WorldWideScience

Sample records for included contextual variables

  1. Contextual Variability in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

  2. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.

    2017-10-01

    Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  3. Contextuality is about identity of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Kujala, Janne V

    2014-01-01

    Contextual situations are those in which seemingly ‘the same’ random variable changes its identity depending on the conditions under which it is recorded. Such a change of identity is observed whenever the assumption that the variable is one and the same under different conditions leads to contradictions when one considers its joint distribution with other random variables (this is the essence of all Bell-type theorems). In our Contextuality-by-Default approach, instead of asking why or how the conditions force ‘one and the same’ random variable to change ‘its’ identity, any two random variables recorded under different conditions are considered different ‘automatically.’ They are never the same, nor are they jointly distributed, but one can always impose on them a joint distribution (probabilistic coupling). The special situations when there is a coupling in which these random variables are equal with probability 1 are considered noncontextual. Contextuality means that such couplings do not exist. We argue that the determination of the identity of random variables by conditions under which they are recorded is not a causal relationship and cannot violate laws of physics. (paper)

  4. Variables as Contextual Constraints in Translating Irony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babîi Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The translator’s role and responsibility are high in any act of interlingual communication, and even higher when irony, an indirect and deliberately elusive form of communication, is involved in the translation process. By allowing more than one possible interpretation, irony is inevitably exposed to the risk of being misunderstood. This paper attempts to capture the complexity of translating irony, making use of theoretical frameworks provided by literary studies and translation studies. It analyses if and how the types of irony, the literary genres and the cultural, normative factors, perceived as potential contextual constraints, have an impact on the translator’ choices in rendering irony in translation, taking illustrative examples from Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Aldous Huxley and David Lodge’s works.

  5. Cognitive and contextual variables in sexual partner and relationship perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria-João; Garcia-Marques, Leonel

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the effects of contextual and cognitive variables for sexual protection on perceived social relationship factors. University students (108 women and 108 men) read script-based narratives on sexual encounters in which six variables were manipulated in two independent analyses. In the first analysis, four variables were evaluated: relational context (stable, casual), condom use (yes, no), script terminus (beginning, middle or end), and the rater's sex. The dependent variables were interpersonal perception of one of the characters of the narrative, and expectations regarding characteristics and future of the relationship. In the second analysis, two other factors were manipulated only in the "yes" condom conditions: communication strategy (verbal, non-verbal) and condom proponent gender. Our findings corroborated other studies where condom use was viewed as unromantic with less positive characteristics for relationships. Condom proponents, especially male, were perceived as less romantic, particularly when proposing a condom non-verbally at the beginning of the encounter. However, the controlled variables enabled us to propose ways of associating condom use with positive expectations towards the proponent and the relationship itself. Romanticism, expectation of sexual intercourse, emotional proximity, and expectations of condom use in encounters where a condom was proposed increased when suggested by a woman, postponed to the end of the encounter, and verbally mentioned. We encourage women to take the lead in suggesting condom use, thus empowering them since they do not have to wait for the male to make the first move.

  6. Role Variables VS. Contextual Variables in the Theory of Didactic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Monica; Cirina, Lucia; Paoli, Francesco

    Partisans of the constructivist approach to mathematics education, such as Brousseau or Chevallard, developed an accurate theoretical framework in which didactical systems are viewed in a systemic perspective. What they somewhat fail to draw, however, is a sharp distinction between role variables - concerning the roles played in the didactical interaction by the individual elements of the system (Student-Teacher-Knowledge) - and contextual variables - concerning the action on the learning process of the system as a whole. Our research in progress on 2nd graders' word problem solving strategies applies the previous dichotomy to class management strategies adopted by teachers. Partial evidence collected so far points to the tentative conclusion according to which, contextual variables being equal, differences in teaching styles and methods may deeply reshape the role component of didactical systems. If we take into careful account this distinction, we can shed additional light into some hitherto unexplained phenomena observed in the literature.

  7. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  8. Political ideology is contextually variable and flexible rather than fixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel C

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al. argue that the liberal-conservative continuum is (a) universal and (b) grounded in psychological differences in sensitivity to negative stimuli. Our commentary argues that both claims overlook the importance of context. We review evidence that the liberal-conservative continuum is far from universal and that ideological differences are contextually flexible rather than fixed.

  9. State-independent quantum contextuality for continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, Angel R.; Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that nature violates noncontextual inequalities regardless of the state of the physical system. So far, all these inequalities involve measurements of dichotomic observables. We show that state-independent quantum contextuality can also be observed in the correlations between measurements of observables with genuinely continuous spectra, highlighting the universal character of the effect.

  10. The contextual effects of social capital on health: a cross-national instrumental variable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Baum, Christopher F; Ganz, Michael L; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-12-01

    Past research on the associations between area-level/contextual social capital and health has produced conflicting evidence. However, interpreting this rapidly growing literature is difficult because estimates using conventional regression are prone to major sources of bias including residual confounding and reverse causation. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis can reduce such bias. Using data on up to 167,344 adults in 64 nations in the European and World Values Surveys and applying IV and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we estimated the contextual effects of country-level social trust on individual self-rated health. We further explored whether these associations varied by gender and individual levels of trust. Using OLS regression, we found higher average country-level trust to be associated with better self-rated health in both women and men. Instrumental variable analysis yielded qualitatively similar results, although the estimates were more than double in size in both sexes when country population density and corruption were used as instruments. The estimated health effects of raising the percentage of a country's population that trusts others by 10 percentage points were at least as large as the estimated health effects of an individual developing trust in others. These findings were robust to alternative model specifications and instruments. Conventional regression and to a lesser extent IV analysis suggested that these associations are more salient in women and in women reporting social trust. In a large cross-national study, our findings, including those using instrumental variables, support the presence of beneficial effects of higher country-level trust on self-rated health. Previous findings for contextual social capital using traditional regression may have underestimated the true associations. Given the close linkages between self-rated health and all-cause mortality, the public health gains from raising social capital within and across

  11. The componential processing of fractions in adults and children: effects of stimuli variability and contextual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Qiaochu; Gabriel, Florence C; Szücs, Dénes

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that people have a strong tendency to compare fractions based on constituent numerators or denominators. This is called componential processing. This study explored whether componential processing was preferred in tasks involving high stimuli variability and high contextual interference, when fractions could be compared based either on the holistic values of fractions or on their denominators. Here, stimuli variability referred to the fact that fractions were not monotonous but diversiform. Contextual interference referred to the fact that the processing of fractions was interfered by other stimuli. To our ends, three tasks were used. In Task 1, participants compared a standard fraction 1/5 to unit fractions. This task was used as a low stimuli variability and low contextual interference task. In Task 2 stimuli variability was increased by mixing unit and non-unit fractions. In Task 3, high contextual interference was created by incorporating decimals into fractions. The RT results showed that the processing patterns of fractions were very similar for adults and children. In task 1 and task 3, only componential processing was utilzied. In contrast, both holistic processing and componential processing were utilized in task 2. These results suggest that, if individuals are presented with the opportunity to perform componential processing, both adults and children will tend to do so, even if they are faced with high variability of fractions or high contextual interference.

  12. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  13. Dimensions of organizational learning: contextual variables in companies under lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lean Production (LP is an approach that encompasses a variety of management practices to reduce losses and improve operational efficiency. Due to this fact, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously presents itself as a key element in the implementation of the LP. Several contextual variables were mentioned in the literature as potential impediments to implementing lean. However, little is known about the influence of these variables on the dimensions of Organizational Learning (OL. This study aims to examine the relationship between six contextual variables and the frequency of occurrence of problems in companies that are implementing the LP. Furthermore, the identification of relevant relationships between dimensions of OL and contextual variables contribute to the identification of the contexts in which problems can be expected to occur. The sample contains thirteen companies implementing the LP. The results indicate that the same contextual variables, which are deemed as influential to implement LP, have a different influence on the ability of organizational learning.

  14. How Do Self-Efficacy, Contextual Variables and Stressors Affect Teacher Burnout in an EFL Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Reza; Mirzaee, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among stressors, contextual variables, self-efficacy and teacher burnout in Iran as an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context. A battery of questionnaires was administered to 216 English language teachers of private language institutes. Using Amos version 20, structural equation…

  15. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  16. [Prediction of mathematics achievement: effect of personal, socioeducational and contextual variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Lourenço, Abílio; Paiva, Olímpia; Rodrigues, Adriana; Valle, Antonio; Tuero-Herrero, Ellián

    2012-05-01

    Based upon the self-regulated learning theoretical framework this study examined to what extent students' Math school achievement (fifth to ninth graders from compulsory education) can be explained by different cognitive-motivational, social, educational, and contextual variables. A sample of 571 students (10 to 15 year old) enrolled in the study. Findings suggest that Math achievement can be predicted by self-efficacy in Math, school success and self-regulated learning and that these same variables can be explained by other motivational (ej., achievement goals) and contextual variables (school disruption) stressing this way the main importance of self-regulated learning processes and the role context can play in the promotion of school success. The educational implications of the results to the school levels taken are also discussed in the present paper.

  17. Assessing the impact of the tableware and other contextual variables on multisensory flavour perception

    OpenAIRE

    Spence Charles; Harrar Vanessa; Piqueras-Fiszman Betina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Currently little is known about how the non-edible items associated with eating and drinking (tableware items such as the plates, bowls, cutlery, glasses, bottles, condiment containers, etc.), or even environmental factors (such as the lighting and/or background music), affect people’s perception of foodstuffs. Here, we review the latest evidence demonstrating the importance of these contextual variables on the consumer’s behavioural and hedonic response to, and sensory perception of...

  18. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  19. Patients' Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients' dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient's dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient's rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients' dignity.

  20. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zirak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a demographic characteristics, and (b patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13 software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28. According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2% were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity.

  1. Associations between the practice of bullying and individual and contextual variables from the aggressors' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying among Brazilian students from the aggressor's perspective and to analyze its association with individual and contextual variables. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with data from the National Survey on Student Health. A total of 109,104 students attending eight grade in public and private schools were included. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire. A model of association between bullying and variables in the following domains was tested: sociodemographics, risk behaviors, mental health, and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of aggressors in bullying situations was 20.8%. The following variables remained associated in the final multivariate model: male gender (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.79-1.94, lower participation of 16-year-old students (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.53-0.82, and students from private schools (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.27-1.39. Most aggressors reported feeling lonely (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.16-1.28, insomnia episodes (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.29, and a high prevalence of physical violence in the family (OR: 1.97 95% CI: 1.87-2.08. Aggressors missed classes more frequently (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.40-1.51, and they regularly consumed more tobacco (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.31, alcohol (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.77-1.92, and illegal drugs (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.79-2.04; they also demonstrated increased sexual intercourse (OR: 1.49 95% CI: 1.43-1.55 and regular exercise (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.16-1.25. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that bullying is an important aspect that affects the learning-teaching process and the students' health.

  2. [Hypersexual disorder will not be included in the DSM V : a contextual analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, I; Pitchot, W

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexuality disorder has not been added to the list of psychiatric disorders for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V, to be published in May 2013. The evolution of the concept of hypersexuality disorder and its series of different models call into question the controversial context within which its inclusion is considered for the DSM V. A brief contextual analysis makes clear that the creation of this concept follows moral norms and psychosocial values. The construction of hypersexuality disorder in terms of a diagnostic entity rests on the clash of social forces at play in the development process. This article lays the foundation to contemplate the manner in which entities for psychiatric disorders are constructed.

  3. The Impacts of Demographic Variables on Technological and Contextual Challenges of E-learning Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldowah, Hanan; Ghazal, Samar; Naufal Umar, Irfan; Muniandy, Balakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Information technology has achieved robust growth which has made it possible for learning to occur quickly. The rapid development of information, communication and technologies (ICT) has initiated an unparalleled transformation in universities all over the world. This development of technology and learning is offering new techniques to represent knowledge, new practices, and new global communities of learners. As a result, today’s economic and social changes force universities to try to find new learning approaches and systems. E-learning seems to be an appropriate approach in this aspect. However, the implementation of e-learning systems in universities is not an easy task because of some challenges related to context, technology, and other challenges. This paper studied the impacts of demographic data and reported the critical points for the decision makers to consider when planning and implementing e-learning in universities. A quantitative approach was used to study the effects of technological and contextual challenges on e-learning implementation in which a questionnaire was used for the data collection. According to the findings of the study, the most important challenges of the implementation of e-learning are related either to organizational (Contextual) and technological (technical) issues. The demographic variables have been found to play a direct and indirect role with the technological and contextual challenges of implementing e-learning. This paper showed that there are some significant differences in the two challenges faced by instructors in terms of the demographic variables. The result revealed that some significant differences exist between demographic variables and the two challenges of e-learning in terms of gender, age, teaching experience, ICT experience and e-learning experience. However, there is no significant difference in terms of e-learning experience. The obtained data, from such study, can provide information about what academic

  4. A structural model of goal orientation in sports: personal and contextual variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Navas Martínez, Leandro; López Núñez, Manuela; García Calvo, Tomás

    2010-05-01

    The following paper first introduces, and then goes on to test a structural model for goal orientation in sports that involves both personal and contextual variables. 511 subjects participated in this study, male and female athletes who play a variety of sports (352 men and 159 women). They ranged in age from 16 to 45-years old and completed the TEOSQ (Balaguer, Tomás & Castillo's version, 1995), the POSQ (Treasure & Roberts, 1994), the PMCSQ-II (Newton & Duda, 1993), the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sports Questionnaire, and the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Goss & Huddleston, 1983). The results of this sample show that success attribution and motivational climate are involved in determining goal orientation in sports. However, the model does present certain differences according to the type of sport practiced (individual versus team sport).

  5. LEXICAL AND CONTEXTUAL VARIABILITY OF IDIOMATIC PHRASAL VERBS IN HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS MOVIES

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    Ghofar Romli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (HPDH as a novel is almost accentuated in the movie version. However, the fascination of watching the movies may be interrupted by the problems arising from the use of some problematic expressions in the original language, especially idiomatic phrasal verbs (IPVs. The Indonesian viewers who happen to be learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL will not have the fullest understanding of the story/text/sentence of the movies when they translate idiom lexically as the meaning of an idiom cannot be predicted from its individual constituents (Langlotz, 2006:4. This paper undergoes some procedures of the analysis starting from the process of data collection, progressing to selection, filtering, and labeling. It extracts PVs in HPDH (97 in HPDH part one and 70 in part two using linguistic concepts of PV. Later by limiting the PVs under conventional and characteristics modelling function of idioms, IPVs can be identified and served as the primary data. The final phase of the analysis wants to see how lexical interpretation, relying on Oxford Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary 8th Edition (OALD 8th ed, and Halidayan contextual variability (field, tenor and mode help classifying and explaining the meanings of the IPVs. Finally it is expected that this paper can offer appropriate logical and contextual interpretations of the IPVs. This way, by watching the HPDH, learners of English can gain better understanding of the movies and, more importantly, better knowledge of IPVs as inseparable part of their competence of EFL.

  6. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  7. Motivation in foreign language learning: a look at type of school environment as a contextual variable

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    Pavičić Takać Višnja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Impelled by the observation that motivation might be one of the most important factors within the affective domain influencing foreign language learning (FLL, the field of second language acquisition (SLA has seen an intense worldwide interest in empirical research in motivational issues. The studies have been rooted in different theories and methodologies, (most notably those advanced by Gardner and Dörnyei and their respective associates that have given precedence to a number of variables assumed to play an important role in understanding the phenomenon of FLL motivation. The present study is set between the macroperspective of the social-psychological period–by giving a general view of second language motivation–and the situation-specific period–by taking into consideration the immediate learning context. It focuses on exploring the nature of FLL motivation in Croatia at secondary education level where FLL is part of core curriculum. In particular, it explores the role of one specific contextual variable that has been largely ignored in SLA motivational research, i.e. type of school environment, and its interaction with gender and success in FLL.

  8. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  9. Associations between the practice of bullying and individual and contextual variables from the aggressors’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of bullying among Brazilian students from the aggressor's perspective and to analyze its association with individual and contextual variables. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with data from the National Survey on Student Health. A total of 109,104 students attending eight grade in public and private schools were included. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire. A model of association between bullying and variables in the following domains was tested: sociodemographics, risk behaviors, mental health, and family context. Univariate and multivariate analyses were also performed. Results: The prevalence of aggressors in bullying situations was 20.8%. The following variables remained associated in the final multivariate model: male gender (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.79–1.94, lower participation of 16-year-old students (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.53–0.82, and students from private schools (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.27–1.39. Most aggressors reported feeling lonely (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.16–1.28, insomnia episodes (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.29, and a high prevalence of physical violence in the family (OR: 1.97 95% CI: 1.87–2.08. Aggressors missed classes more frequently (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.40–1.51, and they regularly consumed more tobacco (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.31, alcohol (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.77–1.92, and illegal drugs (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.79–2.04; they also demonstrated increased sexual intercourse (OR: 1.49 95% CI: 1.43–1.55 and regular exercise (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.16–1.25. Conclusions: The data indicate that bullying is an important aspect that affects the learning-teaching process and the students’ health. Resumo: Objetivos: Estimar a prevalência de bullying, sob a perspectiva do agressor, em escolares brasileiros, e analisar sua associação com variáveis individuais e de contexto. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com dados

  10. General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Keller, A; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P

    2017-01-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. (paper)

  11. Educational Barriers of Rural Youth: Relation of Individual and Contextual Difference Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of several individual and contextual difference factors to the perceived educational barriers of rural youth. Data were from a broader national investigation of students’ postsecondary aspirations and preparation in rural high schools across the United States. The sample involved more than 7,000 rural youth in 73 high schools across 34 states. Results indicated that some individual (e.g., African American race/ethnicity) and contextual (e.g., parent education) difference factors were predictive while others were not. Extensions to, similarities, and variations with previous research are discussed. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:24474843

  12. On Contextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  13. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  14. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  15. Analysis of contextual variables in the evaluation of child abuse in the pediatric emergency setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Nunes de Almeida

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Patterns of association between victims, family contexts, and abusers were identified. It is necessary to alert clinicians about the importance of social variables in the multiple facets of child abuse.

  16. Cross-Contextual Variability in Parents' and School Tutors' Conflict Resolution Styles and Positive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Beatriz; Rodrigo, María José; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined how the variability in adult conflict resolution styles in family and school contexts was related to adolescents' positive development. Cluster analysis classified 440 fathers, 440 mothers, and 125 tutors into 4 clusters, based on self-reports of their conflict resolution styles. Adolescents exposed to Cluster 1 (inconsistency…

  17. Psychological variables implied in the therapeutic effect of ayahuasca: A contextual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquesa, Alba; Sainz-Cort, Alberto; Gandy, Sam; Soler, Joaquim; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Bouso, José Carlos

    2018-04-04

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction originating from Amazonia. The ayahuasca-induced introspective experience has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of several pathologies, to protect mental health and to improve neuropsychological functions and creativity, and boost mindfulness. The underlying psychological processes related to the use of ayahuasca in a psychotherapeutic context are not yet well described in the scientific literature, but there is some evidence to suggest that psychological variables described in psychotherapies could be useful in explaining the therapeutic effects of the brew. In this study we explore the link between ayahuasca use and Decentering, Values and Self, comparing subjects without experience of ayahuasca (n = 41) with subjects with experience (n = 81). Results confirm that ayahuasca users scored higher than non-users in Decentering and Positive self, but not in Valued living, Life fulfillment, Self in social relations, Self in close relations and General self. Scores in Decentering were higher in the more experienced subjects (more than 15 occasions) than in those with less experience (less than 15 occasions). Our results show that psychological process variables may explain the outcomes in ayahuasca psychotherapy. The introduction of these variables is warranted in future ayahuasca therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of discrete contextual variables on «bullying» in the schoolyard

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Frutos, Teodoro; Casares García, Esther

    2010-01-01

    A pesar de la abundante literatura científica que existe sobre el acoso escolar, pocos estudios han incidido sobre los efectos, tanto separados como combinados, causados por variables contextuales discretas, tales como el espacio geográfico, el distrito municipal, la familia, la escuela, el género, la cultura hegemónica machista y la exposición a los medios de comunicación masivos. El artículo analiza el estado actual de conocimiento de la incidencia de estos factores y añade evidencia empíri...

  19. To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Reed, Robert N.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Roads are significant barriers to landscape-scale movements of individuals or populations of many wildlife taxa. The decision by an animal near a road to either cross or not cross may be influenced by characteristics of the road, environmental conditions, traits of the individual animal, and other aspects of the context within which the decision is made. We considered such factors in a mixed-effects logistic regression model describing the nightly road crossing probabilities of invasive nocturnal Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) through short-term radiotracking of 691 snakes within close proximity to 50 road segments across the island of Guam. All measures of road magnitude (traffic volume, gap width, surface type, etc.) were significantly negatively correlated with crossing probabilities. Snake body size was the only intrinsic factor associated with crossing rates, with larger snakes crossing roads more frequently. Humidity was the only environmental variable affecting crossing rate. The distance of the snake from the road at the start of nightly movement trials was the most significant predictor of crossings. The presence of snake traps with live mouse lures during a portion of the trials indicated that localized prey cues reduced the probability of a snake crossing the road away from the traps, suggesting that a snake's decision to cross roads is influenced by local foraging opportunities. Per capita road crossing rates of Brown Treesnakes were very low, and comparisons to historical records suggest that crossing rates have declined in the 60+ yr since introduction to Guam. We report a simplified model that will allow managers to predict road crossing rates based on snake, road, and contextual characteristics. Road crossing simulations based on actual snake size distributions demonstrate that populations with size distributions skewed toward larger snakes will result in a higher number of road crossings. Our method of modeling per capita road crossing

  20. The Effect of Contextual Variables in the Relationship between CSR and CFP: Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study is to investigate whether business environment, business strategy, formalization, decentralization, reliance on combination of belief & boundary system, reliance on combination of diagnostic & interactive control system, reliance on interactive control system moderate the relationship between CSR and CFP under the slack resource and good management theories. 220 respondents from manufacturing companies listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange were selected and two regression models were developed to examine the relationship between the related variables. The findings show that business environment has moderated the CSR-CFP link under good management theory, decentralization has moderated the CSR-CFP link under slack resource theory, and reliance on combination of diagnostic and interactive control system has moderated the CSR and CFP link based on slack resource theory.

  1. Contextual and psychological variables in a descriptive model of subjective well-being and school engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio ex post facto es analizar las relaciones entre apoyo social percibido, autoconcepto, resiliencia, bienestar subjetivo e implicación escolar. Método: Se aplicó una batería de instrumentos a 1.250 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria del País Vasco (49% chicos y 51% chicas, de entre 12 y 15 anos ˜ (M = 13,72, DT =1,09, seleccionados aleatoriamente. Se sometió a prueba un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para analizar los efectos del apoyo social percibido, el autoconcepto y la resiliencia sobre el bienestar subjetivo y la implicación escolar. Resultados: Los resultados aportan evidencias a favor de la influencia que ejercen el apoyo de la familia, el apoyo de los iguales y el apoyo del profesorado sobre el autoconcepto, que a su vez se muestra como variable mediadora asociada a la resiliencia, el bienestar subjetivo y la implicación escolar. Conclusiones: Se discuten los resultados obtenidos en el marco de la psicología positiva y sus implicaciones prácticas en el contexto escolar.

