandible. These so-called "wedge-shaped" collimators have not become standard equipment in orthodontic offices, possibly because these collimators were not designed for today's combination panoramic-cephalometric imaging systems. It also may be that the anatomical variability of the area below the mandible makes this area unsuitable for standardized collimation. In addition, a wedge-shaped collimator shields the cervical vertebrae; therefore, assessment of skeletal maturation, which is based on the stage of development of the cervical vertebrae, cannot be performed. In this report, we describe our investigations into constructing a collimator to be attached to the cephalostat and shield the cranial area of the skull, while allowing the visualization of diagnostically relevant structures and markedly reducing the size of the irradiated area. The shape of the area shielded by this "anatomically shaped cranial collimator" (ACC) was based on mean measurements of cephalometric landmarks of 100 orthodontic patients. It appeared that this collimator reduced the area of irradiation by almost one-third without interfering with the imaging system or affecting the quality of the image. Further research is needed to validate the clinical efficacy of the collimator.

  13. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  14. Food irradiation in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.

    1985-01-01

    This report explains the process and issues that concern consumers, workers in the food industry and people involved in food policy, public health and environmental protection. It argues that safety assurances by experts are not enough, and calls for a full public debate on all issues surrounding food irradiation, including a) wholesomeness of irradiated foods - food quality, nutrition losses, chemical and other changes in irradiated foods b) consumers rights to information about irradiated foods c) health and safety of food industry workers d) the economics of irradiation - food prices, changes in patters of employment, environmental impacts e) regulation and monitoring of food irradiation and imported irradiated foods. (U.K.)

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  16. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2010-05-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX-XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry.

  17. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...

  18. Post-operative cranial pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fager, C. A., Jr.; Long, L. E.; Trent, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    System for monitoring of fluidic pressures in cranial cavity uses a miniaturized pressure sensing transducer, combined with suitable amplification means, a meter with scale calibrated in terms of pressures between minus 100 and plus 900 millimeters of water, and a miniaturized chart recorder covering similar range of pressures.

  19. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunction caused by neurosarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loor, Rivkah G. J.; van Tongeren, Joost; Derks, Wynia

    2012-01-01

    Neurosarcoidosis is a rare identity and occurs in only 5% to 15% of patients with sarcoidosis. It can manifest in many different ways, and therefore, diagnosis may be complicated. We report a case presented in a very unusual manner with involvement of 3 cranial nerves; anosmia (NI), facial palsy

  20. Cranial MR findings in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Topcu, M.; Baltaoglu, F.F.; Koese, G.; Yalaz, K.; Renda, Y.; Besim, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To define various cranial MR appearances in Wilson's disease (WD). Material and Methods: MR examinations of 30 patients (9-44 years old) with WD were retrospectively reviewed. Six patients were asymptomatic siblings. Three other patients had isolated hepatic involvement, one with no symptoms. The remaining 21 patients had neurological involvement, 7 of whom had the mixed form of the disease. Nine patients had hepatic dysfunction, the 3 with isolated hepatic involvement and 6 of the 7 with the mixed form. Results: All symptomatic patients (n=23) had abnormal MR examinations. Atrophy was present in the majority of them. The most frequently involved sites were putamen (18/21) and pons (18/21) in patients with neurological abnormality. The putaminal lesions showed a consistent pattern of symmetric, bilateral, concentric-laminar T2 hyperintensity. Putaminal lesions were lacking in only 3 patients with neurological involvement, all of whom were relatively old and had had the disease for a longer duration. Most of the patients with hepatic dysfunction (8/9) had increased T1 signal intensity in the basal ganglia, particularly in the globus pallidus. Pontine involvement always included the dorsal aspect of the pons, however, in some cases the central portion of pons was also affected but ventrolateral longitudinal fibers were spared. Midbrain (16/21), thalamic (10/21) and caudate nucleus lesions (9/21) were also encountered. In a few patients cortical and subcortical white matter lesions were present with a predilection to the frontal lobe, particularly the precentral region. In one patient, a hemorrhagic focus was identified within the white matter lesion. (orig./VHE)

  1. Cranial Bosses of Choerosaurus dejageri (Therapsida, Therocephalia: Earliest Evidence of Cranial Display Structures in Eutheriodonts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    Full Text Available Choerosaurus dejageri, a non-mammalian eutheriodont therapsid from the South African late Permian (~259 Ma, has conspicuous hemispheric cranial bosses on the maxilla and the mandible. These bosses, the earliest of this nature in a eutheriodont, potentially make C. dejageri a key species for understanding the evolutionary origins of sexually selective behaviours (intraspecific competition, ritualized sexual and intimidation displays associated with cranial outgrowths at the root of the clade that eventually led to extant mammals. Comparison with the tapinocephalid dinocephalian Moschops capensis, a therapsid in which head butting is strongly supported, shows that the delicate structure of the cranial bosses and the gracile structure of the skull of Choerosaurus would be more suitable for display and low energy combat than vigorous head butting. Thus, despite the fact that Choerosaurus is represented by only one skull (which makes it impossible to address the question of sexual dimorphism, its cranial bosses are better interpreted as structures involved in intraspecific selection, i.e. low-energy fighting or display. Display structures, such as enlarged canines and cranial bosses, are widespread among basal therapsid clades and are also present in the putative basal therapsid Tetraceratops insignis. This suggests that sexual selection may have played a more important role in the distant origin and evolution of mammals earlier than previously thought. Sexual selection may explain the subsequent independent evolution of cranial outgrowths and pachyostosis in different therapsid lineages (Biarmosuchia, Dinocephalia, Gorgonopsia and Dicynodontia.

  2. Primary extra-cranial meningioma following total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.J.; Beggs, I. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Patton, J.T.; Porter, D. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Orthopaedics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Salter, D.M.; Al-Nafussi, A. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Pathology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    A 61-year-old man presented with pain at the left hip and decreased mobility 10 years after total hip replacement. Imaging demonstrated a large destructive expansile mass adjacent to the prosthesis. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of an extra-cranial meningioma. Primary tumours after total hip replacement are rare and include soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas and lymphomas. To our knowledge, no previous cases of primary extracranial meningioma have been identified. The imaging features, histology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  4. A 3-Year Review of Cranial Nerve Palsies from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24791110

  5. Modified Cranialization and Secondary Cranioplasty for Frontal Sinus Infection after Craniotomy: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHIOKA, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Frontal sinus infection after incorrect treatment of an opened frontal sinus may require extended approaches. This article aims to introduce modified cranialization technique and secondary cranioplasty for frontal sinus infection involving the frontal sinus outflow tract after craniotomy. Eight patients with delayed onset frontal sinus infection involving frontal outflow tract after craniotomy were treated from 2008 to 2012. Debridement and cranialization involving the elimination of the frontal outflow tract was performed. Unilateral sinus cranialization combined with reduction of the non-affected contralateral sinus was carried out for the patients with unilateral sinusitis. A pericranial-frontalis muscle flap was used to separate the intracranial and extracranial spaces. Secondary cranioplasty with hydroxyapatite was performed approximately 3 months after the cranialization. The patients’ original conditions included brain tumors (n = 3), frontal sinus fractures (n = 2), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 3). The mean interval between the initial treatment and the onset of sinus infection was 23 years. The frontal sinus infection was bilateral in six cases and unilateral in two cases. Frontal sinus outflow tract was involved in sinus infection in every case. None of the patients suffered recurrent rhinogenic infections within the follow-up period (mean = 35 months) after the secondary cranioplasty. Aesthetic results were satisfactory in every case. Modified cranialization involving elimination of the frontal outflow tract is an alternative method for the patients with pathology in the frontal outflow tract after frontal craniotomy. Secondary cranioplasty provides an esthetically pleasing appearance in such cases. PMID:25169030

  6. Effects of central-nervous-system irradiation on neuropsychologic functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, S.S.; Marten, G.W.; Pitner, S.E.; Duenas, D.A.; Powazek, M.

    1975-01-01

    Two neuropsychologic studies were performed to determine the long-term effects of ''prophylactic'' cranial or craniospinal irradiation on the psychologic and neurologic functions of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. In a prospective study, 34 patients with leukemia who received either craniospinal irradiation or cranial irradiation combined with intrathecal methotrexate were evaluated by standardized neurologic and psychologic examinations before and after irradiation. Their performance was compared with that of 27 controls who received irradiation to parts of the body other than the cranium. In a retrospective study, 11 patients with leukemia receiving prophylactic craniospinal irradiation and 12 controls with the disease not receiving such therapy were followed from the second year after either irradiation or the initial hematologic remission. Eighteen months after irradiation in the prospective study and four years after irradiation in the retrospective study, no noteworthy neurologic or psychologic differences were found between subjects and controls

  7. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Elective Cranial Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reponen, Elina; Tuominen, Hanna; Hernesniemi, Juha; Korja, Miikka

    2015-12-01

    The role of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in elective cranial neurosurgery has been poorly studied, and their significance in reflecting complication rates is unclear. A prospective, consecutive, and unselected cohort of 418 adult patients underwent elective intracranial operations between 7 December, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 in Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. The questionnaire-based PROs included subjective postoperative assessments of overall health, cognitive function, and subjective change in functional status. Outcome measures included in-hospital major morbidity (including mortality) and in-hospital overall morbidity. We compared the usefulness of PROs with postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. In univariable analyses, all recorded PROs and 30-day mRS scores ≥ 3 were associated with in-hospital major and overall morbidity. After multivariable analyses, postoperative deterioration of subjective functional status remained associated with in-hospital major morbidity (P = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] 4.9, confidence interval [CI] 1.9-12.0, sensitivity 71%, and specificity 70%) and overall in-hospital morbidity (P craniotomy patients, PROs seem promising patient-centered tools for outcomes reporting. Furthermore, neurosurgery-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) can perhaps be implemented to clinical use to improve patient safety and outcome comparisons in elective cranial neurosurgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment versus osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesslbauer, Christina; Vavti, Nadja; Keilani, Mohammad; Mickel, Michael; Crevenna, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Temporomandibular disorders are a common musculoskeletal condition causing severe pain, physical and psychological disability. The effect and evidence of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field is scarce and their use are controversial. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders. A randomized clinical trial in patients with temporomandibular disorders was performed. Forty female subjects with long-term temporomandibular disorders (>3 months) were included. At enrollment, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) osteopathic manipulative treatment group (20 female patients) and (2) osteopathy in the cranial field group (20 female patients). Examination was performed at baseline (E0) and at the end of the last treatment (E1), consisting of subjective pain intensity with the Visual Analog Scale, Helkimo Index and SF-36 Health Survey. Subjects had five treatments, once a week. 36 subjects completed the study (33.7 ± 10.3 y). Patients in both groups showed significant reduction in Visual Analog Scale score (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.001; osteopathy in the cranial field group: pmanipulative treatment group: p = 0.02; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.003) and a significant improvement in the SF-36 Health Survey - subscale "Bodily Pain" (osteopathic manipulative treatment group: p = 0.04; osteopathy in the cranial field group: p = 0.007) after five treatments (E1). All subjects (n = 36) also showed significant improvements in the above named parameters after five treatments (E1): Visual Analog Scale score (pmanipulative treatment and osteopathy in the cranial field as an effective treatment modality in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The positive results in both treatment groups should encourage further research on osteopathic

  9. Large Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Initial Presentation with Reproducible Facial Pain Without Cranial Nerve Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Zelman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCOM aneurysms can be difficult to diagnose and, when large (≥ 7mm, represent a substantial risk to the patient. While most unruptured PCOM aneurysms are asymptomatic, when symptoms do occur, clinical manifestations typically include severe headache (HA, visual acuity loss, and cranial nerve deficit. This case report describes an atypical initial presentation of a large unruptured PCOM aneurysm with symptoms mimicking trigeminal neuralgia, without other associated cranial nerve palsies or neurologic deficits. The patient returned to the emergency department four days later with a HA, trigeminal neuralgia, and a new cranial nerve III palsy. After appropriate imaging, she was found to have a large PCOM aneurysm, which was treated with surgical clipping with significant improvement in patient’s symptoms.

  10. Imaging characteristics of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wai-Yung; Saunders, Dawn E.; Brock, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma accounts for 10-15% of all childhood malignant bone tumours and is second in prevalence to osteosarcoma. The skull bones are an unusual site of origin of primary Ewing sarcoma in children. Previous reports concentrate on the neurosurgical aspects and relatively good outcome compared to other bone tumours of the calvarium. Reported cases mainly describe the imaging characteristics on CT. To describe the MRI and CT features of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma. The neuroimaging of three cases of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma are reviewed. Our three cases show an extra-axial mass that is high attenuation on CT and low signal on T2-weighted MRI. Haemorrhagic components, dural extension and contrast enhancement are also characteristic features. CT attenuation and magnetic resonance signal characteristics reflect sheets of densely packed cells seen in Ewing sarcoma. (orig.)

  11. Neurosonography of cranial lesions in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sung Sik; Lee, Soon Il [Sowha Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Ro [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Since early 1980's, high resolution ultrasound has been world-widely used for detection of cranial lesions in infants but not widely used in Korea. Authors prospectively analysed ultrasonographic findings of 107 cases which were confirmed by CT, autopsy or follow-up studies as supplement. The distribution of 107 cases was intracranial hematoma 40 cases, hydrocephalus 36 cases, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 10 cases, porencephalic cyst 5 cases, cephalhematoma 5 case, agenesis of corpus callosum 4 cases, medulloblastoma 2 cases and each one case of A-V malformation, intraventricular cyst, Dandy Walker cyst, lipoma and hydranencephaly. We could conclude that neurosonography of infants was very useful and effective method in detection of cranial lesions such as intracranial hematoma, especially germinal matrix hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infant, hydrocephalus, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and congenital anomalies.

  12. Malformations of cranial base structures and pituitary gland in prenatal Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Hansen, B F; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    The sella turcica region, including the clivus and the pituitary gland, was studied histologically in five human fetuses with Meckel syndrome (MS). All cases had malformed sella turcica and malformed clivus with irregularly shaped notochordal remnants. We consider that these three characteristics....... The findings in the region were compared to normal findings and to findings in trisomy 18, where cranial base structures radiographically appeared similar to those in MS. We conclude that in MS specific characteristics are found in the cranial base region and that radiographic analysis needs to be supplemented...

  13. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    OpenAIRE

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected b...

  14. Cranial computed tomography of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Koshi; Imakita, Satoru; Kawai, Ryuji; Mitomo, Masanori; Miura, Takashi; Mimaki, Takashi; Satoh, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Brain CTs of 15 patients with complementation group A xeroderma pigmentosum were reviewed. The CT findings were cerebral atrophy and brain stem atrophy, and were more prominent in the older patients. Cranial bone change (microcephaly, calvarial thickening and so on) secondary to brain atrophy becomes overt in the patients older than 8 years. Cerebellar atrophy was not detected with CT in any case. There were neither intracranial calcification nor space occupying lesion. (author)

  15. Role of cranial imaging in epileptic status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Pradeep P.; Kalita, Jayantee [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Misra, Usha K. [Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India)], E-mail: drukmisra@rediffmail.com

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: There is paucity of studies evaluating the role of cranial imaging in the management of status epilepticus (SE); therefore this study evaluates the role of imaging in predicting the outcome of SE. Methods: Consecutive patients with SE were prospectively evaluated. Clinical evaluation, blood counts, serum chemistry and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were carried out. Cranial CT scan was performed on a spiral CT and MRI on a 1.5 T scanner. Patients were treated with IV sodium valproate, phenytoin and benzodiazepines as per fixed protocol. Outcome was defined as seizure control at 1 h and mortality. Various clinical and radiological parameters were correlated. Results: There were 99 patients with SE whose mean age was 35 (1-78) years, 40 females and 17 were below 12 years of age. Fifty six patients had central nervous system (CNS) infections, 15 strokes, 13 metabolic encephalopathy, 5 drug default and in the remaining 10 patients various acute symptomatic causes were present. Cranial imaging was abnormal in 59% patients. CT was abnormal in 21 (47.7%) out of 44 patients whereas MRI was abnormal in 26 (63.4%) out of 41 patients. Both MRI and CT were carried out in 14 patients and 12 revealed abnormalities; 2 had abnormality only on MRI. Imaging revealed cortical lesions in 10, subcortical in 19 and both cortical as well as subcortical in 30 patients. One hour seizure control was achieved in 60, seizures recurred within 24 h in 38 and 27 patients died during hospital stay. Seizure type, duration of SE, seizure control at 1 h and mortality did not correlate with radiological abnormalities. Conclusion: Cranial imaging reveals structural abnormality in 59% patients with SE and was not related to SE control and mortality.

  16. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  17. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  18. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkan, Ozlem; Kizilkilic, Ebru; Kizilkilic, Osman; Yildirim, Tulin; Karaca, Sibel; Yeral, Mahmut; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  19. Cranial osteology of meiglyptini (aves: piciformes: picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2012-01-01

    THE MEIGLYPTINI COMPRISE EIGHT SPECIES GROUPED INTO THREE GENERA: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1) a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2) the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3) the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4) the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds' diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  20. Cranial Osteology of Meiglyptini (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo José Donatelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Meiglyptini comprise eight species grouped into three genera: Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus, with three species each, and Hemicircus, with two species. The aim of the present study was to describe the cranial osteology of six species and three genera of Meiglyptini and to compare them to each other, as well as with other species of woodpeckers and other bird groups. The cranial osteology varied among the investigated species, but the most markedly distinct characteristics were: (1 a frontal overhang is only observed in the middle portion of the frontale of H. concretus; (2 the Proc. zygomaticus and suprameaticus are thick and long in species of the genus Mulleripicus, but short in other species; (3 the Pes pterygoidei is relatively larger in species of the genus Mulleripicus, while it is narrow, thin and relatively smaller in species of the genus Meiglyptes and indistinct in H. concretus; (4 the bony projection of the ectethmoidale is relatively short and thin in species of Mulleripicus and more developed in H. concretus. It appears that the greatest structural complexity of the cranial osteology is associated with the birds’ diet, with the frugivorous H. concretus being markedly different from the insectivorous species.

  1. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem, E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Ebru, E-mail: ebru90@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman, E-mail: ebos90@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Tulin, E-mail: ytulin@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Karaca, Sibel, E-mail: sibelkaraca@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yeral, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutyeral@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kasar, Mutlu, E-mail: mutlukasar@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozdogu, Hakan, E-mail: hakanozdogu@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  2. A revised cranial description of Massospondylus carinatus Owen (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorpha based on computed tomographic scans and a review of cranial characters for basal Sauropodomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley E.J. Chapelle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Massospondylus carinatus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. It is one of the best-represented fossil dinosaur taxa, known from hundreds of specimens including at least 13 complete or nearly complete skulls. Surprisingly, the internal cranial anatomy of M. carinatus has never been described using computed tomography (CT methods. Using CT scans and 3D digital representations, we digitally reconstruct the bones of the facial skeleton, braincase, and palate of a complete, undistorted cranium of M. carinatus (BP/1/5241. We describe the anatomical features of the cranial bones, and compare them to other closely related sauropodomorph taxa such as Plateosaurus erlenbergiensis, Lufengosaurus huenei, Sarahsaurus aurifontanalis and Efraasia minor. We identify a suite of character states of the skull and braincase for M. carinatus that sets it apart from other taxa, but these remain tentative due to the lack of comparative sauropodomorph braincase descriptions in the literature. Furthermore, we hypothesize 27 new cranial characters useful for determining relationships in non-sauropodan Sauropodomorpha, delete five pre-existing characters and revise the scores of several existing cranial characters to make more explicit homology statements. All the characters that we hypothesized or revised are illustrated. Using parsimony as an optimality criterion, we then test the relationships of M. carinatus (using BP/1/5241 as a specimen-level exemplar in our revised phylogenetic data matrix.

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  4. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation

  5. Dosimetry for Crystals Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lecomte, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Before shipment to CMS, all PbWO4 crystals produced in China are irradiated there with 60 Co , in order to insure that the induced absorption coefficient is within specifications. Acceptance tests at CERNand at ENEA also include irradiation with gamma rays from 60 Co sources. There were initially discrepancies in quoted doses and doserates as well as in induced absorption coefficients. The present work resolves the discrepancies in irradiation measurements and defines common dosimetry methods for consistency checks between irradiation facilities.

  6. Posterior maxillary (PM) plane and anterior cranial architecture in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, R C; Lieberman, D E

    2001-11-01

    This study tests several hypotheses of integration between the cranial base and face in primates. After reviewing the definition and anatomical basis for the posterior maxillary (PM) plane, which demarcates the back of the midface at its junction with the sphenoid, we demonstrate how the PM plane can be identified accurately on radiographs, and confirm that it maintains a 90 degrees angle relative to the Neutral Horizontal Axis of the orbits in all primates. In addition, we use the PM plane to test Dabelow's (1929) hypothesis that the orbits and anterior cranial base are more highly integrated in anthropoids than in strepsirrhines, and we test the hypothesis that the midline anterior cranial base (planum sphenoideum) and anterior cranial floor (planum sphenoideum plus cribriform plate) in primates are highly correlated with each other relative to the PM plane. The mean angle between the anterior cranial base and the PM plane does not differ significantly from 90 degrees in anthropoids, but differs significantly in strepsirrhines. The anterior cranial base and anterior cranial floor, however, correlate well with each other relative to the PM plane in both suborders of primates, independent of orbital orientation and configuration. The PM plane, anterior cranial base, and anterior cranial floor, therefore, form an integrated structural complex, a "facial block," whose orientation relative to the posterior cranial base influences craniofacial shape among anthropoids in which orbital orientation influences the orientation of the anterior cranial base. One such effect is that increases in cranial base flexion shorten the antero-posterior length of the nasopharynx. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Po Chang; Tsau-Mau Chou

    2005-01-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear me...

  8. Non-uniform dose distributions in cranial radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Edward T.

    Radiation treatments are often delivered to patients with brain metastases. For those patients who receive radiation to the entire brain, there is a risk of long-term neuro-cognitive side effects, which may be due to damage to the hippocampus. In clinical MRI and CT scans it can be difficult to identify the hippocampus, but once identified it can be partially spared from radiation dose. Using deformable image registration we demonstrate a semi-automatic technique for obtaining an estimated location of this structure in a clinical MRI or CT scan. Deformable image registration is a useful tool in other areas such as adaptive radiotherapy, where the radiation oncology team monitors patients during the course of treatment and adjusts the radiation treatments if necessary when the patient anatomy changes. Deformable image registration is used in this setting, but there is a considerable level of uncertainty. This work represents one of many possible approaches at investigating the nature of these uncertainties utilizing consistency metrics. We will show that metrics such as the inverse consistency error correlate with actual registration uncertainties. Specifically relating to brain metastases, this work investigates where in the brain metastases are likely to form, and how the primary cancer site is related. We will show that the cerebellum is at high risk for metastases and that non-uniform dose distributions may be advantageous when delivering prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with small cell lung cancer in complete remission.

  9. Ontogenetic allometry constrains cranial shape of the head-first burrowing worm lizard Cynisca leucura (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known

  10. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrat Kumar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth. Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  11. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Ruikar, Devashish; Surath, Mohandas

    2013-07-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is discussed.

  12. Twelfth cranial nerve involvement in Guillian Barre syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Ruikar, Devashish; Surath, Mohandas

    2013-01-01

    Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS) is associated with cranial nerve involvement. Commonest cranial nerves involved were the facial and bulbar (IXth and Xth). Involvement of twelfth cranial nerve is rare in GBS. We present a case of GBS in a thirteen years old boy who developed severe tongue weakness and wasting at two weeks after the onset of GBS. The wasting and weakness of tongue improved at three months of follow up. Brief review of the literature about XIIth cranial nerve involvement in GBS is...

  13. Cranial morphological variation in Peromyscus maniculatus over nearly a century of environmental change in three areas of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W; Boykins, Genevieve K R; Bowie, Rauri C K; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-01-01

    Determining how species respond to prolonged environmental change is critical to understanding both their evolutionary biology and their conservation needs. In general, organisms can respond to changing environmental conditions by moving, by adapting in situ, or by going locally or globally extinct. Morphological changes, whether plastic or adaptive, are one way that species may respond in situ to local environmental change. Because cranial morphology is influenced by selective pressures arising from an organism's abiotic and biotic environments, including aspects of thermal physiology, diet, and sensory ecology, studies of cranial morphology may generate important insights into how species are responding to environmental change. To assess potential response of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to changing conditions in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, we quantified cranial variation in museum specimens of this species collected approximately 100 years apart. Specifically, we examined how cranial morphology varies in three populations of this geographically widespread, ecological generalist over elevation and time. Our analyses indicate that cranial morphology does not differ with elevation within either modern or historical samples but does vary between time periods, suggesting that in situ responses to environmental change have occurred. Contrary to predictions based on Bergmann's rule, we found no consistent relationship between body size and either elevation or time, suggesting that morphological differences detected between historic and modern specimens are specific to factors influencing cranial structure. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate the potential importance of in situ changes in morphology as a response to changing environmental conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  16. Cranialization of the frontal sinus for secondary mucocele prevention following open surgery for benign frontal lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Horowitz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare frontal sinus cranialization to obliteration for future prevention of secondary mucocele formation following open surgery for benign lesions of the frontal sinus. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Sixty-nine patients operated for benign frontal sinus pathology between 1994 and 2011. INTERVENTIONS: Open excision of benign frontal sinus pathology followed by either frontal obliteration (n = 41, 59% or frontal cranialization (n = 28, 41%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of post-surgical complications and secondary mucocele formation were compiled. RESULTS: Pathologies included osteoma (n = 34, 49%, mucocele (n = 27, 39%, fibrous dysplasia (n = 6, 9%, and encephalocele (n = 2, 3%. Complications included skin infections (n = 6, postoperative cutaneous fistula (n = 1, telecanthus (n = 4, diplopia (n = 3, nasal deformity (n = 2 and epiphora (n = 1. None of the patients suffered from postoperative CSF leak, meningitis or pneumocephalus. Six patients, all of whom had previously undergone frontal sinus obliteration, required revision surgery due to secondary mucocele formation. Statistical analysis using non-inferiority test reveal that cranialization of the frontal sinus is non-inferior to obliteration for preventing secondary mucocele formation (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Cranialization of the frontal sinus appears to be a good option for prevention of secondary mucocele development after open excision of benign frontal sinus lesions.

  17. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P Shepherd dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  18. Multifocal Stevens-Johnson syndrome after concurrent phenytoin and cranial and thoracic radiation treatment, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Julian K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 46 year old male patient with metastatic prostate cancer developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, initially in three well-demarcated areas on his scalp, chest and back, corresponding to ports of radiation therapy while on phenytoin. The rash spread from these locations and became more generalized and associated with pain and sloughing in the mucous lining of the mouth. There is a documented association between phenytoin administration with concurrent cranial radiation therapy and development of SJS. Erythema multiforme (EM associated with phenytoin and cranial radiation therapy (EMPACT is the term that describes this reaction. However, this term may not cover the full spectrum of the disease since it describes EM associated with phenytoin and only cranial radiation therapy. This case report presents evidence that SJS may be induced by radiation to other parts of the body in addition to the cranium while phenytoin is administered concomitantly. With increasing evidence that phenytoin and levetiracetam are equally efficacious for seizure treatment and prophylaxis, and since there is no link identified so far of an association between levetiracetam and SJS, we believe that levetiracetam is a better option for patients who need anticonvulsant medication(s while undergoing radiation therapy, especially cranial irradiation.