  2. Personal and Contextual Influences on Township School Learners' Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduld, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Learners' self-regulation, which includes motivational variables, is influenced by personal variables within learners themselves, as well as by contextual factors. A great deal of research has focused on personal variables in learners that influence their self-regulated behaviours; yet contextual influences that operate outside of formal schooling…

  3. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  4. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  6. Changes in heart rate variability are associated with expression of short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available Heart physiology is a highly useful indicator for measuring not only physical states, but also emotional changes in animals. Yet changes of heart rate variability during fear conditioning have not been systematically studied in mice. Here, we investigated changes in heart rate and heart rate variability in both short-term and long-term contextual and cued fear conditioning. We found that while fear conditioning could increase heart rate, the most significant change was the reduction in heart rate variability which could be further divided into two distinct stages: a highly rhythmic phase (stage-I and a more variable phase (stage-II. We showed that the time duration of the stage-I rhythmic phase were sensitive enough to reflect the transition from short-term to long-term fear memories. Moreover, it could also detect fear extinction effect during the repeated tone recall. These results suggest that heart rate variability is a valuable physiological indicator for sensitively measuring the consolidation and expression of fear memories in mice.

  7. A Case for Including Atmospheric Thermodynamic Variables in Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading Parameter Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Neil D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper makes the case for establishing efficient predictor variables for atmospheric thermodynamics that can be used to statistically correlate the fatigue accumulation seen on wind turbines. Recently, two approaches to this issue have been reported. One uses multiple linear-regression analysis to establish the relative causality between a number of predictors related to the turbulent inflow and turbine loads. The other approach, using many of the same predictors, applies the technique of principal component analysis. An examination of the ensemble of predictor variables revealed that they were all kinematic in nature; i.e., they were only related to the description of the velocity field. Boundary-layer turbulence dynamics depends upon a description of the thermal field and its interaction with the velocity distribution. We used a series of measurements taken within a multi-row wind farm to demonstrate the need to include atmospheric thermodynamic variables as well as velocity-related ones in the search for efficient turbulence loading predictors in various turbine-operating environments. Our results show that a combination of vertical stability and hub-height mean shearing stress variables meet this need over a period of 10 minutes

  8. Direct-phase-variable model of a synchronous reluctance motor including all slot and winding harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.

  9. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  10. How to include the variability of TMS responses in simulations: a speech mapping case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geeter, N.; Lioumis, P.; Laakso, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2016-11-01

    When delivered over a specific cortical site, TMS can temporarily disrupt the ongoing process in that area. This allows mapping of speech-related areas for preoperative evaluation purposes. We numerically explore the observed variability of TMS responses during a speech mapping experiment performed with a neuronavigation system. We selected four cases with very small perturbations in coil position and orientation. In one case (E) a naming error occurred, while in the other cases (NEA, B, C) the subject appointed the images as smoothly as without TMS. A realistic anisotropic head model was constructed of the subject from T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. The induced electric field distributions were computed, associated to the coil parameters retrieved from the neuronavigation system. Finally, the membrane potentials along relevant white matter fibre tracts, extracted from DTI-based tractography, were computed using a compartmental cable equation. While only minor differences could be noticed between the induced electric field distributions of the four cases, computing the corresponding membrane potentials revealed different subsets of tracts were activated. A single tract was activated for all coil positions. Another tract was only triggered for case E. NEA induced action potentials in 13 tracts, while NEB stimulated 11 tracts and NEC one. The calculated results are certainly sensitive to the coil specifications, demonstrating the observed variability in this study. However, even though a tract connecting Broca’s with Wernicke’s area is only triggered for the error case, further research is needed on other study cases and on refining the neural model with synapses and network connections. Case- and subject-specific modelling that includes both electromagnetic fields and neuronal activity enables demonstration of the variability in TMS experiments and can capture the interaction with complex neural networks.

  11. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  12. Efeitos de variáveis individuais e contextuais sobre desempenho individual no trabalho Effects of individuals and contextual variables on individual performance at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antonio Coelho Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou testar empiricamente um modelo teórico multinível de predição de desempenho individual no trabalho. As variáveis antecedentes investigadas, isoladas ou em interação, corresponderam à idade, gênero, cargo, grau de escolaridade, tempo de serviço e percepção de suporte à aprendizagem, medidas no nível individual e de contexto, e satisfação no trabalho, de nível individual. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma empresa pública, do ramo de pesquisas agropecuária e atuação nacional. A amostra (N = 808 contou com funcionários distribuídos em 45 unidades centralizadas e descentralizadas da empresa pelo Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada à distância, via e-mail. Os resultados multiníveis corroboraram o modelo teórico de pesquisa hipotetizado e evidenciaram que a variância de desempenho foi explicada por distintos preditores de nível individual e de contexto, isoladamente ou em interação.This paper aims to empirically test a theoretical multilevel model for the prediction of individual performance at work. Antecedent variables, isolated or in interaction, were age, gender, function, scholarity, period of function and perception of learning support, in the individual and contextual levels, and satisfaction at work, an individual variable. This study was accomplished in a public corporation which deals with agricultural research in a national scope. The participants (N = 808 were distribute in 45 central and noncentral units for the Brazil. Data collection was done online, by e-mail. The multilevel results confirm the hypothetic theoretical model and make evident that the performance's variance were predicted by different individuals and context variables, isolated or in interaction.

  13. ANALYSIS AND PLANNING OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES TO DEVELOP A MODEL FOR MONITORING FINANCIAL INDICATORS AT REGIONAL LEVEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRIS TINA GRADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of quantitative techniques in regional analysis can provide an understanding of both the change in time of regional economic performance and the interdependencies between economic sectors, including the use of projections to test the potential future development of the region. Qualitative techniques allow also the explanation of the reason for regional development patterns occurring in a region and the improvement of analysts' ability to reflect on the results and economic opportunities for a future based on collective experience, wisdom and judgment of the actors in region economies.

  14. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  15. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  16. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined, where the second cone of a two cone center body collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  17. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  18. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  19. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-07

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility.

  20. Fatigue Behavior under Multiaxial Stress States Including Notch Effects and Variable Amplitude Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicholas R.

    The central objective of the research performed in this study was to be able to better understand and predict fatigue crack initiation and growth from stress concentrations subjected to complex service loading histories. As such, major areas of focus were related to the understanding and modeling of material deformation behavior, fatigue damage quantification, notch effects, cycle counting, damage accumulation, and crack growth behavior under multiaxial nominal loading conditions. To support the analytical work, a wide variety of deformation and fatigue tests were also performed using tubular and plate specimens made from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, with and without the inclusion of a circular through-thickness hole. However, the analysis procedures implemented were meant to be general in nature, and applicable to a wide variety of materials and component geometries. As a result, experimental data from literature were also used, when appropriate, to supplement the findings of various analyses. Popular approaches currently used for multiaxial fatigue life analysis are based on the idea of computing an equivalent stress/strain quantity through the extension of static yield criteria. This equivalent stress/strain is then considered to be equal, in terms of fatigue damage, to a uniaxial loading of the same magnitude. However, it has often been shown, and was shown again in this study, that although equivalent stress- and strain-based analysis approaches may work well in certain situations, they lack a general robustness and offer little room for improvement. More advanced analysis techniques, on the other hand, provide an opportunity to more accurately account for various aspects of the fatigue failure process under both constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. As a result, such techniques were of primary interest in the investigations performed. By implementing more advanced life prediction methodologies, both the overall accuracy and the correlation of fatigue

  1. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  2. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daan

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If this claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  3. Moral contextualism and the problem of triviality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, H.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Moral contextualism is the view that claims like ‘A ought to X’ are implicitly relative to some (contextually variable) standard. This leads to a problem: what are fundamental moral claims like ‘You ought to maximize happiness’ relative to? If the claim is relative to a utilitarian standard, then

  4. Contextual Fraction as a Measure of Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, Samson; Barbosa, Rui Soares; Mansfield, Shane

    2017-08-01

    We consider the contextual fraction as a quantitative measure of contextuality of empirical models, i.e., tables of probabilities of measurement outcomes in an experimental scenario. It provides a general way to compare the degree of contextuality across measurement scenarios; it bears a precise relationship to violations of Bell inequalities; its value, and a witnessing inequality, can be computed using linear programing; it is monotonic with respect to the "free" operations of a resource theory for contextuality; and it measures quantifiable advantages in informatic tasks, such as games and a form of measurement-based quantum computing.

  5. Probing contextuality with pre- and post-selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre-and-post-selection (PPS), it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated including a proof that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions implies contextuality. Certain results of these measurements (eccentric weak values with e.g. negative values outside the spectrum), however, cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory. Surprising theoretical implications are discussed

  6. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  7. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J.; Reinero, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher’s degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed “hidden moderators”) between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  8. How novice, skilled and advanced clinical researchers include variables in a case report form for clinical research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongling; Zeng, Lin; Fetters, Micheal D; Li, Nan; Tao, Liyuan; Shi, Yanyan; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Fengwei; Zhao, Yiming

    2017-09-18

    Despite varying degrees in research training, most academic clinicians are expected to conduct clinical research. The objective of this research was to understand how clinical researchers of different skill levels include variables in a case report form for their clinical research. The setting for this research was a major academic institution in Beijing, China. The target population was clinical researchers with three levels of experience, namely, limited clinical research experience, clinicians with rich clinical research experience and clinical research experts. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 13 individual interviews (face to face) and one group interview (n=4) with clinical researchers from June to September 2016. Based on maximum variation sampling to identify researchers with three levels of research experience: eight clinicians with limited clinical research experience, five clinicians with rich clinical research experience and four clinical research experts. These 17 researchers had diverse hospital-based medical specialties and or specialisation in clinical research. Our analysis yields a typology of three processes developing a case report form that varies according to research experience level. Novice clinician researchers often have an incomplete protocol or none at all, and conduct data collection and publication based on a general framework. Experienced clinician researchers include variables in the case report form based on previous experience with attention to including domains or items at risk for omission and by eliminating unnecessary variables. Expert researchers consider comprehensively in advance data collection and implementation needs and plan accordingly. These results illustrate increasing levels of sophistication in research planning that increase sophistication in selection for variables in the case report form. These findings suggest that novice and intermediate-level researchers could benefit by emulating the comprehensive

  9. Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Agostini, Bernardo Antonio; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2017-03-30

    The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children's Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children's dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children's ages, family income, parents' schooling, mothers' participation in their children's school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.

  10. Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiana PIOVESAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children’s Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children’s dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers’ associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children’s ages, family income, parents’ schooling, mothers’ participation in their children’s school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers’ associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.

  11. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual). The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explana...

  12. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality with nonentangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B. H.; Huang, Y. F.; Gong, Y. X.; Sun, F. W.; Zhang, Y. S.; Li, C. F.; Guo, G. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental test of quantum contextuality by using two-photon product states. The experimental results show that the noncontextual hidden-variable theories are violated by nonentangled states in spite of the local hidden-variable theories can be violated or not. We find that the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type quantum interference effect causes the quantum contextuality.

  13. Multiculturalism and contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Many political theorists of multiculturalism (e.g. Joseph Carens, Bhikhu Parekh, James Tully) describe their theories as “contextualist.” But it is unclear what “contextualism” means and what difference it makes for political theory. I use a specific prominent example of a multiculturalist...... discussion, namely Tariq Modood’s argument about “moderate secularism,” as a test case and distinguish between different senses of contextualism. I discuss whether the claim that political theory is contextual in each sense is novel and interesting, and whether contextualism is a distinct feature...... of political theory of multiculturalism. I argue that the forms of contextualism which concern the scope and methodology of political theory are sensible, but not novel or distinctive of multiculturalism. I then discuss the more controversial forms of contextualism, which I call political and theoretical...

  14. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  15. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  16. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  17. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes, including the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Arratia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina.

  18. Individual- and contextual-level factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.

  19. Auxiliary variables in multiple imputation in regression with missing X: a warning against including too many in small sample research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation is becoming increasingly popular. Theoretical considerations as well as simulation studies have shown that the inclusion of auxiliary variables is generally of benefit. Methods A simulation study of a linear regression with a response Y and two predictors X1 and X2 was performed on data with n = 50, 100 and 200 using complete cases or multiple imputation with 0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 auxiliary variables. Mechanisms of missingness were either 100% MCAR or 50% MAR + 50% MCAR. Auxiliary variables had low (r=.10 vs. moderate correlations (r=.50 with X’s and Y. Results The inclusion of auxiliary variables can improve a multiple imputation model. However, inclusion of too many variables leads to downward bias of regression coefficients and decreases precision. When the correlations are low, inclusion of auxiliary variables is not useful. Conclusion More research on auxiliary variables in multiple imputation should be performed. A preliminary rule of thumb could be that the ratio of variables to cases with complete data should not go below 1 : 3.

  20. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  1. Iwamoto-Harada coalescence/pickup model for cluster emission: state density approach including angular momentum variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Běták Emil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and – at the same time – it stimulated further developments of the model. However – to the best of our knowledge – no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain.

  2. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual. The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explanation and critique.

  3. Contextuality for preparations, transformations, and unsharp measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem establishes the impossibility of a noncontextual hidden variable model of quantum theory, or equivalently, that quantum theory is contextual. In this paper, an operational definition of contextuality is introduced which generalizes the standard notion in three ways: (i) it applies to arbitrary operational theories rather than just quantum theory (ii) it applies to arbitrary experimental procedures rather than just sharp measurements, and (iii) it applies to a broad class of ontological models of quantum theory rather than just deterministic hidden variable models. We derive three no-go theorems for ontological models, each based on an assumption of noncontextuality for a different sort of experimental procedure; one for preparation procedures, another for unsharp measurement procedures (that is, measurement procedures associated with positive-operator valued measures), and a third for transformation procedures. All three proofs apply to two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and are therefore stronger than traditional proofs of contextuality

  4. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  5. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  6. Using Copulas in the Estimation of the Economic Project Value in the Mining Industry, Including Geological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysa, Zbigniew; Pactwa, Katarzyna; Wozniak, Justyna; Dudek, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Geological variability is one of the main factors that has an influence on the viability of mining investment projects and on the technical risk of geology projects. In the current scenario, analyses of economic viability of new extraction fields have been performed for the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. underground copper mine at Fore Sudetic Monocline with the assumption of constant averaged content of useful elements. Research presented in this article is aimed at verifying the value of production from copper and silver ore for the same economic background with the use of variable cash flows resulting from the local variability of useful elements. Furthermore, the ore economic model is investigated for a significant difference in model value estimated with the use of linear correlation between useful elements content and the height of mine face, and the approach in which model parameters correlation is based upon the copula best matched information capacity criterion. The use of copula allows the simulation to take into account the multi variable dependencies at the same time, thereby giving a better reflection of the dependency structure, which linear correlation does not take into account. Calculation results of the economic model used for deposit value estimation indicate that the correlation between copper and silver estimated with the use of copula generates higher variation of possible project value, as compared to modelling correlation based upon linear correlation. Average deposit value remains unchanged.

  7. Inlet-engine matching for SCAR including application of a bicone variable geometry inlet. [Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserbauer, J. F.; Gerstenmaier, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Airflow characteristics of variable cycle engines (VCE) designed for Mach 2.32 can have transonic airflow requirements as high as 1.6 times the cruise airflow. This is a formidable requirement for conventional, high performance, axisymmetric, translating centerbody mixed compression inlets. An alternate inlet is defined where the second cone of a two cone centerbody collapses to the initial cone angle to provide a large off-design airflow capability, and incorporates modest centerbody translation to minimize spillage drag. Estimates of transonic spillage drag are competitive with those of conventional translating centerbody inlets. The inlet's cruise performance exhibits very low bleed requirements with good recovery and high angle of attack capability.

  8. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...

  9. Tools of Contextualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Brodersen, Ann Christina; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    Project based education is growing in importance in elementary schools though it is still quite poorly technologically supported, particularly with respect to actively taking advantage of contextual information. Based on an empirical study of teaching and in particular project based education...... in Danish elementary schools, we present the HyConExplorer, a geospatial hypermedia system supporting project based education and learning outside of the classroom through contextualization of information. More specifically, the HyCon-Explorer provides means for: browsing with your feet, annotating...

  10. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  11. Multi-level Contextual Type Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Boespflug

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Contextual type theory distinguishes between bound variables and meta-variables to write potentially incomplete terms in the presence of binders. It has found good use as a framework for concise explanations of higher-order unification, characterize holes in proofs, and in developing a foundation for programming with higher-order abstract syntax, as embodied by the programming and reasoning environment Beluga. However, to reason about these applications, we need to introduce meta^2-variables to characterize the dependency on meta-variables and bound variables. In other words, we must go beyond a two-level system granting only bound variables and meta-variables. In this paper we generalize contextual type theory to n levels for arbitrary n, so as to obtain a formal system offering bound variables, meta-variables and so on all the way to meta^n-variables. We obtain a uniform account by collapsing all these different kinds of variables into a single notion of variabe indexed by some level k. We give a decidable bi-directional type system which characterizes beta-eta-normal forms together with a generalized substitution operation.

  12. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-04-25

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P 5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals.

  13. Structuring mobile and contextual learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2011). Structuring mobile and contextual learning. In Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 188-195). October, 18-21, 2011, Beijing, China.

  14. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed 3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P 30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive differentiator among hospitals. Thus, the usefulness of statistical methods for operating room management should be expected to be heterogeneous among hospitals. Our results also show that "large teaching hospital" alone is an insufficient description for accurate prediction of the extent to which a hospital sustains the

  15. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  16. Contextual and individual factors associated with dental services utilisation by Brazilian adults: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkrath, Fernando José; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    Inequalities in the utilisation of dental services in Brazil are remarkable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contextual and individual factors with the utilisation of dental services by Brazilian adults using the Andersen's behavioural model. Individual-level data from 27,017 adults residents in the State capitals who were interviewed in the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey were pooled with contextual city-level data. The outcomes were non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. Individual predisposing variables were age, sex, race/skin colour, schooling and social network. Individual enabling variables included income, health insurance and registration in primary health care. Individual need variables were self-perceived dental health and self-reported missing teeth. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the association of contextual and individual predisposing, enabling and need-related variables with dental services outcomes. Predisposing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) and enabling (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.96) contextual factors were associated with non-utilisation of dental services. Individual predisposing (sex, race/skin colour, schooling), enabling (income, health insurance) and need (self-perceived oral health, missing teeth) were associated with non-utilisation of dental services and last dental visit over 12 months ago. The latter was also associated with other individual predisposing (age, social network) and need (eating difficulties due to oral problems) characteristics. Individual and contextual determinants influenced dental services utilisation in Brazilian adults. These factors should be on the policy agenda and considered in the organisation of health services aiming to reduce oral health inequalities related to access and utilisation of dental services.

  17. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Andrew W; Rudolph, Terry; Wallman, Joel J; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  18. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...... that can be invoked to contextualize a specific object of political discussion such as a law, an institution, or the like. Contextualism denotes any view that political theory should take context into account, but there are many different views about what this means. Contextualism can be characterized...... by way of different contrasts, which imply that the resulting conceptions of contextualism are views about different things, such as justification, the nature of political theory, or methodology. Here the focus is on characterizations of contextualism in terms of methodology and justification...

  19. Individual and contextual determinants of malocclusion in 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro JORDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe malocclusion prevalence and its association with individual and contextual factors among Brazilian 12-year-old schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in Goiânia, Brazil (n = 2,075, and data from the files of the local health authority. The data were collected through oral clinical examinations. The Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI was used to assess occlusion. The presence of malocclusion (DAI > 25 was used as the dependent variable. The individual independent variables consisted of adolescents’ sex and race and their mothers’ level of schooling. The clinical variables were caries experience and presence of adverse periodontal condition (calculus and/or gingival bleeding. The contextual variables included type of school and the location of schools in the city’s health districts. The Rao-Scott test and multilevel logistic regression were performed. The prevalence of malocclusion was 40.1%. In the final model, significantly higher rates of malocclusion were found among those who attended schools located in less affluent health districts and whose mothers had fewer years of education. Rates were also higher among those presenting calculus and/or gingival bleeding. Malocclusion demonstrated a high prevalence rate and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual and contextual factors.

  20. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  1. Contextual mediation of perceptions in hauntings and poltergeist-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R; Houran, J; Harte, T M; Havens, R A

    1996-06-01

    The content of perceived apparitions, e.g., bereavement hallucinations, cannot be explained entirely in terms of electromagnetically induced neurochemical processes. It was shown that contextual variables influential in hallucinatory and hypnotic states also structured reported haunting experiences. As predicted, high congruency was found between the experiential content and the nature of the contextual variables. Further, the number of contextual variables involved in an experience was related to the type of experience and the state or arousal preceding the experience. Based on these findings we argue that a more complete explanation of haunting experiences should take into account both electromagnetically induced neurochemical processes and factors related to contextual mediation.

  2. Pre- and post-selection, weak values and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    By analysing the concept of contextuality (Bell-Kochen-Specker) in terms of pre- and post-selection, it is possible to assign definite values to observables in a new and surprising way. Physical reasons are presented for restrictions on these assignments. When measurements are performed which do not disturb the pre- and post-selection (i.e. weak measurements), then novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated. We also prove that every PPS-paradox with definite predictions directly implies 'quantum contextuality' which is introduced as the analogue of contextuality at the level of quantum mechanics rather than at the level of hidden variable theories. Finally, we argue that certain results of these measurements (e.g. eccentric weak values outside the eigenvalue spectrum) cannot be explained by a 'classical-like' hidden variable theory

  3. Contextualizing aquired brain damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Contextualizing aquired brain damage Traditional approaches study ’communicational problems’ often in a discourse of disabledness or deficitness. With an ontology of communcation as something unique and a presupposed uniqueness of each one of us, how could an integrational approach (Integrational...... for people with aquired brain injuries will be presented and comparatively discussed in a traditional versus an integrational perspective. Preliminary results and considerations on ”methods” and ”participation” from this study will be presented along with an overview of the project's empirical data....

  4. The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam

    2011-01-01

    We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)

  5. Action Centered Contextual Bandits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenewald, Kristjan; Tewari, Ambuj; Klasnja, Predrag; Murphy, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Contextual bandits have become popular as they offer a middle ground between very simple approaches based on multi-armed bandits and very complex approaches using the full power of reinforcement learning. They have demonstrated success in web applications and have a rich body of associated theoretical guarantees. Linear models are well understood theoretically and preferred by practitioners because they are not only easily interpretable but also simple to implement and debug. Furthermore, if the linear model is true, we get very strong performance guarantees. Unfortunately, in emerging applications in mobile health, the time-invariant linear model assumption is untenable. We provide an extension of the linear model for contextual bandits that has two parts: baseline reward and treatment effect. We allow the former to be complex but keep the latter simple. We argue that this model is plausible for mobile health applications. At the same time, it leads to algorithms with strong performance guarantees as in the linear model setting, while still allowing for complex nonlinear baseline modeling. Our theory is supported by experiments on data gathered in a recently concluded mobile health study.

  6. Diagnóstico cefalométrico eletrônico: contextualização de variáveis cefalométricas Electronic cephalometric diagnose: contextualized cephalometric variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Del Santo Jr

    2011-04-01

    craniofacial morphology. Rather, contextualized cephalometrics can be more promising, since it allows integration among balanced cephalometric variables. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this manuscript is to present the application of a non-trivial mathematical model in cephalometrics, providing data mining by filtering certainty and contradiction in each network "node". METHODS: In the proposed "neural network", each "cell" is connected to others "cells" by "synapses". Such decision-making system is an artificial intelligence tool tailored to potentially increase the meaning of assessed data. RESULTS: The comparison between the final diagnose provided by the paraconsistent neural network with the opinions of three examiners was heterogeneous. Kappa agreement was fair for antero-posterior discrepancies, substantial or fair for vertical discrepancies and moderate for dental discrepancies. For the bimaxillary dental protrusion, the agreement was almost perfect. Similarly, the agreement among the three examiners, without any software aid, was just moderate for skeletal and dental discrepancies. An exception was dental protrusion, which agreement was almost perfect. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the analysis of performance of the developed technology supports that the presented electronic tool might match human decisions in the most of the events. As an expected limitation, such mathematical-computational tool was less effective for skeletal discrepancies than for dental discrepancies.

  7. Personal health records: retrieving contextual information with Google Custom Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mahmud; Seldon, H Lee; Sayeed, Shohel

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous personal health records, which can accompany a person everywhere, are a necessary requirement for ubiquitous healthcare. Contextual information related to health events is important for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and for the maintenance of good health, yet it is seldom recorded in a health record. We describe a dual cellphone-and-Web-based personal health record system which can include 'external' contextual information. Much contextual information is available on the Internet and we can use ontologies to help identify relevant sites and information. But a search engine is required to retrieve information from the Web and developing a customized search engine is beyond our scope, so we can use Google Custom Search API Web service to get contextual data. In this paper we describe a framework which combines a health-and-environment 'knowledge base' or ontology with the Google Custom Search API to retrieve relevant contextual information related to entries in a ubiquitous personal health record.

  8. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Contextual mediation of perceptions during hauntings and poltergeist-like experiences: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, T M

    2000-10-01

    This study is a replication of the experiment by Lange, Houran, Harte, and Havens (1996 on contextual variables, in which hallucinations appear to be affected by the environmental context. These contextual variables are influential in the reporting of haunting and poltergeist-like episodes. This study extended the previous study by adding new factors of time of day, climactic conditions, and emotional feelings. These were analyzed for a different sample, looking for further congruency between experiential content and the context. The sample (N=8431 were reports found on the Internet and in one book. The Lange, et al. study was replicated in that contextual variables were identified in 99.2% of the reports, the content of the reports was judged to be consistent with the nature of the contextual variables in 58.8% of the reports, and contextual variables were related to the percipients' state of arousal and the modalities of experience.

  10. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  11. Contextually in a Peres—Mermin square using arbitrary operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P; Keller, A

    2016-01-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. These inequalities have been designed separately for both discrete and continuous variables. Here we unify both strategies by introducing general conditions to demonstrate the contextuality of quantum mechanics from measurements of observables of arbitrary dimensions. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a maximal violation of contextuality in the Peres-Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. In addition, we show how to construct a large class of observables with a continuous spectrum enabling the realization of contextuality tests both in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes. (paper)

  12. Neutron polarimetric test of Leggett's contextual model of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Bartosik, H.; Klepp, J.; Sponar, S.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument attempted to dispute quantum theory. With the Bell inequality it was possible to set up an experimental test of the EPR argument. Here, we describe the rebuilding of the measurement station at the tangential beam exit of the TRIGA reactor of the Atominstitut in Vienna. A new polarimeter setup was constructed and adjusted to generate Bell states by entangling a neutron's energy and spin. After accomplishing visibilities of up to 98.7 %, it was possible to test a Leggett-type inequality, which challenges a 'contextual' hidden variable theory. Such a contextual model would have been capable of reproducing former Bell inequality violations. Measurement results of this Leggett inequality and a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality show violations of this hidden variable model. Hence noncontextual and contextual hidden variable theories can be excluded simultaneously and quantum mechanical predictions are confirmed. (author)

  13. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.

  14. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE CIRCADIAN PROFILE AND VARIABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DURING COMBINED THERAPY INCLUDING IVABRADINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Surovtseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the changes in blood pressure (BP circadian profile and variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic etiology and arterial hypertension (HT due to the complex therapy including ivabradine. Material and methods. Patients (n=90 with CHF class II–III NYHA associated with stable angina II-III class and HT were examined. The patients were randomized into 3 groups depending on received drugs: perindopril and ivabradine - group 1; perindopril, bisoprolol and ivabradine - group 2; perindopril and bisoprolol - group 3. The duration of therapy was 6 months. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM was assessed at baseline and after treatment. Results. More significant reduction in average 24-hours systolic BP was found in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (Δ%: -19.4±0,4; -21.1±0.4 and -11.8±0.6, respectively as well as diastolic BP (Δ%: -10.6±0.6; -12.9±0.4 and -4,3±0.3, respectively and other ABPM indicators. Improvement of BP circadian rhythm was found due to increase in the number of «Dipper» patients (p=0.016. More significant reduction in average daily and night systolic and diastolic BP (p=0.001, as well as daily and night BP variability (p=0.001 was also found in patients of group 2 compared to these of group 1. Conclusion. Moderate antihypertensive effect (in respect of both diastolic and systolic BP was shown when ivabradine was included into the complex therapy of patients with ischemic CHF and HT. The effect was more pronounced when ivabradine was combined with perindopril and bisoprolol. This was accompanied by reduction in high BP daily variability and improvement of the BP circadian rhythm. 

  17. Contextuality supplies the 'magic' for quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark; Wallman, Joel; Veitch, Victor; Emerson, Joseph

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers promise dramatic advantages over their classical counterparts, but the source of the power in quantum computing has remained elusive. Here we prove a remarkable equivalence between the onset of contextuality and the possibility of universal quantum computation via 'magic state' distillation, which is the leading model for experimentally realizing a fault-tolerant quantum computer. This is a conceptually satisfying link, because contextuality, which precludes a simple 'hidden variable' model of quantum mechanics, provides one of the fundamental characterizations of uniquely quantum phenomena. Furthermore, this connection suggests a unifying paradigm for the resources of quantum information: the non-locality of quantum theory is a particular kind of contextuality, and non-locality is already known to be a critical resource for achieving advantages with quantum communication. In addition to clarifying these fundamental issues, this work advances the resource framework for quantum computation, which has a number of practical applications, such as characterizing the efficiency and trade-offs between distinct theoretical and experimental schemes for achieving robust quantum computation, and putting bounds on the overhead cost for the classical simulation of quantum algorithms.

  18. A taxonomy for contextual information in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Charlene R; Staggers, Nancy; Doing-Harris, Kristina; Dunlea, Robert; McCormick, Teresa; Barrus, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    Contextual information is functional, social and financial information about patients and is central to many health-care decisions, including end-of-life care, living arrangements, and the aggressiveness of treatment. It is the language of patients when talking about their health and frequently the focus of nursing interventions. In this study, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews of 17 clinicians focusing on their use of contextual information during the process of care, decision-making and documentation. We identified seven characteristics of contextual information relevant to its use in a clinical setting. Implications for Natural Language Processing and Ontology construction are discussed.

  19. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg 2 ) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  20. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Redstone, Joshua [Facebook, 335 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10017-4677 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: wbest@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  1. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  2. Faces in context: A review and systematization of contextual influences on affective face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Wieser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are of eminent importance for social interaction as they convey information about other individuals’ emotions and social intentions. According to the predominant basic emotion approach, the perception of emotion in faces is based on the rapid, automatic categorization of prototypical, universal expressions. Consequently, the perception of facial expressions has typically been investigated using isolated, decontextualized, static pictures of facial expressions that maximize the distinction between categories. However, in everyday life, an individual’s face is not perceived in isolation, but almost always appears within a situational context, which may arise from other people, the physical environment surrounding the face, as well as multichannel information from the sender. Furthermore, situational context may be provided by the perceiver, including already present social information gained from affective learning and implicit processing biases such as race bias. Thus, the perception of facial expressions is presumably always influenced by contextual variables. In this comprehensive review, we aim at 1 systematizing the contextual variables that may influence the perception of facial expressions and 2 summarizing experimental paradigms and findings that have been used to investigate these influences. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that perception and neural processing of facial expressions are substantially modified by contextual information, including verbal, visual, and auditory information presented together with the face as well as knowledge or processing biases already present in the observer. These findings further challenge the assumption of automatic, hardwired categorical emotion extraction mechanisms predicted by basic emotion theories. Taking into account a recent model on face processing, we discuss where and when these different contextual influences may take place, thus outlining potential avenues in

  3. Analysis of Some Recent Tests of Quantum Contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cour, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Contextuality plays a central role in many key proofs for the impossibility of hidden variables in quantum mechanics. The most famous among these is the Kochen-Specker theorem, which originally applied to a Hilbert space of three dimensions, but much simpler proofs in higher dimensions have since been found. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in contextuality, and a number of experiments have been performed to test it in the four-dimensional context. Recently, it has been shown that contextuality may be interpreted as the result of simple measurement disturbance if the set of measurements chosen are time-like separated [B. La Cour, Phys. Rev. A, 79, 012102 (2009)]. In this work, several such experiments will be reviewed, and it will be shown that none are capable of ruling out a realistic, local hidden variable interpretation.

  4. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami

    2009-01-01

    have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which......In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods...... relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images....

  5. Individual and Contextual Inhibitors of Sexual Harassment Training Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…

  6. Common cause and contextual realization of Bell correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, A.; Maleeh, R.; Golshani, M.

    2008-01-01

    Considering the common cause principle, we construct a local-contextual hidden-variable model for the Bohm version of EPR experiment. Our proposed model can reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. It can be also extended to classical examples in which similar correlations may be revealed

  7. Empathy and contextual social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Margherita; Lopez, Vladimir; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-03-01

    Empathy is a highly flexible and adaptive process that allows for the interplay of prosocial behavior in many different social contexts. Empathy appears to be a very situated cognitive process, embedded with specific contextual cues that trigger different automatic and controlled responses. In this review, we summarize relevant evidence regarding social context modulation of empathy for pain. Several contextual factors, such as stimulus reality and personal experience, affectively link with other factors, emotional cues, threat information, group membership, and attitudes toward others to influence the affective, sensorimotor, and cognitive processing of empathy. Thus, we propose that the frontoinsular-temporal network, the so-called social context network model (SCNM), is recruited during the contextual processing of empathy. This network would (1) update the contextual cues and use them to construct fast predictions (frontal regions), (2) coordinate the internal (body) and external milieus (insula), and (3) consolidate the context-target associative learning of empathic processes (temporal sites). Furthermore, we propose these context-dependent effects of empathy in the framework of the frontoinsular-temporal network and examine the behavioral and neural evidence of three neuropsychiatric conditions (Asperger syndrome, schizophrenia, and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia), which simultaneously present with empathy and contextual integration impairments. We suggest potential advantages of a situated approach to empathy in the assessment of these neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as their relationship with the SCNM.

  8. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  9. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  10. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  11. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  12. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  13. Contextualizing Data Warehouses with Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Berlanga, Rafael; Aramburu, Maria Jose

    2008-01-01

    warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, the user first selects an analysis context by supplying some keywords. Then, the analysis is performed on a novel type of OLAP cube, called an R-cube, which is materialized by retrieving and ranking the documents...

  14. 3-D contextual Bayesian classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    In this paper we will consider extensions of a series of Bayesian 2-D contextual classification pocedures proposed by Owen (1984) Hjort & Mohn (1984) and Welch & Salter (1971) and Haslett (1985) to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further...

  15. A 3-D Contextual Classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will consider an extension of the Bayesian 2-D contextual class ification routine developed by Owen, Hjort \\$\\backslash\\$& Mohn to 3 spatial dimensions. It is evident that compared to classical pixelwise classification further information can be obtained by tak ing into account...

  16. Object-based implicit learning in visual search: perceptual segmentation constrains contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conci, Markus; Müller, Hermann J; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2013-07-09

    In visual search, detection of a target is faster when it is presented within a spatial layout of repeatedly encountered nontarget items, indicating that contextual invariances can guide selective attention (contextual cueing; Chun & Jiang, 1998). However, perceptual regularities may interfere with contextual learning; for instance, no contextual facilitation occurs when four nontargets form a square-shaped grouping, even though the square location predicts the target location (Conci & von Mühlenen, 2009). Here, we further investigated potential causes for this interference-effect: We show that contextual cueing can reliably occur for targets located within the region of a segmented object, but not for targets presented outside of the object's boundaries. Four experiments demonstrate an object-based facilitation in contextual cueing, with a modulation of context-based learning by relatively subtle grouping cues including closure, symmetry, and spatial regularity. Moreover, the lack of contextual cueing for targets located outside the segmented region was due to an absence of (latent) learning of contextual layouts, rather than due to an attentional bias towards the grouped region. Taken together, these results indicate that perceptual segmentation provides a basic structure within which contextual scene regularities are acquired. This in turn argues that contextual learning is constrained by object-based selection.

  17. Models of simulation and prediction of the behavior of dengue in four Colombian cities, including climate like modulating variable of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Giraldo, Jairo A; Boshell, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    ARIMA-type models are proposed to simulate the behavior of dengue and to make apparent the relations with the climatic variability in four localities of Colombia. The climatic variable was introduced into the models as an index that modulates the behavior of the disease. It was obtained by means of a multivariate analysis of principal components. The investigation was carried out with information corresponding to the epidemiological weeks from January 1997 to December 2000, for both the number of disease cases and the data corresponding to the meteorological variables. The study shows that the variations of the climate between the previous 9 to 14 weeks have influence on the appearance of new cases of dengue. In particular, the precipitation in these weeks was seen to be greater when in later periods the disease presented epidemic characteristics than the precipitation in those weeks preceded the disease within endemic limits

  18. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Rupert; Wyatt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the Wes...

  19. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  20. Contextualizing Multilingualism in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the educational system of Morocco and the ways the country's multilingual history has influenced and continues to direct the choice of the languages used in schools. Suggestions that will eliminate cultural mismatch and thus facilitate interactions with Moroccan students and their families are included. The research focuses…

  1. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  2. Variability and accuracy of coronary CT angiography including use of iterative reconstruction algorithms for plaque burden assessment as compared with intravascular ultrasound - an ex vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolzmann, Paul [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schlett, Christopher L.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Scheffel, Hans; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Karolyi, Mihaly; Hoffmann, Udo [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Maehara, Akiko; Ma, Shixin; Mintz, Gary S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-10-15

    To systematically assess inter-technique and inter-/intra-reader variability of coronary CT angiography (CTA) to measure plaque burden compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and to determine whether iterative reconstruction algorithms affect variability. IVUS and CTA data were acquired from nine human coronary arteries ex vivo. CT images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBPR) and iterative reconstruction algorithms: adaptive-statistical (ASIR) and model-based (MBIR). After co-registration of 284 cross-sections between IVUS and CTA, two readers manually delineated the cross-sectional plaque area in all images presented in random order. Average plaque burden by IVUS was 63.7 {+-} 10.7% and correlated significantly with all CTA measurements (r = 0.45-0.52; P < 0.001), while CTA overestimated the burden by 10 {+-} 10%. There were no significant differences among FBPR, ASIR and MBIR (P > 0.05). Increased overestimation was associated with smaller plaques, eccentricity and calcification (P < 0.001). Reproducibility of plaque burden by CTA and IVUS datasets was excellent with a low mean intra-/inter-reader variability of <1/<4% for CTA and <0.5/<1% for IVUS respectively (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between CT reconstruction algorithms (P > 0.05). In ex vivo coronary arteries, plaque burden by coronary CTA had extremely low inter-/intra-reader variability and correlated significantly with IVUS measurements. Accuracy as well as reader reliability were independent of CT image reconstruction algorithm. (orig.)

  3. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  4. 12 YEARS OF X-RAY VARIABILITY IN M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS, INCLUDING 8 BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES, AS SEEN BY CHANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M.; Murray, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined 134 Chandra observations of the population of X-ray sources associated with globular clusters (GCs) in the central region of M31. These are expected to be X-ray binary systems (XBs), consisting of a neutron star or black hole accreting material from a close companion. We created long-term light curves for these sources, correcting for background, interstellar absorption, and instrumental effects. We tested for variability by examining the goodness of fit for the best-fit constant intensity. We also created structure functions (SFs) for every object in our sample, the first time this technique has been applied to XBs. We found significant variability in 28 out of 34 GCs and GC candidates; the other 6 sources had 0.3-10 keV luminosities fainter than ∼2 × 10 36 erg s –1 , limiting our ability to detect similar variability. The SFs of XBs with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ∼2-50 × 10 36 erg s –1 generally showed considerably more variability than the published ensemble SF of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our brightest XBs were mostly consistent with the AGN SF; however, their 2-10 keV fluxes could be matched by <1 AGN per square degree. These encouraging results suggest that examining the long-term light curves of other X-ray sources in the field may provide an important distinction between X-ray binaries and background galaxies, as the X-ray emission spectra from these two classes of X-ray sources are similar. Additionally, we identify 3 new black hole candidates (BHCs) using additional XMM-Newton data, bringing the total number of M31 GC BHCs to 9, with 8 covered in this survey.

  5. Contextual approach to quantum formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this book is to show that the probabilistic formalisms of classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics can be unified on the basis of a general contextual probabilistic model. By taking into account the dependence of (classical) probabilities on contexts (i.e. complexes of physical conditions), one can reproduce all distinct features of quantum probabilities such as the interference of probabilities and the violation of Bell’s inequality. Moreover, by starting with a formula for the interference of probabilities (which generalizes the well known classical formula of total probability), one can construct the representation of contextual probabilities by complex probability amplitudes or, in the abstract formalism, by normalized vectors of the complex Hilbert space or its hyperbolic generalization. Thus the Hilbert space representation of probabilities can be naturally derived from classical probabilistic assumptions. An important chapter of the book critically reviews known no-go theorems...

  6. Contextualized B2B Registries

    OpenAIRE

    Radetzki, U; Boniface, M.J.; Surridge, M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. Service discovery is a fundamental concept underpinning the move towards dynamic service-oriented business partnerships. The business process for integrating service discovery and underlying registry technologies into busi-ness relationships, procurement and project management functions has not been examined and hence existing Web Service registries lack capabilities required by business today. In this paper we present a novel contextualized B2B registry that supports dynamic regist...

  7. Contextual advertisement placement in printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sam; Joshi, Parag

    2010-02-01

    Advertisements today provide the necessary revenue model supporting the WWW ecosystem. Targeted or contextual ad insertion plays an important role in optimizing the financial return of this model. Nearly all the current ads that appear on web sites are geared for display purposes such as banner and "pay-per-click". Little attention, however, is focused on deriving additional ad revenues when the content is repurposed for alternative mean of presentation, e.g. being printed. Although more and more content is moving to the Web, there are still many occasions where printed output of web content is desirable, such as maps and articles; thus printed ad insertion can potentially be lucrative. In this paper, we describe a contextual ad insertion network aimed to realize new revenue for print service providers for web printing. We introduce a cloud print service that enables contextual ads insertion, with respect to the main web page content, when a printout of the page is requested. To encourage service utilization, it would provide higher quality printouts than what is possible from current browser print drivers, which generally produce poor outputs, e.g. ill formatted pages. At this juncture we will limit the scope to only article-related web pages although the concept can be extended to arbitrary web pages. The key components of this system include (1) the extraction of article from web pages, (2) the extraction of semantics from article, (3) querying the ad database for matching advertisement or coupon, and (4) joint content and ad layout for print outputs.

  8. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  9. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  10. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage were measured at 0.14−350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm−2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V−1s−1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  11. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hironori; Hirata, Kazuto

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage) were measured at 0.14-350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm-2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V-1s-1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  12. Clinical variability of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome in patients with proximal 13q deletion syndrome including the endothelin-B receptor locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Collin, Anna; Arapoğlu, Müjde; Suyugül, Nezir

    2009-10-01

    Waardenburg-Shah syndrome (Waardenburg syndrome type IV-WS4) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder that combines clinical features of pigmentary abnormalities of the skin, hair and irides, sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Mutations in the endothelin-B receptor (EDNRB) gene on 13q22 have been found to cause this syndrome. Mutations in both alleles cause the full phenotype, while heterozygous mutations cause isolated HSCR or HSCR with minor pigmentary anomalies and/or sensorineural deafness. We investigated the status of the EDNRB gene, by FISH analysis, in three patients with de novo proximal 13q deletions detected at cytogenetic analysis and examined the clinical variability of WS4 among these patients. Chromosome 13q was screened with locus specific FISH probes and breakpoints were determined at 13q22.1q31.3 in Patients 1 and 3, and at 13q21.1q31.3 in Patient 2. An EDNRB specific FISH probe was deleted in all three patients. All patients had common facial features seen in proximal 13q deletion syndrome and mild mental retardation. However, findings related to WS4 were variable; Patient 1 had hypopigmentation of the irides and HSCR, Patient 2 had prominent bicolored irides and mild bilateral hearing loss, and Patient 3 had only mild unilateral hearing loss. These data contribute new insights into the pathogenesis of WS4.

  13. Contextualization: Memory Formation and Retrieval in a Nested Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piefke, Martina; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    Episodic memory functions are highly context-dependent. This is true for both experimental and autobiographical episodic memory. We here review neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for effects of differential encoding and retrieval contexts on episodic memory performance as well as the underlying neurofunctional mechanisms. In studies of laboratory episodic memory, the influence of context parameters can be assessed by experimental manipulations. Such experiments suggest that contextual variables mainly affect prefrontal functions supporting executive processes involved in episodic learning and retrieval. Context parameters affecting episodic autobiographical memory are far more complex and cannot easily be controlled. Data support the view that not only prefrontal, but also further medial temporal and posterior parietal regions mediating the re-experience and emotional evaluation of personal memories are highly influenced by changing contextual variables of memory encoding and retrieval. Based on our review of available data, we thus suggest that experimental and autobiographical episodic memories are influenced by both overlapping and differential context parameters.