  19. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, Emily J

    2004-07-22

    It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society

  20. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  1. Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Antonio; Ribes, Ramon; Riva, Andres de la; Rubio, Fernando Lopez; Sanchez, Carmen; Sancho, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis associated with Sweet's Syndrome is presented. Both entities have been described in association with several other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune conditions. To our knowledge the coexistence between Sweet's Syndrome and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis has not been reported up to date. We suggest a possible autoimmune or dysimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two entities

  2. 21 CFR 882.5800 - Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cranial electrotherapy stimulator. 882.5800 Section 882.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrotherapy stimulator. (a) Identification. A cranial electrotherapy stimulator is a device that applies...

  3. [Rapidly progressive compromise of cranial pairs as neurosyphilis manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Fernando; Moldes, Sofía; Novelli Poisson, Paola; Arduin, Julieta; Valerga, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis remains a common disease throughout the world, being neurosyphilis a relatively common manifestation. A case of a 34 years old male with HIV and neurosyphilis is presented, characterized by a clinical course evidenced by progressive palsy of cranial nerves. This case is unusual and a rare presentation of progressive cranial involvement with swallowing deficit, have found no similar data in the literature.

  4. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power...

  5. Cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian children | Eyong | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cranial nerve palsies are common clinical problem routinely encountered in neurological practice; the dysfunction can occur at any point in the course of the nerve and may point to serious pathology. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and underlying aetiology of cranial nerve palsies in Nigerian ...

  6. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi-Russo, E; Tasca, M A; Brasili, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring.

  7. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Associated with Posterior Cranial Fossa Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takeuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a patient in whom the effects of a cerebellum mass may have led to development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. A 33-year-old woman showed symptoms of OCD, including obsessive worry about infection from tainted blood and repetitive confirmation, which worsened during pregnancy. She had comprehension in regard to her illness and no evidence of cognitive dysfunction and did not meet other DSM-5 criteria such as depression. One month after giving childbirth, the symptoms worsened, while headache and dizziness also developed. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS score was 34. The patient was examined for a headache and a posterior cranial fossa meningioma was found. Following resection of the meningioma, the OCD symptoms were remarkably reduced (Y-BOCS score 10. There is only one previous report of pure OCD associated with a cerebellar mass and the present findings should help to elucidate the mechanism.

  8. Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: a methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUALDI-RUSSO, E.; TASCA, M. A.; BRASILI, P.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse the replicability of the scoring of discontinuous traits. This was assessed on a sample of 100 skulls from the Frassetto collection (Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale of Bologna University) analysed through intraobserver comparisons: the discontinuous traits were determined on the same skulls and by the same observer on 3 separate occasions. The scoring was also assessed through interobserver comparisons: 3 different observers performed an independent survey on the same skulls. The results show that there were no significant differences in the discontinuous trait frequencies between the 3 different scorings by the same observer, but there were sometimes significant differences between different observers. Caution should thus be taken in applying the frequencies of these traits to population research. After an indispensable control of material conditions (subject age included), consideration must be given to standardisation procedures between observers, otherwise this may be an additional source of variability in cranial discontinuous trait scoring. PMID:10634693

  9. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging of wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakdemirli, E.; Karabulut, N.; Bir, L.S.; Sermez, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD). A wide spectrum of abnormalities of the central nervous system, urinary tract and endocrine glands is also observed. We report cranial MRI findings in a 32-year-old female patient with Wolfram syndrome. In addition to the classical features, including absence of the normal high signal of the neurohypophysis, atrophy of visual pathways, the brainstem, cerebellum and cerebral cortex, we observed bilateral hyperintensity on proton density- and T 2 - weighted images related to the optic radiations in the periventricular white matter of the temporal and parieto-occipital lobes, which may reflect gliosis pathologically Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  10. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

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    Hassan Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows with little erythema and  cm in size, bilateral blindness developed and gradually improved. Lateral movement of eyes was restricted with no pain. Involvement of cranial nerves including II, V, and VI was found. With conservative therapy after a year significant improvement has been achieved.

  11. Cranial muscles in amphibians: development, novelties and the role of cranial neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Our research on the evolution of the vertebrate head focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological novelties. Using a broad comparative approach in amphibians, and comparisons with the well-studied quail-chicken system, we investigate how evolutionarily conserved or variable different aspects of head development are. Here we review research on the often overlooked development of cranial muscles, and on its dependence on cranial cartilage development. In general, cranial muscle cell migration and the spatiotemporal pattern of cranial muscle formation appears to be very conserved among the few species of vertebrates that have been studied. However, fate-mapping of somites in the Mexican axolotl revealed differences in the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles (tongue muscles) in comparison to the chicken. The proper development of cranial muscles has been shown to be strongly dependent on the mostly neural crest-derived cartilage elements in the larval head of amphibians. For example, a morpholino-based knock-down of the transcription factor FoxN3 in Xenopus laevis has drastic indirect effects on cranial muscle patterning, although the direct function of the gene is mostly connected to neural crest development. Furthermore, extirpation of single migratory streams of cranial neural crest cells in combination with fate-mapping in a frog shows that individual cranial muscles and their neural crest-derived connective tissue attachments originate from the same visceral arch, even when the muscles attach to skeletal components that are derived from a different arch. The same pattern has also been found in the chicken embryo, the only other species that has been thoroughly investigated, and thus might be a conserved pattern in vertebrates that reflects the fundamental nature of a mechanism that keeps the segmental order of the head in place despite drastic changes in adult anatomy. There is a need for detailed comparative fate-mapping of pre

  12. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) Shunt Survival in Patients Developing Hydrocephalus After Cranial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the most popular method for the treatment of hydrocephalus despite its associated complications. We assessed VP shunt survival in a group of patients who had developed hydrocephalus following cranial surgery. A retrospective charts review was done over a 10-year period at our institution. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Log-Rank (Cox-Mantel) test were used to analyze various factors affecting VP shunt survival. Among the 67 cases included, a total of 28 (46.3%) patients had undergone cranial surgery for brain tumors. The overall rate of shunt failure was 14.9% at a mean follow-up of 16 months. Shunt failure in pediatric patients (20%) was slightly higher than that in adult patients (13.5%). The median time to first shunt failure was adversely influenced by a history of brain tumor (p = 0.019), prolonged antibiotic therapy (p = 0.018) and administration of steroids (p = 0.004). Shunt survival was worse in patients who developed hydrocephalus following cranial surgery performed for brain tumors and those who received either steroids or prolonged antibiotic therapy. Thus post-cranial surgery hydrocephalus represents a unique subset of hydrocephalus.

  13. [Cranial subdural hematoma with intracranial hypotension related to epidural anesthesia and Trendelenburg position: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narisawa, Ayuka; Oda, Shinya; Iizawa, Kazue; Yokoo, Noriko; Nakane, Masaki; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of cranial subdural hematoma with intracranial hypotension. A 34-year-old woman had laparoscopic ovarial cysterectomy under general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. Two days later, she developed a severe headache and nausea. She underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, and was diagnosed with cranial subdural hematoma with intracranial hypotension. The patient had had no anticoagulant therapy before the surgery. She was managed conservatively with bed rest and additional intravenous infusion. Her symptoms gradually improved except a slight headache, and she was discharged on the 38th postoperative day. Intracranial hypotension is a syndrome characterized by orthostatic headaches and hypovolemia of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There were typical findings on MRI, which include linear enhancement of the pachymeninges, pituitary hyperemia and subdural hemorrhage. We thought that these were due to epidural anesthesia first, but there was no evidence of dural puncture. It was also considered that it is influenced by change in CSF pressure, and intracranial venous engorgement may be due to Trendelenburg position for several hours. Because cranial subdural hematoma is a life-threatening complication, it is necessary to reconsider application of epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic surgery with Trendelenburg position.

  14. A cephalometric analysis of the cranial base and frontal part of the face in patients with mandibular prognathism

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    Čutović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. The literature suggests different views on the correlation between the cranial base morphology and size and saggital intermaxillary relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the cranial base morphology, including the frontal facial part in patients with mandibular prognathism, to clarify a certain ambiguities, in opposing viewspoints in the literature. Methods. Cephalometric radiographies of 60 patients were analyzed at the Dental Clinic of the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade, Serbia. All the patients were male, aged 18-35 years, with no previous orthodontic treatment. On the basis of dental and sceletal relations of jaws and teeth, the patients were divided into two groups: the group P (patients with mandibular prognathism and the group E (the control group or eugnathic patients. A total of 15 cephalometric parametres related to the cranial base, frontal part of the face and sagittal intermaxillary relationships were measured and analyzed. Results. The results show that cranial base dimensions and the angle do not play a significant role in the development of mandibular prognathism. Interrelationship analysis indicated a statistically significant negative correlation between the cranial base angle (NSAr and the angles of maxillary (SNA and mandibular (SNB prognathism, as well as a positive correlation between the angle of inclination of the ramus to the cranial base (GoArNS and the angle of sagittal intermaxillary relationships (ANB. Sella turcica dimensions, its width and depth, as well as the nasal bone length were significantly increased in the patients with mandibular prognathism, while the other analyzed frontal part dimensions of the face were not changed by the malocclusion in comparison with the eugnathic patients. Conclusion. This study shows that the impact of the cranial base and the frontal part of the face on the development of profile in patients with mandibular prognathism is much smaller, but

  15. Cranial computed tomography in the resuscitated patient with cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robin; Ellison, Elizabeth; Brady, William J

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest from all causes in the United States occurs not infrequently. Postresuscitation care should include the identification of the inciting arrest event as well as therapy tailored to support the patient and treat the primary cause of the decompensation. The application of one particular testing modality, cranial computed tomography (CT) of the head, has not yet been determined. We undertook an evaluation of the use of head CT in patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Prehospital (emergency medical services), ED, and hospital records were reviewed for patients of all ages with cardiorespiratory arrest over a 4-year period (July 1996-June 2000). Information regarding diagnosis, management, and outcome was recorded. The results of cranial CT, if performed, and any apparent resulting therapeutic changes were recorded. Patients with a known traumatic mechanism for the cardiorespiratory arrest were excluded. A total of 454 patients (mean age 58.3 years with 60% male) with cardiorespiratory arrest were entered in the study with 98 (22%) individuals (mean age 58.5 years with 53% male) undergoing cranial CT. Arrest location was as follows: emergency medical services, 41 (42%); ED, 11 (11%); and hospital, 46 (47%). Seventy-eight (79%) patients demonstrated 111 CT abnormalities: edema, 35 (32%); atrophy, 24 (22%); extra-axial hemorrhage, 14 (13%); old infarct, 12 (11%); new infarct, 11 (10%); intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 6 (5%); skull fracture, 5 (4%); mass, 3 (2%); and foreign body, 1 (1%). Therapeutic and diagnostic alterations in care were made in 38 (39%) patients-35 abnormal and 3 normal CTs. The following alterations occurred: medication administration, 26; withdrawal of life support, 7; additional diagnostic study, 6; neurologic consultation, 6; and intracranial pressure monitoring. 4. No patient survived to discharge. In this subset of resuscitated patients with cardiac arrest

  16. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  17. Radiation therapy in leukemia (total body irradiation excluded)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation techniques and indications in leukemias have been described in detail, yet prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute leukemia still has few indications. Cerebrospinal and testicular irradiation are reserved for relapsing disease. Radiation usually results in rapid functional improvement when used in neurologic emergencies and symptomatic neurologic or gross tumors relapses. Nevertheless, the improvements recently obtained by systemic chemotherapy have resulted in the reduction in the use of irradiation, especially in children, where it was considered deleterious with neuropsychological sequelae. Splenic irradiation remains useful for symptomatic myelo-proliferative syndrome. (authors)

  18. Epizootiology of cranial abscess disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S.; Belser, Emily H.; Killmaster, Charlie H.; Bowers, John W.; Irwin, Brian J.; Yabsley, Michael J.; Miller, Karl V.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial abscess disease is a cause of natural mortality for mature male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Most cases of abscesses are associated with bacterial infection byTrueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, but a complete understanding of the epidemiology of this disease is lacking. We quantified the effects of individual characteristics, site-specific herd demographics, land cover, and soil variables in estimating the probability of this disease. We examined 7,545 white-tailed deer from 60 sites throughout Georgia US for signs of cranial abscesses, the predecessor of intracranial abscesses, and recorded the presence or absence of cranial abscesses for each individual examined. We detected no cranial abscesses in 2,562 female deer but 91 abscesses in 4,983 male deer examined (1.8%). A generalized linear mixed model, treating site as a random effect, was used to examine several potential explanatory risk factors including site-level landscape and soil characteristics (soil and forest type), demographic factors (deer density and male to female ratio), and individual host factors (deer sex and age). Model results indicated that the probability of a male having a cranial abscess increased with age and that adult sex ratio (male:female) was positively associated with this disease. Site-specific variables for land cover and soil types were not strongly associated with observations of the disease at the scale measured and a large amount of among-site variability remained. Given the demonstrated effect of age, gender, and local sex ratios but the remaining unexplained spatial variability, additional investigation into spatiotemporal variation of the presumed bacterial causative agent of cranial abscesses appears warranted.

  19. Outcome Analysis of Cranial Molding Therapy in Nonsynostotic Plagiocephaly

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    Han-Su Yoo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that nonsynostotic plagiocephaly does not spontaneously improve, and the craniofacial deformities that result from it. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of helmet therapy for the nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patient, and to suggest a new treatment strategy based on this analysis.MethodsA total of 108 pediatric patients who had undergone helmet therapy after being diagnosed with nonsynostotic plagiocephaly were included in this study. The patients were classified according to the initiation age of the helmet therapy, severity, and helmet wearing time. The treatment effect was compared using cranial vault asymmetry (CVA and the cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI, which were obtained from diagonal measurements before and after therapy.ResultsThe discrepancy of CVA and CVAI of all the patients significantly decreased after helmet therapy. According to the initiation time of helmet therapy, the treatment effect was best at 5 months old or less. The helmet wearing time per day was proportional to the treatment effect up to 20 hours. In addition, the rate of the successful treatment (final CVA ≤5 mm significantly decreased when the initiation age was 9.1 months or older and the treatment period was less than 7.83 months.ConclusionsThis study showed the effectiveness of the helmet therapy for nonsynostotic plagiocephaly patients. Based on analysis of this study, helmet therapy should be started at the age of 9 months or younger for 7.83 months or more, and the helmet wearing time should be more than 20 hours a day.

  20. Congenital varicella syndrome: cranial MRI in a long-term survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, N.P.; Jarosz, J.M.; Cox, T.C.S.; Hughes, E.

    1999-01-01

    Congenital varicella syndrome is a rare disorder which follows maternal infection in the first or early second trimester. The syndrome comprises a number of malformations including microcephaly, cortical destruction and limb hypoplasia. We describe a case where there has been long-term survival following second trimester maternal infection. The clinical findings, including the characteristic lower limb hypoplasia, are documented, as are the appearances on cranial MRI indicating an encephaloclastic porencephaly. (orig.) (orig.)

  1. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R.; Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de

    2006-01-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3≤p≤6 cm, was ρ((p)=7.9(4)x10 -2 +7(5)x10 -5 p 4.5(4) cm -1 ; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa region defined by position

  2. Teleradiology for emergency cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, E.; Treumann, T.C.; Dreier, D.; Allgayer, B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We report our experience with the teleradiologic service provided by a center hospital (CH) for emergency cranial computed tomography (CCT) in two regional hospitals (RH) during a 12-month period. The clinical and economic impact of teleradiology will be discussed as well as the acceptance by the clinicians of the regional hospitals. Material and Methods: In 2001, 213 CT-scans in 202 patients were performed and reported using teleradiology. Teleradiologic and final medical diagnosis were analysed by the medical reports. The transferral of the patients to a CH and their further treatment were checked. The referring physicians in the RH were questionnaired about the teleradiological support. Results: 18 (9%) patients had to be urgently transferred to a CH based on the CT findings in the teleradiological reports. 24 patients (11%) were transferred to a center hospital during further treatment. 80% of patients were treated in the RH. (orig.) [de

  3. Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy

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    Dasgupta Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Capecitabine is an oral chemotherapeutic agent converted to 5 flourouracil (5-FU. Neurotoxicity associated with the medication encompasses both central and peripheral nervous systems. We describe a 60 year old man with colonic carcinoma who developed diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy following the use of capecitabine which is an orally administered prodrug of 5-FU. An MRI of brain did not reveal a space occupying lesion or vascular insult to account for his cranial nerve palsy. The sixth nerve palsy resolved spontaneously once capecitabine was withdrawn. Physicians in all walks of life are increasingly likely to come across such patients and should familiarize themselves with toxicities consequent to chemotherapy. Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of capecitabine associated neurotoxicity.

  4. Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sonali; Adilieje, Chineme; Bhattacharya, Amlan; Smith, Bruce; Sheikh, Moeen ul Haq

    2010-01-01

    Capecitabine is an oral chemotherapeutic agent converted to 5 fluorouracil (5-FU). Neurotoxicity associated with the medication encompasses both central and peripheral nervous systems. We describe a 60 year old man with colonic carcinoma who developed diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy following the use of capecitabine which is an orally administered prodrug of 5-FU. An MRI of brain did not reveal a space occupying lesion or vascular insult to account for his cranial nerve palsy. The sixth nerve palsy resolved spontaneously once capecitabine was withdrawn. Physicians in all walks of life are increasingly likely to come across such patients and should familiarize themselves with toxicities consequent to chemotherapy. Further research is needed to elucidate the cause of capecitabine associated neurotoxicity.

  5. An unusual orbito-cranial foreign body

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    Misra Madhumati

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarity of orbito-cranial gun shot injury in both war and civilian practice has been reported. In a large series of 351 missile head injuries in the Vietnam war, orbital penetration was noted in 0.6% cases only. Review of literature shows that orbital injury was ipsilateral to the cerebral injury in most reported cases. We have previously reported a rare case of left parieto-occipital lobe injury due to gun shot wound of the contralateral (right orbit. The case reported here sustained a bullet injury to the left frontal bone but the missile was located below the contralateral (right optic canal. The rarity of the case prompted this report.

  6. Dose estimation for paediatric cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curci Daros, K.A.; Bitelli Medeiros, R. [Sao Paulo Univ. Federal (Brazil); Curci Daros, K.A.; Oliveira Echeimberg, J. de [Centro Univ. Sao Camilo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In the last ten years, the number of paediatric computed tomography (CT) scans have increased worldwide, contributing to higher population radiation dose. Technique diversification in paediatrics and different CT equipment technologies have led to various exposure levels complicating precise evaluation of doses and operational conditions necessary for good quality images. The objective of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and cranial region in children up to 6 years old undergoing CT exams. Methods: X-ray was measured on the cranial surface of 64 patients undergoing CT using thermoluminescent (T.L.) dosimeters. Forty T.L.D.100 thermoluminescent dosimeters (T.L.D.) were evenly distributed on each patients skin surface along the sagittal axis. Measurements were performed in facial regions exposed to scatter radiation and in the supratentorial and posterior fossa regions, submitted to primary radiation. T.L.D. were calibrated for 120 kV X-ray over the acrylic phantom. T.L. measurements were made with a Harshaw 4000 system. Patient mean T.L. readings were determined for position, pi, of T.L.D. and normalized to the maximum supratentorial reading. From integrating the linear T.L. density function (?) resulting from radiation distribution in each of the three exposed regions, dose fraction was determined in the region of interest, along with total dose under the technical conditions used in that specific exam protocol. For each T.L.D. position along the patient cranium, there were n T.L. measurements with 2% uncertainty due to T.L. reader, and 5% due to thermal treatment of dosimeters. Also, mean T.L. readings and their uncertainties were calculated for each patient at each position, p. Results: Mean linear T.L. density for the region exposed to secondary radiation defined by position, 0.3{<=}p{<=}6 cm, was {rho}((p)=7.9(4)x10{sup -2}+7(5)x10{sup -5}p{sup 4.5(4)} cm{sup -1}; exposed to primary X-ray for the posterior fossa

  7. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Grant, Ronald; Gupta, Abha A; Hodgson, David C; Nathan, Paul C

    2012-12-15

    Children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM RMS) and cranial nerve palsy (CNP) are at risk for permanent neurologic dysfunction. Clinicians often consider the use of emergent therapies such as expedited radiation and/or corticosteroids; however, there is a paucity of information describing the natural history of CNP in PM RMS. We sought to describe the clinical features of patients with PM RMS plus associated CNP and to evaluate the patient, disease, and treatment-related factors that impacted neurologic recovery. We conducted a retrospective review of PM RMS cases treated at the Hospital for Sick Children between 1985 and 2010. Thirty-five children were treated for PM RMS, 19 (54%) of whom presented with CNP. Children with CNP were nine times more likely to have other high-risk features (cranial base bony erosion and/or intracranial extension) at the time of presentation than children without CNP (OR 9.6, 95% CI 1.69, 54.79, P = 0.013). In addition to commencing chemotherapy, 13 patients (68%) received expedited RT and corticosteroids, four (21%) corticosteroids alone, and two (11%) received only standard chemotherapy and RT. At last follow up of the 11 survivors, neurologic recovery was complete in five (45%), partial in five (45%), and absent in one (9%). In our cohort, recovery of PM RMS associated CNP was often incomplete despite multi-modal therapy. A larger cohort of patients is required to determine the utility of emergent initiation of radiation or corticosteroids. This study will facilitate the counseling of future families on the long-term neurologic recovery CNP in PM RMS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cranial modularity and sequence heterochrony in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Anjali

    2007-01-01

    Heterochrony, the temporal shifting of developmental events relative to each other, requires a degree of autonomy among those processes or structures. Modularity, the division of larger structures or processes into autonomous sets of internally integrated units, is often discussed in relation to the concept of heterochrony. However, the relationship between the developmental modules derived from studies of heterochrony and evolutionary modules, which should be of adaptive importance and relate to the genotype-phenotype map, has not been explicitly studied. I analyzed a series of sectioned and whole cleared-and-stained embryological and neonatal specimens, supplemented with published ontogenetic data, to test the hypothesis that bones within the same phenotypic modules, as determined by morphometric analysis, are developmentally integrated and will display coordinated heterochronic shifts across taxa. Modularity was analyzed in cranial bone ossification sequences of 12 therian mammals. A dataset of 12-18 developmental events was used to assess if modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to six phenotypic modules, derived from a recent morphometric analysis of cranial modularity in mammals. Kendall's tau was used to measure rank correlations, with randomization tests for significance. If modularity in developmental sequences corresponds to observed phenotypic modules, bones within a single phenotypic module should show integration of developmental timing, maintaining the same timing of ossification relative to each other, despite differences in overall ossification sequences across taxa. Analyses did not find any significant conservation of developmental timing within the six phenotypic modules, meaning that bones that are highly integrated in adult morphology are not significantly integrated in developmental timing.

  9. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homosapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; McBratney, Brandeis M; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-02-05

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to "anatomically modern" H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of "archaic" Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the origin of modern human cranial form. In terms of pattern, AMHS crania are uniquely characterized by two general structural autapomorphies: facial retraction and neurocranial globularity. Morphometric analysis of the ontogeny of these autapomorphies indicates that the developmental changes that led to modern human cranial form derive from a combination of shifts in cranial base angle, cranial fossae length and width, and facial length. These morphological changes, some of which may have occurred because of relative size increases in the temporal and possibly the frontal lobes, occur early in ontogeny, and their effects on facial retraction and neurocranial globularity discriminate AMHS from AH crania. The existence of these autapomorphies supports the hypothesis that AMHS is a distinct species from taxa of "archaic" Homo (e.g., Homo neanderthalensis).

  10. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma in a young dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas are uncommon tumors. A 30-kg, 2-year-old, intact female German shepherd was presented for evaluation of cachexia and respiratory distress of a few days’ duration. Lateral radiographic projection of the thorax revealed significant pleural effusion. Computed tomography revealed a cranial mediastinal mass effect adjacent to the heart. On surgical exploration, a pedunculated mass attached to the esophagus, trachea, brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery and cranial vena cava without attachment to the right atrium and auricular appendage was removed and debrided by use of blunt dissection and dry gauzes, respectively. Histopathology results described the cranial mediastinal mass as hemangiosarcoma. At 8 months and 5 days post-operatively, the patient died. Primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcomas, although a seemingly rare cause of thoracic pathology in young dogs, should be considered in the differential diagnosis for pleural effusion and soft tissue mass effect in the cranial mediastinum. This is the first case report in a dog to describe primary cranial mediastinal hemangiosarcoma. PMID:25089185

  11. Robo signaling regulates the production of cranial neural crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Tan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Guang; Chuai, Manli; Münsterberg, Andrea; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    Slit/Robo signaling plays an important role in the guidance of developing neurons in developing embryos. However, it remains obscure whether and how Slit/Robo signaling is involved in the production of cranial neural crest cells. In this study, we examined Robo1 deficient mice to reveal developmental defects of mouse cranial frontal and parietal bones, which are derivatives of cranial neural crest cells. Therefore, we determined the production of HNK1 + cranial neural crest cells in early chick embryo development after knock-down (KD) of Robo1 expression. Detection of markers for pre-migratory and migratory neural crest cells, PAX7 and AP-2α, showed that production of both was affected by Robo1 KD. In addition, we found that the transcription factor slug is responsible for the aberrant delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells induced by Robo1 KD, which also led to elevated expression of E- and N-Cadherin. N-Cadherin expression was enhanced when blocking FGF signaling with dominant-negative FGFR1 in half of the neural tube. Taken together, we show that Slit/Robo signaling influences the delamination/EMT of cranial neural crest cells, which is required for cranial bone development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

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    Hong-Po Chang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranialbase morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  13. Effect of Osteopathic Cranial Manipulative Medicine on Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhouse, Mark E; Shechtman, Diana; Fecho, Gregory; Timoshkin, Elena M

    2016-11-01

    The effects of osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine (OCMM) on visual function have been poorly characterized in the literature. Based on a pilot study conducted by their research group, the authors conducted a study that examined whether OCMM produced a measurable change in visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The intervention and control (sham therapy) were applied during 8 weekly visits, and participants in both groups received 8 weekly follow-up visits. Adult volunteers aged between 18 and 35 years with unremarkable systemic or ocular history were recruited. Inclusion criteria were refractive error between 6 diopters of myopia and 5 diopters of hyperopia, regular astigmatism of any amount, and cranial somatic dysfunction. All participants were evaluated for cranial asymmetry and randomly assigned to the treatment or sham therapy group. The treatment group received OCMM to correct cranial dysfunctions, and the sham therapy group received light pressure applied to the cranium. Preintervention and postintervention ophthalmic examinations consisted of distance visual acuity testing, accommodative system testing, local stereoacuity testing, pupillary size measurements, and vergence system testing. A χ2 analysis was performed to determine participant masking. Analysis of variance was performed for all ophthalmic measures. Eighty-nine participants completed the trial, with 47 in the treatment group and 42 in the sham therapy group. A hierarchical analysis of variance revealed statistically significant within-groups effects (Psize under bright light in the left eye and in near point of convergence break. Osteopathic cranial manipulative medicine may affect visual function in adults with cranial asymmetry. Active motion testing of the cranium for somatic dysfunction may affect the cranial system to a measurable level and explain interrater reliability issues in cranial studies. (Clinical

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasiri, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Gives details of sources used for food irradiation, brief description of the process, safety of food irradiation process, practical applications and the amount of doses used for spices, condiments, mangoes etc., limitations of food irradiation, international status of clearance of irradiated foods, versatility of the process

  15. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  17. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Midia, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by skin lesions, dental and ocular abnormalities and central nervous system involvement. We report the cranial MRI findings in two sisters with this condition. These include hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the lateral ventricles and periventricular white-matter lesions. One girl also had unilateral microphthalmia and rostral agenesis of the corpus callosum, a feature not previously described. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  18. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Midia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by skin lesions, dental and ocular abnormalities and central nervous system involvement. We report the cranial MRI findings in two sisters with this condition. These include hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the lateral ventricles and periventricular white-matter lesions. One girl also had unilateral microphthalmia and rostral agenesis of the corpus callosum, a feature not previously described. (orig.)