  14. Including climate variability in determination of the optimum rate of N fertilizer application using a crop model: A case study for rainfed corn in eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, M.; Pattey, E.; Jégo, G.; Geng, X.; Tremblay, N.; Didier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying optimum nitrogen (N) application rate is essential for increasing agricultural production while limiting potential environmental contaminations caused by release of reactive N, especially for high demand N crops such as corn. The central question of N management is then how the optimum N rate is affected by climate variability for given soil. The experimental determination of optimum N rates involve the analyses of variance on the mean value of crop yield response to various N application rates used by factorial plot based experiments for a few years in several regions. This traditional approach has limitations to capture 1) the non-linear response of yield to N application rates due to large incremental N rates (often more than 40 kg N ha-1) and 2) the ecophysiological response of the crop to climate variability because of limited numbers of growing seasons considered. Modeling on the other hand, does not have such limitations and hence we use a crop model and propose a model-based methodology called Finding NEMO (N Ecophysiologically Modelled Optimum) to identify the optimum N rates for variable agro-climatic conditions and given soil properties. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using the STICS crop model adapted for rainfed corn in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada (42.3oN 83oW-46.8oN 71oW) where more than 90% of Canadian corn is produced. The simulations were performed using small increment of preplant N application rate (10 kg N ha -1), long time series of daily climatic data (48 to 61 years) for 5 regions along the ecozone, and three contrasting soils per region. The results show that N recommendations should be region and soil specific. Soils with lower available water capacity required more N compared to soil with higher available water capacity. When N rates were at their ecophysiologically optimum level, 10 to 17 kg increase in dry yield could be achieved by adding 1 kg N. Expected yield also affected the optimum

  15. A 1D constitutive model for shape memory alloy using strain and temperature as control variables and including martensite reorientation and asymmetric behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, M Ben; Mehrez, S; Ghazouani, O

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new 1D constitutive model for shape memory alloy using strain and temperature as control variables is presented. The new formulation is restricted to the 1D stress case and takes into account the martensite reorientation and the asymmetry of the SMA behavior in tension and compression. Numerical implementation of the new model in a finite element code was conducted. The numerical results for superelastic behavior in tension and compression tests are presented and were compared to experimental data taken from the literature. Other numerical tests are presented, showing the model’s ability to reproduce the main aspects of SMA behavior such as the shape memory effect and the martensite reorientation under cyclic loading. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of the new constitutive model, a dynamic test of a bi-clamped SMA bending beam under forced oscillation is described. (paper)

  16. Internal state variable plasticity-damage modeling of AISI 4140 steel including microstructure-property relations: temperature and strain rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacif el Alaoui, Reda

    Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.

  17. Contextual factors, methodological principles and teacher cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers in various contexts worldwide are sometimes unfairly criticized for not putting teaching methods developed for the well-resourced classrooms of Western countries into practice. Factors such as the teachers’ “misconceptualizations” of “imported” methods, including Communicative Language Teaching (CLT, are often blamed, though the challenges imposed by “contextual demands,” such as large class sizes, are sometimes recognised. Meanwhile, there is sometimes an assumption that in the West there is a happy congruence between policy supportive of CLT or Task-Based Language Teaching, teacher education and supervision, and curriculum design with teachers’ cognitions and their practices. Our case study of three EFL teachers at a UK adult education college is motivated by a wish to question this assumption. Findings from observational and interview data suggest the practices of two teachers were largely consistent with their methodological principles, relating to stronger and weaker forms of CLT respectively, as well as to more general educational principles, such as a concern for learners; the supportive environment seemed to help. The third teacher appeared to put “difficult” contextual factors, for example, tests, ahead of methodological principles without, however, obviously benefiting. Implications highlight the important role of teacher cognition research in challenging cultural assumptions.

  18. Quantum Contextuality in a Single-Neutron Optical Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Baron, Matthias; Badurek, Gerald; Rauch, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality with neutrons is presented, which intended to exhibit a Kochen-Specker-like phenomenon. Since no perfect correlation is expected in practical experiments, inequalities are derived to distinguish quantitatively the obtained results from predictions by a noncontextual hidden variable theory. Experiments were accomplished with the use of a neutron interferometer combined with spinor manipulation devices. The results clearly violate the prediction of noncontextual theories

  19. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school contex...

  20. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  1. Contextual Risk Profiles and Trajectories of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Markiewitz, Nathan; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2018-04-09

    Social ecological and developmental system perspectives suggest that interactions among factors within and across multiple contexts (e.g., neighborhood, peer, family) must be considered in explaining dating violence perpetration. Yet, to date, most extant research on dating violence has focused on individual, rather than contextual predictors, and used variable-centered approaches that fail to capture the configurations of factors that may jointly explain involvement in dating violence. The current study used a person-centered approach, latent profile analysis, to identify key configurations (or profiles) of contextual risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration across the neighborhood, school, friend and family contexts. We then examine the longitudinal associations between these contextual risk profiles, assessed during middle school, and trajectories of psychological and physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. Five contextual risk profiles were identified: school, neighborhood, and family risk; school and family risk; school and friend risk; school and neighborhood risk; and low risk. The highest levels of psychological and physical perpetration across grades 8 through 12 were among adolescents in the profile characterized by high levels of school, neighborhood, and family risk. Results suggest that early interventions to reduce violence exposure and increase social regulation across multiple social contexts may be effective in reducing dating violence perpetration across adolescence.

  2. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  3. Towards Computational Fronesis: Verifying Contextual Appropriateness of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszynski, Michal; Dybala, Pawel; Mazur, Michal; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji; Momouchi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research in Contextual Affect Analysis (CAA) for the need of future application in intelligent agents, such as conversational agents or artificial tutors. The authors propose a new term, Computational Fronesis (CF), to embrace the tasks included in CAA applied to development of conversational agents such as artificial tutors.…

  4. Contextualized pain management in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Valerio Bellieni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal pain treatment requires personalization, and pain assessment should be contextualized to be effective. Here we summarize the available tools in neonatal analgesia, paying a special attention to highlight the personalization of antalgic behavior, both in assessment and in treatment of neonatal pain. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  5. Contextual logic for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech, Graciela; Freytes, Hector

    2005-01-01

    In this work we build a quantum logic that allows us to refer to physical magnitudes pertaining to different contexts from a fixed one without the contradictions with quantum mechanics expressed in no-go theorems. This logic arises from considering a sheaf over a topological space associated with the Boolean sublattices of the ortholattice of closed subspaces of the Hilbert space of the physical system. Different from standard quantum logics, the contextual logic maintains a distributive lattice structure and a good definition of implication as a residue of the conjunction

  6. Memory cost of quantum contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Portillo, José R; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Cabello, Adán

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of quantum effects requires certain classical resources, and quantifying them is an important step to characterize the difference between quantum and classical physics. For a simulation of the phenomenon of state-independent quantum contextuality, we show that the minimum amount of memory used by the simulation is the critical resource. We derive optimal simulation strategies for important cases and prove that reproducing the results of sequential measurements on a two-qubit system requires more memory than the information-carrying capacity of the system. (paper)

  7. Individual and collective bodies: using measures of variance and association in contextual epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, J; Ohlsson, H; Lynch, K F; Chaix, B; Subramanian, S V

    2009-12-01

    Social epidemiology investigates both individuals and their collectives. Although the limits that define the individual bodies are very apparent, the collective body's geographical or cultural limits (eg "neighbourhood") are more difficult to discern. Also, epidemiologists normally investigate causation as changes in group means. However, many variables of interest in epidemiology may cause a change in the variance of the distribution of the dependent variable. In spite of that, variance is normally considered a measure of uncertainty or a nuisance rather than a source of substantive information. This reasoning is also true in many multilevel investigations, whereas understanding the distribution of variance across levels should be fundamental. This means-centric reductionism is mostly concerned with risk factors and creates a paradoxical situation, as social medicine is not only interested in increasing the (mean) health of the population, but also in understanding and decreasing inappropriate health and health care inequalities (variance). Critical essay and literature review. The present study promotes (a) the application of measures of variance and clustering to evaluate the boundaries one uses in defining collective levels of analysis (eg neighbourhoods), (b) the combined use of measures of variance and means-centric measures of association, and (c) the investigation of causes of health variation (variance-altering causation). Both measures of variance and means-centric measures of association need to be included when performing contextual analyses. The variance approach, a new aspect of contextual analysis that cannot be interpreted in means-centric terms, allows perspectives to be expanded.

  8. Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  9. Mercury Concentrations in Fish and Sediment within Streams are Influenced by Watershed and Landscape Variables including Historical Gold Mining in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Yee, J. L.; Ackerman, J. T.; Orlando, J. L.; Slotton, D. G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We compiled available data on total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish tissue and streambed sediment from stream sites in the Sierra Nevada, California, to assess whether spatial data, including information on historical mining, can be used to make robust predictions of fish fillet tissue THg concentrations. A total of 1,271 fish from five species collected at 103 sites during 1980-2012 were used for the modeling effort: 210 brown trout, 710 rainbow trout, 79 Sacramento pikeminnow, 93 Sacramento sucker, and 179 smallmouth bass. Sediment data were used from 73 sites, including 106 analyses of THg and 77 analyses of MeHg. The dataset included 391 fish (mostly rainbow trout) and 28 sediment samples collected explicitly for this study during 2011-12. Spatial data on historical mining included the USGS Mineral Resources Data System and publicly available maps and satellite photos showing the areas of hydraulic mine pits and other placer mines. Modeling was done using multivariate linear regression and multi-model inference using Akaike Information Criteria. Results indicate that fish THg, accounting for species and length, can be predicted using geospatial data on mining history together with other landscape characteristics including land use/land cover. A model requiring only geospatial data, with an R2 value of 0.61, predicted fish THg correctly with respect to over-or-under 0.2 μg/g wet weight (a California regulatory threshold) for 108 of 121 (89 %) size-species combinations tested. Data for THg in streambed sediment did not improve the geospatial-only model. However, data for sediment MeHg, loss on ignition (organic content), and percent of sediment less than 0.063 mm resulted in a slightly improved model, with an R2 value of 0.63. It is anticipated that these models will be useful to the State of California and others to predict areas where mercury concentrations in fish are likely to exceed regulatory criteria.

  10. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  11. Templates and Queries in Contextual Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kenneth Mark; Hansen, Frank Allan; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2006-01-01

    discuss a framework, HyConSC, that implements this model and describe how it can be used to build new contextual hypermedia systems. Our framework aids the developer in the iterative development of contextual queries (via a dynamic query browser) and offers support for con-text matching, a key feature...... of contextual hypermedia. We have tested the framework with data and sensors taken from the HyCon contextual hypermedia system and are now migrating HyCon to this new framework....

  12. Ecological theories of systems and contextual change in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Joanna; Teunissen, Pim W

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary medical practice is subject to many kinds of change, to which both individuals and systems have to respond and adapt. Many medical education programmes have their learners rotating through different training contexts, which means that they too must learn to adapt to contextual change. Contextual change presents many challenges to medical education scholars and practitioners, not least because of a somewhat fractured and contested theoretical basis for responding to these challenges. There is a need for robust concepts to articulate and connect the various debates on contextual change in medical education. Ecological theories of systems encompass a range of concepts of how and why systems change and how and why they respond to change. The use of these concepts has the potential to help medical education scholars explore the nature of change and understand the role it plays in affording as well as limiting teaching and learning. This paper, aimed at health professional education scholars and policy makers, explores a number of key concepts from ecological theories of systems to present a comprehensive model of contextual change in medical education to inform theory and practice in all areas of medical education. The paper considers a range of concepts drawn from ecological theories of systems, including biotic and abiotic factors, panarchy, attractors and repellers, basins of attraction, homeostasis, resilience, adaptability, transformability and hysteresis. Each concept is grounded in practical examples from medical education. Ecological theories of systems consider change and response in terms of adaptive cycles functioning at different scales and speeds. This can afford opportunities for systematic consideration of responses to contextual change in medical education, which in turn can inform the design of education programmes, activities, evaluations, assessments and research that accommodates the dynamics and consequences of contextual change.

  13. Validating Domains of Patient Contextual Factors Essential to Preventing Contextual Errors: A Qualitative Study Conducted at Chicago Area Veterans Health Administration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns-Calvey, Amy E; Malhiot, Alex; Kostovich, Carol T; LaVela, Sherri L; Stroupe, Kevin; Gerber, Ben S; Burkhart, Lisa; Weiner, Saul J; Weaver, Frances M

    2017-09-01

    "Patient context" indicates patient circumstances and characteristics or states that are essential to address when planning patient care. Specific patient "contextual factors," if overlooked, result in an inappropriate plan of care, a medical error termed a "contextual error." The myriad contextual factors that constitute patient context have been grouped into broad domains to create a taxonomy of challenges to consider when planning care. This study sought to validate a previously identified list of contextual domains. This qualitative study used directed content analysis. In 2014, 19 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers (84% female) and 49 patients (86% male) from two VA medical centers and four outpatient clinics in the Chicago area participated in semistructured interviews and focus groups. Topics included patient-specific, community, and resource-related factors that affect patients' abilities to manage their care. Transcripts were analyzed with a previously identified list of contextual domains as a framework. Analysis of responses revealed that patients and providers identified the same 10 domains previously published, plus 3 additional ones. Based on comments made by patients and providers, the authors created a revised list of 12 domains from themes that emerged. Six pertain to patient circumstances such as access to care and financial situation, and 6 to patient characteristics/states including skills, abilities, and knowledge. Contextual factors in patients' lives may be essential to address for effective care planning. The rubric developed can serve as a "contextual differential" for clinicians to consider when addressing challenges patients face when planning their care.

  14. Contextual risk and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-10-01

    In developmental psychopathology it almost goes without saying that contextual risk factors do not occur in isolation and that it is the combination of various risk factors that portends numerous negative child outcomes. Despite this, the body of literature that examines the relation between multiple risk exposure and child psychopathology using a cumulative risk approach is still relatively small. Even when studies use a cumulative risk approach they rarely test properly whether the relation between cumulative risk and child psychopathology is linear or nonlinear, with consequences for both theory development and intervention design: if cumulative risk impacts problem behavior in a positively accelerated exponential manner, for instance, it means that exposure to multiple risk is especially difficult to manage as problem behavior accelerates at a critical level of risk. Furthermore, few studies have actually examined factors that protect from negative outcomes in those exposed to cumulative risk and even fewer have explored cumulative protection in relation to cumulative risk. On the other hand, there is the view that a cumulative risk approach at least implicitly assumes that risk factors are, in essence, interchangeable. According to this view, the importance of testing for specificity should not be underestimated. Finally, the renewed interest in the role of neighborhood risk in child development has initiated a lively debate as to whether contextual risk should be operationalized at the family or the area level. In this letter I discuss these issues, and offer some suggestions as to how future research can address them.

  15. Rapid contextual conditioning in autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, P D; Schwartz, A L

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigate the speed of contextual conditioning in autoshaping. In both experiments, a procedure was employed in which ring doves were magazine trained in one context prior to the manipulation of background values in a second context. In Experiment 1, subjects were exposed to 4, 8, 64, 128, or 256 US-only presentations prior to autoshaping. Acquisition speed and maintained response measures were monotonically related to the number of pretraining trials. Subjects in Group 4 acquired the key-peck response fastest, and retardation was maximal within 64 pretraining trials. In Experiment 2, subjects given 20 pretraining trials were significantly more retarded than subjects given 2 pretraining trials, but only when pretraining and testing were conducted in the same context. Overall, the results of these experiments show that in autoshaping, contextual conditioning is very rapid; this demonstrates the plausibility of theoretical accounts of Pavlovian conditioning which assert that the development of the conditioned response depends on the associative values of both the CS and background stimuli.

  16. A 2 x 2 Taxonomy of Multilevel Latent Contextual Models: Accuracy-Bias Trade-Offs in Full and Partial Error Correction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W.; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in multilevel data…

  17. Contextuality within quantum mechanics manifested in subensemble mean values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2009-01-01

    For spin-1/2 particles, using a suitable Mach-Zehnder-type setup with a spin-flipper, we argue that it is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical treatment that an experimentally verifiable subensemble mean of the measured values of an arbitrarily chosen spin variable exhibits dependence on the choice of a comeasurable 'path' observable. This, in turn, enables inferring path-spin contextuality at the level of individual measured values of spin that are predetermined using a relevant hidden-variable model applied to our setup.

  18. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Llorente-Marrón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  19. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  20. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  1. The Future of Contextual Fear Learning for PTSD Research: A Methodological Review of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Simmons, Alan N; Acheson, Dean T; Stout, Daniel M

    2017-10-21

    There has been a great deal of recent interest in human models of contextual fear learning, particularly due to the use of such paradigms for investigating neural mechanisms related to the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the construct of "context" in fear conditioning research is broad, and the operational definitions and methods used to investigate contextual fear learning in humans are wide ranging and lack specificity, making it difficult to interpret findings about neural activity. Here we will review neuroimaging studies of contextual fear acquisition in humans. We will discuss the methodology associated with four broad categories of how contextual fear learning is manipulated in imaging studies (colored backgrounds, static picture backgrounds, virtual reality, and configural stimuli) and highlight findings for the primary neural circuitry involved in each paradigm. Additionally, we will offer methodological recommendations for human studies of contextual fear acquisition, including using stimuli that distinguish configural learning from discrete cue associations and clarifying how context is experimentally operationalized.

  2. The problem of contextuality and the impossibility of experimental metaphysics thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Ronnie

    Recently a new impulse has been given to the experimental investigation of contextuality. In this paper we show that for a widely used definition of contextuality there can be no decisive experiment on the existence of contextuality. To this end, we give a clear presentation of the hidden variable models due to Meyer, Kent and Clifton (MKC), which would supposedly nullify the Kochen-Specker theorem. Although we disagree with this last statement, the models do play a significant role in the discussion on the meaning of contextuality. In fact, we introduce a specific MKC-model of which we show that it is non-contextual and completely in agreement with quantum mechanical predictions. We also investigate the possibility of other definitions of non-contextuality-with an emphasis on operational definitions-and argue that any useful definition relies on the specification of a theoretical framework. It is therefore concluded that no experimental test can yield any conclusions about contextuality on a metaphysical level.

  3. The roles of contextual and individual social determinants of oral health-related quality of life in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Mario Vianna; Aqeeli, Amal

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between contextual and individual social determinants of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Brazilian adults. Data of 4594 Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey were analysed. OHRQoL was measured using the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP). Contextual socio-economic characteristics at city level assessed in 1991 and 2000 included social deprivation measured by Human Development Index (HDI) and income inequality (Gini index). Individual socio-economic characteristics included family income, schooling and number of goods. Covariates were age, sex, ethnicity and clinical oral measures. Multilevel multivariable Poisson regression analysis was carried to investigate the association of contextual and individual social characteristics with OIDP extent and with each OIDP item. Eating and cleaning teeth were the most reported daily activities influenced by oral conditions. In the adjusted analysis, low HDI 1991 and individual social characteristics (lower family income and lower schooling) were associated with OIDP extent. Sex (females) and all clinical oral measures were also associated with OIDP. Adults living in the cities with low HDI 1991 were more likely to have impact on eating and sleeping, whereas living in cities with high Gini index 1991 increased the prevalence of impact on emotional status, work and social contact. Low income was associated with all OIDP items. Poor contextual social determinants and lower individual socio-economic position are associated with worse OHRQoL among Brazilian adults, even after adjusting for individual socio-demographic and clinical oral health variables.

  4. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  5. Contextual factors and effective school improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hechuan; Creemers, Bert P. M.; de Jong, Rob

    This research provides policy-makers, researchers, and educators at all levels with a glimpse of the contextual influence on effective school improvement (ESI) in 8 European countries. What are the factors at the contextual level, particularly at the national level, which influence ESI? Are there

  6. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  7. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  8. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual factors: what are the relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M; Flint, Annaline; McDonald, Lyn G

    2012-06-01

    There is a plethora of research around student beliefs and their contribution to student outcomes. However, there is less research in relation to teacher beliefs. Teacher factors are important to consider since beliefs mould thoughts and resultant instructional behaviours that, in turn, can contribute to student outcomes. The purpose of this research was to explore relationships between the teacher characteristics of gender and teaching experience, school contextual variables (socio-economic level of school and class level), and three teacher socio-psychological variables: class level teacher expectations, teacher efficacy, and teacher goal orientation. The participants were 68 male and female teachers with varying experience, from schools in a variety of socio-economic areas and from rural and urban locations within New Zealand. Teachers completed a questionnaire containing items related to teacher efficacy and goal orientation in reading. They also completed a teacher expectation survey. Reading achievement data were collected on students. Interrelationships were explored between teacher socio-psychological beliefs and the teacher and school factors included in the study. Mastery-oriented beliefs predicted teacher efficacy for student engagement and classroom management. The socio-economic level of the school and teacher gender predicted teacher efficacy for engagement, classroom management, instructional strategies, and a mastery goal orientation. Being male predicted a performance goal orientation. Teacher beliefs, teacher characteristics, and school contextual variables can result in differences in teacher instructional practices and differing classroom climates. Further investigation of these variables is important since differences in teachers contribute to differences in student outcomes. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  10. EnvMine: A text-mining system for the automatic extraction of contextual information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorenzo Victor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ecological studies, it is crucial to count on adequate descriptions of the environments and samples being studied. Such a description must be done in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, allowing a direct comparison between different environments that would be difficult to do otherwise. Also the characterization must include the precise geographical location, to make possible the study of geographical distributions and biogeographical patterns. Currently, there is no schema for annotating these environmental features, and these data have to be extracted from textual sources (published articles. So far, this had to be performed by manual inspection of the corresponding documents. To facilitate this task, we have developed EnvMine, a set of text-mining tools devoted to retrieve contextual information (physicochemical variables and geographical locations from textual sources of any kind. Results EnvMine is capable of retrieving the physicochemical variables cited in the text, by means of the accurate identification of their associated units of measurement. In this task, the system achieves a recall (percentage of items retrieved of 92% with less than 1% error. Also a Bayesian classifier was tested for distinguishing parts of the text describing environmental characteristics from others dealing with, for instance, experimental settings. Regarding the identification of geographical locations, the system takes advantage of existing databases such as GeoNames to achieve 86% recall with 92% precision. The identification of a location includes also the determination of its exact coordinates (latitude and longitude, thus allowing the calculation of distance between the individual locations. Conclusion EnvMine is a very efficient method for extracting contextual information from different text sources, like published articles or web pages. This tool can help in determining the precise location and physicochemical

  11. CLIL and Motivation: The Effect of Individual and Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiz, Aintzane; Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is burgeoning all over Europe and this is particularly so in Spain. During the last 10 years, content language instruction through a foreign language (FL) (mainly English) has become a key area of curricular innovation. One of the main reasons put forward by the advocates of this approach is that…

  12. Individual and Contextual Variables in Municipal Officers' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Valéria Vieira; Borges-Andrade, Jairo Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate workplace learning among municipal officers in the high-learning-demanding organizational context of their work practice in the first year of mandate. Design/methodology/approach: A before-and-after quasi-experimental design was used to assess the effect of time of work practice on learning work…

  13. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  14. Using contextual advertising in Internet marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface

  15. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  16. Contextual determinants of neonatal mortality using two analysis methods, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Roselaine Ruviaro; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Riboldi, João

    2011-02-01

    To analyze neonatal mortality determinants using multilevel logistic regression and classic hierarchical models. Cohort study including 138,407 live births with birth certificates and 1,134 neonatal deaths recorded in 2003, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The Information System on Live Births and mortality records were linked for gathering information on individual-level exposures. Sociodemographic data and information on the pregnancy, childbirth care and characteristics of the children at birth were collected. The associated factors were estimated and compared by traditional and multilevel logistic regression analysis. The neonatal mortality rate was 8.19 deaths per 1,000 live births. Low birth weight, 1- and 5-minute Apgar score below eight, congenital malformation, pre-term birth and previous fetal loss were associated with neonatal death in the traditional model. Elective cesarean section had a protective effect. Previous fetal loss did not remain significant in the multilevel model, but the inclusion of a contextual variable (poverty rate) showed that 15% of neonatal mortality variation can be explained by varying poverty rates in the microregions. The use of multilevel models showed a small effect of contextual determinants on the neonatal mortality rate. There was found a positive association with the poverty rate in the general model, and the proportion of households with water supply among preterm newborns.

  17. Sustained State-Independent Quantum Contextual Correlations from a Single Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, F. M.; Malinowski, M.; Zhang, C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Alonso, J.; Home, J. P.; Cabello, A.

    2018-05-01

    We use a single trapped-ion qutrit to demonstrate the quantum-state-independent violation of noncontextuality inequalities using a sequence of randomly chosen quantum nondemolition projective measurements. We concatenate 53 ×106 sequential measurements of 13 observables, and unambiguously violate an optimal noncontextual bound. We use the same data set to characterize imperfections including signaling and repeatability of the measurements. The experimental sequence was generated in real time with a quantum random number generator integrated into our control system to select the subsequent observable with a latency below 50 μ s , which can be used to constrain contextual hidden-variable models that might describe our results. The state-recycling experimental procedure is resilient to noise and independent of the qutrit state, substantiating the fact that the contextual nature of quantum physics is connected to measurements and not necessarily to designated states. The use of extended sequences of quantum nondemolition measurements finds applications in the fields of sensing and quantum information.

  18. The Contextual Antecedents of Organizational Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Bai, Yuntao; Xi, Youmin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we seek to explore the contextual antecedents of organizational trust. In light of the complex links between organizational contexts and organizational behaviours, we focus on the effects of the three most critical contextual antecedents, i.e., leadership role, structural rule...... in China, lent support for our multidimensional cross-level model of context–trust–behaviour link. We extend the research on organizational trust by treating it as a cross-level phenomenon and by specifying its core contextual antecedents and behavioural consequences....

  19. Testing quantum contextuality. The problem of compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szangolies, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Jochen Szangolies contributes a novel way of dealing with the problem of the experimental testability of the Kochen-Specker theorem posed by realistic, that is, noisy, measurements. Such noise spoils perfect compatibility between successive measurements, which however is a necessary requirement to test the notion of contextuality in usual approaches. To overcome this difficulty, a new, extended notion of contextuality that reduces to Kochen-Specker contextuality in the limit of perfect measurement implementations is proposed by the author, together with a scheme to test this notion experimentally. Furthermore, the behaviour of these tests under realistic noise conditions is investigated.

  20. In-Between Fatalism and Leverage: The Different Effects of Socioeconomic Variables on Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the classical relationship between socioeconomic status and political domains, and the need to include different variables (contextual and individual) to measure the effect of economic and cultural capitals on youth participation and knowledge. Method: A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on a sample…

  1. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  2. Contextual cueing by global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    In visual search tasks, attention can be guided to a target item, appearing amidst distractors, on the basis of simple features (e.g. find the red letter among green). Chun and Jiang’s (1998) “contextual cueing” effect shows that RTs are also speeded if the spatial configuration of items in a scene is repeated over time. In these studies we ask if global properties of the scene can speed search (e.g. if the display is mostly red, then the target is at location X). In Experiment 1a, the overall background color of the display predicted the target location. Here the predictive color could appear 0, 400 or 800 msec in advance of the search array. Mean RTs are faster in predictive than in non-predictive conditions. However, there is little improvement in search slopes. The global color cue did not improve search efficiency. Experiments 1b-1f replicate this effect using different predictive properties (e.g. background orientation/texture, stimuli color etc.). The results show a strong RT effect of predictive background but (at best) only a weak improvement in search efficiency. A strong improvement in efficiency was found, however, when the informative background was presented 1500 msec prior to the onset of the search stimuli and when observers were given explicit instructions to use the cue (Experiment 2). PMID:17355043

  3. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  4. A composite model including visfatin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen, hyaluronic acid, and hematological variables for the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.

  5. Contextualizing Asian American College Student Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Liu, Jessica; Nguyen, David; Song, Ge

    2017-01-01

    With attention to race, culture, and gender, this chapter contextualizes the help-seeking behaviors and psychological aspects of health facing Asian American college students. Recommendations are provided to student affairs professionals and counselors.

  6. An Order-Theoretic Quantification of Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Durham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I develop order-theoretic notions of determinism and contextuality on domains and topoi. In the process, I develop a method for quantifying contextuality and show that the order-theoretic sense of contextuality is analogous to the sense embodied in the topos-theoretic statement of the Kochen–Specker theorem. Additionally, I argue that this leads to a relation between the entropy associated with measurements on quantum systems and the second law of thermodynamics. The idea that the second law has its origin in the ordering of quantum states and processes dates to at least 1958 and possibly earlier. The suggestion that the mechanism behind this relation is contextuality, is made here for the first time.

  7. Study on Uncertainty and Contextual Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2007), s. 12-15 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Knowledge * contextual modelling * temporal modelling * uncertainty * knowledge management Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  8. A Memory-based Robot Architecture based on Contextual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Ferdian; Mastrogiovanni, Fulvio; Chong, Nak Young

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a preliminary conceptual design for a robot long-term memory architecture based on the notion of context. Contextual information is used to organize the data flow between Working Memory (including Perceptual Memory) and Long-Term Memory components. We discuss the major influence of the notion of context within Episodic Memory on Semantic and Procedural Memory, respectively. We address how the occurrence of specific object-related events in time impacts on the semanti...

  9. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    effectiveness of the proposed method. 1 Introduction TREC 1014 Contextual Suggestion Track gives researchers the chance to test their methods on providing...each category. Information including the name, average rating, address, business hour, all ratings and the associated text reviews of the candidate...Annals of Statistics , 29:1189–1232, 2000. 5. K. Ganesan, C. Zhai, and J. Han. Opinosis: a graph-based approach to abstractive summarization of highly

  10. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, Erik; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Wester, Arie J.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  11. Intact memory for implicit contextual information in Korsakoff's amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudman, E.; Stigchel, S. van der; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Postma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning is the ability to acquire contextual information from our surroundings without conscious awareness. Such contextual information facilitates the localization of objects in space. In a typical implicit contextual learning paradigm, subjects need to find a target among a

  12. Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Nielsen, Line

    Psychological distress among children and adolescents. Do individual or contextual factors matter? Authors Meilstrup C, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen L, Due P, Holstein BE Background A large minority of children and adolescents suffer from mental distress and it is important to identify contributing factors......% across schools. Individual level variables such as low socio-economic position and family composition explained much of the variation across schools. Still, class level variables also contributed to this variation. In classes where many students reported that the class-mates doesn´t like being together...... (compositional effects), this study suggest that contextual factors are important to take into account in the research on psychological complaints among children and adolescents. This analytical model presents a way for future studies about contextual influences on psychological complaints....

  13. Traffic crash involvement: experiential driving knowledge and stressful contextual antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legree, Peter J; Heffner, Tonia S; Psotka, Joseph; Martin, Daniel E; Medsker, Gina J

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have rarely examined stressful environments and psychological characteristics as predictors of driving behavior in the same study. The authors hypothesized that (a) safer drivers more accurately assess physical and emotional traffic hazards and (b) stress and emotional states elevate crash risk. The hypotheses were evaluated with procedural and declarative tacit driving knowledge tests requiring assessment of emotional and contextual hazards and with accident reports describing crash antecedents, including stressful events and environmental conditions. Analyses identified separate driving knowledge factors corresponding to emotional and contextual hazards that were significantly related to the crash criteria. Accident report analyses show that stress significantly elevates at-fault crash risk. The results demonstrate the importance of experiential knowledge acquired without instruction (procedural or tacit knowledge) and provide safety recommendations.

  14. Descriptive survey of the contextual support for nursing research in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana R; Newhouse, Robin P; Oweis, Arwa; Liang, Xiaokun

    2013-01-01

    Global research productivity depends on the presence of contextual factors, such as a doctorally prepared faculty, graduate programmes, publication options, that enable the conduct and publication of studies to generate knowledge to inform nursing practice. The current study aimed to develop and test an instrument that measures the level of contextual support for nursing research within a specific country, allowing comparisons between countries. After development of a 20-item survey with seven factors and 11 criteria based on a literature review, a quantitative descriptive e-mail survey design was used. Nurse researchers (N=100) from 22 countries were invited to participate. The response rate was 39% from 15 countries. Ethics approval was obtained by investigators in their country of origin. Results showed wide variation in the level of contextual support. The average total level of support across all countries was 26.8% (standard deviation [SD]=14.97). The greatest variability was in the area of availability of publishing opportunities (ranging between no suitable journals in a country to over 100). The least variability was in the area of availability of local enabling support (SD=7.22). This research showed wide differences in the level of contextual support for nursing research. The survey instrument can be utilised as a country assessment that can be used to strategically plan the building of infrastructure needed to support nursing research. Contextual support for nursing research is an antecedent of strong science. Building infrastructure for nursing science is a priority for global health.

  15. The Contextuality Loophole is Fatal for the Derivation of Bell Inequalities: Reply to a Comment by I. Schmelzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Kupczynski, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Ilya Schmelzer wrote recently: Nieuwenhuizen argued that there exists some "contextuality loophole" in Bell's theorem. This claim in unjustified. It is made clear that this arose from attaching a meaning to the title and the content of the paper different from the one intended by Nieuwenhuizen. "Contextual loophole" means only that if the supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly introduced, Bell and Bell-type inequalities may not be proven. It is also stressed that a hidden variable model suffers from a "contextuality loophole" if it tries to describe different sets of incompatible experiments using a unique probability space and a unique joint probability distribution.

  16. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  17. Individual and contextual factors related to binge drinking among adolescents in Spain: a multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidó-Compañó, Ester; Sordo, Luis; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Puigcorbé, Susanna; Barrio, Gregorio; Brugal, M Teresa; Belza, María José J; Espelt, Albert

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of binge drinking by regions in Spain and assess the effect of individual and contextual factors related to this drinking pattern in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the 2014 Spanish School Survey on Drug Use (ESTUDES) in students aged 14-18 years (N = 34,259). The outcome was binge drinking in adolescents during the last 30 days. Individual independent variables were socioeconomic variables and variables related to access to alcohol and its availability. Contextual variables consisted of adult alcohol consumption, public policies on alcohol, and socioeconomic factors. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance were estimated, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals.  The results showed that the prevalence of youth binge drinking by region of residence was similar for both sexes (r = 0.72). At the individual level, binge drinking was mainly associated with the perception of easy access to alcohol (PR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.23-1.55), consumption in open areas [(PR: 3.82; 95% CI: 3.44-4.24) < once a month and (PR: 6.57; 95% CI: 5.85-7.37) ≥ once a month], at least one parent allowing alcohol consumption (PR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.37-1.47), and receiving >30 euros weekly (PR :1.51; 95% CI: 1.37-1.67). Contextual variables were not associated with youth binge drinking when individual variables were considered. In conclusion, youth binge drinking was associated with individual variables related to high alcohol accessibility and availability, regardless of contextual variables. These variables explained the variability in binge drinking among Spanish regions.

  18. Factors affecting public prejudice and social distance on mental illness: analysis of contextual effect by multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeongap; Lim, Jun-Tae; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2012-03-01

    While there have been many quantitative studies on the public's attitude towards mental illnesses, it is hard to find quantitative study which focused on the contextual effect on the public's attitude. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the public's beliefs and attitudes including contextual effects. We analyzed survey on the public's beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness in Korea with multi-level analysis. We analyzed the public's beliefs and attitudes in terms of prejudice as an intermediate outcome and social distance as a final outcome. Then, we focused on the associations of factors, which were individual and regional socio-economic factors, familiarity, and knowledge based on the comparison of the intermediate and final outcomes. Prejudice was not explained by regional variables but was only correlated with individual factors. Prejudice increased with age and decreased by high education level. However, social distance controlling for prejudice increased in females, in people with a high education level, and in regions with a high education level and a high proportion of the old. Therefore, social distance without controlling for prejudice increased in females, in the elderly, in highly educated people, and in regions with a high education and aged community. The result of the multi-level analysis for the regional variables suggests that social distance for mental illness are not only determined by individual factors but also influenced by the surroundings so that it could be tackled sufficiently with appropriate considering of the relevant regional context with individual characteristics.

  19. Contextual factors in liquidity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, C.; van Lelyveld, I.P.P.; Zymek, R.

    2015-01-01

    We assess the determinants of banks’ liquidity holdings using data for nearly 7000 banks from 25 OECD countries. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks’ liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether liquidity regulation

  20. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contextualized personality: traditional and new assessment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Komar, Jennifer; Min, Ji-A; Perunovic, Wei Qi Elaine

    2007-12-01

    We describe our ongoing program of research related to the assessment of contextualized personality, focusing on social roles and cultural cues as contextual factors. First, we present our research employing the traditional assessment approach, wherein participants are asked to rate explicitly their personality across several different roles. We argue that this hypothetical approach is potentially susceptible to the influence of stereotypes, social desirability, and demand characteristics. We therefore describe the development of three novel and subtle assessment procedures that are based on obtaining online self-representations that are activated while occupying a specific context. Finally, the strengths and limitations of all four approaches, as well as directions for future research in the study of contextualized personality, are discussed.

  2. Improving Acquisition Outcomes with Contextual Ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The results of research on mergers and acquisitions often point to a need to improve acquisition outcomes and lessen the organizational turmoil that can often follow integration efforts. We assert that viewing acquisition integration through the lens of contextual ambidexterity may improve...... acquisition outcomes in two ways: by providing an integrated solution to the economic and social tensions in acquisitions, and by enabling managers to effectively confront the competing needs of task and human integration. We also posit that by building on contextual ambidexterity, we can extend...... the possibilities for both research and practice regarding task and human integration in acquisitions. We also emphasize the role of an integration manager and integration mechanisms in enabling contextual ambidexterity for successful acquisition integration. Finally, we identify implications for research...

  3. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  4. Construction of state-independent proofs for quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia

    2017-12-01

    Since the enlightening proofs of quantum contextuality first established by Kochen and Specker, and also by Bell, various simplified proofs have been constructed to exclude the noncontextual hidden variable theory of our nature at the microscopic scale. The conflict between the noncontextual hidden variable theory and quantum mechanics is commonly revealed by Kochen-Specker sets of yes-no tests, represented by projectors (or rays), via either logical contradictions or noncontextuality inequalities in a state-(in)dependent manner. Here we propose a systematic and programmable construction of a state-independent proof from a given set of nonspecific rays in C3 according to their Gram matrix. This approach brings us a greater convenience in the experimental arrangements. Besides, our proofs in C3 can also be generalized to any higher-dimensional systems by a recursive method.

  5. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2013-01-01

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra

  6. Equivalence between contextuality and negativity of the Wigner function for qudits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfosse, Nicolas; Okay, Cihan; Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Browne, Dan E.; Raussendorf, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Understanding what distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical mechanics is crucial for quantum information processing applications. In this work, we consider two notions of non-classicality for quantum systems, negativity of the Wigner function and contextuality for Pauli measurements. We prove that these two notions are equivalent for multi-qudit systems with odd local dimension. For a single qudit, the equivalence breaks down. We show that there exist single qudit states that admit a non-contextual hidden variable model description and whose Wigner functions are negative.

  7. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  8. Variability in a three-generation family with Pierre Robin sequence, acampomelic campomelic dysplasia, and intellectual disability due to a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9, and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castori, Marco; Bottillo, Irene; Morlino, Silvia; Barone, Chiara; Cascone, Piero; Grammatico, Paola; Laino, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Campomelic dysplasia and acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD) are allelic disorders due to heterozygous mutations in or around SOX9. Translocations and deletions involving the SOX9 5' regulatory region are rare causes of these disorders, as well as Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Genotype-phenotype correlations are not straightforward due to the complex epigenetic regulation of SOX9 expression during development. We report a three-generation pedigree with a novel ∼1 Mb deletion upstream of SOX9 and including KCNJ2 and KCNJ16, and ascertained for dominant transmission of PRS. Further characterization of the family identified subtle appendicular anomalies and a variable constellation of axial skeletal features evocative of ACD in several members. Affected males showed learning disability. The identified deletion was smaller than all other chromosome rearrangements associated with ACD. Comparison with other reported translocations and deletions involving this region allowed further refining of genotype-phenotype correlations and an update of the smallest regions of overlap associated with the different phenotypes. Intrafamilial variability in this pedigree suggests a phenotypic continuity between ACD and PRS in patients carrying mutations in the SOX9 5' regulatory region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  10. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  11. Cultural and Contextual Issues in Exemplar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Oakes Mueller, Ross A.; Furrow, James

    2013-01-01

    This chapter specifically addresses how exemplar methods are especially relevant to examining cultural and contextual issues. Cross-cultural, cultural, and indigenous psychologies are discussed in order to highlight how studying actual exemplars in their unique and complex developmental contexts has the potential to identify themes that either…

  12. Which Social Media? A Call for Contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Dahlberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay briefly reflects upon digital social media in the mid-1990s in order to encourage: first, investigation of pre-twenty first century social media, towards the identification of lessons and resources for present-day research, practice, policy, and activism; and, second, the discursive and socio-historical contextualization of today’s social media.

  13. Locality and realism in contextual theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekzema, D.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of contextual theories are distinguished and shown to be related. For theories of each type a criterion of locality is formulated which is weaker than the classical requirement of separability at spacelike intervals. The relations between the concepts of locality, realism, and ontic chance are discussed

  14. Towards a service centric contextualized vehicular cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Xiping; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Zhengguo; TalebiFard, Peyman; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jia; Leung, Victor C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a service-centric contextualized vehicular (SCCV) cloud platform to facilitate the deployment and delivery of cloud-based mobile applications over vehicular networks. SCCV cloud employs a multi-tier architecture that consists of the network, mobile device, and cloud tiers. Based

  15. Significant Statistics: Viewed with a Contextual Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and organisational changes three lead teachers made to their statistics teaching and learning programs. The lead teachers posed the research question: What would the effect of contextually integrating statistical investigations and literacies into other curriculum areas be on student achievement? By finding the…

  16. Quantum contextuality in N-boson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto; Genovese, Marco; Olivares, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Quantum contextuality in systems of identical bosonic particles is explicitly exhibited via the maximum violation of a suitable inequality of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt type. Unlike the approaches considered so far, which make use of single-particle observables, our analysis involves collective observables constructed using multiboson operators. An exemplifying scheme to test this violation with a quantum optical setup is also discussed.

  17. Accident prevention in a contextual approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang

    2003-01-01

    of such a contextual approach is shortly described and demonstrated in relation to a Danish case on accident prevention. It is concluded that the approach presently offers a post-ante, descriptive analytical understanding, and it is argued that it can be developed to a frame of reference for planning actions...

  18. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile devices

  19. Mobile Contextualized learning games for decision support training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Börner, Dirk; Suarez, Angel; Schneider, Jan; Antonaci, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    This interactive workshop session introduces mobile serious games as situated, contextualized learning games. Example cases for mobile serious games for decision support training are introduced and discussed. Participants will get to know contextualization techniques used in modern mobile

  20. Testing a pedagogy for promoting historical contextualization in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented

  1. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal “folk psychological” explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality. PMID:29301289

  2. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  3. Personal and contextual determinants of attitudes towards immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Boban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of immigrants and attitudes towards immigrants are an important social issue in our country, and in recent years these issues have become more topical due to the large number of immigrants from the Middle East and Africa who pass through Serbia. This research was aimed at identifying the determinants of social attitudes towards immigrants. Contextual determinants, first of all, economic security and life in a multiethnic environment, as well as individual determinants, operationalized through the HEXACO model of personality, were examined. The research was conducted on the convenience sample of 540 participants. The results have shown that economic security has no direct effect on the attitudes towards immigrants, while the multiethnic environment is an important determinant of these attitudes. Personality traits, especially Openness, as well as Honesty- Humility, have better predictive power than the contextual variables. The factors of economic security are significant moderators of the relationship between personality and attitudes towards immigrants. The importance of the obtained results for understanding the formation of attitudes towards immigrants is discussed, as well as the methodological framework for future studies of attitudes towards immigrants and other social groups.

  4. Local Choices: Rationality and the Contextuality of Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo

    2018-01-02

    Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local , i.e., within a context. Thus, rational models need to be supplemented with a theory of contextual shifts. We review evidence in JDM that patterns of choices are often consistent within contexts, but unstable between contexts. We also demonstrate that for a limited, though reasonably broad, class of decision-making domains, recent theoretical models can be viewed as providing theories of contextual shifts. It is argued that one particular significant source of global inconsistency arises from a cognitive inability to represent absolute magnitudes, whether for perceptual variables, utilities, payoffs, or probabilities. This overall argument provides a fresh perspective on the scope and limits of human rationality.

  5. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  6. Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model.

  7. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness to e...

  8. Experimental test of state-independent quantum contextuality of an indivisible quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Cao, Dong-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-05-01

    Since the quantum mechanics was born, quantum mechanics was argued among scientists because the differences between quantum mechanics and the classical physics. Because of this, some people give hidden variable theory. One of the hidden variable theory is non-contextual hidden variable theory, and KS inequalities are famous in non-contextual hidden variable theory. But the original KS inequalities have 117 directions to measure, so it is almost impossible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. However bout two years ago, Sixia Yu and C.H. Oh point out that for a single qutrit, we only need to measure 13 directions, then we can test the KS inequalities. This makes it possible to test the KS inequalities in experiment. We use the polarization and the path of single photon to construct a qutrit, and we use the half-wave plates, the beam displacers and polar beam splitters to prepare the quantum state and finish the measurement. And the result prove that quantum mechanics is right and non-contextual hidden variable theory is wrong.

  9. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lebert-Charron

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified.Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants.Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72 completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study.Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent.Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and

  10. Maternal Burnout Syndrome: Contextual and Psychological Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebert-Charron, Astrid; Dorard, Géraldine; Boujut, Emilie; Wendland, Jaqueline

    2018-01-01

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the most significant experiences in a woman’s life. Including substantial and long-lasting mental, social, and physical charge, the parenting experience may also be a potentially stressful and overwhelming task. Since the eighties, the notion of parental burnout syndrome has gained increasing attention, but its contextual and psychological factors need to be better identified. Aims: To investigate a large array of contextual and psychological factors associated with maternal burnout syndrome in a French community-based population in order to contribute to better operationalize the notion of parental burnout and to explore its determinants. Method: A total of 304 French-speaking mothers (mean age = 34.8 years, SD = 6.72) completed a set of questionnaires including a sociodemographic form (in order to gather general information about the mothers, their spouses, and children living at home). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory adapted to parents (MBI-parental), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Parental Stress Index-Short Form and the Ways of Coping Checklist were used in this study. Results: Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that scores on the MBI-parental version were strongly and positively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as with perceived stress related to parenthood and parenting stress levels. Moreover, using the task-oriented coping style in parenthood was strongly and positively associated with personal accomplishment. Conversely, some sociodemographic characteristics were found to be negatively associated with maternal burnout: being employed, working full time and being a mother living without a coparent. Conclusion: The construct of maternal burnout syndrome seems to be linked to a conjunction of psychological and contextual factors associated with maternal exhaustion. The implication of the results for prevention and intervention strategies

  11. Contextual risk, maternal parenting and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems: the role of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A; Flouri, Eirini

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to test if emotion regulation mediates the association between mothers' parenting and adolescents' externalizing behaviour problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity). The parenting dimensions were warmth, psychological control and behavioural control (measured with knowledge, monitoring and discipline). Adjustment was made for contextual risk (measured with the number of proximal adverse life events experienced), gender, age and English as an additional language. Data were from a UK community sample of adolescents aged 11-18 from a comprehensive school in a disadvantaged area. At the multivariate level, none of the parenting variables predicted hyperactivity, which was associated only with difficulties in emotion regulation, contextual risk and English as a first language. The parenting variables predicting conduct problems at the multivariate level were warmth and knowledge. Knowledge did not predict emotion regulation. However, warmth predicted emotion regulation, which was negatively associated with conduct problems. Contextual risk was a significant predictor of both difficulties in emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour problems. Its effect on conduct problems was independent of parenting and was not via its association with difficulties in emotion regulation. The findings add to the evidence for the importance of maternal warmth and contextual risk for both regulated emotion and regulated behaviour. The small maternal control effects on both emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour could suggest the importance of paternal control for adolescent outcomes.