  19. The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs:Insights from geometric morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Brusatte, S.L.; Montanari, S.; Harcourt Smith, W.E.H.; Sakamoto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Theropod dinosaurs, an iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history. Here, we utilize geometric morphometrics to study broad patterns in theropod skull shape variation and compare the distribution of taxa in cranial morphospace (form) to both phylogeny and quantitative metrics of biting behaviour (function). We find that theropod skulls primaril...

  20. Samuel Thomas Soemmerring (1755-1830): The Naming of Cranial Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M S

    2017-01-01

    Samuel Thomas Soemmerring was a Prussian polymathic doctor with remarkable achievements in anatomy, draftsmanship and inventions. His naming of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in his graduation thesis is of particular importance. He also gave original descriptions of the macula, sensory pathways and of the substantia nigra. His non-medical contributions were diverse and included criticism of the guillotine, invention of a telegraphic system, and discoveries in palaeontology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Large Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm: Initial Presentation with Reproducible Facial Pain Without Cranial Nerve Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Zelman, Stacie; Goebel, Michael C; Hawkins, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysms can be difficult to diagnose and, when large (? 7mm), represent a substantial risk to the patient. While most unruptured PCOM aneurysms are asymptomatic, when symptoms do occur, clinical manifestations typically include severe headache (HA), visual acuity loss, and cranial nerve deficit. This case report describes an atypical initial presentation of a large unruptured PCOM aneurysm with symptoms mimicking trigeminal neuralgia, without...

  2. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cranial computerized tomography in children suffering from acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cranial computerized (axial) tomography permits a more complete neurologic supervision of children with acute leukemia and a better knowledge of the frequency and varieties of cerebral complications in leukemia. Endocranial complications in acute leukemia are essentially infiltrative, hemorrhagic, infectious or iatrogenic. Cranial computerized tomography can demonstrate cerebral changes in meningeal leukemia, hemorrhages, calcifications, brain atrophy or leukencephalopathy. The preliminary results of cranial computerized tomography in childhood leukemia suggest that the iatrogenic main lesion of the brain due to combined radiation-chemotherapy is atrophy whereas that of the intrathecal cytostatic therapy is demyelination. Accurate diagnostics and control of possible cerebral complications in therapy of leukemia is essentially for appropriate therapeutic management. For that cranial computerized tomography is the best method to a effective supervision of the brain. (author)

  4. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  5. Injuries to the cranial cruciate ligament and associated structures: summary of clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings from 10 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades, M.; Grant, B.D.; Turner, T.A.; Nixon, A.J.; Brown, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, arthroscopic and pathological findings of 10 horses with injury to the cranial cruciate ligament are presented. The most consistent clinical signs included moderate to severe distension of the femoropatellar joint and a Grade III to a Grade V out of V lameness. Craniocaudal instability could be elicited in five horses under general anaesthesia and in one conscious horse. Radiographic evaluation of the stifles revealed that avulsion fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence was the most common finding in six out of 10 horses. Arthroscopic examination of the affected femorotibial joints were performed in five horses. This confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament injury or rupture. Post mortem examinations were performed on two horses which documented partial tears of the cranial cruciate ligament

  6. Positive pressure ventilation and cranial volume in newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, D W

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between changes in airways pressure, pleural pressure, and cranial volume was studied in a group of sick newborn infants requiring ventilatory assistance. Cranial volume increased appreciably only when lung compliance was such that more than 20% of the applied airways pressure was transmitted to the pleural space, or if the absolute pleural pressure was greater than 4 cmH2O above atmospheric pressure. The findings stress the need for more-critical monitoring during periods of...

  7. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  8. Characterization of a Composite Material to Mimic Human Cranial Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    human cranial bone. The simulant material consists of a photocurable polymer with a high loading of ceramic particulate reinforcement that is compatible...porosity characteristic of the human cranial bone. The simulant material consists of a photocurable polymer with a high loading of ceramic ...cyclically raises and lowers a platform on which the parts are fabricated in a bath of photo-sensitive liquid resin . With each cycle, a blade is passed

  9. Comparison of central nervous system prophylaxis with cranial radiation and intrathecal methotrexate versus intrathecal methotrexate alone in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muriel, F.S.; Svarch, E.; Pavlovsky, S.; Eppinger-Helft, M.; Braier, J.; Vergara, B.; Garay, G.; Kvicala, R.; Divito, J.M.; Failace, R.

    1983-08-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, central nervous system prophylaxis with irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (i.t. MTX) reduces the incidence of CNS relapse to 7%-15%. However, increased evidence of CNS delayed toxicity was recognized mainly in children as CT scan abnormalities and neuropsychologic alterations. Two questions were analyzed: (1) Will further doses of i.t. methotraxate and dexamethasone (i.t. MTX-DMT) decrease the incidence of CNS relapse. (2) Is i.t. MTX-DMT given during induction and maintenance as effective as cranium irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT. Incidence of primary CNS relapse in i.t. MTX-DMT-treated patients with a WBC count < 50,000 and in the untreated group was 11%. In patients with a WBC count > 50,000, it was 16% in the treated group and 19% in the control group. These patients were compared with patients which had received 3 doses of i.t. MTX-DMT alone during induction, 3 doses weekly during the first month of remission, and quarterly thereafter. The incidence of leukemia at 60 mo in patients with a WBC count < 50,000 was 20% in the irradiated group and 32% in the group with i.t. MTX-DMT alone. The relapse-free survival at 60 mo was 26% and 41%, respectively, (p < 0.0005). The incidence in patients with a WBC count > 50,000 at 48 mo was 28% and 42% in the irradiated and nonirradiated group respectively. Complete remission remained at 15% and 16% respectively of patients disease-free at 48 mo. We conclude that (A) after cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT X 5, the use of additional doses of i.t. MTX-DMT is not of further benefit in preventing CNS relapse; (B) use of i.t. MTX-DMT alone compares with cranial irradiation plus i.t. MTX-DMT in incidence of CNS relapse; and (C) relapse-free survival and survival in patients with a WBC count < 50.000 were significantly longer in those without cranial irradiation.

  10. Gamma irradiation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, Gabor; Stenger, Vilmos.

    1983-01-01

    The main parameters and the preparation procedures of the gamma radiation sources frequently applied for irradiation purposes are discussed. In addition to 60 Co and 137 Cs sources also the nuclear power plants offer further opportunities: spent fuel elements and products of certain (n,γ) reactions can serve as irradiation sources. Laboratory scale equipments, pilot plant facilities for batch or continuous operation, continuous industrial irradiators and special multipurpose, mobile and panorama type facilities are reviewed including those in Canada, USA, India, the Soviet Union, Hungary, UK, Japan and Australia. For irradiator design the source geometry dependence of the spatial distribution of dose rates can be calculated. (V.N.)

  11. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  12. Anatomical relationship between cranial surface landmarks and venous sinus in posterior cranial fossa using CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bo; Lv, Furong; Xiao, Zhibo; Ouyang, Yu; Lv, Fajin; Deng, Jinmu; You, Yunfeng; Liu, Nan

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of applying conventional anatomical landmarks to locate venous sinus in posterior fossa using subtraction computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique. We retrospectively reconstructed transverse sinus (TS), sigmoid sinus (SS), and cranial imaging from 100 patients undergoing head CTA examination. Subtraction CTA data was merged with nonenhanced data and then cranium transparency was adjusted to 50% on three-dimensional volume rendering, indicating the anatomical relationship between surface landmarks of cranium and confluens sinuum, TS, and SS. CTA technique precisely displayed the anatomical relations between venous sinus in posterior fossa and cranial surface landmarks. The asterion was located directly over the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction (TSST) in 81% cases, inferior to TSST in 15%, and superior to TSST in 4%, mainly distributing on the TS side of TSST, namely the distal-end of TS. Superior nuchal line had complex relation with TS and the line drawn from the zygoma root to the inion (LZI), but failed to represent the location of TS and the trend of LZI. In proximal-end of TS, majority of LZI overlapped with TS line. However, most LZI was gradually positioned below TS line as TS moved outwards. Almost half of line drawn from the squamosal-parietomastoid suture junction to the inion and line drawn from the asterion to the inion shared the same trend with TS. Subtraction CTA merged into nonenhanced cranial bone with 50% skull transparency provides a feasible method to identify the anatomical relation between venous sinus and surface landmarks of cranium, which is significantly varied among individuals, so it is not accurate to determine venous sinus in posterior fossa merely using surface landmarks.

  13. Isolated third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies from presumed microvascular versus other causes: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamhankar, Madhura A; Biousse, Valerie; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Prasad, Sashank; Subramanian, Prem S; Lee, Michael S; Eggenberger, Eric; Moss, Heather E; Pineles, Stacy; Bennett, Jeffrey; Osborne, Benjamin; Volpe, Nicholas J; Liu, Grant T; Bruce, Beau B; Newman, Nancy J; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the proportion of patients presenting with isolated third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy of presumed microvascular origin versus other causes. Prospective, multicenter, observational case series. A total of 109 patients aged 50 years or older with acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Causes of acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsy (presumed microvascular or other) as determined with early MRI and clinical assessment. Among 109 patients enrolled in the study, 22 had cranial nerve III palsy, 25 had cranial nerve IV palsy, and 62 had cranial nerve VI palsy. A cause other than presumed microvascular ischemia was identified in 18 patients (16.5%; 95% confidence interval, 10.7-24.6). The presence of 1 or more vasculopathic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and smoking) was significantly associated with a presumed microvascular cause (P = 0.003, Fisher exact test). Vasculopathic risk factors were also present in 61% of patients (11/18) with other causes. In the group of patients who had vasculopathic risk factors only, with no other significant medical condition, 10% of patients (8/80) were found to have other causes, including midbrain infarction, neoplasms, inflammation, pituitary apoplexy, and giant cell arteritis (GCA). By excluding patients with third cranial nerve palsies and those with GCA, the incidence of other causes for isolated fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies was 4.7% (3/64). In our series of patients with acute isolated ocular motor nerve palsies, a substantial proportion of patients had other causes, including neoplasm, GCA, and brain stem infarction. Brain MRI and laboratory workup have a role in the initial evaluation of older patients with isolated acute ocular motor nerve palsies regardless of whether vascular risk factors are present. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology

  14. Estimating cranial musculoskeletal constraints in theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Many inferences on the biology, behaviour and ecology of extinct vertebrates are based on the reconstruction of the musculature and rely considerably on its accuracy. Although the advent of digital reconstruction techniques has facilitated the creation and testing of musculoskeletal hypotheses in recent years, muscle strain capabilities have rarely been considered. Here, a digital modelling approach using the freely available visualization and animation software Blender is applied to estimate cranial muscle length changes and optimal and maximal possible gape in different theropod dinosaurs. Models of living archosaur taxa (Alligator mississippiensis, Buteo buteo) were used in an extant phylogenetically bracketed framework to validate the method. Results of this study demonstrate that Tyrannosaurus rex, Allosaurus fragilis and Erlikosaurus andrewsi show distinct differences in the recruitment of the jaw adductor musculature and resulting gape, confirming previous dietary and ecological assumptions. While the carnivorous taxa T. rex and Allo. fragilis were capable of a wide gape and sustained muscle force, the herbivorous therizinosaurian E. andrewsi was constrained to small gape angles.

  15. Cranial thickness changes in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajawelli, Niharika; Deoni, Sean; Shi, Jie; Dirks, Holly; Linguraru, Marius George; Nelson, Marvin D.; Wang, Yalin; Lepore, Natasha

    2017-11-01

    The neurocranium changes rapidly in early childhood to accommodate the developing brain. However, developmental disorders may cause abnormal growth of the neurocranium, the most common one being craniosynostosis, affecting about 1 in 2000 children. It is important to understand how the brain and neurocranium develop together to understand the role of the neurocranium in neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the neurocranium is not as well studied as the human brain in early childhood, due to a lack of imaging data. CT is typically employed to investigate the cranium, but, due to ionizing radiation, may only be used for clinical cases. However, the neurocranium is also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we used a large dataset of MRI images from healthy children in the age range of 1 to 2 years old and extracted the neurocranium. A conformal geometry based analysis pipeline is implemented to determine a set of statistical atlases of the neurocranium. A growth model of the neurocranium will help us understand cranial bone and suture development with respect to the brain, which will in turn inform better treatment strategies for neurocranial disorders.

  16. The cranial morphometrics of the wildfowl (Anatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecsics Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfowl (Anatidae are a diverse group of birds and globally distributed. These birds feed by widely varying methods, there are generalist and specialist species. In a number of vertebrate taxa trophic specializations have led to distinct differences in the morphology of the skull, like in birds. Our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between cranial morphology and feeding mechanism of wildfowl are limited. The aim of this article is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape and foraging habits and find the identifiable attributes of the differently adapted groups. We used morphometric methods with 7 linear measurements of the skull. We used principal component (PC analysis to identify the groups with different foraging habits. The PCs were related to measurements which represent the demanded muscle mass for feeding and the amount of capable food items. The grazers have a narrower bill and bigger bone surface which requires more muscle tissue than the broad billed filter-feeders. We observed the structural and functional differences between grazers and filter-feeders. There are no important differences in the bill measurements between omnivore dabbling and diving ducks. Only the bill is not enough to deduce the foraging habits.

  17. Food irradiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review is given of the control and monitoring of food irradiation with particular emphasis on the UK situation. After describing legal aspects, various applications of food irradiation in different countries are listed. Other topics discussed include code of practice for general control for both gamma radiation and electron beam facilities, dose specification, depth dose distribution and dosimetry. (U.K.)

  18. High prevalence of cranial asymmetry exists in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu

    2016-11-30

    This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.

  19. Sagittal synostosis: II. Cranial morphology and growth after the modified pi-plasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimaraes-Ferreira, J.; Gewalli, F.; David, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the postoperative cranial growth and morphology after a modified pi-plasty for sagittal synostosis. The shape of the skull of 82 patients with isolated premature synostosis of the sagittal suture ( SS group) operated on with a modified pi-plasty was studied...... developed by Kreiborg, which included the digitisation of 89 landmarks of the calvaria, cranial base, and orbit ( 43 in the lateral and 46 in the frontal projections), the production of mean shape plots for each group, and the intergroup comparison of a series of 78 variables ( linear distance between...... selected landmarks, and angles defined by groups of three landmarks). Paired and unpaired t tests were used to assess the differences between the variables studied. These were accepted as significant for values of p...

  20. Fabrication of a radiotherapeutic carrier for a case of fibrosarcoma invaded to the left cranial base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ryo [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Graduate School; Inoue, Takaaki; Mukohyama, Hitoshi [and others

    2000-06-01

    Radiotherapy has the advantage in treating the malignant tumor developed in head and neck region, especially in preserving the function and shape of the tissue. Since 1981, we have cooperated with radiotherapists in fabricating various kinds of custom-made radiotherapy prostheses such as shields, spacers, carriers and molds. The purpose of a carrier is to place the radioactive source close to the tumor so that a concentrated dose is delivered to the tumor tissue with minimum irradiation of healthy tissue. We fabricated a radiotherapy appliance (a carrier) for a fibrosarcoma that had developed in the left cranial base. Since the maxillary defect was large and connected to oral cavity, the carrier was designed to introduce Gold-198 grains to the tumor while being anchored with a plate section. A satisfactory treatment result was obtained with this design of carrier. This article describes the fabrication procedure of this carrier, which comprised an anchoring plate attached to the remaining palate and teeth, and a carrier section extending from the anchoring plate to the cranial base where the fibrosarcoma had invaded. (author)

  1. A huge occipital osteoblastoma accompanied with aneurysmal bone cyst in the posterior cranial fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Dong, Yan; Sun, Kehua; Lu, Yicheng

    2008-03-01

    Osteoblastoma is an infrequent benign tumor and skull involvement is extremely rare. The occipital bone is much less frequently involved. We report an unusual case of a huge occipital osteoblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst in the posterior cranial fossa of a 20-year-old young man. MRI scan and CT three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that the tumor (approximately 8.5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) occupied nearly half volume of the posterior cranial fossa. The cerebellum, the forth ventricle and brain stem were compressed remarkably and hydrocephalus was noted. The tumor mass was multiloculated cystic and highly vascular. Excessive bleeding occurred during operation and total removal was achieved. The patient was symptom-free and MRI scan revealed no evidence of recrudescence after a follow-up period of 18 months. Pathological examination revealed that the lesion was a benign osteoblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). ABC constitutes a highly vascular lesion while complete surgical resection is often impeded by excessive intraoperative bleeding. Preoperative embolization may reduce the risk. Despite the benign nature of osteoblastoma, local recurrence after incomplete resection is not rare and malignant transformation during recurrence may occur even after adequate surgery. Our case confirms the findings of previous investigators that if osteoblastoma is removed completely, no recurrence is expected even without adjuvant irradiation and chemotherapy.

  2. Novel Use of the Contura for High Dose Rate Cranial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Alksne, John F.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Murphy, Kevin T.

    2011-01-01

    A popular choice for treatment of recurrent gliomas was cranial brachytherapy using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System. However, this device was taken off the market in late 2008, thus leaving a treatment void. This case study presents our experience treating a cranial lesion for the first time using a Contura multilumen, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy balloon applicator. The patient was a 47-year-old male who was diagnosed with a recurrent right frontal anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Previous radiosurgery made him a good candidate for brachytherapy. An intracavitary HDR balloon brachytherapy device (Contura) was placed in the resection cavity and treated with a single fraction of 20 Gy. The implant, treatment, and removal of the device were all completed without incident. Dosimetry of the device was excellent because the dose conformed very well to the target. V90, V100, V150, and V200 were 98.9%, 95.7%, 27.2, and 8.8 cc, respectively. This patient was treated successfully using the Contura multilumen balloon. Contura was originally designed for deployment in a postlumpectomy breast for treatment by accelerated partial breast irradiation. Being an intracavitary balloon device, its similarity to the GliaSite system makes it a viable replacement candidate. Multiple lumens in the device also make it possible to shape the dose delivered to the target, something not possible before with the GliaSite applicator.

  3. Fabrication of a radiotherapeutic carrier for a case of fibrosarcoma invaded to the left cranial base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ryo; Inoue, Takaaki; Mukohyama, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy has the advantage in treating the malignant tumor developed in head and neck region, especially in preserving the function and shape of the tissue. Since 1981, we have cooperated with radiotherapists in fabricating various kinds of custom-made radiotherapy prostheses such as shields, spacers, carriers and molds. The purpose of a carrier is to place the radioactive source close to the tumor so that a concentrated dose is delivered to the tumor tissue with minimum irradiation of healthy tissue. We fabricated a radiotherapy appliance (a carrier) for a fibrosarcoma that had developed in the left cranial base. Since the maxillary defect was large and connected to oral cavity, the carrier was designed to introduce Gold-198 grains to the tumor while being anchored with a plate section. A satisfactory treatment result was obtained with this design of carrier. This article describes the fabrication procedure of this carrier, which comprised an anchoring plate attached to the remaining palate and teeth, and a carrier section extending from the anchoring plate to the cranial base where the fibrosarcoma had invaded. (author)

  4. Management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in small dogs: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, E; Forster, K; Gorton, K; Maddox, T

    2013-01-01

    To survey the current management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in small dogs (dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Immediate surgical management was chosen by 15.5% of the respondents. Following that, 77.6% of respondents suggested that case management would depend on severity of lameness (81%), age (72.6%), bodyweight (70.4%), degree of instability (64.8%), and duration of lameness (64.0%). Conservative management included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (91.1%), short leash walks (91.1%), weight loss (89.0%), hydrotherapy (53.6%), physiotherapy (41.9%), and cage rest (24.2%). Where surgical management was chosen, 71.4% would perform the procedure rather than refer it to another practice. Surgical techniques included extra-capsular stabilisation (63.4%), corrective osteotomies (32.9%), and intra-articular stabilisation (6.8%). The demographic characteristics of the responding veterinarians had no effect on their initial management of the case. General practice veterinarians were less likely to perform a corrective osteotomy than to refer the case, but were no less likely to perform an extracapsular technique. Conservative management is still widely used for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs weighing less than 15 kg; this is in agreement with previous publications on the management of this condition in small dogs.

  5. Studies of blood irradiator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhong; Lu Yangqiao

    2004-01-01

    Transfusion is an important means for medical treatment, but it has many syndromes such as transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease, it's occurrence rate of 5% and above 90% death-rate. Now many experts think the only proven method is using blood irradiator to prevent this disease. It can make lymphocyte of blood product inactive, so that it can not attack human body. Therefore, using irradiation blood is a trend, and blood irradiator may play an important role in medical field. This article summarized study of blood irradiator application, including the meaning of blood irradiation, selection of the dose for blood irradiation and so on

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Low-Cost Smartphone-Based Photogrammetry for the Analysis of Cranial Deformation in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero-García, Inés; Lerma, José Luis; Marqués-Mateu, Ángel; Miranda, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    Cranial deformation, including deformational plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, and craniosynostosis, is a condition that affects a large number of infants. Despite its prevalence, there are no standards for the systematic evaluation of the cranial deformation. Usually, the deformation is measured manually by the use of calipers. Experts, however, do not agree on the suitability of these measurements to correctly represent the deformation. Other methodologies for evaluation include 3-dimensional (3D) photography and radiologic scanners. These techniques require either patient's sedation and ionizing radiation or high investment. The aim of this study is to develop a novel, low-cost, and minimally invasive methodology to correctly evaluate the cranial deformation using 3D imagery. A smart phone was used to record a slow motion video sequence on 5 different patients. Then, the videos were processed to create accurate 3D models of the patients' head, and the results were compared with the measurements obtained by the manual caliper. The correspondence between the manual and the photogrammetric 3D model measurements was high as far as head marks are available, with differences of 2 mm ± 0.9 mm; without marks, measurement results differed up to 20 mm. Smartphone-based photogrammetry is a low-cost, highly useful methodology to evaluate cranial deformation. This technique provides a much larger quantity of information than linear measurements with a similar accuracy as far as head marks exist. In addition, a new approach for the evaluation is pointed out: the comparison between the head 3D model and an ideal head, represented by a 3-axis ellipsoid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative computed tomography and cranial burr holes: a model to evaluate the quality of cranial reconstruction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Paulo Valdeci; Ferreira, Nelson Pires; Ferreira, Marcelo Paglioli; Kraemer, Jorge Luiz; Lenhardt, Rene; Alves, Ronnie Peterson Marcondes; Wunderlich, Ricardo Castilho; Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins

    2012-05-01

    Current methods to evaluate the biologic development of bone grafts in human beings do not quantify results accurately. Cranial burr holes are standardized critical bone defects, and the differences between bone powder and bone grafts have been determined in numerous experimental studies. This study evaluated quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a method to objectively measure cranial bone density after cranial reconstruction with autografts. In each of 8 patients, 2 of 4 surgical burr holes were reconstructed with autogenous wet bone powder collected during skull trephination, and the other 2 holes, with a circular cortical bone fragment removed from the inner table of the cranial bone flap. After 12 months, the reconstructed areas and a sample of normal bone were studied using three-dimensional QCT; bone density was measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Mean (SD) bone density was 1535.89 (141) HU for normal bone (P holes is an excellent model to accurately measure the quality of new bone in cranial reconstructions and also seems to be an appropriate choice of experimental model to clinically test any cranial bone or bone substitute reconstruction.

  9. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  10. The earliest ossicone and post-cranial record of Giraffa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Danowitz

    Full Text Available The oldest Giraffa material presently known consists of dental specimens. The oldest post-cranial Giraffa material belongs to the Plio-Pleistocene taxon Giraffa sivalensis, where the holotype is a third cervical vertebra. We describe three non-dental specimens from the Early Late Miocene of the Potwar Plateau, including an 8.1 million year old ossicone, 9.4 million year old astragalus, and 8.9 million year old metatarsal and refer them to Giraffa. The described ossicone exhibits remarkable similarities with the ossicones of a juvenile modern giraffe, including the distribution of secondary bone growth, posterior curvature, and concave pitted undersurface where the ossicone would attach to the skull. The astragalus has a notably flat grove of the trochlea, medial twisting between the trochlea and the head, and a square-shaped sustentacular facet, all of which characterize the astragalus of Giraffa camelopardalis. The newly described astragalus is narrow and rectangular, unlike the boxy shaped bone of the modern giraffe. The metatarsal is large in size and has a shallow central trough created by thin medial and lateral ridges, a feature unique to Giraffa and Sivatherium. Our described material introduce the earliest non-dental material of Giraffa, a genus whose extinct representation is otherwise dominated by teeth, and demonstrate that the genus has been morphologically consistent over 9 million years.

  11. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, M A; White, G L; Vermeulen, F M

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched-pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk factors and then evaluated for fetal biometric differences, which were measured by ultrasound near delivery. We tested multivariable risk models to predict shoulder dystocia by logistic regression. Cases had a smaller estimated occipitofrontal diameter (OFD) (P = 0.02) and a larger biparietal diameter/estimated OFD ratio (P = 0.003). A multivariable model including estimated fetal weight, estimated OFD, maternal weight and diabetes mellitus had sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 95%, respectively, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 18.9 and 0.15, respectively. Estimated OFD significantly increased the predictive value of the model. A small estimated OFD is a risk factor for shoulder dystocia in the presence of other significant risk factors. A multivariable model including estimated OFD can predict shoulder dystocia in a clinically useful range. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavirajan, Harish C; Lueck, Kristin; Chuang, Kenneth

    2014-07-08

    Depression is a mood disorder with a prevalence of approximately 1% to 3% worldwide, representing the fourth leading cause of disease burden globally. The current standard treatments of psychological therapy and antidepressant medications are not effective for everyone, and psychotropic drugs may be associated with significant adverse effects. Cranial electrical stimulation (CES) treatment, in which a low intensity electrical current is administered through the use of a small, portable electrical device, has been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of depression with minimal adverse effects. This systematic review investigated the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of CES in treatment of acute depression compared to sham, or simulated, CES treatment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) compared with sham CES for acute depression. We searched The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis review group's specialized register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) to February 24, 2014 This register contains relevant randomized controlled trials from: The Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We examined reference lists of review papers and books on CES. We contacted authors, other experts in the field and CES manufacturing companies for knowledge of suitable published or unpublished trials. Randomized controlled trials of CES versus sham CES for the acute treatment of depressive disorder in adults aged 18 to 75 years. We planned to extract data from the original reports of included studies independently by two authors. The main outcomes to be assessed were:(1) the efficacy of CES in reducing symptoms of depression as reflected in change scores on standardized depression rating scales.(2) the tolerability of CES treatment to participants, as reflected in rates of discontinuation due to adverse

  13. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction.