  12. Contextual factors influencing readiness for dissemination of obesity prevention programs and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisinger, Mariah L; Boland, Elizabeth M; Filler, Carl D; Baker, Elizabeth A; Hessel, Amy S; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-04-01

    Within the realm of obesity prevention research, there have been many promising interventions to improve physical activity and nutrition among diverse target populations. However, very little information is known about the dissemination and replication of these interventions. In 2007 and 2008 as part of a larger obesity prevention initiative, Missouri Foundation for Health funded 19 community-based programs throughout the state that showed promise of being model practices and committed to promoting their dissemination. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 64 individuals across the grant sites to help stage their readiness for dissemination. Through these interviews, the project team was able to identify the variables that impact a program's readiness for widespread distribution. Some factors contributing to readiness include: strong intervention planning and an existing sustainability plan; physical space available for the intervention; staff and monetary resources; administrative buy-in; community buy-in and engagement; a strong partner base and an agency with a healthy and active mission. These findings add to the literature by systematically identifying a set of key contextual variables. The qualitative data collected support a proposed framework and helps to establish a process for maintaining successful interventions based on several important factors that impact dissemination.

  13. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  14. Exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the protocol of exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality in a trapped ion system. The genuine randomness can be produced by quantum principle and certified by quantum inequalities. Recently, randomness expansion protocols based on inequality of Bell-text and Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, have been demonstrated. These schemes have been theoretically innovated to exponentially expand the randomness and amplify the randomness from weak initial random seed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of such exponential expansion of randomness. In the experiment, we use three states of a 138Ba + ion between a ground state and two quadrupole states. In the 138Ba + ion system, we do not have detection loophole and we apply a methods to rule out certain hidden variable models that obey a kind of extended noncontextuality.

  15. Object based implicit contextual learning: a study of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Sampaio, Joana; Pina, Ana; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Implicit contextual cueing refers to a top-down mechanism in which visual search is facilitated by learned contextual features. In the current study we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying implicit contextual learning using object information as a contextual cue. Therefore, we measured eye movements during an object-based contextual cueing task. We demonstrated that visual search is facilitated by repeated object information and that this reduction in response times is associated with shorter fixation durations. This indicates that by memorizing associations between objects in our environment we can recognize objects faster, thereby facilitating visual search.

  16. Contextual factors in maternal and newborn health evaluation: a protocol applied in Nigeria, India and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabot, Kate; Marchant, Tanya; Spicer, Neil; Berhanu, Della; Gautham, Meenakshi; Umar, Nasir; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the context of a health programme is important in interpreting evaluation findings and in considering the external validity for other settings. Public health researchers can be imprecise and inconsistent in their usage of the word "context" and its application to their work. This paper presents an approach to defining context, to capturing relevant contextual information and to using such information to help interpret findings from the perspective of a research group evaluating the effect of diverse innovations on coverage of evidence-based, life-saving interventions for maternal and newborn health in Ethiopia, Nigeria, and India. We define "context" as the background environment or setting of any program, and "contextual factors" as those elements of context that could affect implementation of a programme. Through a structured, consultative process, contextual factors were identified while trying to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and feasibility. Thematic areas included demographics and socio-economics, epidemiological profile, health systems and service uptake, infrastructure, education, environment, politics, policy and governance. We outline an approach for capturing and using contextual factors while maximizing use of existing data. Methods include desk reviews, secondary data extraction and key informant interviews. Outputs include databases of contextual factors and summaries of existing maternal and newborn health policies and their implementation. Use of contextual data will be qualitative in nature and may assist in interpreting findings in both quantitative and qualitative aspects of programme evaluation. Applying this approach was more resource intensive than expected, in part because routinely available information was not consistently available across settings and more primary data collection was required than anticipated. Data was used only minimally, partly due to a lack of evaluation results that needed further explanation

  17. Generation and memory for contextual detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2004-07-01

    Generation enhances item memory but may not enhance other aspects of memory. In 12 experiments, the author investigated the effect of generation on context memory, motivated in part by the hypothesis that generation produces a trade-off in encoding item and contextual information. Participants generated some study words (e.g., hot-c__) and read others (e.g., hot-cold). Generation consistently enhanced item memory but did not enhance context memory. More specifically, generation disrupted context memory for the color of the target word but did not affect context memory for location, background color, and cue-word color. The specificity of the negative generation effect in context memory argues against a general item-context trade-off. A processing account of generation meets greater success. In addition, the results provide no evidence that generation enhances recollection of contextual details. Copyright 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Quantum contextuality in neutron interferometer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Loidl, Rudolf; Baron, Matthias; Badurek, Gerald; Rauch, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Non-local correlations between sufficiently separated subsystems have been extensively discussed. Such a non-locality can be interpreted as a consequence of the correlation between commuting observables. A more general concept, i.e., contextuality, compared to non-locality can be introduced to describe striking phenomena predicted by quantum theory. As the first example, we report a neutron interferometer experiment, where the spin and the path degrees of freedom are used to exhibit the clear violation of a Bell-like inequality. Other aspects of the quantum contextuality is presented, e.g., a flavor of Kochen-Specker-like contradiction in neutron optical experiments, in addition to the quantum state tomography of the Bell-states which are used in the experiments

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Contextual Cues of Violence in an Active Videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Pfeiffer, Karin; Winn, Brian

    2014-04-01

    With the expanded genres of active videogames, one inevitably raises the question of whether it is worthwhile to use active videogames to promote physical activity if games involve violent themes. The purpose of the current study was to explore the effects of contextual cues of violence in an active videogame on (1) state hostility, (2) perceived arousal, (3) game enjoyment, (4) perceived effort in the game, and (5) activity intensity in the game. A one-factor between-subjects experiment with three conditions (minimal, moderate, and extreme contextual cues of violence) of playing an in-house-developed active videogame was conducted. Activity intensity was objectively measured using the ActiGraph (Pensacola, FL) model GT3X accelerometer. Psychological outcomes were measured using established scales. We did not find that the level of contextual cues of violence had any effect on the outcome variables, although the moderate level of contextual cues of violence resulted in a greater amount of feeling mean (P=0.011) and unsociable (P=0.038) among the players immediately after gameplay than players in the minimal contextual cues of violence condition. We did not find any statistically significant difference among the three conditions in terms of enjoyment, perceived arousal, or activity intensity. This study empirically examined the effects of contextual cues of violence in active videogames on player hostility, arousal, and enjoyment after gameplay as well as their physical activity intensity during gameplay. These findings provide some initial evidence to guide active videogame designers and researchers on how to design the games to be more engaging and thus elicit more activities among the players.

  20. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  1. The Emergence of Contextual Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F

    2018-07-01

    Social psychology experiences recurring so-called "crises." This article maintains that these episodes actually mark advances in the discipline; these "crises" have enhanced relevance and led to greater methodological and statistical sophistication. New statistical tools have allowed social psychologists to begin to achieve a major goal: placing psychological phenomena in their larger social contexts. This growing trend is illustrated with numerous recent studies; they demonstrate how cultures and social norms moderate basic psychological processes. Contextual social psychology is finally emerging.

  2. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  3. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  4. Proposed test of macroscopic quantum contextuality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2010-01-01

    We show that, for any system with a number of levels which can be identified with n qubits, there is an inequality for the correlations between three compatible dichotomic measurements which must be satisfied by any noncontextual theory, but is violated by any quantum state. Remarkably, the violation grows exponentially with n, and the tolerated error per correlation also increases with n, showing that state-independent quantum contextuality is experimentally observable in complex systems.

  5. Contextual control over task-set retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D

    2010-11-01

    Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.

  6. Against Contextualism: Belief, Evidence, & the Bank Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Paul Gage

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2013v17n1p57 Contextualism (the view that ‘knowledge’ and its variants are context-sensitive has been supported in large part through appeal to intuitions about Keith DeRose’s Bank Cases. Recently, however, the contextualist construal of these cases has come under fire from Kent Bach and Jennifer Nagel who question whether the Bank Case subject’s confidence can remain constant in both low- and high-stakes cases. Having explained the Bank Cases and this challenge to them, I argue that DeRose has given a reasonable reply to this initial challenge. However, I proceed to argue that the current stalemate can be broken. Seeking to extend the Bach–Nagel critique, I offer a novel interpretation of the Bank Cases according to which the subject’s evidence changes between low- and high-stakes cases. If I am correct, then, given the amount of support the Bank Cases have been thought to lend contextualism, the case for contextualism is seriously weakened.

  7. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  8. Perpendicularity misjudgments caused by contextual stimulus elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Aleksandr; Bulatova, Natalija; Surkys, Tadas

    2012-10-15

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that the illusions of extent of the Brentano type can be explained by the perceptual positional shifts of the stimulus terminators in direction of the centers-of-masses (centroids) of adjacent contextual flanks [Bulatov, A. et al. (2011). Contextual flanks' tilting and magnitude of illusion of extent. Vision Research, 51(1), 58-64]. In the present study, the applicability of the centroid approach to explain the right-angle misjudgments was tested psychophysically using stimuli composed of three small disks (dots) forming an imaginary rectangular triangle. Stimuli comprised the Müller-Lyer wings or line segments (bars) as the contextual distracters rotated around the vertices of the triangle, and changes in the magnitude of the illusion of perpendicularity were measured in a set of experiments. A good resemblance between the experimental data and theoretical predictions obtained strongly supports the suggestion regarding the common "centroid" origin of the illusions of extent of the Brentano type and misperception of the perpendicularity investigated. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  9. User Adoption Tendency Modeling for Social Contextual Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies on the existing recommender system for Netflix-style sites (scenarios with explicit user feedback focus on rating prediction, but few have systematically analyzed users’ motivations to make decisions on which items to rate. In this paper, the authors study the difficult and challenging task Item Adoption Prediction (IAP for predicting the items users will rate or interact with. It is not only an important supplement to previous works, but also a more realistic requirement of recommendation in this scenario. To recommend the items with high Adoption Tendency, the authors develop a unified model UATM based on the findings of Marketing and Consumer Behavior. The novelty of the model in this paper includes: First, the authors propose a more creative and effective optimization method to tackle One-Class Problem where only the positive feedback is available; second, the authors systematically and conveniently integrate the user adoption information (both explicit and implicit feedbacks included and the social contextual information with quantitatively characterizing different users’ personal sensitivity to various social contextual influences.

  10. Contextual effects and cancer outcomes in the United States: a systematic review of characteristics in multilevel analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, Whitney E; McLafferty, Sara L

    2017-11-01

    There is increasing call for the utilization of multilevel modeling to explore the relationship between place-based contextual effects and cancer outcomes in the United States. To gain a better understanding of how contextual factors are being considered, we performed a systematic review. We reviewed studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2016 and assessed the following attributes: (1) contextual considerations such as geographic scale and contextual factors used; (2) methods used to quantify contextual factors; and (3) cancer type and outcomes. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science and initially identified 1060 studies. One hundred twenty-two studies remained after exclusions. Most studies utilized a two-level structure; census tracts were the most commonly used geographic scale. Socioeconomic factors, health care access, racial/ethnic factors, and rural-urban status were the most common contextual factors addressed in multilevel models. Breast and colorectal cancers were the most common cancer types, and screening and staging were the most common outcomes assessed in these studies. Opportunities for future research include deriving contextual factors using more rigorous approaches, considering cross-classified structures and cross-level interactions, and using multilevel modeling to explore understudied cancers and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group: who is the best judge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment.

  12. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rigoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects. These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  13. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  15. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  16. From Contextual Theology to African Christianity: The Consideration of Adiaphora from a South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Mokhoathi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The move towards contextual Christianity in Africa is an essential venture if Christianity is to communicate with the African cultural heritage. As a universal religion, Christianity has to find an expression within the cultural context. However, the contextualization of Christianity in Africa appears to have permitted the practice of syncretism. It has resulted in the emergence of African Christianity, which is the amalgamation of Christianity and African Traditional Religion. The amalgamation of Christianity and African Traditional Religion appears to overlook the essence of both religions as there is currently no clarity on how Christianity can best be expressed within the African cultural and religious heritage. This paper employs the document review method to explore the things that fall in between—“adiaphora”, which the proponents of contextual Christianity may have overlooked with regard to the African cultural and religious heritage. These include the pragmatic nature of the African cultural and religious heritage, and the African traditional methods of healing.

  17. Contextual emotion regulation therapy: a developmentally based intervention for pediatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2012-04-01

    For this special issue about child and adolescent depression, the authors were asked to describe contextual emotion regulation therapy as an example of a developmentally informed psychosocial intervention. The article begins with the authors' definition of the elements that should comprise such an intervention. A succinct summary of this contextual emotion regulation therapy is then provided, including its explanatory paradigm of depression, followed by an exposition of how it addresses the various definitional criteria of a developmentally informed intervention. The article concludes with a brief overview of the challenges of implementing a developmentally sensitive psychotherapy for depressed children and adolescents.

  18. Self-verification and contextualized self-views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Serena; English, Tammy; Peng, Kaiping

    2006-07-01

    Whereas most self-verification research has focused on people's desire to verify their global self-conceptions, the present studies examined self-verification with regard to contextualized selfviews-views of the self in particular situations and relationships. It was hypothesized that individuals whose core self-conceptions include contextualized self-views should seek to verify these self-views. In Study 1, the more individuals defined the self in dialectical terms, the more their judgments were biased in favor of verifying over nonverifying feedback about a negative, situation-specific self-view. In Study 2, consistent with research on gender differences in the importance of relationships to the self-concept, women but not men showed a similar bias toward feedback about a negative, relationship-specific self-view, a pattern not seen for global self-views. Together, the results support the notion that self-verification occurs for core self-conceptions, whatever form(s) they may take. Individual differences in self-verification and the nature of selfhood and authenticity are discussed.

  19. The Effect of Contextual and Conceptual Rewording on Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Majid; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows how separate and combined contextual and conceptual problem rewording can positively influence student performance in solving mathematical word problems. Participants included 80 seventh-grade Iranian students randomly assigned in groups of 20 to three experimental groups involving three types of rewording and a control group. All…

  20. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  1. Contextual Influences on the Relations between Physical and Relational Aggression and Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Bukowski, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that several contextual factors influence the relationship between aggression and peer victimization in early adolescence, including gender of the same-sex peer group and gender composition of the school. The current study replicated and expanded on this research by examining the moderating influences of gender…

  2. On Transitions between Representations: The Role of Contextual Reasoning in Calculus Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazkis, Dov

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a shift in how researchers discuss and examine students' uses and understandings of multiple representations within a calculus context. An extension of Zazkis, Dubinsky, and Dautermann's (1996) visualization/analysis framework to include contextual reasoning is proposed. Several examples that detail transitions between…

  3. Investigating Associations between School Climate and Bullying in Secondary Schools: Multilevel Contextual Effects Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Yasuo; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student reports of bullying were related to different dimensions of school climate, at both the school and the student levels, using a contextual effects model in a two-level multilevel modeling framework. Participants included 48,874 secondary students (grades 8 to 12; 24,244 girls) from 76 schools in Western Canada.…

  4. A Dialectical Approach to Theoretical Integration in Developmental-Contextual Identity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jayson; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Coppens, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Future advances in identity research will depend on integration across major theoretical traditions. Developmental-contextualism has established essential criteria to guide this effort, including specifying the context of identity development, its timing over the life course, and its content. This article assesses 4 major traditions of identity…

  5. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  6. The impact of structural and contextual factors on trust formation in product development teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayan, M.; Benedetto, Di A.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines antecedents of trust formation in new product development (NPD) teams and the effects of trust on NPD team performance. A theoretical framework relating structural and contextual factors to interpersonal trust and project outcomes was built, including task complexity as a

  7. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  8. The Contextualization of Archetypes: Clinical Template Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Ulriksen, Gro-Hilde; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority. It concerns the standardization of a regional ICT portfolio and the ongoing development of a new process oriented EPR systems encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Subject of interest; the contextualization of clinical templates is governed over multiple national boundaries which is complex due to the dependency of clinical resources. From the outset of this, we are interested in how local, regional, and national organizers maneuver to standardize while applying OpenEHR technology.

  9. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrière Eléna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940 were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%. Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score, high depersonalization (highest quartile, and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might

  10. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading

    OpenAIRE

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence readi...

  11. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feng; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. (paper)

  12. Experimental Detection of Information Deficit in a Photonic Contextuality Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiang; Kurzyński, Paweł; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Wang, Kunkun; Bian, Zhihao; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Contextuality is an essential characteristic of quantum theory, and supplies the power for many quantum information processes. Previous tests of contextuality focus mainly on the probability distribution of measurement results. However, a test of contextuality can be formulated in terms of entropic inequalities whose violations imply information deficit in the studied system. This information deficit has not been observed on a single local system. Here we report the first experimental detection of information deficit in an entropic test of quantum contextuality based on photonic setup. The corresponding inequality is violated with more than 13 standard deviations.

  13. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Context matters: the experience of 14 research teams in systematically reporting contextual factors important for practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Scammon, Debra L; Waitzman, Norman J; Cronholm, Peter F; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Driscoll, David L; Solberg, Leif I; Hsu, Clarissa; Tai-Seale, Ming; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Shih, Sarah C; Fetters, Michael D; Wise, Christopher G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Hauser, Diane; McMullen, Carmit K; Scholle, Sarah Hudson; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Schmidt, Laura; Donahue, Katrina E; Parchman, Michael L; Stange, Kurt C

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to advance the internal and external validity of research by sharing our empirical experience and recommendations for systematically reporting contextual factors. Fourteen teams conducting research on primary care practice transformation retrospectively considered contextual factors important to interpreting their findings (internal validity) and transporting or reinventing their findings in other settings/situations (external validity). Each team provided a table or list of important contextual factors and interpretive text included as appendices to the articles in this supplement. Team members identified the most important contextual factors for their studies. We grouped the findings thematically and developed recommendations for reporting context. The most important contextual factors sorted into 5 domains: (1) the practice setting, (2) the larger organization, (3) the external environment, (4) implementation pathway, and (5) the motivation for implementation. To understand context, investigators recommend (1) engaging diverse perspectives and data sources, (2) considering multiple levels, (3) evaluating history and evolution over time, (4) looking at formal and informal systems and culture, and (5) assessing the (often nonlinear) interactions between contextual factors and both the process and outcome of studies. We include a template with tabular and interpretive elements to help study teams engage research participants in reporting relevant context. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of identifying and reporting contextual factors. Involving diverse stakeholders in assessing context at multiple stages of the research process, examining their association with outcomes, and consistently reporting critical contextual factors are important challenges for a field interested in improving the internal and external validity and impact of health care research.

  15. Contextual Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N; Elhai, Jon D; Rea, Bayard D; Weiss, Donna; Masino, Theodore; Morris, Staci Leon; McIninch, Jessica

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of contextual therapy, a new approach for treating adult survivors of prolonged child abuse (PCA), is provided via case studies of three women with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). Contextual therapy is based on the premise that it is not only traumatic experiences that account for PCA survivors' psychological difficulties. Even more fundamentally, many survivors grow up in an interpersonal context in which adequate resources for secure attachment and acquisition of adaptive living skills are not available. As a result, they are left with lasting deficits that undermine not only their current functioning, but also their ability to cope with reliving their traumatic memories in therapy. The primary focus of this treatment approach, therefore, is on developing capacities for feeling and functioning better in the present, rather than on extensive exploration and processing of the client's trauma history or, in the case of DID, of identity fragments. Treatment of the three cases presented ranged from eight months to two and one-half years' duration, and culminated in very positive outcomes. The women's reports of achievements, such as obtaining and maintaining gainful employment, greater self-sufficiency, and the establishment of more intimate and gratifying relationships, indicated marked improvements in daily functioning. Objective test data obtained at admission and discharge, and in one case, at follow-up, documented substantial reductions in dissociative, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and other symptoms.

  16. Rebuilding Babel: finding common development solutions using cross-contextual comparisons of multidimensional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Hull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the theoretical tradition of coping strategies and capital portfolios is used as the basis for adaption and combination of existing methodologies to analyze well-being in rural households. Special attention is given to comparisons among different contexts. First we estimate a multidimensional measurement of poverty based on fuzzy logic for two areas of rural frontiers: Nang Rong, Thailand, and Altamira, in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. To enable a cross-contextual comparison we calculated a second estimate using a subset of shared measurements in the two areas. The findings suggest that the pattern of responses on a range of numerous key variables - including education, income and demographic dependency ratio - is robust for the model specification. It is concluded that comparative generalizations, useful in formulating cost-effective public policy interventions across contexts, could be satisfactorily identified in many situations. More generically, this approach provides researchers and policymakers with a framework for understanding the interaction of contexts with the subjective construction of well-being. The understanding of this interaction is useful for distinguishing stable corollaries of poverty from those that are volatile across contexts.

  17. Personalization and Contextualization of Learning Experiences based on Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Capuano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware e-learning is an educational model that foresees the selection of learning resources to make the e-learning content more relevant and suitable for the learner in his/her situation. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an ontological approach can be used to define leaning contexts and to allow contextualizing learning experiences finding out relevant topics for each context. To do that, we defined a context model able to formally describe a learning context, an ontology-based model enabling the representation of a teaching domain (including context information and a methodology to generate personalized and context-aware learning experiences starting from them. Based on these theoretical components we improved an existing system for personalized e-learning with contextualisation features and experimented it with real users in two University courses. The results obtained from this experimentation have been compared with those achieved by similar systems.

  18. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Darya S; Volodin, Ilya A; Demina, Tatyana S; Volodina, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120) and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females) in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss) were related to courting behaviour (chirr) or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss). Other call types (chirp, purr and meow) were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals.

  19. Acoustic Structure and Contextual Use of Calls by Captive Male and Female Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya S Smirnova

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus and the specific role of meow vocalizations in communication of this species attract research interest about two dozen years. Here, we expand this research focus for the contextual use of call types, sex differences and individual differences at short and long terms. During 457 trials of acoustic recordings, we collected calls (n = 8120 and data on their contextual use for 13 adult cheetahs (6 males and 7 females in four Russian zoos. The cheetah vocal repertoire comprised 7 call types produced in 8 behavioural contexts. Context-specific call types (chirr, growl, howl and hiss were related to courting behaviour (chirr or to aggressive behaviour (growl, howl and hiss. Other call types (chirp, purr and meow were not context-specific. The values of acoustic variables differed between call types. The meow was the most often call type. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high potential of meows to encode individual identity and sex at short terms, however, the vocal individuality was unstable over years. We discuss the contextual use and acoustic variables of call types, the ratios of individual and sex differences in calls and the pathways of vocal ontogeny in the cheetah with relevant data on vocalization of other animals.