  14. First In-Human Experience With Complete Integration of Neuromodulation Device Within a Customized Cranial Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Chad R; Santiago, Gabriel F; Huang, Judy; Bergey, Gregory K; Liu, Shuya; Armand, Mehran; Brem, Henry; Anderson, William S

    2017-10-06

    Neuromodulation devices have the potential to transform modern day treatments for patients with medicine-resistant neurological disease. For instance, the NeuroPace System (NeuroPace Inc, Mountain View, California) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved device developed for closed-loop direct brain neurostimulation in the setting of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. However, current methods require placement either above or below the skull in nonanatomic locations. This type of positioning has several drawbacks including visible deformities and scalp pressure from underneath leading to eventual wound healing difficulties, micromotion of hardware with infection, and extrusion leading to premature explantation. To introduce complete integration of a neuromodulation device within a customized cranial implant for biocompatibility optimization and prevention of visible deformity. We report a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy despite previous seizure surgery and maximized medical therapy. Preoperative imaging demonstrated severe resorption of previous bone flap causing deformity and risk for injury. She underwent successful responsive neurostimulation device implantation via complete integration within a clear customized cranial implant. The patient has recovered well without complication and has been followed closely for 180 d. Device interrogation with electrocorticographic data transmission has been successfully performed through the clear implant material for the first time with no evidence of any wireless transmission interference. Cranial contour irregularities, implant site infection, and bone flap resorption/osteomyelitis are adverse events associated with implantable neurotechnology. This method represents a novel strategy to incorporate all future neuromodulation devices within the confines of a low-profile, computer-designed cranial implant and the newfound potential to eliminate contour irregularities, improve outcomes, and optimize patient

  15. Genomic validation of the differential preservation of population history in modern human cranial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of two extracapsular techniques for cranial cruciate ligament reconstruction in cadaver dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Golgy Shoyama Oda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR is one of the most important orthopedic conditions in dogs, leading to joint instability, pain, osteoarthritis and eventually to meniscal injuries. Several surgical techniques have been described to reestablish joint stability following CCLR, including extracapsular procedures. This study compared the biomechanical effects of two extracapsular stabilization techniques (lateral fabello-tibial suture – LFTS, and modified retinacular imbrication technique – MRIT using nylon leader line following experimental CCLR in cadaver dogs. Twenty canine cadaveric stifles were used. Joint stiffness, cranial and caudal tibial displacement were evaluated in 4 different experimental scenarios: intact stifle, stifle with CCLR, CCLR treated with lateral fabello-tibial suture (LFTS, and CCLR treated with modified retinacular imbrication technique (MRIT. Results: Mean cranial tibial displacement increased progressively from intact to MRIT, LFTS and CCRL stifles. MRIT resulted in less caudal drawer motion than LFTS. Joint stiffness did not differ significantly between LFTS and MRIT treated stifles. Conclusion: LFTS and MRIT increase joint stability but MRIT is more effective; however none of the techniques studied was able to restore original intact stifle stiffness. Clinical implications of the results presented remain to be determined but kinetic gait analysis studies are warranted to determine whether this biomechanical advantage translates into improved hind limb function in dogs.

  19. Possible association of congenital Brown syndrome with congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Forrest J; Jeffery, Amy R; Seidman, David J; Sprague, James B; Coussens, Tracey; Schuller, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) are known to arise from abnormal development of individual and multiple cranial nerve nuclei or abnormalities in cranial nerve axonal transport. We report our findings for several patients with Brown syndrome in association with other known abnormalities characteristic of CCDDs. The medical records of patients presenting during a 4-year period with congenital Brown syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with Brown syndrome confirmed by forced ductions were included in the study if the Brown syndrome was associated with either an abnormal development of the superior oblique muscle or superior oblique paresis, ptosis, Duane syndrome, or other known CCDDs. A total of 9 patients with Brown syndrome were identified. Of these, 3 also demonstrated a contralateral superior oblique palsy; 2, a contralateral Duane syndrome; 1, an ipsilateral congenital ptosis; and 3, a moderate to severely hypoplastic ipsilateral superior oblique muscle. Some patients with congenital Brown syndrome are associated with and possibly in the spectrum of CCDDs. We propose that Brown syndrome may be due to abnormal development of the trochlear nerve, which results in physical changes in the superior oblique muscle-tendon-trochlea complex. This results in a tendon that is either long and lax, absent, or abnormally inserted (ie, superior oblique paresis) or a tendon that is restricted in its movements through the trochlea (Brown syndrome). Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new technique for the quantitative analysis of cranial suture biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherick, D G; Buchman, S R; Goulet, R W; Goldstein, S A

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the ability of the microcomputed tomography scanner to correctly image normal and synostosed cranial sutures at the ultrastructural level. Two specimens of coronal sutures were collected from operative specimens. After appropriate preparation, histological sections were obtained and stained with toluene blue for evaluation. Representative histological sections were compared to microcomputed tomography slices. With microcomputed tomography, we successfully imaged one normal and one synostosed human coronal suture and performed a quantitative analysis of these specimens. Microcomputed tomography scanning was found to be a highly accurate imaging device for the evaluation of cranial suture development. Microcomputed tomography offers three-dimensional imaging at the microscopic level and allows for rapid quantitative analysis of bone architecture, including several measurements unavailable through histologic analysis. We believe that microcomputed tomography can play an important role in imaging and in the quantitative analysis of the stereology of bone microarchitecture. Among its advantages, microcomputed tomography is able to image many more slices than are obtainable through histology, and the method is not prone to human error. Microcomputed tomography slices are generated without destruction of the specimen and without loss or corruption of reproducible data. Structure-oriented slices from microcomputed tomography together with cellular-oriented sections from histology are complementary in the overall quantitative analysis of cranial sutures.

  1. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Chen, Shuo-Tsung; Lin, Chung-Hsiang; Lu, Yu-Mei; Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2013-01-01

    Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D) CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS). From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC) was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84). CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (ppairs signed rank test). These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  2. Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants predict the development of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Ann Lawaetz; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate any association between gestational age, birth weight and findings on cranial ultrasounds during hospitalisation in very preterm infants and mortality and neurological outcome in childhood. This study was a retrospective cohort study based on a patient record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. For each infant, we obtained results from all cranial ultrasounds performed during hospitalisation. In 2014, patient records were evaluated for cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System, blindness and deafness. A total of 249 infants were included. The mortality rate was 9.2%. In all, 217 children were evaluated at 5-9 years of age. Four children were diagnosed with germinal matrix haemorrhage - intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3 (GMH-IVH3) and periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), of whom two developed cerebral palsy. Nine children were diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), of whom six developed cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy was detected in 14 children (6.4%), and one (0.5%) child was in need of a hearing assistive device. Severe brain injury (GMH-IVH3, PVHI or PVL) (p = 0.000) and being of male gender (p = 0.03) were associated with cerebral palsy in childhood. Severe brain injuries detected by neonatal cranial ultrasound in very preterm infants is associated with development of cerebral palsy in childhood. none. TRAIL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  3. The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish (sarcopterygii: dipnoi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Clement

    Full Text Available Lungfish, or dipnoans, have a history spanning over 400 million years and are the closest living sister taxon to the tetrapods. Most Devonian lungfish had heavily ossified endoskeletons, whereas most Mesozoic and Cenozoic lungfish had largely cartilaginous endoskeletons and are usually known only from isolated tooth plates or disarticulated bone fragments. There is thus a substantial temporal and evolutionary gap in our understanding of lungfish endoskeletal morphology, between the diverse and highly variable Devonian forms on the one hand and the three extant genera on the other. Here we present a virtual cranial endocast of Rhinodipterus kimberleyensis, from the Late Devonian Gogo Formation of Australia, one of the most derived fossil dipnoans with a well-ossified braincase. This endocast, generated from a Computed Microtomography (µCT scan of the skull, is the first virtual endocast of any lungfish published, and only the third fossil dipnoan endocast to be illustrated in its entirety. Key features include long olfactory canals, a telencephalic cavity with a moderate degree of ventral expansion, large suparaotic cavities, and moderately enlarged utricular recesses. It has numerous similarities to the endocasts of Chirodipterus wildungensis and Griphognathus whitei, and to a lesser degree to 'Chirodipterus' australis and Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi. Among extant lungfish, it consistently resembles Neoceratodus more closely than Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Several trends in the evolution of the brains and labyrinth regions in dipnoans, such as the expansions of the utricular recess and telencephalic regions over time, are identified and discussed.

  4. Prenatal cranial ossification of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Oliver; Franke, Helena; Hipsley, Christy A; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Müller, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. We use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to reinvestigate humpback whale fetuses from the Kükenthal collection at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, thus, extending historic descriptions of their skeletogenesis and providing for the first time sequences of cranial ossification for this species. Principally, the ossification sequence of prenatal Megaptera follows a typical mammalian pattern with the anterior dermal bones being the first ossifying elements in the skull, starting with the dentary. In contrast to other mammals, the ectotympanic bone ossifies at an early stage. Alveolar structure can be observed in both the maxillae and dentaries in these early prenatal specimens but evidence for teeth is lacking. Although the possibility of obtaining new embryological material is unlikely due to conservation issues, our study shows that reexamination of existing specimens employing new technologies still holds promise for filling gaps in our knowledge of whale evolution and ontogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neurovascular compression syndrome of the eighth cranial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    Neurovascular compression syndrome (NVCS) involves neuropathy due to intracranial blood vessels compressing the cranial nerves. NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve is less reportedly established as a clinical entity than that of the fifth and seventh cranial nerves. We report 17 cases of NVCS of the eighth cranial nerve and their clinical features. Clinical symptoms and test findings among our subjects indicated that most were aged more than 65 years, were unilateral, had intermittent tinnitus, suffered attacks lasting a few seconds dozens of times a day, experienced dizziness concomitantly with tinnitus, aggravated tinnitus and dizziness when tilting the head toward the affected side and looking downward (positional tinnitus, positional dizziness), heard specific tinnitus sounds such as crackling differing from those in cochlear tinnitus, had mild or no hearing loss, were diagnosed with retrocochlear hearing disturbance due to an interpeak latency delay between waves I and III of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), often had no nystagmus or canal paresis (CP), were found in constructive interference steady state magnetic resonance imaging (CISS MRI) to have compression of the eighth cranial nerve by the vertebral artery (VA) or the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), rarely had concomitant facial spasms, and had tinnitus and dizziness markedly suppressed by carbamazepine. With the number of elderly individuals continuing to increase, cases of NVCS due to arteriosclerotic changes in cerebral blood vessels are expected to increase, making it necessary to consider NVCS in elderly subjects with dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing loss. (author)

  6. Ets-1 confers cranial features on neural crest delamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Théveneau

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCC have the particularity to invade the environment where they differentiate after separation from the neuroepithelium. This process, called delamination, is strikingly different between cranial and trunk NCCs. If signalings controlling slow trunk delamination start being deciphered, mechanisms leading to massive and rapid cranial outflow are poorly documented. Here, we show that the chick cranial NCCs delamination is the result of two events: a substantial cell mobilization and an epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT. We demonstrate that ets-1, a transcription factor specifically expressed in cranial NCCs, is responsible for the former event by recruiting massively cranial premigratory NCCs independently of the S-phase of the cell cycle and by leading the gathered cells to straddle the basal lamina. However, it does not promote the EMT process alone but can cooperate with snail-2 (previously called slug to this event. Altogether, these data lead us to propose that ets-1 plays a pivotal role in conferring specific cephalic characteristics on NCC delamination.

  7. A report of the Maquet procedure for the management of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in a dog - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Roberto Custódio Marques

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cranial cruciate ligament rupture is the major cause of lameness and degenerative joint disease in the canine stifle. The cause of this disease is multifactorial, especially involving degenerative and inflammatory changes. Many techniques have been described for the management of this condition, and current recommendations include the use of corrective osteotomies, most recently using the Maquet (or modified Maquet procedure. This technique is fundamentally similar to the classical tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA, but without the use of the bone plate. The main advantages of using this technique are a shorter operative time and less use of implants. The main complication of this technique is an increased risk of tibial crest fracture. This report describes the Maquet technique for the treatment of a three-year-old male West White Terrier dog with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Cruciate ligament rupture was diagnosed by a positive cranial tibial drawer test. Mediolateral stifle radiography performed under anesthesia with the stifle in 135° of extension demonstrated a tibial plateau angle of 22°. A cage of six millimeters was necessary to allow advancement. The Maquet technique produced excellent post-operative results, including early weight-bearing and neutralization of the cranial tibial drawer. The consolidation time of the osteotomy was 63 days.

  8. Survival and regeneration of deep-freeze preserved autologous cranial bones after cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Hui, Guozhen; Liu, Fengqiang; Wang, Zhengan; Tang, Yuming; Gao, Shuxing

    2012-04-01

    After decompressive craniectomy, a deep-freeze-preserved autologous cranial bone graft can be used for cranioplasty to avoid immunoreaction against an artificial patch material. Autologous cranial bone grafts not only have better physical properties, such as heat conduction, compared to artificial patch materials, but they also have the advantages of a lower medical cost and satisfactory physical flexibility. The discussion over (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT static cranial bone tomography in the diagnosis of survival and regeneration in deep-freeze preservation autologous cranial bones after cranioplasty is valuable. Objective. To investigate whether deep-freeze-preserved autologous cranial bone grafts could survive and regenerate after autologous reimplantation. The method of cranial bone preservation involved removing the cranial graft and sealing it in a double-layer sterile plastic bag under sterile surgical conditions. On the day of the cranioplasty operation, the cranial bone graft was disinfected by immersing it in 3% povidone-iodine for 30 minutes. At short-term (2 weeks), medium-term (3 months), and long-term (12 months) postoperative follow-up visits, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT static cranial bone tomography was used to examine the reimplanted cranial bone. Results. There were no postoperative infections or seromas in all 16 cases. Two weeks following cranial bone graft reimplantation, the SPECT tomography showed some radioactivity uptake in the reimplanted cranial bone graft, which was lower than that in the cranial bone on the healthy side. At 3 months and 12 months after the operation, the radioactivity uptake in the reimplanted cranial bone graft was the same as that in the cranial bone on the healthy side. X-ray films showed blurred sutures in the reimplanted cranial bone graft at 12 months after surgery. Reimplanted deep-freeze-preserved autologous cranial bone can survive in the short term and regenerate in the medium and long terms.

  9. X-ray appearance of cranial lesions in hyperparathyroid osteodystuophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.M.; Tsarikovskaya, K.G.; Tkach, F.S.; David'yants, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    Craniographic data on 58 patients with hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy weere analyzed. Cranial changes revealed in 52 patients. Some data on the nature apd frequency of X-ray signs of cranial lesion in hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy are presented. The most frequent and typical X-ray signs of cranial lesions in hyperparathyroid osteodystrophy, are granular osteoporosis of the facial tectum and bones, the blurred contour of the internal tectum plate, foci of osteoclasia, osteoporosis of the elements of the Turkish saddle, resorption of the closing plates of the dental cavities, alterration of the thickness of the vault bones, symmetrical thinning, irregularity and obscurity of the external tectum plate, subperiosteal resorption of the cortical layer of the mandible (34.5%), partial resorption of the alveolar process of the jaw and epulis of the mandible

  10. Preoperative anemia increases postoperative morbidity in elective cranial neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Abt, Nicholas B.; Macki, Mohamed; Brem, Henry; Huang, Judy; Bydon, Ali; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preoperative anemia may affect postoperative mortality and morbidity following elective cranial operations. Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify elective cranial neurosurgical cases (2006-2012). Morbidity was defined as wound infection, systemic infection, cardiac, respiratory, renal, neurologic, and thromboembolic events, and unplanned returns to the operating room. For 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Of 8015 patients who underwent elective cranial neurosurgery, 1710 patients (21.4%) were anemic. Anemic patients had an increased 30-day mortality of 4.1% versus 1.3% in non-anemic patients (P neurosurgery was independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity when compared to non-anemic patients. A hematocrit level below 33% (Hgb 11 g/dl) was associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity. PMID:25422784

  11. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  12. [Involvement of cranial pairs as manifestation of prostatic cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa Saldias, L M; Ayuso Blanco, T; Delpon Pérez, E; Sarria Octavio de Toledo, L

    1994-10-01

    Two cases of prostate cancer (PC) which presented clinically with affectation of the cranial pairs due to skull base metastasis. In both cases, existence of intraparenchimatous brain metastasis was excluded. Initial improvement with hormonal therapy was followed by clinical, analytical and radiological relapse due to spread of process until death, at 11 and 36 months from diagnosis. Although PC's bone metastasis are frequent, their location at the skull base is uncommon. Even more rare are the cases which present with changes in the cranial pairs in the absence of signs and symptoms of prostatism.

  13. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  14. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy improves cranial neuropathies in patients with skull base meningiomas: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skull base meningiomas commonly present with cranial neuropathies. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) has been used to treat these tumors with excellent local control, but rates of improvement in cranial neuropathies have not been well defined. We review the experience at Thomas Jefferson University using FSRT in the management of these patients with a focus on symptom outcomes. We identified 225 cases of skull base meningiomas treated with FSRT at Thomas Jefferson University from 1994 through 2009. The target volume was the enhancing tumor, treated to a standard prescription dose of 54 Gy. Symptoms at the time of RT were classified based on the cranial nerve affected. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of symptom improvement after FSRT. The median follow-up time was 4.4 years. In 92% of cases, patients were symptomatic at the time of RT; the most common were impaired visual field/acuity (58%) or extraocular movements (34%). After FSRT, durable improvement of at least one symptom occurred in 57% of cases, including 40% of visual acuity/visual field deficits, and 40% of diplopia/ptosis deficits. Of all symptomatic patients, 27% experienced improvement of at least one symptom within 2 months of the end of RT. FSRT is very effective in achieving improvement of cranial neuropathies from skull base meningiomas, particularly visual symptoms. Over half of treated patients experience a durable improvement of at least one symptom, frequently within 2 months from the end of RT

  15. The mesenchymal architecture of the cranial mesoderm of mouse embryos is disrupted by the loss of Twist1 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildsoe, Heidi; Loebel, David A F; Jones, Vanessa J; Hor, Angelyn C C; Braithwaite, Antony W; Chen, You-Tzung; Behringer, Richard R; Tam, Patrick P L

    2013-02-15

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is a key regulator of craniofacial development. Twist1-null mouse embryos exhibit failure of cephalic neural tube closure and abnormal head development and die at E11.0. To dissect the function of Twist1 in the cranial mesoderm beyond mid-gestation, we used Mesp1-Cre to delete Twist1 in the anterior mesoderm, which includes the progenitors of the cranial mesoderm. Deletion of Twist1 in mesoderm cells resulted in loss and malformations of the cranial mesoderm-derived skeleton. Loss of Twist1 in the mesoderm also resulted in a failure to fully segregate the mesoderm and the neural crest cells, and the malformation of some cranial neural crest-derived tissues. The development of extraocular muscles was compromised whereas the differentiation of branchial arch muscles was not affected, indicating a differential requirement for Twist1 in these two types of craniofacial muscle. A striking effect of the loss of Twist1 was the inability of the mesodermal cells to maintain their mesenchymal characteristics, and the acquisition of an epithelial-like morphology. Our findings point to a role of Twist1 in maintaining the mesenchyme architecture and the progenitor state of the mesoderm, as well as mediating mesoderm-neural crest interactions in craniofacial development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of cranial surface anatomic fiducials for interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone: a cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, F D; Foley, K T; Robertson, J H; Shea, J J

    1997-04-01

    Because of the intricate anatomy of the temporal bone, we examined the feasibility and reliability of cranial surface anatomic fiducials to register computed tomographic images of the temporal bone by using a frameless image-guided system. One-millimeter thick computed tomographic slices and the smallest possible field of view were used to register 10 dry and 10 fresh temporal bones from cadavers. The fiducials used for registration included the umbo of the tympanic membrane, emissary foramina, the asterion, various sutures, the tip of the mastoid process, and Henle's spine. Mean initial fiducial registration error ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 mm, and was reduced to 0.5 and 0.4 mm for the dry cranial and cadaveric studies, respectively, by eliminating or reregistering inexact fiducials. Mean target localization error ranged from 0.91 to 2.44 mm for superficial structures of the temporal bone in the dry cranial specimens and from 0.71 to 1.52 mm for deep structures such as the facial nerve, semicircular canals and ossicles in the cadaveric study. Interactive image-guided navigation in the temporal bone is possible with registration of cranial surface anatomic fiducials. It may be useful to the neurosurgeon and otologist in identifying critical anatomic structures of the temporal bone encountered during the translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine presigmoid, and suboccipital approaches.

  17. Comparison of supine and prone craniospinal irradiation in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jonathan; Mazloom, Ali; Teh, Bin S; South, Michael; Butler, E Brian; Paulino, Arnold C

    2015-01-01

    To compare port film rejection and treatment outcome according to craniospinal irradiation (CSI) position for medulloblastoma. We retrospectively searched for patients ≤19 years treated with CSI for medulloblastoma at 1 department. We collected the following data: age; sex; risk group; need for general anesthesia; radiation therapy (RT) dose and fractionation; and the acceptance or rejection of weekly port films during treatment. We also collected data on outcomes, including neuraxis recurrence and possible complications such as myelitis. Of 46 children identified, 23 were treated prone (median age, 8.1 years) and 23 supine (median age, 7.2 years). High-risk disease was seen in 26% of prone and 35% of supine patients (P = .25). There was no difference in use of general anesthesia between those treated prone versus supine (57% vs 61%). The rejection rate of cranial port films in the prone position was 35%, which was significantly higher than the rate of 8% in patients treated supine (P < .0001). The 5-year progression-free (P = .37) and overall survival (P = .18) rates were 62% and 67% for prone and 76% and 84% for supine patients. There were no isolated junctional failures or radiation myelitis in either CSI position. The supine position for CSI was found to have similar survival outcomes compared with the prone position. A higher proportion of rejected cranial port films was seen in children treated in the prone position. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  19. Skeletogenic fate of zebrafish cranial and trunk neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kague

    Full Text Available The neural crest (NC is a major contributor to the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, detailed in model organisms through embryological and genetic approaches, most notably in chick and mouse. Despite many similarities between these rather distant species, there are also distinct differences in the contribution of the NC, particularly to the calvariae of the skull. Lack of information about other vertebrate groups precludes an understanding of the evolutionary significance of these differences. Study of zebrafish craniofacial development has contributed substantially to understanding of cartilage and bone formation in teleosts, but there is currently little information on NC contribution to the zebrafish skeleton. Here, we employ a two-transgene system based on Cre recombinase to genetically label NC in the zebrafish. We demonstrate NC contribution to cells in the cranial ganglia and peripheral nervous system known to be NC-derived, as well as to a subset of myocardial cells. The indelible labeling also enables us to determine NC contribution to late-forming bones, including the calvariae. We confirm suspected NC origin of cartilage and bones of the viscerocranium, including cartilages such as the hyosymplectic and its replacement bones (hymandibula and symplectic and membranous bones such as the opercle. The cleithrum develops at the border of NC and mesoderm, and as an ancestral component of the pectoral girdle was predicted to be a hybrid bone composed of both NC and mesoderm tissues. However, we find no evidence of a NC contribution to the cleithrum. Similarly, in the vault of the skull, the parietal bones and the caudal portion of the frontal bones show no evidence of NC contribution. We also determine a NC origin for caudal fin lepidotrichia; the presumption is that these are derived from trunk NC, demonstrating that these cells have the ability to form bone during normal vertebrate development.

  20. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs

  1. Unilateral Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy Following C/S as a Complication of Spinal Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaklı, Barış; Özgencil, Enver; Özünlü, Gülen Nevin; Aybar, Refiye Selin; Uysalel, Asuman

    2014-06-01

    Cranial nerve palsy (CNP) is a rare complication following lumbar puncture, which is a common procedure used most often for diagnostic and anaesthetic purposes. The sixth cranial (abducens) nerve is the most commonly affected cranial nerve. We report a case of unilateral sixth nerve palsy after spinal anaesthesia that improved immediately after an epidural blood patch (EBP).

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodburn, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of food preservation by irradiation over 30 years is reviewed in outline. Sprout inhibition, soft fruit preservation, suppression of salmonella in poultry, radiolytic products in foods, the detection of irradiated foods and safety studies so far are considered. (U.K.)

  4. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  6. A phase-I clinical trial for cranial BNCT at Harvard-MIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, P.M.; Palmer, M.R.; Harling, O.K.

    2000-01-01

    Phase I trial designed to determine the maximum tolerable dose to normal tissue for cranial BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) irradiations was recently completed at Harvard Medical School and MIT. Twenty-two subjects diagnosed with either glioblastoma multiforme or intracranial melanoma were treated between 1996 and 1999. Subjects received either one or two administrations of boronophenylalanine intravenously at doses between 250 and 350 mg/kg body weight, then exposed in one, two or three fields to epithermal neutrons at the MIT Research Reactor in one or two fractions. Over the course of the study, the maximum normal tissue dose target was increased from 8.8 to 14.2 RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness) Gy in 10% increments. Subjects have been followed clinically and radiographically. Of those patients surviving beyond six months, no MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) white-matter changes were observed and no long-term complications attributable to BNCT were evident. Tumor responses were observed, particularly with the melanoma subjects. With increasing doses, difficulties arose from long irradiation times (approximately 3 hours) and the emergence of acute reactions in the skin and mucosa. The trial was stopped in May 1999. Future trials will be initiated with the new high intensity, low background fission converter beam at MIT. (author)

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.; Lang, T.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing tendency worldwide to apply ionizing radiation for food preservation, or for delaying growth or ripening processes. However, research into the effects of such irradiation with ionizing radiation is lagging behind, leaving the knowledge about effects and possible hazards incomplete. The authors very carefully have analysed the available research results and present a detailed account of the current scientific knowledge and assessments. Their conclusion is: irradiated food is to be considered noxious unless its wholesomeness has been unambiguously proven. Consumers so far had not much chance to raise their voice in the debate about the wholesomeness of food irradiation, or have not been heard, the authors say. They call for establishing a European and a worldwide information network to bring together opponents to and information speaking against food irradiation, in order to create a counterweight to the market strategies of the pro-irradiation industry, and to launch initiatives on the political level. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW) infants had cranial ...

  9. Cranial Radiation Therapy and Damage to Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy is associated with a progressive decline in cognitive function, prominently memory function. Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be an important mechanism underlying this cognitive decline. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of radiation-induced failure of neurogenesis. Potential therapeutic…

  10. Visualization of the oculomotor cranial nerves by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Armin; Salomonowitz, Erich

    2004-06-01

    MRI is the imaging method of choice in patients with cranial nerve palsies. However, the nerves are often not seen on MR images and smaller lesions may not be diagnosed on routine brain MRI. The purpose of this study is to show that the oculomotor cranial nerves can be visualized by standard MR sequences and to present an update on clinical applications of cranial nerve imaging. In MR images of normal subjects, it is demonstrated that the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve and the abducens nerve can be identified not only in the subarachnoid space and cavernous sinus, but also in the orbit. However, a precondition is the use of appropriate imaging sequences and planes (e.g., subarachnoid cisterns: T2-weighted fast spin-echo or T2*-weighted three-dimensional sequences in oblique-axial and sagittal planes; cavernous sinus: contrast-enhanced T1-weighted coronal images; orbit: T1-weighted images without contrast agent in the coronal plane obtained using surface coils). The capability of imaging cranial nerves is clinically important not only for diagnostic purposes in eye muscle palsies but also for planning surgical procedures at the cranio-orbital junction.

  11. Routine Cranial Computed Tomography before Lumbar Puncture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current international guidelines recommend that a cranial computed tomography (CT) be performed on all HIV-positive patients presenting with new onset seizures, before a lumbar puncture (LP) is performed. In the South African setting, however this delay could be life threatening. The present study sought to ...

  12. Retinoic acid modulates chondrogenesis in the developing mouse cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shin, Jeong-Oh; Lee, Jong-Min; Cho, Kyoung-Won; Lee, Min-Jung; Cho, Sung-Won; Jung, Han-Sung

    2011-12-15

    The retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway is known to play important roles during craniofacial development and skeletogenesis. However, the specific mechanism involving RA in cranial base development has not yet been clearly described. This study investigated how RA modulates endochondral bone development of the cranial base by monitoring the RA receptor RARγ, BMP4, and markers of proliferation, programmed cell death, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. We first examined the dynamic morphological and molecular changes in the sphenooccipital synchondrosis-forming region in the mouse embryo cranial bases at E12-E16. In vitro organ cultures employing beads soaked in RA and retinoid-signaling inhibitor citral were compared. In the RA study, the sphenooccipital synchondrosis showed reduced cartilage matrix and lower BMP4 expression while hypertrophic chondrocytes were replaced with proliferating chondrocytes. Retardation of chondrocyte hypertrophy was exhibited in citral-treated specimens, while BMP4 expression was slightly increased and programmed cell death was induced within the sphenooccipital synchondrosis. Our results demonstrate that RA modulates chondrocytes to proliferate, differentiate, or undergo programmed cell death during endochondral bone formation in the developing cranial base. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Association of fetal cranial shape with shoulder dystocia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfort, M. A.; White, G. L.; Vermeulen, F. M.

    Objective To evaluate whether fetal cranial shape is related to shoulder dystocia. Methods We compared shoulder dystocia cases (n = 18) with controls (normal vaginal deliveries, n = 18) in a retrospective matched- pairs observational study. Subjects were matched for known maternal and fetal risk

  14. Sixth cranial nerve palsy due to arachnoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam; Reshma, Khajamohideen B

    2014-10-01

    Sixth cranial nerve palsy is an extremely rare complication of an arachnoid cyst. A 4-year-old boy who presented with left abducens palsy and a subdural hygroma complicating arachnoid cyst is discussed. Comprehensive review of the world literature revealed only 12 additional cases. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Postnatal cranial ultrasonographic findings in feto-fetal transfusion syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breysem, L.; Naulaers, G.; Deprest, J.; Schoubroeck, D.V.; Daniels, H.; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Smet, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was a retrospective evaluation of cranial US in survivors of twin pregnancy with feto-fetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS), with knowledge of prenatal treatment and neonatal/postnatal clinical data. In 18 pregnancies with FFTS (January 1996 to May 2000), pregnancy management and outcome,

  16. Cranial nerve functional neurosurgery : Evaluation of surgical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Guerinel, C.; Sindou, M.; Auque, J.; Blondet, E.; Brassier, G.; Chazal, J.; Cuny, E.; Devaux, B.; Fontaine, D.; Finiels, P. -J.; Fuentes, J. -M.; D'Haens, J.; Massager, N.; Mercier, Ph.; Mooij, J.; Nuti, C.; Rousseaux, P.; Serrie, A.; Stecken, J.; de Waele, L.; Keravel, Y.

    We report the results of an investigation carried out on the activity of functional neurosurgery of the cranial nerves in the French-speaking countries, based on the analysis of a questionnaire addressed to all the members of the SNCLF Eighteen centers responded to this questionnaire., which showed

  17. Testing the cranial evolutionary allometric 'rule' in Galliformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde-Medina, M

    2016-09-01

    Recent comparative studies have indicated the existence of a common cranial evolutionary allometric (CREA) pattern in mammals and birds, in which smaller species have relatively smaller faces and bigger braincases than larger species. In these studies, cranial allometry was tested using a multivariate regression between shape (described using landmarks coordinates) and size (i.e. centroid size), after accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Alternatively, cranial allometry can be determined by comparing the sizes of two anatomical parts using a bivariate regression analysis. In this analysis, a slope higher or lower than one indicates the existence of positive or negative allometry, respectively. Thus, in those species that support the CREA 'rule', positive allometry is expected for the association between face size and braincase size, which would indicate that larger species have disproportionally larger faces. In this study, I applied these two approaches to explore cranial allometry in 83 Galliformes (Aves, Galloanserae), ranging in mean body weight from 30 g to 2.5 kg. The multivariate regression between shape and centroid size revealed the existence of a significant allometric pattern resembling CREA, whereas the second analysis revealed a negative allometry for beak size and braincase size (i.e. contrary to the CREA 'rule', larger galliform species have disproportionally shorter beaks than smaller galliform species). This study suggests that the presence of CREA may be overestimated when using cranium size as the standard measurement. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Refining the Indications for the Addition of Orbital Osteotomy during Anterior Cranial Base Approaches: Morphometric and Radiologic Study of the Anterior Cranial Base Osteology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBattista, Juan Carlos; Andaluz, Norberto; Zuccarello, Mario; Kerr, Robert G; Keller, Jeffrey T

    2014-08-01

    Objectives In anatomic and radiologic morphometric studies, we examine a predictive method, based on preoperative imaging of the anterior cranial base, to define when addition of orbital osteotomy is warranted. Design Anatomic and radiographic study. Setting In 100 dry skulls, measurements in the anterior cranial fossa included three lines and two angles based on computerized tomography (CT) scans taken in situ and validated using frameless stereotactic navigation. The medial angle (coronal plane) was the intersection between the highest point of both orbits and the midpoint between the two frontoethmoidal sutures to each orbital roof high point. The oblique angle (sagittal plane) was the intersection at the midpoint of the limbus sphenoidale. Results No identifiable morphometric patterns were found for our classification of anterior fossae; the two-tailed distribution pattern was similar for all skulls, disproving the hypothetical correlation between visual appearance and morphometry. Orbital heights (range: 6.6-18.7 mm) showed a linear relationship with medial and oblique angles, and they had a linear distribution relative to angular increments. Orbital heights > 11 mm were associated with angles ≥ 20 degrees and more likely to benefit from orbitotomy. Conclusion Preoperative CT measurement of orbital height appears feasible for predicting when orbitotomy is needed, and it warrants further testing.

  19. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaiz, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author) [es

  20. Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W; Wolanski, Mark R; Simmons, Joseph W; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least

  1. The effects of laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.W.R.; Barbosa, C.A.A.; Moderno, L.A.O.; Parizzotto, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of low energy laser radiation on the descendants of irradiated rats were investigated by comparing natimortality and the frequency of congenital malformations in three experimental and a control group. Natimortality was not significantly different among the groups. However, cardiomegaly, anophtalmia, dilated abdominal viscera, and premature closures of cranial sutures were recorded only in the experimental groups. (author)

  2. Cranial pole nephrectomy in the pig model: anatomic analysis of arterial injuries in tridimensional endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Henry, Robert W; Favorito, Luciano A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2012-06-01

    To assess the intrarenal arteries injuries after cranial pole nephrectomy in a pig model to compare these findings with those in humans. Polyester resin was injected through the ureter and the renal artery to make three-dimensional casts of 61 pig kidneys. The cranial pole of the kidneys was sectioned at four different sites before the solidification of the resin, and the casts were examined for arterial damage. Section performed through the hilus (15 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in two (13.33%) cases, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (86.7%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 11 (73.34%) cases. Section at 0.5 cm cranial to the hilus (16 kidneys): The cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 1 (6.25%) case, the ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 14 (87.5%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in 13 (81.25%) cases. Section at 1.0 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): The ventral branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was sectioned in five (33.33%) cases, and the dorsal branch of the cranial division of the renal artery was injured in five (33.33%) cases. Section at 1.5 cm cranial to the hilus (15 kidneys): No lesions were found in the main arteries, only in the interlobular branches. As previously demonstrated in humans, sections at 1.0 cm or more cranially to the hilus in pigs also showed a significant decrease in damage to the major intrarenal arteries. Therefore, as regards arterial damage, the pig kidney is a useful model for partial nephrectomy in the cranial (upper) pole.

  3. Cranial dural arteriovenous fistula as a rare cause of tinnitus – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuśmierska, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Nahorecki, Artur; Szuba, Andrzej; JaŸwiec, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus, occurring at least once in a lifetime in about 10–20% of the population, is an important clinical problem with complex etiology. Rare causes of tinnitus include cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), which are usually small lesions consisting of abnormal connections between branches of dural arteries and venous sinuses or veins. Authors present a case of a 44-year-old woman with persistent, unilateral, treatment-resistant pulsatile tinnitus caused by a small dural arteriovenous fistula revealed in computed tomography angiography. Computed tomography angiography is a useful diagnostic method that in some cases allows for establishing the cause of unilateral, pulsatile tinnitus

  4. Severe cervical kyphosis in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, T.; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Yoshinaga, Muneyoshi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Uetani, Masataka; Kubota, Takeo; Nishimura, Gen

    2001-01-01

    We report a 29-month-old girl with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS), who showed several unusual manifestations, including short stature, muscular hypotonia, short lingual frenulum, an accessory ear and a granuloma at the oral edge. The most unusual distressing finding was severe cervical kyphosis with a dysplastic cervical spine. MRI revealed impingement of the upper spinal cord. To clarify the mode of inheritance of this disease in this patient, we performed a methylation-specific PCR analysis. It eventually showed random inactivation of X-chromosomes, suggesting an autosomal dominant trait. (orig.)

  5. Experimental Comparison of Cranial Particulate Bone Graft, rhBMP-2, and Split Cranial Bone Graft for Inlay Cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Rafael A; Kurek, Kyle C; Rogers, Gary F; Mulliken, John B; Greene, Arin K

    2013-05-01

    Background :  Particulate bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) are options for inlay cranioplasty in children who have not developed a diploic space. The purpose of this study was to determine whether particulate bone graft or rhBMP-2 has superior efficacy for inlay cranioplasty and to compare these substances to split cranial bone. Methods :  A 17 mm × 17 mm critical-sized defect was made in the parietal bones of 22 rabbits and managed in four ways: Group I (no implant; n=5), Group II (particulate bone graft; n=5), Group III (rhBMP-2; n=7), and Group IV (split cranial bone graft; n=5). Animals underwent microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis 16 weeks after cranioplasty. Results :  Defects without an implant (Group I) demonstrated inferior ossification (41.4%; interquartile range [IQR], 28.9% to 42.5%) compared to those treated with particulate bone graft (Group II: 99.5%; IQR, 97.8% to 100%), rhBMP-2 (Group III: 99.6%; IQR, 99.5% to 100%), or split cranial bone (Group IV: 100%) (P inlay calvarial defect areas equally, although the thickness of bone healed with rhBMP-2 is inferior. Clinically, particulate bone graft or split cranial bone graft may be superior to rhBMP-2 for inlay cranioplasty.

  6. Brain irradiation for metastasis prevention and radiation treatment of small cell lung cancer metastases into the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhina, Z.P.; Motorina, L.I.; Glekov, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    The report presents the results of cranial irradiation of 44 small cell lung cancer patients with clinically-identified intracranial metastases and 40 patients - for metastatic spread prevention. Whole brain irradiation was carried out with single doses of 2-4 Gy (total dose - 30-40 Gy) in both groups 5 times weekly. Patients irradiated for metastasis prevention revealed a 3.3 - fold decrease in intracranial metastasis frequency and a good post-treatment tolerance. In the other group, radiation failed to reach tumor lesions in 20%; treatment produced a poor effect in 30%. There was a correlation between survival time, initial expansion of process and tumor response to primary treatment. No relationship was observed between survival time and procedure and duration of cranial irradiation. Prophylactic irradiation may be beneficial in responders to therapy

  7. Infection Rate after Cranial Neurosurgical Procedures: A Prospective Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Carol; Albrich, Werner C; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Schöbi, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schlegel, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    To determine infection rate (IR) and to identify modifiable risk factors (RF) in cranial neurosurgery in a neurosurgical department for tertiary referral as part of an infection control surveillance to reduce surgical site infections (SSI). A prospective SSI incidence cohort study from February 2013 to January 2014 was performed in a tertiary-care neurosurgical teaching hospital and referral center. All consecutive adults undergoing any cranial neurosurgical procedure were included. Data were collected by a trained member of the infection control staff during the twice-weekly visits of the hospitalized patients. Follow-up was 30 days (procedures without implant) and 1 year (procedures involving permanent implants). SSI was diagnosed according to criteria of CDC. A total of 317 patients undergoing 333 index procedures were included. The median age was 61 years (range, 17-91 years) and 46% were female. Survival in patients with completed follow-up was 76% (196/258). Overall, IR was 7.2% (24/333 index procedures); in 96% (23/24), a neurosurgical implant was involved. The IR of extraventricular drainage (EVD) was 12.5% (13.1/1000 EVD days). The main causative pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes. Independent RF for neurosurgical SSI were EVD as part of the index operation and body mass index >25 kg/m 2 . IR was in accordance with recent prospective single-center studies (reported IR between 1.6% and 9%). EVD placement was identified as the strongest modifiable RF for SSI in cranial neurosurgical procedures. The need for standard infection control procedures for the insertion and maintenance of EVDs to avoid their contamination is reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The present situation of irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present state of food irradiation in Japan is presented from a point of view of a trustee for irradiation business. Radiation sprout inhibition of potatoes, only approved by Government, and spice treatment, now being applied for, are explained. Existing establishments capable of entrusting irradiation services as business in Japan are outlined including Co-60 gamma ray and X-ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation. Principles of irradiation-induced physical and chemical effects in irradiated materials specifically organic polymers and brief explanation of facilities together with safety devices are also explained. (S. Ohno)

  9. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, C.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of food irradiation are discussed. Research into food irradiation has been going on for 40 years, yet studies have yet to demonstrate conclusively whether it is safe or harmful. The Australian House of Representatives has established an inquiry into food irradiation conducted by the Standing Committee on Environment and Conservation. It will inquire into the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety, environmental impacts and the adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures

  10. Food irradiation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the start the Netherlands has made an important contribution to the irradiation of food through microbiological and toxicological research as well as through the setting-up of a pilot plant by the government and through the practical application of 'Gammaster' on a commercial basis. The proceedings of this tenth anniversary symposium of 'Gammaster' present all aspects of food irradiation and will undoubtedly help to remove the many misunderstandings. They offer information and indicate to the potential user a method that can make an important contribution to the prevention of decay and spoilage of foodstuffs and to the exclusion of food-borne infections and food poisoning in man. The book includes 8 contributions and 4 panel discussions in the field of microbiology; technology; legal aspects; and consumer aspects of food irradiation. As an appendix, the report 'Wholesomeness of irradiated food' of a joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee has been added. (orig./G.J.P.)

  11. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  12. Dosimetry for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Manual of Food Irradiation Dosimetry was published in 1977 under the auspices of the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 178. It was the first monograph of its kind and served as a reference in the field of radiation processing and in the development of standards. While the essential information about radiation dosimetry in this publication has not become obsolete, other publications on radiation dosimetry have become available which have provided useful information for incorporation in this updated version. There is already a Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and an associated Code of Practice for Operation of Irradiation Facilities used for Treatment of Food, issued in 1984 by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. The Codex Standard contains provisions on irradiation facilities and process control which include, among other requirements, that control of the processes within facilities shall include the keeping of adequate records including quantitative dosimetry. Appendix A of the Standard provides an explanation of process control and dosimetric requirements in compliance with the Codex Standard. By 1999, over 40 countries had implemented national regulations or issued specific approval for certain irradiated food items/classes of food based on the principles of the Codex Standard and its Code of Practice. Food irradiation is thus expanding, as over 30 countries are now actually applying this process for the treatment of one or more food products for commercial purposes. Irradiated foods are being marketed at retail level in several countries. With the increasing recognition and application of irradiation as a sanitary and phytosanitary treatment of food based on the provisions of the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization, international trade in irradiated food is expected to expand during the next decade. It is therefore essential that proper dosimetry

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  14. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  15. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  16. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  19. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities After Cranial Radiation in Children and Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: brian.nieman@utoronto.ca [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Guzman, A. Elizabeth de [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gazdzinski, Lisa M. [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Department of Neurosciences & Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chakravarty, M. Mallar [Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Departments of Psychiatry and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Pipitone, Jon [Kimel Family Translational Imaging Genetics Research Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Strother, Douglas [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Departments of Oncology and Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Fryer, Chris [Division of Oncology/Hematology/BMT British Columbia Children' s Hospital and British Columbia Women' s Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Physiology & Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Pediatric patients treated with cranial radiation are at high risk of developing lasting cognitive impairments. We sought to identify anatomical changes in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in radiation-treated patients and in mice, in which the effect of radiation can be isolated from other factors, the time course of anatomical change can be established, and the effect of treatment age can be more fully characterized. Anatomical results were compared between species. Methods and Materials: Patients were imaged with T{sub 1}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after radiation treatment. Nineteen radiation-treated patients were divided into groups of 7 years of age and younger (7−) and 8 years and older (8+) and were compared to 41 controls. C57BL6 mice were treated with radiation (n=52) or sham treated (n=52) between postnatal days 16 and 36 and then assessed with in vivo and/or ex vivo MRI. In both cases, measurements of WM and GM volume, cortical thickness, area and volume, and hippocampal volume were compared between groups. Results: WM volume was significantly decreased following treatment in 7− and 8+ treatment groups. GM volume was unchanged overall, but cortical thickness was slightly increased in the 7− group. Results in mice mostly mirrored these changes and provided a time course of change, showing early volume loss and normal growth. Hippocampal volume showed a decreasing trend with age in patients, an effect not observed in the mouse hippocampus but present in the olfactory bulb. Conclusions: Changes in mice treated with cranial radiation are similar to those in humans, including significant WM and GM alterations. Because mice did not receive any other treatment, the similarity across species supports the expectation that radiation is causative and suggests mice provide a representative model for studying impaired brain development after cranial radiation and testing novel treatments.

  20. Verifying three-dimensional skull model reconstruction using cranial index of symmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Man Kung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difficulty exists in scalp adaptation for cranioplasty with customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM implant in situations of excessive wound tension and sub-cranioplasty dead space. To solve this clinical problem, the CAD/CAM technique should include algorithms to reconstruct a depressed contour to cover the skull defect. Satisfactory CAM-derived alloplastic implants are based on highly accurate three-dimensional (3-D CAD modeling. Thus, it is quite important to establish a symmetrically regular CAD/CAM reconstruction prior to depressing the contour. The purpose of this study is to verify the aesthetic outcomes of CAD models with regular contours using cranial index of symmetry (CIS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2011 to June 2012, decompressive craniectomy (DC was performed for 15 consecutive patients in our institute. 3-D CAD models of skull defects were reconstructed using commercial software. These models were checked in terms of symmetry by CIS scores. RESULTS: CIS scores of CAD reconstructions were 99.24±0.004% (range 98.47-99.84. CIS scores of these CAD models were statistically significantly greater than 95%, identical to 99.5%, but lower than 99.6% (p<0.001, p = 0.064, p = 0.021 respectively, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. These data evidenced the highly accurate symmetry of these CAD models with regular contours. CONCLUSIONS: CIS calculation is beneficial to assess aesthetic outcomes of CAD-reconstructed skulls in terms of cranial symmetry. This enables further accurate CAD models and CAM cranial implants with depressed contours, which are essential in patients with difficult scalp adaptation.

  1. Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Weisbecker, Vera; Mock, Orin; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive data set of ossification sequences including seven marsupial, 13 placental and seven sauropsid species. Data are provided for the first time for two major mammalian clades, Chiroptera and Soricidae, and for two rodent species; the published sequences of three species were improved with additional sampling. The relative timing of the onset of ossification in 17 cranial elements was recorded, resulting in 136 event pairs, which were treated as characters for each species. Half of these characters are constant across all taxa, 30% are variable but phylogenetically uninformative, and 19% potentially deliver diagnostic features for clades of two or more taxa. Using the conservative estimate of heterochronic changes provided by the program Parsimov, only a few heterochronies were found to diagnose mammals, marsupials, or placentals. A later onset of ossification of the pterygoid with respect to six other cranial bones characterizes therian mammals. This result may relate to the relatively small size of this bone in this clade. One change in relative onset of ossification is hypothesized as a potential human autapomorphy in the context of the sampling made: the earlier onset of the ossification of the periotic with respect to the lacrimal and to three basicranial bones. Using the standard error of scaled ranks across all species as a measure of each element's lability in developmental timing, we found that ossification of early, middle, and late events are similarly labile, with basicranial traits the most labile in timing of onset of ossification. Despite marsupials and placental mammals diverging at least 130 Ma, few heterochronic shifts in cranial ossification diagnose these clades.

  2. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities After Cranial Radiation in Children and Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, Brian J.; Guzman, A. Elizabeth de; Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Pipitone, Jon; Strother, Douglas; Fryer, Chris; Bouffet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pediatric patients treated with cranial radiation are at high risk of developing lasting cognitive impairments. We sought to identify anatomical changes in both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in radiation-treated patients and in mice, in which the effect of radiation can be isolated from other factors, the time course of anatomical change can be established, and the effect of treatment age can be more fully characterized. Anatomical results were compared between species. Methods and Materials: Patients were imaged with T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after radiation treatment. Nineteen radiation-treated patients were divided into groups of 7 years of age and younger (7−) and 8 years and older (8+) and were compared to 41 controls. C57BL6 mice were treated with radiation (n=52) or sham treated (n=52) between postnatal days 16 and 36 and then assessed with in vivo and/or ex vivo MRI. In both cases, measurements of WM and GM volume, cortical thickness, area and volume, and hippocampal volume were compared between groups. Results: WM volume was significantly decreased following treatment in 7− and 8+ treatment groups. GM volume was unchanged overall, but cortical thickness was slightly increased in the 7− group. Results in mice mostly mirrored these changes and provided a time course of change, showing early volume loss and normal growth. Hippocampal volume showed a decreasing trend with age in patients, an effect not observed in the mouse hippocampus but present in the olfactory bulb. Conclusions: Changes in mice treated with cranial radiation are similar to those in humans, including significant WM and GM alterations. Because mice did not receive any other treatment, the similarity across species supports the expectation that radiation is causative and suggests mice provide a representative model for studying impaired brain development after cranial radiation and testing novel treatments.

  3. Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Boennemann, Carsten G. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Erin S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neuroradiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present serial MR findings in a child ultimately diagnosed with the early infantile form of Krabbe disease. MR showed typical features of Krabbe disease including cerebellar and brainstem hyperintensity, periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity, and cerebral atrophy. In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  4. Reliability of Diagnosis and Clinical Efficacy of Cranial Osteopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaud, Albin; Darbois, Nelly; Monvoisin, Richard; Pinsault, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization released benchmarks for training in osteopathy in which they considered cranial osteopathy as an important osteopathic skill. However, the evidence supporting the reliability of diagnosis and the efficacy of treatment in this field appears scientifically weak and inconsistent. To identify and critically evaluate the scientific literature dealing with the reliability of diagnosis and the clinical efficacy of techniques and therapeutic strategies used in cranial osteopathy. Relevant keywords were used to search the electronic databases MEDLINE, PEDro, OSTMED.DR, Cochrane Library, and in Google Scholar, Journal of American Osteopathy Association and International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine websites. Searches were conducted up to end June 2016 with no date restriction as to when the studies were completed. As a complementary approach we explored the bibliography of included articles and consulted available previous reviews dealing with this topic. Regarding diagnostic processes in cranial osteopathy, we analyzed studies that compared the results obtained by at least two examiners or by the same examiner on at least two occasions. For efficacy studies, only randomized-controlled-trials or crossover-studies were eligible. We excluded articles that were not in English or French, and for which the full-text version was not openly available. We also excluded studies with unsuitable study design, in which there was no clear indication of the use of techniques or therapeutic strategies concerning the cranial field, looked at combined treatments, used a non-human examiner and subjects or used healthy subjects for efficacy studies. There was no restriction regarding the type of disease. In our electronic search we found 1280 references concerning reliability of diagnosis studies plus four references via our complementary strategy. Based on the title 18 articles were selected for analysis. Nine were retained after applying our

  5. IAEA and food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1995-01-01

    IAEA was founded in 1957. 122 countries take part in it. It is operated with the yearly ordinary budget of about 20 billion yen and the technical cooperation budget of about 6 billion yen and by 2200 personnel. Its two important roles are the promotion of the peaceful utilization of atomic energy and the prevention of nuclear proliferation. The activities of IAEA are shown. The cooperation with developing countries and the international research cooperation program are the important activities. The securing of foods is an urgent subject, and the utilization of radiation and isotopes has been promoted, aiming at sustaining agriculture. The necessity of food irradiation is explained, and at present, commercial food irradiation is carried out in 28 countries including Japan. The irradiation less than 10 kGy does not cause poisonous effect in any food, according to JECFI. The new international agreement is expected to be useful for promoting the international trade of irradiated foods. The international cooperation for the spread of food irradiation and the public acceptance of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Irradiating strand material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.R.; Brown, M.J.; Loan, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Conductors covered with insulation which is to be irradiated are passed between two groups of coaxial sheaves mounted rotatably individually. Successive sections of the conductors are advanced past the window of one accelerator head, around the associated sheave or sheaves, and then past the window of another accelerator head. The accelerators face in substantially opposite directions and are staggered along the paths of the conductors to avoid any substantial overlap of the electron beams associated therewith. The windows extend vertically to encompass all the generally horizontal passes of the conductors as between the two groups of sheaves. Preferably, conductors are strung-up between the sheaves in a modified figure eight pattern. The pattern is a figure eight modified to intermittently include a pass between the sheaves which is parallel to a line joining the axes of the two groups of sheaves. This reverses the direction of travel of the conductors and optimizes the uniformity of exposure of the cross sectional area of the insulation of the conductors to irradiation. The use of a figure eight path for the conductors causes the successive sections of the conductor to turn about the longitudinal axes thereof as they are advanced around the sheaves. In this way the insulation is more uniformly irradiated. In a preferred embodiment, twisted conductor pairs may be irradiated. The twist accentuates the longitudinal turning of the conductor pair. The irradiation of twisted pairs achieves obvious manufacturing economies while avoiding the necessity of having to twist irradiation cross-linked conductors

  7. Motonuclear changes after cranial nerve injury and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E; Pallini, R; Lauretti, L; La Marca, F; Scogna, A; Rossi, G F

    1997-09-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms at play in nerve regeneration after nerve injury. Personal studies are reported regarding motonuclear changes after regeneration of injured cranial nerves, in particular of the facial and oculomotor nerves, as well as the influence that the natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has on post-axotomy cranial nerve motoneuron degeneration after facial and vagus nerve lesions. Adult and newborn animal models were used. Massive motoneuron response after nerve section and reconstruction was observed in the motonuclei of all nerves studied. ALC showed to have significant neuroprotective effects on the degeneration of axotomized motoneurons. Complex quantitative, morphological and somatotopic nuclear changes occurred that sustain new hypotheses regarding the capacities of motoneurons to regenerate and the possibilities of new neuron proliferation. The particularities of such observations are described and discussed.