  20. Factor analysis of the contextual fine motor questionnaire in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Kai; Meng, Ling-Fu; Yu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Che-Kuo; Li, Kuan-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Most studies treat fine motor as one subscale in a developmental test, hence, further factor analysis of fine motor has not been conducted. In fact, fine motor has been treated as a multi-dimensional domain from both clinical and theoretical perspectives, and therefore to know its factors would be valuable. The aim of this study is to analyze the internal consistency and factor validity of the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ). Based on the ecological observation and literature, the Contextual Fine Motor Questionnaire (CFMQ) was developed and includes 5 subscales: Pen Control, Tool Use During Handicraft Activities, the Use of Dining Utensils, Connecting and Separating during Dressing and Undressing, and Opening Containers. The main purpose of this study is to establish the factorial validity of the CFMQ through conducting this factor analysis study. Among 1208 questionnaires, 904 were successfully completed. Data from the children's CFMQ submitted by primary care providers was analyzed, including 485 females (53.6%) and 419 males (46.4%) from grades 1 to 5, ranging in age from 82 to 167 months (M=113.9, SD=16.3). Cronbach's alpha was used to measure internal consistency and explorative factor analysis was applied to test the five factor structures within the CFMQ. Results showed that Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the CFMQ for 5 subscales ranged from .77 to .92 and all item-total correlations with corresponding subscales were larger than .4 except one item. The factor loading of almost all items classified to their factor was larger than .5 except 3 items. There were five factors, explaining a total of 62.59% variance for the CFMQ. In conclusion, the remaining 24 items in the 5 subscales of the CFMQ had appropriate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contextual factors and clinical reasoning: differences in diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning in board certified versus resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Schuwirth, Lambert; Artino, Anthony R; Yepes-Rios, Ana Monica; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2017-11-15

    The impact of context on the complex process of clinical reasoning is not well understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework and videos to provide the same contextual "stimulus" to all participants, we examined the relationship between specific contextual factors on diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning accuracy in board certified internists versus resident physicians. Each participant viewed three videotaped clinical encounters portraying common diagnoses in internal medicine. We explicitly modified the context to assess its impact on performance (patient and physician contextual factors). Patient contextual factors, including English as a second language and emotional volatility, were portrayed in the videos. Physician participant contextual factors were self-rated sleepiness and burnout.. The accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning was compared with covariates using Fisher Exact, Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman Rho's correlations as appropriate. Fifteen board certified internists and 10 resident physicians participated from 2013 to 2014. Accuracy of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning did not differ between groups despite residents reporting significantly higher rates of sleepiness (mean rank 20.45 vs 8.03, U = 0.5, p reasoning performance. Further, the processes of diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, although related, may not be interchangeable. This raises important questions about the impact that contextual factors have on clinical reasoning and provides insight into how clinical reasoning processes in more authentic settings may be explained by situated cognition theory.

  2. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    using the results for chapters two and three to identify aspects of engagement and learning in science. These findings motivate a set of variables and analytic approach that is undertaken in chapter four. Specifically, the questions how engagement influences experiences in ninth grade science and students' interest in pursuing a career in STEM using the HSLS:09 data. This multifaceted study contributes to the conceptualization of student engagement, and will help bring clarity to the relationship among engagement, context, and long-term outcomes in science. Engagement is more than being on-task or paying attention, but is a condition influenced by many factors including student background, the learning context of the classroom, teacher characteristics, and the features of instruction. Understanding this relationship between engagement and contextual factors is helpful in uncovering teacher actions and instructional activities that may elicit higher engagement in science classes. These findings highlight the importance of science instruction using more cognitively-demanding activities, such as problem-based learning.

  3. Contextual Learning Induces Dendritic Spine Clustering in Retrosplenial Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and electrophysiological studies find convergent evidence suggesting that plasticity within a dendritic tree is not randomly dispersed, but rather clustered into functional groups. Further, results from in silico neuronal modeling show that clustered plasticity is able to increase storage capacity 45 times compared to dispersed plasticity. Recent in vivo work utilizing chronic 2-photon microscopy tested the clustering hypothesis and showed that repetitive motor learning is able to induce clustered addition of new dendritic spines on apical dendrites of L5 neurons in primary motor cortex; moreover, clustered spines were found to be more stable than non-clustered spines, suggesting a physiological role for spine clustering. To further test this hypothesis we used in vivo 2-photon imaging in Thy1-YFP-H mice to chronically examine dendritic spine dynamics in retrosplenial cortex (RSC during spatial learning. RSC is a key component of an extended spatial learning and memory circuit that includes hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Importantly, RSC is known from both lesion and immediate early gene studies to be critically involved in spatial learning and more specifically in contextual fear conditioning. We utilized a modified contextual fear conditioning protocol wherein animals received a mild foot shock each day for five days; this protocol induces gradual increases in context freezing over several days before the animals reach a behavioral plateau. We coupled behavioral training with four separate in vivo imaging sessions, two before training begins, one early in training, and a final session after training is complete. This allowed us to image spine dynamics before training as well as early in learning and after animals had reached behavioral asymptote. We find that this contextual learning protocol induces a statistically significant increase in the formation of clusters of new dendritic spines in trained animals when compared to home

  4. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  5. Contextual events related to the occurrence of challenging behavior in educational settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba CORTINA SERRA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Challenging behaviors (CB displayed by people with intellectual disabilities (ID have a negative effect on their quality of life. The operant theory principles emphasize the relationship between these behaviors and the environment where they take place. This study aimed to identify the contextual variables that are closely related to the occurrence of CB exhibited by children who attend a special school by using an indirect functional assessment instrument; the Contextual Assessment Inventory. Therefore, 17 students have participated in this study where a total of 25 behaviors have been assessed. The results suggested that the social/cultural and the nature of the task or activity categories were more strongly associated with the occurrence of CB. Finally, results are discussed in terms of implications for practitioners. Future researches might address the importance of prevention and universal educational systems.

  6. Focal Event, Contextualization, and Effective Communication in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per; Ryve, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop analytical tools for studying mathematical communication in collaborative activities. The theoretical construct of contextualization is elaborated methodologically in order to study diversity in individual thinking in relation to effective communication. The construct of contextualization highlights issues of…

  7. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfianto, Moch.; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be used to enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving…

  8. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory.

  9. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Anna Van Ast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42 received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle and skin conductance responses. In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on fear potentiated startle data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by skin conductance responses, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events.

  10. Effects of Normal Aging on Memory for Multiple Contextual Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Sylvain; Soulard, Kathleen; Brasgold, Melissa; Kreller, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-four younger (18-35 years) and 24 older adult participants (65 or older) were exposed to three experimental conditions involving the memorization words and their associated contextual features, with contextual feature complexity increasing from Conditions 1 to 3. In Condition 1, words presented varied only on one binary feature (color,…

  11. The Influence of Contextual Diversity on Eye Movements in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An…

  12. Contextual Aspects of Smart City Energy Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    The thesis defines the concept of smart city energy systems. The thesis emphasises the need to investigate the smart city energy system and two contextual aspects. The system integration context and the geographical context. The system integration context emphasises that increased interrelation...... of the different contextual aspects....

  13. IoT Contextual Factors on Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Caridakis, George

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things, new services in healthcare will be available and existing systems will be integrated in the IoT framework, providing automated medical supervision and efficient medical treatment. Context awareness plays a critical role in realizing the vision of the IoT, providing rich contextual information that can help the system act more efficiently. Since context in healthcare has its unique characteristics, it is necessary to define an appropriate context aware framework for healthcare IoT applications. We identify this context as perceived in healthcare applications and describe the context aware procedures. We also present an architecture that connects the sensors that measure biometric data with the sensory networks of the environment and the various IoT middleware that reside in the geographical area. Finally, we discuss the challenges for the realization of this vision.

  14. Contextual Teaching and Learning for Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Charles Hudson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL is defined as a way to introduce content using a variety of activelearning techniques designed to help students connect what they already know to what they are expected to learn, and to construct new knowledge from the analysis and synthesis of this learning process. A theoretical basis for CTL is outlined, with a focus on Connection, Constructivist, and Active Learning theories. A summary of brain activity during the learning process illustrates the physiological changes and connections that occur during educational activities. Three types of learning scenarios (project-based, goal-based, and inquiry-oriented are presented to illustrate how CTL can be applied by practitioners.

  15. Probabilistic generation of quantum contextual sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, Norman D.; Fresl, Kresimir; Waegell, Mordecai; Aravind, P.K.; Pavicic, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    We give a method for exhaustive generation of a huge number of Kochen-Specker contextual sets, based on the 600-cell, for possible experiments and quantum gates. The method is complementary to our previous parity proof generation of these sets, and it gives all sets while the parity proof method gives only sets with an odd number of edges in their hypergraph representation. Thus we obtain 35 new kinds of critical KS sets with an even number of edges. We also give a statistical estimate of the number of sets that might be obtained in an eventual exhaustive enumeration. -- Highlights: → We generate millions of new Kochen-Specker noncontextual set. → We find thousands of novel critical Kochen-Specker (KS) sets. → We give algorithms for generating KS sets from a new 4-dim class. → We represent KS sets by means of hypergraphs and their figures. → We give a new exact estimation method for random sampling of sets.

  16. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

  17. Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  18. School variation in asthma: compositional or contextual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K Richmond

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood asthma prevalence and morbidity have been shown to vary by neighborhood. Less is known about between-school variation in asthma prevalence and whether it exists beyond what one might expect due to students at higher risk of asthma clustering within different schools. Our objective was to determine whether between-school variation in asthma prevalence exists and if so, if it is related to the differential distribution of individual risk factors for and correlates of asthma or to contextual influences of schools.Cross-sectional analysis of 16,640 teens in grades 7-12 in Wave 1 (data collected in 1994-5 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Outcome was current diagnosis of asthma as reported by respondents' parents. Two-level random effects models were used to assess the contribution of schools to the variance in asthma prevalence before and after controlling for individual attributes.The highest quartile schools had mean asthma prevalence of 21.9% compared to the lowest quartile schools with mean asthma prevalence of 7.1%. In our null model, the school contributed significantly to the variance in asthma (sigma(u0(2 = 0.27, CI: 0.20, 0.35. Controlling for individual, school and neighborhood attributes reduced the between-school variance modestly (sigma(u0(2 = 0.19 CI: 0.13-0.29.Significant between-school variation in current asthma prevalence exists even after controlling for the individual, school and neighborhood factors. This provides evidence for school level contextual influences on asthma. Further research is needed to determine potential mechanisms through which schools may influence asthma outcomes.

  19. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality on an NMR qutrit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogra, Shruti; Dorai, Kavita, E-mail: kavita@iisermohali.ac.in; Arvind

    2016-05-20

    We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis. - Highlights: • A contextuality inequality for a single qutrit was designed using traceless observables. • The violation of the inequality was experimentally demonstrated using NMR. • A single-shot test was experimentally performed for a subclass of diagonal qutrit states.

  20. Experimental demonstration of quantum contextuality on an NMR qutrit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, Shruti; Dorai, Kavita; Arvind

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally test quantum contextuality of a single qutrit using NMR. The contextuality inequalities based on nine observables developed by Kurzynski et al. are first reformulated in terms of traceless observables which can be measured in an NMR experiment. These inequalities reveal the contextuality of almost all single-qutrit states. We demonstrate the violation of the inequality on four different initial states of a spin-1 deuterium nucleus oriented in a liquid crystal matrix, and follow the violation as the states evolve in time. We also describe and experimentally perform a single-shot test of contextuality for a subclass of qutrit states whose density matrix is diagonal in the energy basis. - Highlights: • A contextuality inequality for a single qutrit was designed using traceless observables. • The violation of the inequality was experimentally demonstrated using NMR. • A single-shot test was experimentally performed for a subclass of diagonal qutrit states.

  1. Contextual Cueing Effect in Spatial Layout Defined by Binocular Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang; Zhuang, Qian; Ma, Jie; Tu, Shen; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Hong-jin

    2017-01-01

    Repeated visual context induces higher search efficiency, revealing a contextual cueing effect, which depends on the association between the target and its visual context. In this study, participants performed a visual search task where search items were presented with depth information defined by binocular disparity. When the 3-dimensional (3D) configurations were repeated over blocks, the contextual cueing effect was obtained (Experiment 1). When depth information was in chaos over repeated configurations, visual search was not facilitated and the contextual cueing effect largely crippled (Experiment 2). However, when we made the search items within a tiny random displacement in the 2-dimentional (2D) plane but maintained the depth information constant, the contextual cueing was preserved (Experiment 3). We concluded that the contextual cueing effect was robust in the context provided by 3D space with stereoscopic information, and more importantly, the visual system prioritized stereoscopic information in learning of spatial information when depth information was available. PMID:28912739

  2. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  3. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. What does an experimental test of quantum contextuality prove or disprove?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of experimentally testing the Bell–Kochen–Specker theorem is investigated critically, following the demonstrations by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton–Kent that the predictions of quantum mechanics are indistinguishable (up to arbitrary precision) from those of a non-contextual model, and the subsequent debate about the extent to which these models are actually classical or non-contextual. The present analysis starts from a careful consideration of these ‘finite-precision’ approximations. A stronger condition for non-contextual models, dubbed ontological faithfulness, is exhibited. It is shown that this allows us to approximately formulate the constraints in Bell–Kochen–Specker theorems, such as to render the usual proofs robust. Consequently, one can experimentally test to finite precision ontologically faithful non-contextuality, and thus experimentally refute explanations from this smaller class. We include a discussion of the relation of ontological faithfulness to other proposals to overcome the finite precision objection. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  5. Diagnostic screening identifies a wide range of mutations involving the SHOX gene, including a common 47.5 kb deletion 160 kb downstream with a variable phenotypic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, David J; Baker, Kevin R; Harvey, John F; Thomas, N Simon

    2013-06-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) results from heterozygous mutations of the SHOX gene, with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity resulting in the more severe form, Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). These mutations typically take the form of whole or partial gene deletions, point mutations within the coding sequence, or large (>100 kb) 3' deletions of downstream regulatory elements. We have analyzed the coding sequence of the SHOX gene and its downstream regulatory regions in a cohort of 377 individuals referred with symptoms of LWD, LMD or short stature. A causative mutation was identified in 68% of the probands with LWD or LMD (91/134). In addition, a 47.5 kb deletion was found 160 kb downstream of the SHOX gene in 17 of the 377 patients (12% of the LWD referrals, 4.5% of all referrals). In 14 of these 17 patients, this was the only potentially causative abnormality detected (13 had symptoms consistent with LWD and one had short stature only), but the other three 47.5 kb deletions were found in patients with an additional causative SHOX mutation (with symptoms of LWD rather than LMD). Parental samples were available on 14/17 of these families, and analysis of these showed a more variable phenotype ranging from apparently unaffected to LWD. Breakpoint sequence analysis has shown that the 47.5 kb deletion is identical in all 17 patients, most likely due to an ancient founder mutation rather than recurrence. This deletion was not seen in 471 normal controls (P<0.0001), providing further evidence for a phenotypic effect, albeit one with variable penetration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Microdevelopment of Complex Featural and Spatial Integration with Contextual Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Hirsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex spatial decisions involve the ability to combine featural and spatial information in a scene. In the present work, 4- through 9-year-old children completed a complex map-scene correspondence task under baseline and supported conditions. Children compared a photographed scene with a correct map and with map-foils that made salient an object feature or spatial property. Map-scene matches were analyzed for the effects of age and featural-spatial information on children’s selections. In both conditions children significantly favored maps that highlighted object detail and object perspective rather than color, landmark, and metric elements. Children’s correct performance did not differ by age and was suboptimal, but their ability to choose correct maps improved significantly when contextual support was provided. Strategy variability was prominent for all age groups, but at age 9 with support children were more likely to give up their focus on features and transition to the use of spatial strategies. These findings suggest the possibility of a U-shaped curve for children’s development of geometric knowledge: geometric coding is predominant early on, diminishes for a time in middle childhood in favor of a preference for features, and then reemerges along with the more advanced abilities to combine featural and spatial information.

  7. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  8. Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kin-Pou

    2015-01-01

    Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based.

  9. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Questioning context: a set of interdisciplinary questions for investigating contextual factors affecting health decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea; Witteman, Holly; Whyte, Sarah; Sutton, Erica J.; Bender, Jacqueline L.; Massimi, Michael; Stephens, Lindsay; Evans, Joshua; Logie, Carmen; Mirza, Raza M.; Elf, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To combine insights from multiple disciplines into a set of questions that can be used to investigate contextual factors affecting health decision making. Background  Decision‐making processes and outcomes may be shaped by a range of non‐medical or ‘contextual’ factors particular to an individual including social, economic, political, geographical and institutional conditions. Research concerning contextual factors occurs across many disciplines and theoretical domains, but few conceptual tools have attempted to integrate and translate this wide‐ranging research for health decision‐making purposes. Methods  To formulate this tool we employed an iterative, collaborative process of scenario development and question generation. Five hypothetical health decision‐making scenarios (preventative, screening, curative, supportive and palliative) were developed and used to generate a set of exploratory questions that aim to highlight potential contextual factors across a range of health decisions. Findings  We present an exploratory tool consisting of questions organized into four thematic domains – Bodies, Technologies, Place and Work (BTPW) – articulating wide‐ranging contextual factors relevant to health decision making. The BTPW tool encompasses health‐related scholarship and research from a range of disciplines pertinent to health decision making, and identifies concrete points of intersection between its four thematic domains. Examples of the practical application of the questions are also provided. Conclusions  These exploratory questions provide an interdisciplinary toolkit for identifying the complex contextual factors affecting decision making. The set of questions comprised by the BTPW tool may be applied wholly or partially in the context of clinical practice, policy development and health‐related research. PMID:21029277

  11. Profile of male-field dependent (FD) prospective teacher's reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustan, S.; Juniati, Dwi; Siswono, Tatag Yuli Eko

    2017-08-01

    Reflective thinking is an important component in the world of education, especially in professional education of teachers. In learning mathematics, reflective thinking is one way to solve mathematical problem because it can improve student's curiosity when student faces a mathematical problem. Reflective thinking is also a future competence that should be taught to students to face the challenges and to respond of demands of the 21st century. There are many factors which give impact toward the student's reflective thinking when student solves mathematical problem. One of them is cognitive style. For this reason, reflective thinking and cognitive style are important things in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper describes aspect of reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem involved solution by using some mathematical concept, namely linear program, algebra arithmetic operation, and linear equations of two variables. The participant, in this research paper, is a male-prospective teacher who has Field Dependent. The purpose of this paper is to describe aspect of prospective teachers' reflective thinking in solving contextual mathematical problem. This research paper is a descriptive by using qualitative approach. To analyze the data, the researchers focus in four main categories which describe prospective teacher's activities using reflective thinking, namely; (a) formulation and synthesis of experience, (b) orderliness of experience, (c) evaluating the experience and (d) testing the selected solution based on the experience.

  12. Early Adolescents' Emotional Well-Being in the Classroom: The Role of Personal and Contextual Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to predict early adolescents' emotional well-being from personal and contextual assets in the classroom. Emotional well-being is a key indicator of health. Aligned with the positive youth development (PYD) framework, a supportive classroom environment and positive relationships with teachers and peers were contextual assets in the present study; positive self-concept was a personal asset. The sample was 406 grade 4 to 7 public elementary school students from diverse backgrounds (mean = 11.27 years; SD = 0.89; 50% female). Data were self-, teacher-, and peer-reported. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were used to evaluate model fit and identify significant pathways. SEM indicated a good model fit. Overall, 68% of variability in early adolescents' emotional well-being was explained. Positive self-concept directly predicted emotional well-being. Supportive classroom environment predicted emotional well-being directly and indirectly through increases in positive social relationships and self-concept. Positive social relationships predicted well-being only indirectly through positive self-concept. Contextual and personal assets are central for early adolescents' emotional well-being. The interrelation among assets needs to be considered when understanding, and ultimately promoting students' emotional well-being. The present findings extend previous research and inform school-based intervention and prevention programming and teacher professional development. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  13. CONTEXTUAL STRATEGIES FOR CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia\tBĂEȘU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper we try to argue the development of contextual strategies for conducting effective negotiation. Throughout the paper we present that the first motivation which we manage to identify is that we negotiate to improve whatever situation we are involved in. It is of great relevance to identify a few reasons for what we negotiate. Another motivation is that negotiation is an opportunity for creativity and it does allow you to fashion a solution according to, usually different kinds of facts, different fact situation so you may get to express some creativity. Negotiation is perceived as an opportunity where we can also build relationship with the other person. We can also communicate better with the other side about where they are, what they want and where they want to go. Next, we try to identify what makes for successful negotiation during each stage of the negotiation process. According to this paper there are five things which are the essence of business negotiation.

  14. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  16. Measurement contextuality is implied by macroscopic realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zeqian; Montina, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ontological theories of quantum mechanics provide a realistic description of single systems by means of well-defined quantities conditioning the measurement outcomes. In order to be complete, they should also fulfill the minimal condition of macroscopic realism. Under the assumption of outcome determinism and for Hilbert space dimension greater than 2, they were all proved to be contextual for projective measurements. In recent years a generalized concept of noncontextuality was introduced that applies also to the case of outcome indeterminism and unsharp measurements. It was pointed out that the Beltrametti-Bugajski model is an example of measurement noncontextual indeterminist theory. Here we provide a simple proof that this model is the only one with such a feature for projective measurements and Hilbert space dimension greater than 2. In other words, there is no extension of quantum theory providing more accurate predictions of outcomes and simultaneously preserving the minimal labeling of events through projective operators. As a corollary, noncontextuality for projective measurements implies noncontextuality for unsharp measurements. By noting that the condition of macroscopic realism requires an extension of quantum theory, unless a breaking of unitarity is invoked, we arrive at the conclusion that the only way to solve the measurement problem in the framework of an ontological theory is by relaxing the hypothesis of measurement noncontextuality in its generalized sense.