  8. Cranial Nerve Palsies: Sarcoidosis to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranial palsies are a very rare feature of SLE. Similarly, peripheral sensory-motor axonal neuropathy is very uncommon in SLE. The combination of the two as the presenting symptoms of SLE is a diagnostic challenge particularly in an elderly male patient with a known diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This case serves to highlight the diagnostic considerations in such a patient. The lack of response to standard therapy and the presence of subtle clues like anemia, proteinuria, and mild serositis should prompt the physician to look for alternate diagnoses. The potential association of SLE and sarcoidosis is also discussed. SLE can be present in elderly male patients with cranial and peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Mary; Phillips, Kenneth D

    2010-11-01

    More prevalent in women than men, clinical depression affects approximately 15 million American adults in a given year. Psychopharmaceutical therapy accompanied by psychotherapy and wellness interventions (e.g., nutrition, exercise, counseling) is effective in 80% of diagnosed cases. A lesser known adjunctive therapy is that of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES). The major hypothesis for the use of CES in depression is that it may reset the brain to pre-stress homeostasis levels. It is conjectured that the pulsed electrical currents emitted by cranial electrical stimulators affect changes in the limbic system, the reticular activating system, and/or the hypothalamus that result in neurotransmitter secretion and downstream hormone production. While evidence is good for applied research, basic research about the mechanisms of action for CES remains in its infancy. A review of the literature provides an overview of current research findings and implications for clinical mental health practice.

  10. Clinical characteristics and diagnostic imaging of cranial osteoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelargos, Panayiotis E; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Ung, Nolan; Chung, Lawrance K; Thill, Kimberly; Tenn, Stephen; Gopen, Quinton; Yang, Isaac

    2015-03-01

    Benign osteoblastoma is a rare, vascular, osteoid-forming bone tumor that occurs even less frequently in the cranial bones. Benign osteoblastoma of the cranium affects women slightly more often than men and typically presents in the first three decades of life. Although clinical presentation can vary depending on location, cranial osteoblastoma usually presents as a painful, non-mobile, subcutaneous mass or swelling. On CT scan, it generally presents as a well-demarcated, mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion, with enlarged diploe, thinning outer and/or inner tables, and varying degrees of calcification. It is hypo to isointense on T1-weighted MRI and has variable presentation on T2-weighted MRI. Gross total resection is the definitive treatment, while subtotal resection is utilized when it is necessary to preserve critical adjacent neurovascular structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...... these transformations, any annotation on the atlas can automatically be transformed back to all cases. For this study, two rounds of tracing seven of the cranial sutures, were performed on the atlas by one observer. The average of the two rounds was automatically propagated to all the cases. For validation......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  12. Cranial radiation in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Neuropsychologic sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child

  13. The nasomaxillary complex and the cranial base in artificial cranial deformation: relationships from a geometric morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferros, Isabel; Mora, Maria J; Obeso, Idoia F; Jimenez, Publio; Martinez-Insua, Arturo

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a relationship between the cranial base and the development of the nasomaxillary complex (NMC). The objective of the present study was to investigate the morphological relationship between these two anatomical units in skulls that have intentionally been subjected to one of two types of artificial deformity of the cranial vault [artificially deformed skulls (ADS)]. A geometric morphometry study was performed on lateral cephalometric X-rays of three groups of crania: 32 with anteroposterior (AP) deformity, 17 with circumferential (C) deformity, and 39 with no apparent deformity. The cranial base of the ADS showed marked deformity that produced a restriction of AP growth of the NMC, alterations of the roof of the orbit as a consequence of the rotation of anterior cranial fossa, and nasal protrusion. Pronounced morphological differences were found between the three groups: increased vertical development of the maxilla occurred in both ADS groups due to growth of the alveolar process, and rotation of the maxilla and displacement of the orbital rim was observed in the C group. This confirms that the posterior facial plane is regarded as an axial structure that serves as an interface between the middle cranial base and the NMC (Enlow, D.H. and Hans, M.G. (1996) Essential of Facial Growth. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA). It is important to take into account that these results have been obtained from an archaeological sample, with all the limitations that this implies such as being a small sample and with no absolute certainty regarding the use of the same type of deforming device within each group. Furthermore, this is a lateral two-dimensional study in which transverse development has not been analysed. Artificial modification of the shape of the vault has repercussions on the NMC that support the theory of an all-inclusive integration of the different cranial units in normal as well as in restricted development. © The Author 2014

  14. Generation of normative pediatric skull models for use in cranial vault remodeling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nikoo R; Phillips, John; Looi, Thomas; Usmani, Zoha; Burge, Jonathan; Drake, James; Kim, Peter C W

    2012-03-01

    While the goal of craniofacial reconstruction surgery is to restore the cranial head shape as much towards normal as possible, for the individual patient, there is, in fact, no normal three-dimensional (3D) model to act as a guide. In this project, we generated a library of normative pediatric skulls from which a guiding template could be fabricated for a more standardized, objective and precise correction of craniosynostosis. Computed tomography data from 103 normal subjects aged 8-12 months were compiled and a 3D computational model of the skull was generated for each subject. The models were mathematically registered to a baseline model for each month of age within this range and then averaged, resulting in a single 3D point cloud. An external cranial surface was subsequently passed through the point cloud and its shape and size customized to fit the head circumference of individual patients. The resultant fabricated skull models provide a novel and applicable tool for a detailed, quantitative comparison between the normative and patient skulls for preoperative planning and practice for a variety of craniofacial procedures including vault remodeling. Additionally, it was possible to extract the suprafrontal orbit anatomy from the normative model and fabricate a bandeau template to guide intraoperative reshaping. Normative head shapes for pediatric patients have wide application for craniofacial surgery including planning, practice, standarized operative repair, and standardized measurement and reporting of outcomes.

  15. Pubertal spurts in cranial base and mandible. Comparisons within individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A B; Roche, A F; Wagner, B

    1985-01-01

    Serial data from cephalometric radiographs were analyzed for 34 boys and 33 girls who had cephalometric radiographs annually near each birthday from at least age 7 through 18 years. Spurts were defined for this study as increases between successive cranial base increments that exceeded 0.75mm/year in boys or 0.5mm/year in girls. The corresponding criterion for the mandible was 1.0mm/year in either sex. Pubescence was defined as the 4- year period spanning 2 years before and after peak height velocity. Spurts during pubescence were common, tending to occur about 1.6yr earlier in girls than boys. The mean increments at first pubertal spurt (FPS) and the mean sizes of FPS were about 25% to 33% greater in the boys than in the girls. The rate of growth during the year before FPS tended to be greater in the girls, while in the year after FPS it tended to be greater in the boys. The timing of FPS in either cranial base of mandible was not closely related to the onset of ossification in the ulnar sesamoid, the age at peak height velocity, or age at menarche. FPS generally occurred after the onset of ossification of the ulnar sesamoid, but before peak height velocity and menarche. There was no evidence of difference between craniofacial EPS in children who passed rapidly or slowly through pubescence, nor was any difference noted between the size of pubertal spurts in tall or short boys. larger total increments after peak height velocity were found in the short boys. Significant correlations were identified between the cranial base and the mandible in the timing but not in the magnitude of FPS. The children were approximately equally divided between those in whom cranial base spurts occurred first, those in whom mandibular spurts were first, and those in whom FPS occurred in both areas within the same annual interval.

  16. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Nichols, Francine

    2013-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation is a prescriptive medical device that delivers a mild form of electrical stimulation to the brain for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. It is supported by more than 40 years of research demonstrating its effectiveness in several mechanistic studies and greater than 100 clinical studies. Adverse effects are rare (electrotherapy stimulation may also be used as an adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic criteria on cranial CT for ischaemic cerebral infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.; Hornig, C.R.; Busse, O.; Hoffmann, O.; Akengin, Z.; Giessen Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-three cranial computer tomograms in 214 patients with supratentorial ischaemic infarcts were analysed with reference to the prognosis. Patients with large infarcts often have a poor prognosis. Contrast accumulation indicates a poor prognosis only in the first week. Enhancement in the second and third week was more common and more intense. Diapedesis from necrotic capillaries is thought to be responsible for early enhancement and increased pinocytosis in regenerated endothelium for late enhancement. (orig.) [de

  18. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F

    2013-10-01

    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. SCHWANNOMA ORIGINATING FROM LOWER CRANIAL NERVES: REPORT OF 4 CASES

    OpenAIRE

    OYAMA, HIROFUMI; KITO, AKIRA; MAKI, HIDEKI; HATTORI, KENICHI; NODA, TOMOYUKI; WADA, KENTARO

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Four cases of schwannoma originating from the lower cranial nerves are presented. Case 1 is a schwannoma of the vagus nerve in the parapharyngeal space. The operation was performed by the transcervical approach. Although the tumor capsule was not dissected from the vagus nerve, hoarseness and dysphagia happened transiently after the operation. Case 2 is a schwannoma in the jugular foramen. The operation was performed by the infralabyrinthine approach. Although only the intracapsular ...

  20. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  1. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüerssen, K; Ptok, M

    2006-02-01

    Osteopathia striata is a manifestation of several bone dysplasias. In association with cranial sclerosis, it represents a separate entity that is not limited to the bones, but may also affect other structures, leading to an abnormal face, cleft palate, deafness, heart defects and vertebral anomalies. Neurological findings range from normal development to marked retardation with hydrocephalus, cranial nerve deficiencies and deafness. So far, only a few patients have been described in the literature, demonstrating autosomal dominant inheritance. Here, we report a spontaneous mutation of inheritance. The parents and three sisters of the affected child are healthy. In 78.6% of the reported cases with osteopathia striata and hearing loss, a conductive hearing loss was described. Surgical attempts to mobilize the middle-ear bones were unsuccessful because of swelling and augmented growth of the bones in the middle ears. Here the mobilization of the eardrum was not attempted because the middle ear cavities were epidermized. This is the second case in the literature in which a myringotomy was not done because the middle ear was completely epidermized. As a possible alternative, children with osteopathia striata and cranial sclerosis with hearing loss should be fitted with hearing aids because surgery of the middle ear probably will be difficult or perhaps not possible.

  2. Further clinical delineation and increased morbidity in males with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis: an X-linked disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J E; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Schneider, A; Markowitz, R I; Zackai, E H

    1997-05-16

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a bone dysplasia characterized by hypertelorism, macrocephaly, frontal bossing, broad nasal bridge, palate anomalies, hearing deficits, and mental retardation. The radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis, linear striations in the long bones and iliac wings, small poorly aerated sinuses, scoliosis, and increased bone density. The sensory deficits are disabling, but the condition generally is not life threatening. We describe 4 brothers with the characteristics of OS-CS, 3 of whom have died from more serious complications of the disorder. The mother of these children, and her only daughter, have the mildest phenotype with the typical linear striations in the long bones and macrocephaly. OS-CS is thought to be autosomal dominant with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Our observations could be consistent with X-linkage, since there is milder expression in the female relatives. In addition, we recognize absent fibulae, malrotation, and omphalocele as new manifestations as well as congenital heart disease.

  3. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  4. Irradiation's promise: fewer foodborne illnesses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1986-01-01

    Food irradiation offers a variety of potential benefits to the food supply. It can delay ripening and sprouting of fruits and vegetables, and substitute for chemical fumigants to kill insects. However, one of the most important benefits of food irradiation is its potential use for destroying microbial pathogens that enter the food supply, including the two most common disease causing bacteria: salmonella and campylobacter. Animal products are one of the primary carriers of pathogens. Food borne illnesses are on the rise, and irradiation of red meats and poultry could significantly reduce their occurrence. Food irradiation should be examined more closely to determine its possible benefits in curtailing microbial diseases

  5. Food irradiation scenario in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Over 3 decades of research and developmental effort in India have established the commercial potential for food irradiation to reduce post-harvest losses and to ensure food safety. Current regulations permit irradiation of onions, potatoes and spices for domestic consumption and operation of commercial irradiators for treatment of food. In May 1997 draft rules have been notified permitting irradiation of several additional food items including rice, wheat products, dry fruits, mango, meat and poultry. Consumers and food industry have shown a positive attitude to irradiated foods. A prototype commercial irradiator for spices set up by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) is scheduled to commence operation in early 1998. A commercial demonstration plant for treatment of onions is expected to be operational in the next 2 years in Lasalgaon, Nashik district. (author)

  6. Reduced growth hormone secretion after cranial irradiation contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834467; Valk, G D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163319391; Drent, M L; Stalpers, L J A; Kenemans, J L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075148897; Koppeschaar, H P F; van Dam, P S

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between growth hormone (GH) and attentional electro-cortical responses to task-relevant stimuli (N2b), target detections, speed of responding, P300 latencies, and performance on neuropsychological tests in 19 patients who received external

  7. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delattre, J.Y.; Safai, B.; Posner, J.B.

    1988-02-01

    In 15 months we encountered eight patients with intracranial tumors who developed erythema multiforme (EM) or erythema multiforme bullosa (Stevens-Johnson syndrome). All occurred shortly after use of phenytoin (DPH) and brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The clinical picture differed from the classic form of EM in that the erythema began on the scalp and spread to the extremities, progressing in three cases to extensive bullous formation. There were no cases of EM among patients who received either DPH or radiotherapy alone. The combination of DPH, WBRT, and tapering of steroids seems to predispose to EM. The pathogenesis of the disorder is probably immunologic. In the absence of seizures, anticonvulsants should not be given routinely to patients with brain tumors. When anticonvulsants are necessary in patients scheduled for WBRT, DPH may not be the drug of choice.

  8. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  9. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyoung eLee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for the cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules which are associated with cell differentiation can be modeled using Turing’s reaction-diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor. In this study we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in both of normal and defect conditions. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones.

  10. Does Peripheral Neuropathy Associate with Cranial Nerves Neuropathy in Type 2 diabetes Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Fadhil Jalal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN is the most common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cranial neuropathies is usually presenting as mononeuropathies coexist with DPN either presented clinically or in subclinical form. The aim of this study is to detect cranial neuropathy in diabetic patients. Eighty three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with an age range of 30-69 years were included in the study. The study also involved normal healthy persons whose age and gender are harmonized with that of our patients that were deliberated as control group (60 persons. Diabetic patients with DPN had significant difference in age, highly significant difference in the duration of the disease and highly significance difference in BMI had poor glycemic control reflected by high FBS and HbA1c, while lipid profile picture showed insignificant difference when compared with diabetic patients without DPN. Nerve conduction study (sensory and motor showed a significant difference regarding latency, amplitude, and conduction velocity between diabetic patients with DPN and those without DPN. The results of blink reflex showed highly significant difference between diabetic patients and controls.

  11. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  12. Clinical validity of MR based program for analysis of fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boguslawska, R.; Lechowicz, W.

    2008-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and type 2 (SCA2) belong to the group of neurodegenerative disorders of autosomal dominant inheritance, genetically and clinically heterogeneous, caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion, which leads to productions of protein carrying the abnormal polyglutamine chain (polyQ). Molecular abnormalities cause degenerative changes - atrophy of posterior cranial fossa structures. The clinical symptoms typical of this disorder include progressive gait and limb ataxia, dysarthria, occulomotor disturbances, pyramidal tract and peripheral nerves involvement. The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of a computer program prepared in our department for volumetric measurements of posterior cranial fossa structures (the pons, vermis and cerebellar hemispheres) in a group of SCA patients. MR examinations of 22 patients suffering from SCA were used to calculate the value of fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures and compared with the results of group of 10 healthy volunteers. The degree of atrophy of posterior cranial fossa structures can be objectively evaluated by special volumetric measurements. We found fluid/brain index (FBI) of posterior cranial fossa structures in group of SCA patients to vary from 0.1411 to 0.3929 (mean 0.2456 SD±0.601). 1. MR-based calculation of fluid/brain index of posterior fossa structures is a valuable tool for morphological assessment of SCA-related changes in brain structures. 2. The presented software enables objective evaluation of the course and stage of posterior fossa structures atrophy. 3. Our self-made computer program to calculate the fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures is easy to use on a personal computer- it is a good tool in everyday radiological practice. (author)

  13. Substituição dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal em cães por duplo implante de polipropileno Replacement of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments in dogs by double t polypropylene implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curvello de Mendonça Müller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é salientar uma alternativa eficaz no tratamento da ruptura dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal de cães, sem associação de imobilização externa. Foram atendidos seis animais portadores de ruptura de ambos os ligamentos cruzados. Optou-se pela correção cirúrgica intracapsular, utilizando-se dois implantes sintéticos de polipropileno, para a estabilização da articulação. Os pacientes retornaram ao apoio completo do membro em 11,8±3,5 dias e não mantiveram instabilidade articular, após 0, 30 e 90 dias de avaliação clínica pós-operatória. Aos 90 dias após a cirurgia, não se percebeu claudicação nos pacientes avaliados. Concluiu-se que a técnica utilizada promoveu total estabilidade articular na ausência dos ligamentos cruzados cranial e caudal.The objective of this study is to point out an effective alternative in the treatment of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments rupture in dogs, with no association of external immobilization. Six dogs with rupture of both cruciate ligaments were included in the present study. Stifle joint was surgically stabilized by an intracapsular technique, using two polypropylene synthetic implants. The animals returned to full member support in 11.8±3.5 days and did not sustain any joint instability degree after 0, 30 and 90 days of clinical evaluation after surgery. At 90 days after surgery, it became apparent lameness in any of the six patients. It was concluded that the technique employed caused total joint stability in the absence of caudal and cranial cruciate ligaments.

  14. Longevity of irradiated burros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Brown, D.G.; Frome, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the course of external radiation exposures of burros to establish a dose-response curve for acute mortality after total irradiation, some of the animals at the three lowest exposures to gamma photons survived. These groups of 10, 9, and 10 burros were exposed to 320, 425, and 545 R, respectively. There were 10 unirradiated controls. In 1953, 20 burros were exposed to 375 R (gamma) in 25-R/week increments without acute mortality and were added to the life-span study. In 1957, 33 burros were exposed to mixed neutron-gamma radiation from nuclear weapons, and 14 controls were added. The total number of irradiated burros in the study was increased to 88 by the addition of 6 animals irradiated with 180 rads of neutron and gamma radiation (4:1) in a Godiva-type reactor in 1959. In this experiment two acute deaths occurred which were not included in the analysis. In the first 4 years after the single gamma exposures, there were deaths from pancytopenia and thrombocytopenia, obviously related to radiation-induced bone-marrow damage. After that period, however, deaths were from common equine diseases; no death has resulted from a malignant neoplasm. Of the original 112 burros, 15 survive (10 irradiated and 5 controls). Survival curves determined for unirradiated and neutron-gamma- and gamma-irradiated burros showed significant differences. The mean survival times were: controls, 28 years; gamma irradiation only, 26 years; and neutron-gamma irradiation, 23 years. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Microwave Irradiation - Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 77-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Gonadal Irradiation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    division either by mitosis or meiosis show the least degree of radiation tolerance. This can be readily demonstrated histologically. Two hours after irradiation the spermatogenetic cell column starts to shrink because of a reduction in the number of spermatogonia, some of which are undergoing abnormal mitosis. Four days ...

  17. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  18. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave Irradiation. Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. This article highlights with examples, the usefulness of microwaves for carrying out a'variety of organic transfor- mations. Introduction and Background. The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens prompted a number of ...

  19. An unusual case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Sanjeev; Borde, Priyanka

    2012-08-15

    Cranial nerve involvement is not common in leprosy. The fifth and seventh cranial nerves are the most commonly affected in leprosy. Herein we present a patient with Hansen disease (BL) with type I reaction who developed isolated involvement of the sixth cranial nerve leading to lateral rectus muscle palsy. He responded to timely anti-reactional therapy and it produced a good response. Careful observation of patients with lepra reaction is needed to avoid damage to important organs.

  20. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  1. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-01-01

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins

  2. Economics of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.; Steeves, C.; Beaulieu, D.

    1993-01-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. (author)

  3. Complete 3rd cranial nerve dysfunction postdeflation/ excision of an encasing pituitary macroadenoma intrasellular cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system injury in particular cranial nerve palsy has been reported to be as high as 2%. Such prevalence of palsy generally attributed to surgical manipulation at the cavernous sinus, especially incurring the abducens nerve. We report the first case of acute oculomotor nerve sequel to the release of cystic fluid wrapping the nerve following a transsphenoidal excision of pituitary macroadenoma in a 57-year-old woman. She attended with the presentation of acute excruciating headache associated with partial drooping of right eye. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were consistent with pituitary apoplexy of an underlying pituitary macroadenoma. Urgent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy was done. Intra-operatively, cystic fluid was aspirated during pituitary tumour dissection. At the same time, curettage was employed to removal residual tumour after the tumour biopsy. Immediate post-operative assessment noted complete right eye ptosis, with clinical evidence of complete right third and fourth nerve palsies. MRI was repeated a week later in view of such palsy non-resolution. However, no local compression or edema noted. Observation and monitoring were opted versus surgical revision. Propitiously the aforementioned cranial nerve palsies persist for a month and subsequently subsided. In this case, we highlight the potential deleterious impact of aspirating cystic component and curettaging during pituitary surgery. Likely postulated accounts for such occurrence include sudden release of fluid pressure with resultant cystic traction on its enfolding cranial nerves and subsequent neuropraxia. We aim to invite comments that could enlighten us on this gray area.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid flow waveforms: effect of altered cranial venous outflow. A phase-contrast MR flow imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadelia, R.A.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of alterations in the cranial venous outflow on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow waveforms using phase-contrast MRI. Thirteen healthy subjects were assessed for CSF flow and cerebral vascular flow at the C2-3 level, both before and after jugular venous compression (JVC). The flow waveforms were assessed both as an aggregate, and after dividing subjects in two groups based on percent jugular venous flow (PJVF) i. e. jugular outflow expressed as percent of cerebral arterial inflow. Group 1: 7 subjects with PJVF more than and including median (predominantly jugular outflow); Group 2: 6 subjects with PJVF less than median (predominantly extra-jugular outflow). CSF waveforms: JVC produced rounding of contours and flattening of dicrotic waves, with the effect being greater in group 1 than group 2. In group 1, systolic upslopes of the waveforms increased. No significant aggregate amplitude changes were noted; amplidutes increased in group 1 (P = 0.001), and decreased in group 2 (P = 0.03). Temporal interval to the maximum CSF systolic flow significantly increased in group 1. Vascular flow: Arterial flow significantly decreased in group 1. Jugular flow significantly decreased in both groups. The results suggest that CSF flow waveforms are sensitive to alterations in the cranial venous outflow. Changes in group 1 are most likely because of an elevation in intracranial pressure. Analysis of CSF flow waveforms appears a promising noninvasive tool for assessment of cranial compartment. (orig.)

  5. Principle features of the cranial osteology of Milvago chimango (Vieillot, 1816 and Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 (Aves: Falconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Guzzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of details of the cranial osteology of Milvago chimango and M. chimachima helps to ensure the monophyly of genus when compared to other birds and falcons. We conducted a study using skulls of three Milvago chimango and three Milvago chimachima specimens from the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's Division of Birds. The cranial descriptions were comparative and illustrated by photos from the dorsal, ventral, and lateral flow perspectives. The studied species were then compared with falcons and other birds. Milvago chimango possesses several unique characters, including: the ratio of the distance from the distal portion of the lacrimal bone to the orbital arc, and from the orbital arc to the buccal arc is (1/5; absence of transpalate processes; lack of dorsal process on the pterygoid bone; more robust skull; paraoccipital bone more developed laterally; lacrimal bone smaller and more rostral; palatine bone approximately twice as wide; ethmoide bone more robust and long. In M. chimachima, the distinguishing features are: presence of projections at the caudal end of the palatine bone; developed dorsal process of the pterygoid bone; temporal fossa more tapered dorsoventrally; transverse nuchal crest outlined and visible; nostril closer to the frontonasal suture. Cranial osteology successfully provided diagnostic characters of each species and gender compared to other birds and falcons.

  6. Post-cranial prey transport mechanisms in the black pinesnake, Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi: an x-ray videographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Nathan J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2002-01-01

    Most previous studies of snake feeding mechanisms have focused on the functional morphology of the highly specialized ophidian jaw apparatus. Although some of these studies have included observations of post-cranial movements during feeding, the functional roles of these movements have remained poorly understood. In this study, we used x-ray videography to examine post-cranial prey transport mechanisms in a colubrid snake, Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi. We found that prey transport in this species progresses through four distinct phases, three of which are characterized by either undulatory or concertina-like movements of the anterior portion of the trunk. In the first phase of transport (the oral phase), unilateral movements of the jaws are used to pull the head forward around the prey. In the second phase (the orocervical phase), unilateral jaw movements continue, but are augmented by concertina-like movements of the anterior portion of the trunk. In the third phase (the cervical phase), prey transport occurs exclusively through concertina-like movements of the neck. Finally, in the fourth phase (the thoracic phase), prey is transported to the stomach via undulatory movements of the trunk. Our observations of feeding behavior in a phylogenetically diverse sample of fourteen other snake species demonstrate that similar post-cranial transport mechanisms are used by a wide variety of alethinophidian snakes that feed on large, bulky prey.

  7. Irradiation creep of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Displacement damage of graphite by neutron irradiation causes graphite to change dimensions. This dimensional instability requires careful attention when graphite is used as as moderator and reflector material in nuclear devices. Natural gradients in flux and temperature result in time-varying differential growth generating stresses similar to thermal stresses with an ever increasing temperature gradient. Graphite, however, does have the ability to creep under irradiation, allowing the stress intensity to relax below the fracture strength of the material. Creep strain also serves to average the radiation-induced strains, thus contributing to the stability of the core. As the dimensional instability is a function of temperature, so are the creep characteristics of graphite, and it is of interest to generalize the available data for extension to more extreme conditions of fluence and temperature. Irradiation creep of graphite is characterized by two stages of creep; a primary stage that saturates with time and a secondary stage that is generally assumed to be linear and constant with time. Virtually all past studies have not considered primary creep in detail primarily because there is limited available data at the very low fluences required to saturate primary creep. It is the purpose of this study to carefully examine primary creep in detail over the irradiation temperature range of 150 to 1000 degree C. These studies also include the combined effects of creep, differential growth, and structural changes in graphite by irradiation. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J. van

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-five years of development work on the preservation of food by irradiation have shown that this technology has the potential to reduce post-harvest losses and to produce safe foods. The technological feasibility has been established but general acceptance of food irradiation by national regulatory bodies and consumers requires attention. The positive aspects of food preservation by irradiation include: the food keeps its freshness and its physical state, agents which cause spoilage (bacteria, etc.) are eliminated, recontamination does not take place, provided packaging materials are impermeable to bacteria and insects. It inhibits sprouting of root crops, kills insects and parasites, inactivates bacteria, spores and moulds, delays ripening of fruit, improves the technological properties of food. It makes foods biologically safe, allows the production of shelf-stable foods and is excellent for quarantine treatment, and generally improves food hygiene. The dose ranges needed for effective treatment are given

  9. Irradiation of the head, immediate effect on growth hormone secretion in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacou-Voutetakis, C.; Xypolyta, A.; Haidas, S.; Constantinidis, M.; Papavasiliou, C.; Zannos-Mariolea, L.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) was determined in samples obtained hourly from 1000 h to 0700 h before, and after a 3 week course of ''prophylactic'' cranial irradiation, in ten leukemic children who had no clinical or laboratory evidence of central nervous system involvement. The mean per hour value of GH prior to irradiation (4.1 +- 2.4 ng/ml) was similar to that of 7 endocrinologically normal children (4.09 +- 2.4 ng/ml), a finding strongly suggesting normal pituitary function prior to irradiation. Following irradiation GH levels at each hour were, in general, lower than before. The difference is statistically significant at 0100h. The peak GH responses were lower following the preceding irradiation (p less than 0.02). The findings suggest an immediate suppressive effect of irradiation on the apparently normal hypothalamic pituitary axis in children

  10. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 14, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This issue reports specific training activities on Food Irradiation Process Control School, both for technical supervisors of irradiation facilities and food control officials/inspectors, and summary reports of Workshops on dosimetry techniques for food irradiation and on techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation for Latin American countries are included. After 12 years of operation, the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) will cease to function after 31 December 1990. This issue reports the last inter-regional training course organized by IFFIT, and also features reports on food irradiation in Asia. Active developments in the field in several Asian countries may be found in the reports of the Workshop on the Commercialization of Food Irradiation, Shanghai, and the Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation (with emphasis on acceptance and process control), Bombay. Status reports of programmes in these countries are also included. Refs and tabs

  11. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  12. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  13. Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

  14. Cranial nerves neuropraxia after shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, A; Boyer, P; Soubeyrand, M; Hamida, F Ben; Vannier, J-L; Massin, P

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of neuropraxia of the 9th, 10th and 12th cranial nerve pairs after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in the beach chair position. The elements in the medical file seem to exclude an intracranial cause of the lesions and support a mechanical, extracranial cause due to intubation and/or the beach chair position. This clinical case report shows the neurological risks of the beach chair position during arthroscopic shoulder surgery and presents the essential safety measures to prevent these risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Six Syndromes of the Sixth Cranial Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azarmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy.

  16. The six syndromes of the sixth cranial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmina, Mohsen; Azarmina, Hossein

    2013-04-01

    The sixth cranial nerve runs a long course from the brainstem to the lateral rectus muscle. Based on the location of an abnormality, other neurologic structures may be involved with the pathology related to this nerve. Sixth nerve palsy is frequently due to a benign process with full recovery within weeks, yet caution is warranted as it may portend a serious neurologic process. Hence, early diagnosis is often critical for some conditions that present with sixth nerve palsy. This article outlines a simple clinical approach to sixth nerve palsy based on its anatomy.

  17. Brief communication: cranial nonmetric trait database on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenberg, Nancy Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    This brief note announces the publication of a nonmetric cranial trait database as a freely available resource on the Internet at: http://library.queensu.ca/webdoc/ssdc/cntd. The files were constructed in the program Excel, and are available also in comma-delimited format. These one-observer data on 38 traits were recorded in 1963-2003 in skeletal collections curated at many museums. The 8,016 crania represent individuals from a broad geographic and temporal range of recent human populations, with regions best represented being the Arctic and northwestern North America. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Risk of first and recurrent stroke in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial and cervical radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J

    2013-07-15

    To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of First and Recurrent Stroke in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated With Cranial and Cervical Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Sear, Katherine [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Hills, Nancy K. [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chettout, Nassim [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Afghani, Shervin [Undergraduate Program, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States); Gastelum, Erica [School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. Methods and Materials: We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results: Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Conclusion: Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed.

  20. Risk of First and Recurrent Stroke in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated With Cranial and Cervical Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K.; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a retrospective cohort study, rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation at ≤18 years of age. Methods and Materials: We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between 1980 and 2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first stroke was number of first strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results: Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown subtype) occurring at a median age of 24 years (interquartile range 17-33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13), and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first stroke was 625 (95% confidence interval [CI] 378-977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01%-5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% CI 2.0%-8.4%) at 10 years after irradiation. With each 100-cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (interquartile range 6 months-3.2 years) after first stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17%-69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27%-92%) at 10 years after first stroke. Conclusion: Cranial irradiation puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed

  1. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  2. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  3. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  4. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  5. An expert system for the interpretation of cranial CTSCAN images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Srihari, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental system for Interpretation of Cranial CT SCAN Images has been developed. Given a Cranial CT SCAN slice of a patient the system (which is an artificial intelligence (AI) based computer program) finds and labels neuroanatomical landmarks e.g. skull bone, CSF cavities, tissue and distinct abnormalities, present within the CT slice. If abnormalities are found, the system determines the kind of abnormality present e.g. hematoma, tumor, edema, etc., and where the abnormality was detected. The system described is a rule-based one. The rules are knowledge engineered from the radiologist. The system can be viewed as a series of mappings beginning from the matrix of ct numbers, representing a ct slice of a patient, to a symbolic description of the image in terms of black and white regions and their properties. The rules operate on this symbolic description and diagnose each region to be normal or abnormal, and if abnormal then the kind of abnormality present. The system developed so far is an experimental one and far from routine clinical applications. Essentially, the report presents a frame-work for labeling regions in each ct slice

  6. Ardipithecus ramidus and the evolution of the human cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbel, William H; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane; Rak, Yoel; White, Tim D

    2014-01-21

    The early Pliocene African hominoid Ardipithecus ramidus was diagnosed as a having a unique phylogenetic relationship with the Australopithecus + Homo clade based on nonhoning canine teeth, a foreshortened cranial base, and postcranial characters related to facultative bipedality. However, pedal and pelvic traits indicating substantial arboreality have raised arguments that this taxon may instead be an example of parallel evolution of human-like traits among apes around the time of the chimpanzee-human split. Here we investigated the basicranial morphology of Ar. ramidus for additional clues to its phylogenetic position with reference to African apes, humans, and Australopithecus. Besides a relatively anterior foramen magnum, humans differ from apes in the lateral shift of the carotid foramina, mediolateral abbreviation of the lateral tympanic, and a shortened, trapezoidal basioccipital element. These traits reflect a relative broadening of the central basicranium, a derived condition associated with changes in tympanic shape and the extent of its contact with the petrous. Ar. ramidus shares with Australopithecus each of these human-like modifications. We used the preserved morphology of ARA-VP 1/500 to estimate the missing basicranial length, drawing on consistent proportional relationships in apes and humans. Ar. ramidus is confirmed to have a relatively short basicranium, as in Australopithecus and Homo. Reorganization of the central cranial base is among the earliest morphological markers of the Ardipithecus + Australopithecus + Homo clade.

  7. Biomechanical Dynamics of Cranial Sutures during Simulated Impulsive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cranial sutures are deformable joints between the bones of the skull, bridged by collagen fibres. They function to hold the bones of the skull together while allowing for mechanical stress transmission and deformation. Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate how cranial suture morphology, suture material property, and the arrangement of sutural collagen fibres influence the dynamic responses of the suture and surrounding bone under impulsive loads. Methods. An idealized bone-suture-bone complex was analyzed using a two-dimensional finite element model. A uniform impulsive loading was applied to the complex. Outcome variables of von Mises stress and strain energy were evaluated to characterize the sutures’ biomechanical behavior. Results. Parametric studies revealed that the suture strain energy and the patterns of Mises stress in both the suture and surrounding bone were strongly dependent on the suture morphologies. Conclusions. It was concluded that the higher order hierarchical suture morphology, lower suture elastic modulus, and the better collagen fiber orientation must benefit the stress attenuation and energy absorption.

  8. Ependymomas of the posterior cranial fossa: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortori-Donati, P.; Fondelli, M.P.; Cama, A.; Garre, M.L.; Rossi, A.; Andreussi, L.

    1995-01-01

    We studied nine children with posterior cranial fossa ependymomas to identify specific neuroradiological features. Patients were studied preoperatively with CT and MRI; T1-, T2- and proton-density (PD)-weighted images were obtained. All children underwent surgery and a definite histopathological diagnosis was made. All the tumours grew into the fourth ventricle and caused dilatation of its upper part, which resembled a cap. All but one were separated from the vermis by a cleavage plane. In eight cases there was desmoplastic development through the foramina of the fourth ventricle, and five were heterogeneous due to necrosis and cystic change; one had a haemorrhagic area. In most cases the solid portion was isointense with grey matter on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on PD weighting, and isointense on T2-weighted images. On CT the tumour was isodense in six cases and calcification was detected in four. The presence of both desmoplastic development and a tumour/vermis cleavage plane in a posterior cranial fossa tumour isodense on CT is highly suggestive of ependymoma. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Features and Classification of Brain AVMs and Cranial DAVFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasi, R; Salvati, A; Medicamento, N; Chiumarulo, L

    2009-12-14

    The clinical findings of intracranial vascular malformations are strictly related to their morphologic, angioarchitectural and hemodynamic characteristics. An overall study of these features is the first step to understand the different classifications for arteriovenous malformations, dural arteriovenous fistulas and carotid-cavernous fistulas. This evaluation will also suggest the correct timing of endovascular treatment and which part of the lesion should be the target of the therapy. Conventional cerebral angiography is mandatory when a correct classification of intracranial arteriovenous malformative shunts must be achieved. The angioarchitectural classification of brain arteriovenous malformations considers all angiographic features of each component of the malformation, both morphologically and hemodynamically, and relates them to the clinical course of the disease. The correlation between clinical findings, angiographic features and classifications is even stronger for cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, in which cortical venous drainage is typical of "aggressive" fistulas and is usually absent in the "benign" type. Similarly, carotid-cavernous fistulas can be differentiated at angiography into high or low flow lesions according to the flow rate of the shunt, and into direct or indirect fistulas, according to the origin of arterial feeders. This paper focuses on the existing relation between the hemodynamics of brain arteriovenous malformations, cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas, carotid-cavernous fistulas, and their most frequent clinical findings, through an analysis of the most widely used different classification systems.

  10. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of {sup 3}H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of {sup 3}H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion.

  11. The role of the mesenchyme in cranial neural fold elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris-Wiman, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been previously postulated that the expansion of an hyaluronate-rich extracellular matrix in the fold mesenchyme is responsible for neural fold elevation. In this study we provide evidence that such expansions may play an important role in cranial neural fold elevation by pushing the folds towards the dorsal midline to assist in their elevation. For mesenchymal expansion to result in fold elevation, hyaluronate (HA) and mesenchymal cells must be non-randomly distributed within the mesenchyme. Patterns of mesenchymal cell distribution and cell proliferation were analyzed using the computer-assisted method of smoothed spatial averaging. The distribution of Alcian blue-stained and 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA was also analyzed during cranial neural fold elevation using established image processing techniques. Analysis of the distribution of 3 H-thymidine-labelled mesenchymal cells indicated that differential mitotic activity was not responsible for decreased mesenchymal cell density. Likewise, analysis of distribution patterns of 3 H-glucosamine-labelled HA indicated that decreased HA concentration was not produced by regional differences in HA synthesis. These results suggest that decreases in mesenchymal cell density and HA concentration that occur during neural fold elevation are produced by mesenchymal expansion

  12. Differential diagnosis and management of acquired sixth cranial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Denise

    2006-11-01

    Cranial nerve VI innervates the lateral rectus muscle. A lesion will result in esotropia greater at distance and an ipsilateral abduction deficiency. After the age of 50 years, vascular diseases are the most commonly known causes. A 55-year-old white man reporting a 2-week history of horizontal diplopia that was worse at distance was found to have a left sixth cranial nerve paresis. The patient was diagnosed with hypertension and placed on medications. At the 4-week follow-up visit, the abduction deficiency had resolved. The incidence of sixth nerve palsy is 11.3 in 100,000. A lesion anywhere along the course of the nerve, from the pons to the orbit, can cause a paresis or palsy. After ruling out trauma and non-neurological problems, cases should be classified into neurologically isolated or non-neurologically isolated cases. Neurologically isolated sixth nerve palsies are associated most commonly with vascular disease. Non-neurologically isolated sixth nerve palsies typically are associated with more grave conditions. A sixth nerve palsy of vascular or undetermined causes typically resolves within 6 to 8 weeks. If resolution does not occur within 2 to 3 months, the condition progresses, or if additional neurologic signs or symptoms develop, imaging studies are indicated.

  13. Complete Cranial Iliac Osteotomy to Approach the Lumbosacral Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach using a complete cranial iliac osteotomy (CCIO to access the lumbosacral (LS foramen in dogs from lateral was developed using cadavers and applied in a clinical patient with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS. The foraminal enlargement in the cadavers and the patient was documented on postoperative CT scans. The preoperative CT scan of the patient showed moderate cranial telescoping of the sacral roof and a moderate central disk protrusion, leading to moderate to severe compression of the cauda equina. In addition, there was lateral spondylosis with consequential stenosis of the right LS foramen. The right L7 nerve had lost its fat attenuation and appeared thickened. After a routine L7S1 dorsal laminectomy with a partial discectomy, a CCIO was performed, providing good access to the LS foramen and the adhesions around the proximal L7 nerve caudoventral to the foramen. The osteotomy was stabilized with a locking plate and a cerclage wire. The dog recovered well from the procedures and after 36 h, the dog walked normally and was discharged from the hospital. Eight and 16 weeks later, the signs of the DLSS had markedly improved. From these data, it can be concluded that the CCIO is a useful approach to the LS foramen and intervertebral disk in selected patients with DLSS, giving good access to the structures around the LS foramen.

  14. Role of the osteoclast in cranial suture waveform patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Craig Daniel

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the role of bone resorption in defining interdigitations characteristic of cranial suture waveform. Male mice from the CD-1 (ICR) background were analyzed at six age groups (n = 5 mice per group) in order to study the ontogenetic changes of osteoclast counts using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained histological sections of sagittal sutures. Additionally, the complexity of suture lines were measured ectocranially from the same age groups (n = 5 per group) using image capture and fractal geometry (ruler dimension method). The results suggest that osteoclast resorption is a contributor to suture patterning. Specifically, osteoclasts show the greatest activity along concave suture regions at 42 and 84 days (Kruskal-Wallis test statistic = 14.9; P weaning and the transition to a hard chow diet. These data demonstrate osteoclasts along the bone margin of the cranial suture and also indicate that sutures attain their complex shape at the same age when osteoclast number is highest along concave suture margins, underscoring the role of osteoclasts in generating the suture waveform pattern. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60 Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60 Co, 137 Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  16. Researches and commercialization of food irradiation technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Chen Hao; Liu Chunquan; Chen Xiulan

    2007-01-01

    The status of food irradiation on research, standard and commercialization is described in the paper. The main research fields now include degradation of chloramphenicol residue by irradiation, promoting safety of meat products, frozen seafood and ready-to-eat products by irradiation, lower activity of allergic protein by irradiation, identification of irradiated food and irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment. The existed standards need to be revised, and new standard need to be established. The commercialization stages of food irradiation and quality assurance system of irradiation company are also analyzed. (authors)

  17. e-Learning Course on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hénon, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Since May 2015, an online, interactive, multi-media and self-study course on Food Irradiation - Technology, Applications and Good Practices has been made available by the Food and Environmental Protection Section. This e-learning Course on Food Irradiation was initiated during a project (RAS/05/057) of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) Implementing Best Practices of Food Irradiation for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Purposes. Each module contains: • A lesson, largely based on the Manual of Good Practice in Food except for the first part (Food Irradiation) for which expanding the contents and addressing frequently asked questions seemed necessary. The latest chapters will help operators of irradiation facilities to appreciate and improve their practices. • A section called ‘Essentials’ that summarizes the key points. • A quiz to assess the knowledge acquired by the user from the course material. The quiz questions take a variety of forms: answer matching, multiple choice, true or false, picture selection, or simple calculation. Videos, Power Point presentations, pdf files and pictures enrich the contents. The course includes a glossary and approximately 80 downloadable references. These references cover safety of irradiated food, effects of irradiation on the nutritional quality of food, effects of irradiation on food microorganisms, insects and parasites, effects of irradiation on parasites, sanitary and phytosanitary applications of irradiation, packaging of irradiated food, food irradiation standards and regulations, history of food irradiation, and communication aspects.

  18. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases...

  19. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cranial Capacity in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis

    1995-01-01

    Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)

  20. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...

  1. Diagnosis and interventional neuroradiology in cranial emergencies. Neuroradiologische Notfalldiagnostik und -therapie kranieller Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakhloo, A.K.; Schumacher, M. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Neuroradiologie)

    1991-01-01

    The most efficient diagnostic procedures are described for cases of intracranial mass, cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis, thrombosis of vertebral and basilar arteries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, carotid-cavernous fistulas, intractable epistaxis, Wernicke's encephalopathy and inflammatory cranial diseases. The importance of CT, MRI and angiography is discussed for these cranial emergencies. The different forms of interventional therapy possible are specified. (orig.).

  2. Cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants predict the development of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Ann Lawaetz; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    Classification System, blindness and deafness. Results: A total of 249 infants were included. The mortality rate was 9.2%. In all, 217 children were evaluated at 5-9 years of age. Four children were diagnosed with germinal matrix haemorrhage – intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3 (GMH-IVH3) and periventricular...... haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI), of whom two developed cerebral palsy. Nine children were diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), of whom six developed cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy was detected in 14 children (6.4%), and one (0.5%) child was in need of a hearing assistive device. Severe brain...... record review. The cohort consisted of very preterm born children (gestational age ≤ 32 + 0) born from 2004 to 2008. For each infant, we obtained results from all cranial ultrasounds performed during hospitalisation. In 2014, patient records were evaluated for cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function...

  3. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of the cranial nerves and their nuclei correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Johnson, Aleksandra; Chua, Beng Choon; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the cranial nerves and their nuclei is critical in clinical practice, medical research and education. However to our best knowledge, a comprehensive source capturing full three-dimensional (3D) relationships of the cranial nerves along with surrounding neuroanatomy is not yet available. This work addresses the construction and validation of an atlas of the cranial nerves with their nuclei, correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature, and magnetic resonance imaging. The atlas is interactive, stereotactic, 3D, detailed, fully parcellated, completely labeled, consistent in 3D, electronically dissectible, and scalable. A 3D geometrical model of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves with nuclei was created from an in vivo magnetic resonance scan exploiting in-house developed tools and methods, including tubular and iso-surface modeling, interactive editing, and mesh compression. This virtual model contains 439 objects with 121 different names, labeled based on Terminologia Anatomica. The model was integrated with a 3D atlas of structure, vasculature and tracts developed earlier, and correlated with sectional magnetic resonance anatomy. The whole model or its components can be interactively rotated, zoomed, panned, and add or removed with a simple few clicks. The studied material can be adaptively selected in an in-depth manner by using controls available in the user interface. This atlas is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, automatic student assessment, preparing materials, and localization in clinical neurology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Control-released Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Incorporated in β-Tricalcium Phosphate for Murine Cranial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Shimizu, MD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that control-released bFGF incorporated in β-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration in the murine cranial defect model and may be promising for the clinical treatment of cranial defects.

  5. Cranial thickness in relation to age, sex and general body build in a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N

    2001-01-01

    of the individuals had suffered from diseases affecting bone or bone metabolism as such, a large sub group consisted of individuals with a history of, and autopsy finds consistent with, chronic substance and alcohol abuse. There was no statistically significant difference in cranial thickness measures between...... this group and the rest of the material. Subsequent analyses failed to reveal any correlations between the cranial thickness and sex and age and height and weight of the individual. This is in accordance with most earlier studies, which likewise show no correlation, or only very faint trends, between cranial...... thickness and these parameters. This study, thus, adds to other studies showing that cranial thickness cannot be used in aging or sexing human remains. Likewise, in a forensic pathological setting, cranial thickness cannot be inferred from the individuals stature and build, which may be an issue in cases...

  6. Anatomic and pathologic features of third cranial nerve disorders according to magnetic resonance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Y.; Torres, J.; Ramos, M.; Caniego, J.L.; Manzanares, R.; Fresno, L.F.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of disorders involving the third cranial nerves. We have selected MR studies corresponding to patients with an anomaly affecting the third cranial nerves, whether alone or in combination with other cranial nerves. In order to better study the pathology of these cranial nerves, we considered four different segments of the nerves: mesencephalic, cisternal, cavernous and orbital. We present the MR features of the anatomy of the third cranial nerves and the most representative lesions affecting the different intracranial segments: infraction, multiple sclerosis, glioma and cavernoma in the mesencephalon; posterior communicating artery aneurysm, neuritis, neurinomas and meningioma in the cisternal segment; aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, cavernous carotid fistula, metastasis and meningioma in the cavernous sinus and Tolosa-Hunt syndrome in the orbital apex. (Author) 11 refs

  7. A STUDY OF TUMOURS OF THE CRANIAL NERVE AND PARASPINAL NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION One of the frequent sites of tumour formation is the cranial nerves and paraspinal nerves. The cranial nerves perform a plethora of functions and so the signs and symptoms caused may be different. They are mainly classified into four different types. The aim of the study is: 1. To study the tumours arising from the cranial nerves in an epidemiological point of view. 2. To study the tumours histopathologically. 3. To classify the tumours according to WHO classification. Thirty-eight brain tumor cases were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. Cranial nerve tumours accounts for 4(10% among the intracranial tumours. Schwannomas makes up 3(7.39% among the Intracranial tumours. and constituted 3(75% among cranial nerve tumours. All the 3 schwannomas were located in CP angle. The geographic distribution of cases was found to be 28 cases from Mangalore and 10 cases from Kerala.

  8. Age-related pattern of normal cranial bone marrow: MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shinong; Li Qi; Li Wei; Chen Zhian; Wu Zhenhua; Guo Qiyong; Liu Yunhui

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age-related pattern of normal skull bone marrow with 3.0 T MR T 1 WI. Methods: Cranial MR T 1 WI images which were defined to be normal were retrospectively reviewed in 360 cases. Patients with known diffuse bone marrow disease, focal lesions, history of radiation treatment or steroid therapy were excluded, while patients whose cranial MRI and follow-up visits were all normal were included in this study. All the subjects were divided into 7 groups according to the age: 50 years group. Mid- and para- sagittal T 1 WI images were used to be analyzed and the type of cranial bone marrow was classified according to the thickness of diploe and the pattern of the signal characteristics. Statistical analysis was conducted to reveal the relationship between the age and the type. Results: The normal skull bone marrow could be divided into four types as follows: (1) Type-I: 115 cases, 47 of which appeared type- Ia and the mean thickness was (1.24±0.31) mm; 68 of which appeared type-Ib and the mean thickness was (1.76±0.37) mm. Type-II: 57 cases and the mean thickness was (2.78 ± 0.69) mm. Type-III: 148 cases, 18 of which appeared type-IIIa and the mean thickness was (2.33 ± 0.65) mm; 88 of which appeared type-IIIb and the mean thickness was (4.01± 0.86) mm; 42 of which appeared type-IIIc and the mean thickness was (4.31±0.73) mm. Type-IV: 40 cases, 25 of which appeared type-IVa and the mean thickness was (5.17±1.02) mm; 15 of which appeared type-IVb and the mean thickness was (5.85±1.45) mm. (2) 2 =266.36, P<0.01). Conclusion: There is characteristic in the distribution of normal skull bone marrow with age growing. And skull bone marrow transforms gradually from type-I to IV with aging. (authors)

  9. Cranial Nerve Injury After Carotid Endarterectomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Time Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisis, J D; Antonopoulos, C N; Mantas, G; Moulakakis, K G; Sfyroeras, G; Geroulakos, G

    2017-03-01

    To review the incidence of post-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) cranial nerve injury (CNI), and to evaluate the risk factors associated with increased CNI risk. The study was a meta-analysis. Pooled rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for CNIs after primary CEA. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for potential risk factors. A fixed-effects model or a random effects model (Mantel-Haenszel method) was used for non-heterogeneous and heterogeneous data, respectively. Meta-regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of publication year upon CNI rate. Twenty-six articles, published between 1970 and 2015, were included in the meta-analysis, corresponding to 20,860 CEAs. Meta-analysis revealed that the vagus nerve was the most frequently injured cranial nerve (pooled injury rate 3.99%, 95% CI 2.56-5.70), followed by the hypoglossal nerve (3.79%, 95% CI 2.73-4.99). Fewer than one seventh of these injuries are permanent (vagus nerve: 0.57% [95% CI 0.19-1.10]; hypoglossal nerve: 0.15% [95% CI 0.01-0.39]). A statistically significant influence of publication year on the vagus and hypoglossal nerve injury rate was found, with the injury rate having decreased from about 8% to 2% and 1%, respectively, over the last 35 years. Urgent procedures (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.21-2.10; p = .001), as well as return to the operating room for a neurological event or bleeding (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.61; p = .002) were associated with an increased risk of CNI, whereas no statistically significant association was found between CNIs and the type of anaesthesia, the use of a patch, redo operation, and the use of a shunt. The vagus nerve appears to be the most frequently injured cranial nerve after CEA, followed by the hypoglossal nerve, with only a small proportion of these injuries being permanent. The CNI rate has significantly decreased over the past 35 years to a point indicating that CNIs should not be considered a major influencing factor in the decision making

  10. Synchrotron-microcomputed tomography studies of normal and pathological cranial sutures: further insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelsberger, Jan; Schmidt, Tobias; Busse, Björn; Herzen, Julia; Tsokos, Michael; Amling, Michael; Beckmann, Felix

    2010-03-01

    Both CT and high-frequency ultrasound have been shown to be reliable diagnostic tools used to differentiate normal cranial sutures from suture synostosis. In nonsynostotic plagiocephaly, overlapping of the bony plates and the so-called "sticky suture" is still controversial and is believed to represent a pathological fusion process. Synchrotron-microcomputed tomography (SRmCT) studies were undertaken to determine whether positional head deformities can be assumed to be true suture pathologies. Morphological features and growth development of 6 normal cranial sutures between the ages of 3 and 12 months were analyzed histologically. Additionally 6 pathological sutures, including sagittal synostosis and nonsynostotic plagiocephaly (NSP), were compared with the group of normal sutures by histological and SRmCT studies. Synchrotron-microcomputed tomography is a special synchrotron radiation source with a high photon flux providing a monochromatic x-ray beam with a very high spatial resolution. Morphological characteristics of the different suture types were evaluated and bone density alongside the sutures was measured to compare the osseous structure of the adjacent bony plates of normal and pathological sutures. Histologically jointlike osseous edges of the normal sutures were seen in the 1st month of life and interlocking at the age of approximately 12 months. During this 1st year, bone thickness increases and suture width decreases. The SRmCT studies showed that: 1) sutures and adjacent bones in NSP are comparable to normal sutures in terms of their morphological aspects; 2) bone densities in the adjacent bony plates of NSP and normal sutures are not different; 3) thickening of the diploe with ridging of the bone in sagittal synostosis is associated with significantly higher bone density; 4) synostotic sutures are only partially fused but vary in their extent; and 5) nonfused sections in sagittal synostosis behave like normal sutures without any signs of pathological

  11. Transcriptional targets of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm regulate cell-matrix interactions and mesenchyme maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildsoe, Heidi; Fan, Xiaochen; Wilkie, Emilie E.; Ashoti, Ator; Jones, Vanessa J.; Power, Melinda; Qin, Jing; Wang, Junwen; Tam, Patrick P L; Loebel, David A F

    2016-01-01

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is essential for the development of cranial mesoderm and cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial structures. We have previously shown that, in the absence of TWIST1, cells within the cranial mesoderm adopt an abnormal epithelial configuration

  12. Ophthalmoplegic and lower cranial nerve variants merge into each other and into classical Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bruggen, JP; van der Meche, FGA; de Jager, AEJ; Polman, CH

    We delineated the place of cranial nerve variants within the concept of clinically defined Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), In the ophthalmoplegic variant (n = 7) the oculomotor nerves were early involved, In a lower cranial nerve variant (n = 9) the cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were early involved.

  13. Dosimetry of blood irradiator - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Shinde, S.H.; Bhat, R.M.; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Blood transfusion to an immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patient has a high risk involved due to occurrence of Transfusion Graft Versus Host Disease (T-GVHD). In order to eliminate this problem, blood is routinely exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma) prior to transfusion. Doses ranging from 15 Gy to 50 Gy can prevent T-GVHD. Aim of the present work was to perform dosimetry of 60 Co Blood Irradiator-2000 developed by Board of Radiation and isotope Technology (BRIT), India; using FBX dosimetric system. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which is a Reference Standard dosimeter. Experiments included measurement of dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume, dose mapping in the central vertical plane within the irradiation volume and measurement of average dose received by blood sample using blood bags filled with FBX dosimeter by simulating actual irradiation conditions. During irradiation, the sample chamber is retracted into a cylindrical source cage, so that the sample is irradiated from all sides uniformly. Blood irradiator-2000 has sample rotation facility for increasing the dose uniformity during irradiation. The performance of this was investigated by measuring the central vertical plane dose profile in stationary state as well in rotation using the sample rotation facility (60 rpm). FBX being an aqueous dosimetric system fills container of irregular shape being irradiated hence can be used to integrate the dose over the volume. Dose-rate measured by FBX dosimeter was intercompared with Fricke dosimeter, which was in good agreement. Average dose-rate at the centre of irradiation volume and within the blood bag was measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters. It was observed that dose profiles measured by FBX and Fricke dosimeters agreed within ± 2%. Dose uniformity within the irradiation volume was found to reduce from 21% to 17% when the sample rotation facility was used. Thus, it is suggested by the

  14. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M. A.

    In July 1981, the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc. subsidiary Process Technology, Inc. in West Memphis, Arkansas. The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology (N.C.), Inc. in October 1983. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Further impetus towards commercialization of food irradiation was gained in March 1981 with the filing in the Federal Register, by the FDA, of an Advanced Proposed Notice of Rulemaking for Food Irradiation. Two years later in July 1983, the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc. petition calling for the sanitization of spices, onion powder and garlic powder at a maximum dosage of 10 kGy. Since obtaining the spice irradiation approval, the FDA has accepted four additional petitions for filing in the Federal Register. One of the petitions which extended spice irradiation to include insect disinfestation has issued into a regulation while the remaining petitions covering the sanitization of herbs, spice blends, vegetable seasonings and dry powdery enzymes as well as the petition to irradiate hog carcasses and pork products for trichinae control at 1 kGy, are expected to issue either before the end of 1984 or early in 1985. More recently, food irradiation advocates in the United States received another vote of confidence by the announcement that a joint venture food irradiation facility to be constructed in Hawaii by Radiation Technology, is backed by a contractual committment for the processing of 40 million pounds of produce per year. Another step was taken when the Port of Salem, New Jersey announced that the Radiation Technology Model RT-4104

  15. Comparison of probabilistic and deterministic fiber tracking of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Sobottka, Stephan B; Podlesek, Dino; Linn, Jennifer; Rieger, Bernhard; Juratli, Tareq A; Schackert, Gabriele; Kitzler, Hagen H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE The depiction of cranial nerves (CNs) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is of great interest in skull base tumor surgery and DTI used with deterministic tracking methods has been reported previously. However, there are still no good methods usable for the elimination of noise from the resulting depictions. The authors have hypothesized that probabilistic tracking could lead to more accurate results, because it more efficiently extracts information from the underlying data. Moreover, the authors have adapted a previously described technique for noise elimination using gradual threshold increases to probabilistic tracking. To evaluate the utility of this new approach, a comparison is provided with this work between the gradual threshold increase method in probabilistic and deterministic tracking of CNs. METHODS Both tracking methods were used to depict CNs II, III, V, and the VII+VIII bundle. Depiction of 240 CNs was attempted with each of the above methods in 30 healthy subjects, which were obtained from 2 public databases: the Kirby repository (KR) and Human Connectome Project (HCP). Elimination of erroneous fibers was attempted by gradually increasing the respective thresholds (fractional anisotropy [FA] and probabilistic index of connectivity [PICo]). The results were compared with predefined ground truth images based on corresponding anatomical scans. Two label overlap measures (false-positive error and Dice similarity coefficient) were used to evaluate the success of both methods in depicting the CN. Moreover, the differences between these parameters obtained from the KR and HCP (with higher angular resolution) databases were evaluated. Additionally, visualization of 10 CNs in 5 clinical cases was attempted with both methods and evaluated by comparing the depictions with intraoperative findings. RESULTS Maximum Dice similarity coefficients were significantly higher with probabilistic tracking (p probabilistic than in deterministic tracking (p

  16. Status of Post Irradiation Examination of FCAB and FCAT Irradiation Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD)

    2016-09-29

    A series of irradiation programs are ongoing to address the need for determining the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys. These irradiation programs, deemed the FCAT and FCAB irradiation programs, use the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to irradiate second generation wrought FeCrAl alloys and early-generation powder-metallurgy (PM) oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys. Irradiations have been or are being performed at temperatures of 200°C, 330°C, and 550°C from doses of 1.8 dpa up to 16 dpa. Preliminary post-irradiation examination (PIE) on low dose (<2 dpa) irradiation capsules of tensile specimens has been performed. Analysis of co-irradiated SiC thermometry have shown reasonable matching between the nominal irradiation temperatures and the target irradiation temperatures. Room temperature tensile tests have shown typical radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at irradiations of 200°C and 330°C, but a propensity for softening when irradiated to 550°C for the wrought alloys. The PM-ODS FeCrAl specimens showed less hardening compared to the wrought alloys. Future PIE includes high temperature tensile tests on the low dose irradiation capsules as well as the determination of reference fracture toughness transition temperature, To, in alloys irradiated to 7 dpa and higher.

  17. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Deborah D.; Sperduto, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  18. Currently developing opportunities in food irradiation and modern irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, R.

    1997-01-01

    I. Factor currently influencing advancing opportunities for food irradiation include: heightened incidence and awareness of food borne illnesses and causes. Concerns about ensuring food safety in international as well as domestic trade. Regulatory actions regarding commonly used fumigants/pesticides e.g. Me Br. II. Modern irradiator design: the SteriGenics M ini Cell . A new design for new opportunities. Faster installation of facility. Operationally and space efficient. Provides local o nsite control . Red meat: a currently developing opportunity. (Author)

  19. Does Receiving a Blood Transfusion Predict for Length of Stay in Children Undergoing Cranial Vault Remodeling for Craniosynostosis? Outcomes Using the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michael R; Alden, Tord; Momin, Mohmed Vasim; Olsson, Alexis B; Jurado, Ray J; Abdullah, Fizan; Miloro, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Recent interventions have aimed at reducing the need for blood transfusions in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling. However, little is known regarding whether the receipt of a blood transfusion influences the length of hospital stay. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the receipt of a blood transfusion in patients undergoing cranial vault remodeling is associated with an increased length of stay. To address the research purposes, we designed a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP Peds) dataset. The primary predictor variable was whether patients received a blood transfusion during cranial vault remodeling. The primary outcome variable was length of hospital stay after the operation. The association between the receipt of blood transfusions and length of stay was assessed using the Student t test. The association between other covariates and the outcome variable was assessed using linear regression, analysis of variance, and the Tukey test for post hoc pair-wise comparisons. The sample was composed of 756 patients who underwent cranial vault remodeling: 503 who received blood transfusions and 253 who did not. The primary predictor variable of blood transfusion was associated with an increased length of stay (4.1 days vs 3.0 days, P = .03). Other covariates associated with an increased length of stay included race, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premature birth, presence of a congenital malformation, and number of sutures involved in craniosynostosis. The receipt of a blood transfusion in the perioperative period in patients with craniosynostosis undergoing cranial vault remodeling was associated with an increased length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal cranial bone development of Thomas's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus thomasi): with special reference to petrosal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Taro; Werneburg, Ingmar; Son, Nguyen Truong; Tu, Vuong Tan; Sasaki, Takenori; Maekawa, Yu; Koyabu, Daisuke

    2018-03-14

    Cochlear morphology has been regarded as one of the key traits to understand the origin and evolution of echolocation in bats, given its functionality and performance for receiving echolocation sonar. While numerous researchers have compared adult-stage morphology, few have studied the prenatal development of the cochlea. Here, we provide the first detailed three-dimensional description of the prenatal cranial development in bats, using Rhinolophus thomasi as a model, with particular interest to the petrosal which houses the cochlea. Results revealed that among all cranial bones the onset of the ossification of the petrosal is earlier in R. thomasi when compared to other reported mammals. Generally, the cochlea reaches adult size and shape before or around birth in placental mammals including bats, but we found that its shape and size growths continue until maturity in Rhinolophus species. The relationship of cochlear size and skull size is maintained constant throughout the postnatal ontogeny to adulthood in Rhinolophus, a pattern previously reported neither in any other bats nor other mammals. The peculiar developmental pattern in Rhinolophus possibly allows them to form their characteristically large cochlea and facilitate their distinctive echolocation behavior. A recent study reported that non-echolocating Pteropodidae shares a similar prenatal cochlear size to laryngeal echolocating bats. The apparent resemblance of fetal cochlear size was proposed to be a vestigial signal of large cochlear size in the last common ancestor of bats and thus as supporting evidence for the single origin of laryngeal echolocation. However, results from the present observations suggest that limited aspects of the cochlear development were captured in this previous investigation and that the resulting interpretations may be questionable. We point out that diversity and patterns of cochlear development among bats are still not resolved, and the controversy on the origins of

  1. Early South Americans Cranial Morphological Variation and the Origin of American Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbe, Mark; Strauss, André; Hubbe, Alex; Neves, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    Recent South Americans have been described as presenting high regional cranial morphological diversity when compared to other regions of the world. This high diversity is in accordance with linguistic and some of the molecular data currently available for the continent, but the origin of this diversity has not been satisfactorily explained yet. Here we explore if this high morphological variation was already present among early groups in South America, in order to refine our knowledge about the timing and origins of the modern morphological diversity. Between-group (Fst estimates) and within-group variances (trace of within-group covariance matrix) of the only two early American population samples available to date (Lagoa Santa and Sabana de Bogotá) were estimated based on linear craniometric measurements and compared to modern human cranial series representing six regions of the world, including the Americas. The results show that early Americans present moderate within-group diversity, falling well within the range of modern human groups, despite representing almost three thousand years of human occupation. The between-group variance apportionment is very low between early Americans, but is high among recent South American groups, who show values similar to the ones observed on a global scale. Although limited to only two early South American series, these results suggest that the high morphological diversity of native South Americans was not present among the first human groups arriving in the continent and must have originated during the Middle Holocene, possibly due to the arrival of new morphological diversity coming from Asia during the Holocene.

  2. Pediatric minor head trauma: do cranial CT scans change the therapeutic approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe P. Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2 To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014. A change in the therapeutic approach was defined as a neurosurgical intervention performed within 30 days, hospitalization, >12 hours of observation, or neuro-specialist evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 1006 children evaluated, 101 showed some abnormality on head computed tomography scans, including 49 who were hospitalized, 16 who remained under observation and 36 who were dismissed. No patient underwent neurosurgery. No statistically significant relationship was observed between patient age, time between trauma and admission, or signs/symptoms related to trauma and abnormal imaging results. A statistically significant relationship between abnormal image results and a fall higher than 1.0 meter was observed (p=0.044. The mean effective dose was 2.0 mSv (0.1 to 6.8 mSv, corresponding to an estimated additional cancer risk of 0.05%. CONCLUSION: A computed tomography scan after minor head injury in pediatric patients did not show clinically relevant abnormalities that could lead to neurosurgical indications. Patients who fell more than 1.0 m were more likely to have changes in imaging tests, although these changes did not require neurosurgical intervention; therefore, the use of computed tomography scans may be questioned in this group. The results support the trend of more careful indications for cranial computed tomography scans for children with minor

  3. Ameloblastin inhibits cranial suture closure by modulating MSX2 expression and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phimon Atsawasuwan

    Full Text Available Deformities of cranial sutures such as craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina greatly impact human development and quality of life. Here we have examined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (Ambn, a recent addition to the family of non-collagenous extracellular bone matrix proteins, in craniofacial bone development and suture formation. Using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, Ambn was localized in mouse calvarial bone and adjacent condensed mesenchyme. Five-fold Ambn overexpression in a K14-driven transgenic mouse model resulted in delayed posterior frontal suture fusion and incomplete suture closure. Moreover, Ambn overexpressor skulls weighed 13.2% less, their interfrontal bones were 35.3% thinner, and the width between frontal bones plus interfrontal suture was 14.3% wider. Ambn overexpressing mice also featured reduced cell proliferation in suture blastemas and in mesenchymal cells from posterior frontal sutures. There was a more than 2-fold reduction of Msx2 in Ambn overexpressing calvariae and suture mesenchymal cells, and this effect was inversely proportionate to the level of Ambn overexpression in different cell lines. The reduction of Msx2 expression as a result of Ambn overexpression was further enhanced in the presence of the MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor O126. Finally, Ambn overexpression significantly reduced Msx2 down-stream target gene expression levels, including osteogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Osx, the bone matrix proteins Ibsp, ColI, Ocn and Opn, and the cell cycle-related gene CcnD1. Together, these data suggest that Ambn plays a crucial role in the regulation of cranial bone growth and suture closure via Msx 2 suppression and proliferation inhibition.

  4. A giant cranial aneurysmal bone cyst associated with fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Składzieriń, J; Olés, K; Zagólski, O; Moskała, M; Sztuka, M; Strek, P; Wierzchowski, W; Tomik, J

    2008-01-01

    An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a rare, benign fibro-osseous lesion, considered a vascular phenomenon secondary to fibrous dysplasia or a giant-cell tumour, and occurs mainly in long bones and vertebrae. In this case report a 16-year-old male presented with massive epistaxis. He was admitted with a 3-year history of chronic rhinitis, headaches, right ocular pain and recurrent epistaxis. CT scans showed a predominantly cystic, expansive mass obstructing both nasal cavities, extending to all paranasal sinuses and both orbits, with evidence of anterior cranial fossa skull base destruction. The patient underwent a craniofacial resection of the tumour performed with an external approach and an immediate reconstruction of the dural defect. Histology confirmed the lesion was an ABC associated with fibrous dysplasia. The patient's recovery was complete. A large facial aneurysmal bone cyst can damage the facial skeleton and skull base, and requires excision by a combined external approach.

  5. Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.; Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg; Bern Univ.; Landesnervenklinik Salzburg; Graz Univ.; Dudley Observatory, Albany, NY; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.) [de

  6. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Altona

    1982-01-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases. (orig.) [de

  7. Meningitis tuberculosa: Clinical findings and results of cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loddenkemper, R.; Hoffmann, H.G.

    1982-10-01

    Guided by 9 own observations between 1977 and 1981, new diagnostic facilities in tuberculous meningitis are discussed. For differentiation from viral meningitis, measurement of CSF lactic acid concentration in addition to that of CSF glucose has proved to be of value in recent years. In accordance with the literature, two cases of this series which were examined for CSF lactic acid concentration showed markedly elevated levels of 8,4 rsp. 10,4 mmol/l. In contrast to this, in viral meningitis usually values of less than 3.5 mmol/l are found. Additionally, the presence of hypochlor- and hyponatremia, which could be demonstrated in 6 of our 9 patients, may raise the suspicion of tuberculous etiology. In the series presented, cranial computed tomography was of greatest diagnostic value, enabling the diagnosis of hydrocephalus internus in 5, and basal arachnoiditis in 2 cases.

  8. Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

    2010-11-01

    White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions.

  9. Analysis of ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Chung, Yong In; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1980-01-01

    A total of 83 cases with ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography were radiologically analyzed to determine the specific CT findings of the primary and metastatic brain tumor, inflammatory disease, resolving hematoma, and cerebral infarction. The brief results are as follows. Glioblastoma multiform show a characteristic thick or thin irregular ring enhancement with significant mass effect and surrounding edema. Most of the metastatic tumors also show irregular thick or thin walled ring enhancement with significant surrounding edema. Tumoral hemorrhage was observed in the metastatic melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The brain abscess usually show characteristic thin regular and smooth ring enhancement with moderate peripheral edema. The parasitic cysts also show thin regular ring enhancement with different degree of surrounding edema. Ring enhancement in resolving hematomas and cerebral infarctions usually occurs about 10-30 days after the onset of symptoms, which shows thin and regular ring pattern without significant surrounding edema

  10. Archaeological origins of cranial surgery: trephination in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Suarez, M; Bautista Martinez, J; Garcia Oliveros, R; Weinstein, P R

    1992-08-01

    Archaeological excavations in Mexico and South America have provided evidence that trephination of the skull was performed by the pre-Hispanic Mexican and Incan cultures. Because those who performed such operations on the skull, presumably for ritual, prophylactic, or therapeutic reasons, can be considered predecessors of modern intracranial surgeons, their techniques and results are a subject of considerable current interest. This article, adapted from a lecture presented to the 1986 Congress of Neurological Surgeons, summarizes published descriptions of 34 trephined South and Central American and Mexican skull specimens, 16 of which were unearthed in Mexico and are currently available for review in anthropological museums in Mexico. Examples of several surgical techniques used on these skulls are presented. Although some trephinations were performed by these early cranial surgeons for apparently therapeutic reasons on skulls with obvious evidence of traumatic fractures, the interpretation of the medical, psychiatric, cultural, or religious significance of such procedures remains largely speculative.

  11. Peripheral doses of cranial pediatric IMRT performed with attenuator blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soboll, Danyel Scheidegger; Schitz, Ivette; Schelin, Hugo Reuters; Silva, Ricardo Goulart da; Viamonte, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents values of peripheral doses measured at six vital points of simulator objects which represent the ages of 2, 5 and 10 years old, submitted to a cranial IMRT procedure that applied compensator blocks interposed to 6 MV beams. The found values indicate that there is independence of dose with position of measurements and age of the patient, as the peripheral dose at the points nearest and the 2 year old simulator object where larger. The doses in thyroid reached the range of 1.4 to 2.9% of the dose prescribed in the isocenter, indicating that the peripheral doses for IMRT that employ compensator blocks can be greater than for the IMRT produced with sliding window technique

  12. Cranial Paget's disease - clinical case of symptomatic secondary basilar impression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagov, E.; Gabrovsky, N.; Gabrovsky, S.

    2010-01-01

    A clinical case of 52 years old woman with history of periodic headaches for many years. The headache became more intensive and constant during the last 4-6 months. Instability by walking and stagger occurred as well as weakness in all 4 extremities, difficult swallowing and speech changes. Bulbar, quadripyramidal and archicerebellar symptoms were in hand. Pagets disease was ascertained engaging the skull with secondary basilar impression and compression of the cerebellum and the brain-stem leading to the above described clinical signs. Decompressive median suboccipital craniectomy was performed with laminectomy of C1. Occipital squama was thickened and highly vascularized.. Secondary basilar impression could occur in cranial Pagets disease with clinical symptoms resulting from the compression of the cerebellum and the brain-stem

  13. Long-term follow-up of endocrine function among young children with newly diagnosed malignant central nervous system tumors treated with irradiation-avoiding regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Anne M; Cheung, Clement; Rangan, Kasey; Freyer, David; Nahata, Leena; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2017-11-01

    The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens. A retrospective chart review was performed on 99 patients under 6 years of age with malignant brain tumors newly diagnosed between May 1991 and October 2010 treated with irradiation-avoiding strategies. Thirty patients survived post-AuHCR without cranial irradiation for a mean of 8.1 years (range 3.0-22.25 years). The patient cohort included 18 males and 12 females (mean age at AuHCR of 2.5 years, range 0.8-5.1 years). All 30 surviving patients had documented normal age-related thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3), prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol levels. Insulin-like growth factor 1 age-related levels were abnormal in one child with normal height. Ninety-seven percent of patients had normal cortisol levels, while follicle-stimulating hormone and LH levels among females were normal in 83% and 92%, respectively, and in 100% of males. Growth charts demonstrated age-associated growth within 2 standard deviations of the mean in 67% of patients. Of 10 patients (33%) with short stature, 6 had proportional diminutions in both height and weight. These findings demonstrate that the use of relatively brief, intensive chemotherapy regimens including marrow-ablative chemotherapy with AuHCR results in fewer endocrine sequelae than treatment schemes utilizing CNS irradiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Osteology and cranial musculature of Caiman latirostris (crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Paula; Desojo, Julia Brenda

    2011-07-01

    Caiman latirostris Daudin is one of the extant species of Caimaninae alligatorids characterized taxonomically only by external morphological features. In the present contribution, we describe the cranial osteology and myology of this species and its morphological variation. Several skull dissections and comparisons with other caimans were made. Although jaw muscles of living crocodiles show the same general "Bauplan" and alligatorids seem to have a similar cranial musculature pattern, we describe some morphological variations (e.g., in C. latirostris the superficial portion of the M. adductor mandibulae externus did not reach the postorbital; the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus dorsalis did not reach the pterygoid and lacrimal and contrary to the case of C. crocodilus the M. adductor mandibulae internus pars pterygoideus ventralis attaches to the posterodorsal surface of the pterygoid and the pterygoid aponeurosis, without contacting the dorsal and ventral surface of the pterygoid margin; the M. intermandibularis is attached to the anterior half of the splenial and posteriorly inserts medially by a medial raphe that serves as attachment zone for M. constrictor colli, and the M. constrictor colli profundus presents a medial notch in its anterior margin). In addition, the skull of C. latirostris differs from that of other caimans and possesses several characters that are potential diagnostic features of this species (e.g., outline of glenoid cavity in dorsal view, extension of the rostral ridges, and occlusion of the first dentary tooth). Nevertheless, these characters should be analyzed within the phylogenetic context of the Caimaninae to evaluate its evolutionary implications for the history of the group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A quantitative approach for sex estimation based on cranial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikita, Efthymia; Michopoulou, Efrossyni

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for the quantification of the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial traits, namely the glabella, mastoid process and external occipital protuberance. The proposed method was developed using 165 crania from the documented Athens Collection and tested on 20 Cretan crania. It is based on digital photographs of the lateral view of the cranium, drawing of the profile of three sexually dimorphic structures and calculation of variables that express the shape of these structures. The combinations of variables that provide optimum discrimination between sexes are identified by means of binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis. The best cross-validated results are obtained when variables from all three structures are combined and range from 75.8 to 85.1% and 81.1 to 94.6% for males and females, respectively. The success rate is 86.3-94.1% for males and 83.9-93.5% for females when half of the sample is used for training and the rest for prediction. Correct classification for the Cretan material based upon the standards developed for the Athens sample was 80-90% for the optimum combinations of discriminant variables. The proposed method provides an effective way to capture quantitatively the shape of sexually dimorphic cranial structures; it gives more accurate results relative to other existing methods and it does not require specialized equipment. Equations for sex estimation based on combinations of variables are provided, along with instructions on how to use the method and Excel macros for calculation of discriminant variables with automated implementation of the optimum equations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lengths of the maxillary central incisor, the nasal bone, and the anterior cranial base in different skeletal malocclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Kjær, Inger; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    malocclusions. Material and methods . Incisor, nasal, and cranial base lengths were measured on lateral radiographs of adult patients with skeletal malocclusions, including open bite (n=35), mandibular overjet (n=56), maxillary overjet (n=31), deep bite (n=19), and compared with those of a control group...... with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology (n=39). Two-way ANOVA tests were used to evaluate differences in lengths between groups and gender. Results. Statistically shorter maxillary central incisor length was found in the open bite group (p....001), and in the deep bite group (p

  18. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  19. Donepezil for Irradiated Brain Tumor Survivors: A Phase III Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Stephen R; Case, L Doug; Peiffer, Ann; Naughton, Michelle M; Chan, Michael D; Stieber, Volker W; Moore, Dennis F; Falchuk, Steven C; Piephoff, James V; Edenfield, William J; Giguere, Jeffrey K; Loghin, Monica E; Shaw, Edward G

    2015-05-20

    Neurotoxic effects of brain irradiation include cognitive impairment in 50% to 90% of patients. Prior studies have suggested that donepezil, a neurotransmitter modulator, may improve cognitive function. A total of 198 adult brain tumor survivors ≥ 6 months after partial- or whole-brain irradiation were randomly assigned to receive a single daily dose (5 mg for 6 weeks, 10 mg for 18 weeks) of donepezil or placebo. A cognitive test battery assessing memory, attention, language, visuomotor, verbal fluency, and executive functions was administered before random assignment and at 12 and 24 weeks. A cognitive composite score (primary outcome) and individual cognitive domains were evaluated. Of this mostly middle-age, married, non-Hispanic white sample, 66% had primary brain tumors, 27% had brain metastases, and 8% underwent prophylactic cranial irradiation. After 24 weeks of treatment, the composite scores did not differ significantly between groups (P = .48); however, significant differences favoring donepezil were observed for memory (recognition, P = .027; discrimination, P = .007) and motor speed and dexterity (P = .016). Significant interactions between pretreatment cognitive function and treatment were found for cognitive composite (P = .01), immediate recall (P = .05), delayed recall (P = .004), attention (P = .01), visuomotor skills (P = .02), and motor speed and dexterity (P < .001), with the benefits of donepezil greater for those who were more cognitively impaired before study treatment. Treatment with donepezil did not significantly improve the overall composite score, but it did result in modest improvements in several cognitive functions, especially among patients with greater pretreatment impairments. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. MRI findings in children with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction occurring during the 2014 enterovirus D68 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J A; Mirsky, D M; Messacar, K; Dominguez, S R; Schreiner, T; Stence, N V

    2015-02-01

    Enterovirus D68 was responsible for widespread outbreaks of respiratory illness throughout the United States in August and September 2014. During this time, several patients presented to our institution with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction. The purpose of this report is to describe the unique imaging findings of this neurologic syndrome occurring during an enterovirus D68 outbreak. Patients meeting a specific case definition of acute flaccid paralysis and/or cranial nerve dysfunction