  17. Does community capacity influence self-rated health? Multilevel contextual effects in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Viswanath, K

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between community-level contextual effects and self-rated health (SRH) based on the perspective of community capacity rather than social capital. Community capacity for mobilization is broad cooperation for networking among indigenous social agents and grassroots organizations that may serve as potential resources. The idea of community capacity is rooted in the philosophy that a community not only faces problems but also possesses the necessary resources to solve its problems. We used nationally representative data from South Korea, 2010, drawing on 14,228 residents in 404 communities. Community capacity was measured at two levels: an individual-level indicator of community satisfaction, and community-level indicators of participation rate in community organizations, number of community-based organizations (CBOs), and number of volunteer work camps (VWCs). The outcome variable was SRH, which was categorized into two groups: the low-SRH and high-SRH groups. Confounders included gender, age, and income at the individual level, and aggregate length of residency, financial independence ratio, and aggregate income at the community level. We estimated the effects of community capacity on SRH using hierarchical generalized linear models. The likelihood of belonging to the group having low-SRH is significantly high among those respondents living in places with lower community capacity at the community level, that report lower community satisfaction, and that have lower income at the individual level. After controlling for socio-economic confounders, the odds ratios were attenuated but remained significant in the final model, which included the gender-specific model. This study revealed that SRH is related to the level of community capacity for mobilization. It is probably because CBOs and VWCs not only provide necessary information and complementary services but also play an active role in identifying and resolving health problems

  18. A sequential model to link contextual risk, perception and public support for flood adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Small, Mitchell J

    2017-10-01

    The economic damage from coastal flooding has dramatically increased over the past several decades, owing to rapid development in shoreline areas and possible effects of climate change. To respond to these trends, it is imperative for policy makers to understand individuals' support for flood adaptation policy. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data on flood risk, this study investigates coastal residents' support for two adaptation policy measures: incentives for relocation and funding for educational programs on emergency planning and evacuation. Specifically, this study explores the interactive relationships among contextual flood risks, perceived flood risks and policy support for flood adaptation, with the effects of social-demographic variables being controlled. Age, gender, race and partisanship are found to significantly affect individuals' policy support for both adaptation measures. The contextual flooding risks, indicated by distance from the coast, maximum wind speed and peak height of storm surge associated with the last hurricane landfall, and percentage of high-risk flood zone per county, are shown to impact one's perceptions of risk, which in turn influence one's support for both policy measures. The key finding -risk perception mediates the impact of contextual risk conditions on public support for flood management policies - highlights the need to ensure that the public is well informed by the latest scientific, engineering and economic knowledge. To achieve this, more information on current and future flood risks and options available for mitigation as well as risk communication tools are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic fluoxetine dissociates contextual from auditory fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jeff; Mayford, Mark

    2016-10-06

    Fluoxetine is a medication used to treat Major Depressive Disorder and other psychiatric conditions. These experiments studied the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on the contextual versus auditory fear memory of mice. We found that chronic fluoxetine treatment of adult mice impaired their contextual fear memory, but spared auditory fear memory. Hippocampal perineuronal nets, which are involved in contextual fear memory plasticity, were unaltered by fluoxetine treatment. These data point to a selective inability to form contextual fear memory as a result of fluoxetine treatment, and they suggest that a blunting of hippocampal-mediated aversive memory may be a therapeutic action for this medication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  1. Moderating effects of contextual factors on relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision–making by physicians on patients' treatment has received increased research attention. ... The main objective of this paper is to review the influence of the marketing strategies by pharmaceutical firms and contextual factors on ...

  2. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Presented at the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  3. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  4. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  5. Brain based learning with contextual approach to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kartikaningtyas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL with a contextual approach to mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the learning model that designed to develop and optimize the brain ability for getting a new concept and solving the real life problem. This study method was a quasi-experiment. The population was the junior high school students. The sample chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The sample was 109 students. The data collected through a mathematics achievement test that was given after the treatment. The data analyzed by using one way ANOVA. The results of the study showed that BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement. It means BBL-contextual could be an effective and innovative model.

  6. NeuroD Modulates Opioid Agonist-Selective Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Contextual Memory Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate o...

  7. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size func...

  9. Existential contextuality and the models of Meyer, Kent, and Clifton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the models recently proposed by Meyer, Kent, and Clifton (MKC) exhibit a novel kind of contextuality, which we term existential contextuality. In this phenomenon it is not simply the pre-existing value but the actual existence of an observable which is context dependent. This result confirms the point made elsewhere, that the MKC models do not, as the authors claim, 'nullify' the Kochen-Specker theorem. It may also be of some independent interest

  10. [Alcohol consumption in men punished for intimate partner violence: individual and contextual factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided.

  11. Contextual Categorisation of Academics’ Conceptions of Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite large-class research-based instructional strategies being firmly established in the literature, traditional teacher-centred lecturing remains the norm. This is particularly the case in physics, where Physics Education Research (PER has blossomed as a discipline in its own right over the last few decades, but research-based strategies are not widely implemented. This variation in practice is underpinned by variations in beliefs and understandings about teaching. Studies investigating the spectrum of conceptions of teaching held by teachers and, in particular, academics have almost uniformly identified a single dimension from teacher-centred to student-centred. These studies have used a phenomenographic approach to capture the variety of conceptions of teaching, but have excluded contextual issues like class size. Research Question: How does class size affect academics’ conceptions of teaching? Method: This study used an online survey to compare and contrast respondents’ experiences of small and large classes, and in particular lectures. The survey was promoted to Australian university academics from a range of disciplines, predominantly science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM. Responses to the sets of small-class questions were analysed independently from the sets of equivalent large-class questions. For each respondent their small-class responses were categorised, where possible, as either being student-centred or teacher-centred, and likewise, independently, for their large-class responses. Results: In total, 107 survey responses were received. Of these, 51 had the sets of both their large- and small-class responses unambiguously categorised. Five of these were student-centred regardless of class size, and 17 of these were teacher-centred regardless of class size. All of the remaining 29 responses were teacher-centred in large classes, but student-centred in small classes. Conversely, none of the

  12. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size functions) to decrease. In contrast, we found that search slopes in contextual cueing did not become more efficient over time (Experiment 1). Secondly, when guidance is optimal (e.g. in easy feature search) we still found a small, but reliable contextual cueing effect (Experiments 2a and 2b), suggesting that other factors, such as response selection, contribute to the effect. Experiment 3 supported this hypothesis by showing that the contextual cueing effect disappeared when we added interference to the response selection process. Overall, our data suggest that the relationship between guidance and contextual cueing is weak and that response selection can account for part of the effect. PMID:17683230

  13. Human cortical activity evoked by contextual processing in attentional orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Li, Chunlin; Uono, Shota; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-06-07

    The ability to assess another person's direction of attention is paramount in social communication, many studies have reported a similar pattern between gaze and arrow cues in attention orienting. Neuroimaging research has also demonstrated no qualitative differences in attention to gaze and arrow cues. However, these studies were implemented under simple experiment conditions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of contextual processing (i.e., the semantic congruence between cue and target) in attentional orienting, showing that attentional orienting by social gaze or arrow cues could be modulated through contextual processing. Here, we examine the neural activity of attentional orienting by gaze and arrow cues in response to contextual processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results demonstrated that the influence of neural activity through contextual processing to attentional orienting occurred under invalid conditions (when the cue and target were incongruent versus congruent) in the ventral frontoparietal network, although we did not identify any differences in the neural substrates of attentional orienting in contextual processing between gaze and arrow cues. These results support behavioural data of attentional orienting modulated by contextual processing based on the neurocognitive architecture.

  14. Contextual modulation and stimulus selectivity in extrastriate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Matthew R; Pack, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    Contextual modulation is observed throughout the visual system, using techniques ranging from single-neuron recordings to behavioral experiments. Its role in generating feature selectivity within the retina and primary visual cortex has been extensively described in the literature. Here, we describe how similar computations can also elaborate feature selectivity in the extrastriate areas of both the dorsal and ventral streams of the primate visual system. We discuss recent work that makes use of normalization models to test specific roles for contextual modulation in visual cortex function. We suggest that contextual modulation renders neuronal populations more selective for naturalistic stimuli. Specifically, we discuss contextual modulation's role in processing optic flow in areas MT and MST and for representing naturally occurring curvature and contours in areas V4 and IT. We also describe how the circuitry that supports contextual modulation is robust to variations in overall input levels. Finally, we describe how this theory relates to other hypothesized roles for contextual modulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contextual control of discriminated operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Todd, Travis P; León, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that changing the context after instrumental (operant) conditioning can weaken the strength of the operant response. That result contrasts with the results of studies of Pavlovian conditioning, in which a context switch often does not affect the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. To begin to make the methods more similar, Experiments 1-3 tested the effects of a context switch in rats on a discriminated operant response (R; lever pressing or chain pulling) that had been reinforced only in the presence of a 30-s discriminative stimulus (S; tone or light). As in Pavlovian conditioning, responses and reinforcers became confined to presentations of the S during training. However, in Experiment 1, after training in Context A, a switch to Context B caused a decrement in responding during S. In Experiment 2, a switch to Context B likewise decreased responding in S when Context B was equally familiar, equally associated with reinforcement, or equally associated with the training of a discriminated operant (a different R reinforced in a different S). However, there was no decrement if Context B had been associated with the same response that was trained in Context A (Experiments 2 and 3). The effectiveness of S transferred across contexts, whereas the strength of the response did not. Experiment 4 found that a continuously reinforced response was also disrupted by context change when the same response manipulandum was used in both training and testing. Overall, the results suggest that the context can have a robust general role in the control of operant behavior. Mechanisms of contextual control are discussed.

  16. Classifier Fusion With Contextual Reliability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunga; Pan, Quan; Dezert, Jean; Han, Jun-Wei; He, You

    2018-05-01

    Classifier fusion is an efficient strategy to improve the classification performance for the complex pattern recognition problem. In practice, the multiple classifiers to combine can have different reliabilities and the proper reliability evaluation plays an important role in the fusion process for getting the best classification performance. We propose a new method for classifier fusion with contextual reliability evaluation (CF-CRE) based on inner reliability and relative reliability concepts. The inner reliability, represented by a matrix, characterizes the probability of the object belonging to one class when it is classified to another class. The elements of this matrix are estimated from the -nearest neighbors of the object. A cautious discounting rule is developed under belief functions framework to revise the classification result according to the inner reliability. The relative reliability is evaluated based on a new incompatibility measure which allows to reduce the level of conflict between the classifiers by applying the classical evidence discounting rule to each classifier before their combination. The inner reliability and relative reliability capture different aspects of the classification reliability. The discounted classification results are combined with Dempster-Shafer's rule for the final class decision making support. The performance of CF-CRE have been evaluated and compared with those of main classical fusion methods using real data sets. The experimental results show that CF-CRE can produce substantially higher accuracy than other fusion methods in general. Moreover, CF-CRE is robust to the changes of the number of nearest neighbors chosen for estimating the reliability matrix, which is appealing for the applications.

  17. The Effectiveness of Using Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call In Learning Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraina Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary learning methods that are Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy, and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in learning vocabulary among ESL learners. First, it aims at finding which of the vocabulary learning methods namely Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL that may result in the highest number of words learnt in the immediate and delayed recall tests. Second, it compares the results of the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test to determine the differences of learning vocabulary using the methods. A quasi-experiment that tested the effectiveness of learning vocabulary using Dictionary Strategy, Contextual clues, and CALL involved 123 first year university students. Qualitative procedures included the collection of data from interviews which were conducted to triangulate the data obtain from the quantitative inquiries. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences when students were exposed to Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues and CALL in the immediate recall tests but not in the Delayed Recall Post-test. Also, there were significant differences when t test was used to compare the scores between the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test in using the three methods of vocabulary learning. Although many researchers have advocated the relative effectiveness of Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL in learning vocabulary, the study however, is still paramount since there is no study has ever empirically investigated the relative efficacy of these three methods in a single study.

  18. Pre-Training Reversible Inactivation of the Basal Amygdala (BA Disrupts Contextual, but Not Auditory, Fear Conditioning, in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Mari Akagi Jordão

    Full Text Available The basolateral amygdala complex (BLA, including the lateral (LA, basal (BA and accessory basal (AB nuclei, is involved in acquisition of contextual and auditory fear conditioning. The BA is one of the main targets for hippocampal information, a brain structure critical for contextual learning, which integrates several discrete stimuli into a single configural representation. Congruent with the hodology, selective neurotoxic damage to the BA results in impairments in contextual, but not auditory, fear conditioning, similarly to the behavioral impairments found after hippocampal damage. This study evaluated the effects of muscimol-induced reversible inactivation of the BA during a simultaneous contextual and auditory fear conditioning training on later fear responses to both the context and the tone, tested separately, without muscimol administration. As compared to control rats micro-infused with vehicle, subjects micro-infused with muscimol before training exhibited, during testing without muscimol, significant reduction of freezing responses to the conditioned context, but not to the conditioned tone. Therefore, reversible inactivation of the BA during training impaired contextual, but not auditory fear conditioning, thus confirming and extending similar behavioral observations following selective neurotoxic damage to the BA and, in addition, revealing that this effect is not related to the lack of a functional BA during testing.

  19. Community Advisory Boards Guiding Engaged Research Efforts within a Clinical Translational Sciences Award: Key Contextual Factors Explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jacqueline R; Donahue, Katrina E; Sleath, Betsy; Reuland, Dan; Black, Adina; Mitchell, C Madeline; Breland, Carol E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mottus, Kathleen; Watson, Sable Noelle; Lewis, Virginia; Wynn, Mysha; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders in research carries the promise of enhancing the research relevance, transparency, and speed of getting findings into practice. By describing the context and functional aspects of stakeholder groups, like those working as community advisory boards (CABs), others can learn from these experiences and operationalize their own CABs. Our objective is to describe our experiences with diverse CABs affiliated with our community engagement group within our institution's Clinical Translational Sciences Award (CTSA). We identify key contextual elements that are important to administering CABs. A group of investigators, staff, and community members engaged in a 6-month collaboration to describe their experiences of working with six research CABs. We identified the key contextual domains that illustrate how CABS are developed and sustained. Two lead authors, with experience with CABs and identifying contextual domains in other work, led a team of 13 through the process. Additionally, we devised a list of key tips to consider when devising CABs. The final domains include (1) aligned missions among stakeholders (2) resources/support, (3) defined operational processes/shared power, (4) well-described member roles, and (5) understanding and mitigating challenges. The tips are a set of actions that support the domains. Identifying key contextual domains was relatively easy, despite differences in the respective CAB's condition of focus, overall mission, or patient demographics represented. By contextualizing these five domains, other research and community partners can take an informed approach to move forward with CAB planning and engaged research.

  20. Contextualized Contribution of Kindness to Favorable Goal- and Circumstantial-Driven Neuropsychological Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kindness involves care and non-judgmental understanding toward someone. As a prosocial inclination, kindness would increase the possibility of favorable interaction with the environment, with a successful adjustment of one's response in novel or challenging circumstances, taking into account rules or goals. This adjustment ability is commonly referred to as executive functions, dependent on the prefrontal and parietal functioning, still under development during late adolescence. This study aimed to investigate if kindness would relate with the executive functions. If so, it would correlate more with measures of self-regulation, mainly dependent on the medial prefrontal corticosubcortical circuits. Also, among self-regulating processes, kindness would be more associated with autonomic responses—choices guided by one's understanding/intention - than with adaptive responses—changes on one's choices triggered by unfavorable circumstances. A sample of 46 (31 female; 18 to 21 years-old healthy college students from the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro attended a clinical interview and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Kindness was measured by the Compassion Scale subscore. Generalized non-linear models for each neuropsychological variable were executed on R, followed by an estimation of weighted parameters for each factor. Significant models which included kindness (weighted parameter Pc > 74 and all of their psychosocial or sociodemographic factors on their maximum expression (Pc > 74 were identified. In a contextualized joint influence with other psychosocial and sociodemographic factors, kindness fits equally goal- and circumstantial- self-regulation, as well as integrative organization of information. Kindness is a principle that optimizes a refreshing and prosocial interaction with the environment. As it anticipates sharing and cooperation behaviors, it might have a primordial function on individual and social

  1. Design of multiple representations e-learning resources based on a contextual approach for the basic physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, F.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to design e-learning resources with multiple representations based on a contextual approach for the Basic Physics Course. The research uses the research and development methods accordance Dick & Carey strategy. The development carried out in the digital laboratory of Physics Education Department, Mathematics and Science Faculty, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result of the process of product development with Dick & Carey strategy, have produced e-learning design of the Basic Physics Course is presented in multiple representations in contextual learning syntax. The appropriate of representation used in the design of learning basic physics include: concept map, video, figures, data tables of experiment results, charts of data tables, the verbal explanations, mathematical equations, problem and solutions example, and exercise. Multiple representations are presented in the form of contextual learning by stages: relating, experiencing, applying, transferring, and cooperating.

  2. Understanding Contextual and Social Meaning in Typically Developing Finnish-Speaking Four- To Eight-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukusa Soile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

  3. “Words are also deeds”: Quentin Skinner, the contextual turn, and Educational Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon IGELMO ZALDÍVAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the way in which it is possible to apply the Quentin Skinner’s analytical method to study the ideas in the academic discipline of Educational Theory. The methodology of the contextual turn is presented as a useful and appropriate hermeneutic tool for the rigorous clarification of the ideas developed by relevant authors for the educational thought. To undertake this endeavor, we assume that Educational Theory involves knowing to do; without ruling out that knowing is a way of doing. Therefore, we aim at incorporating a rigorous methodology to study the ideas, which leads to explore the intentionality of some of relevant texts for the educational debate in the Spanish academic context of pedagogy. We include the application of the Skinner’s method based on contextual turn for the theoretical study of the thought of Ivan Illich and Rudolf Steiner.

  4. Training Therapists in Evidence-Based Practice: A Critical Review of Studies From a Systems-Contextual Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP), a preferred psychological treatment approach, requires training of community providers. The systems-contextual (SC) perspective, a model for dissemination and implementation efforts, underscores the importance of the therapist, client, and organizational variables that influence training and consequent therapist uptake and adoption of EBP. This review critiques the extant research on training in EBP from an SC perspective. Findings suggest that therapist knowled...

  5. Contextual Factors for Establishing Nursing Regulation in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatian, Ahmad; Joulaei, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Professional regulation is one of the strategies of the governments which protect the public's right. Nursing practice is not an exception; hence, it is regulated to protect the public against nursing services' adverse effects. Although modern nursing in Iran started from 100 years ago, documents show that there was no regulation mechanism for nursing in Iran till 2016. Hence, this study was conducted to illuminate the contextual factors affecting the nursing regulation process in Iran. To explore the contextual elements of late establishment of nursing registration as an important part of nursing regulation, we applied directed qualitative content analysis. For this purpose, all the historical events and related materials including articles published in scientific journals, gray literature, statements, news articles, and interviews in the period of 2006-2016 were reviewed and analyzed by expert panel and categorized in predetermined groups. Pooled analysis data showed four contributing elements that affected the emerging nursing regulation in Iran. These elements include 1) cultural determinants, 2) structural determinants, 3) situational determinants, and 4) international or exogenous determinants. Nursing regulation is an important health policy issue in Iran which needs to be facilitated by contextual factors. These factors are complicated and country-specific. Political willingness should be accompanied by nursing association willingness to establish and improve nursing regulation. Other researches are recommended to explore actors and process and content of nursing regulation policy in Iran.

  6. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. The impact of natural science contextual teaching through project method to students’ achievement in MTsN Miri Sragen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anik Sunarsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the science learning skills among students’ who follow contextual learning through project method with experiment method. The population of this research is the students’ of class VII MTS Negeri Miri Kab. Sragen on the teaching period of 2016/2017. Cluster random sampling technique is used as sample. This research was designed using contextual teaching through project method as an independent variable. The results of this Improvement show that there is a difference in the achievement of students' learning skill that follows contextual learning through the project method with the experimental method with Fobs = 8,83 and significant number 4,04 (p <0,05. Based on these findings contextual learning through the project is one of the learning methods that provide a positive influence on improving the achievement of science learning skills. This ain increase, because CTL is can help students’ understand the material by relating the problems that exist. Project methods are used by students’ in solving problems.

  8. Memory and metamemory performance in Alzheimer's disease and healthy elderly: the Contextual Memory Test (CMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, N; Josman, N

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.

  9. A 2 × 2 taxonomy of multilevel latent contextual models: accuracy-bias trade-offs in full and partial error correction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in multilevel data when estimating contextual effects are distinguished: unreliability that is due to measurement error and unreliability that is due to sampling error. The fact that studies may or may not correct for these 2 types of error can be translated into a 2 × 2 taxonomy of multilevel latent contextual models comprising 4 approaches: an uncorrected approach, partial correction approaches correcting for either measurement or sampling error (but not both), and a full correction approach that adjusts for both sources of error. It is shown mathematically and with simulated data that the uncorrected and partial correction approaches can result in substantially biased estimates of contextual effects, depending on the number of L1 individuals per group, the number of groups, the intraclass correlation, the number of indicators, and the size of the factor loadings. However, the simulation study also shows that partial correction approaches can outperform full correction approaches when the data provide only limited information in terms of the L2 construct (i.e., small number of groups, low intraclass correlation). A real-data application from educational psychology is used to illustrate the different approaches.

  10. The Trans-Contextual Model of Autonomous Motivation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity. In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs. We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis. The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods. PMID:27274585

  11. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  13. Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo S

    2009-11-01

    Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  14. Contextual Multi-armed Bandits under Feature Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Seyoung [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nam, Jun Hyun [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Sangwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jinwoo [Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-03

    We study contextual multi-armed bandit problems under linear realizability on rewards and uncertainty (or noise) on features. For the case of identical noise on features across actions, we propose an algorithm, coined NLinRel, having O(T⁷/₈(log(dT)+K√d)) regret bound for T rounds, K actions, and d-dimensional feature vectors. Next, for the case of non-identical noise, we observe that popular linear hypotheses including NLinRel are impossible to achieve such sub-linear regret. Instead, under assumption of Gaussian feature vectors, we prove that a greedy algorithm has O(T²/₃√log d)regret bound with respect to the optimal linear hypothesis. Utilizing our theoretical understanding on the Gaussian case, we also design a practical variant of NLinRel, coined Universal-NLinRel, for arbitrary feature distributions. It first runs NLinRel for finding the ‘true’ coefficient vector using feature uncertainties and then adjust it to minimize its regret using the statistical feature information. We justify the performance of Universal-NLinRel on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

  15. Assessing roles of vocabulary knowledge predominating in contextual clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharawadee Promduang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.

  16. Teachers' Psychological Functioning in the Workplace: Exploring the Roles of Contextual Beliefs, Need Satisfaction, and Personal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to provide a greater depth of knowledge about teachers' psychological functioning at work-including the contextual, basic psychological need satisfaction and personal factors relevant to this. We examined the extent to which perceived autonomy support predicts basic psychological need satisfaction and, in turn,…

  17. Assessment of the magnitude of geographical variations in the duration of non-work-related sickness absence by individual and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torá-Rocamora

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: County-level variation in the duration of NWRSA was small and was explained more by individual than by contextual variables. Knowledge of geographic differences in NWRSA duration is needed to plan specific programs and interventions to minimize these differences.

  18. Perceived participation and autonomy: aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Tham, Kerstin; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Jonsson, Hans

    2011-04-01

    To describe perceived participation and autonomy among a sample of persons with stroke in Iran and to identify different aspects of functioning and contextual factors predicting participation after stroke. A cross-sectional study. A total of 102 persons, between 27 and 75 years of age, diagnosed with first-ever stroke. Participants were assessed for different aspects of functioning, contextual factors and health conditions. Participation was assessed using the Persian version of the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire. This study demonstrated that the majority of the study population perceived their participation and autonomy to be good to fair in the different domains of their participation, but not with respect to the autonomy outdoors domain. In addition, physical function was found to be the most important variable predicting performance-based participation, whereas mood state was the most important variable predicting social-based participation. The results emphasize the importance of physical function, mood state and access to caregiving services as predictors of participation in everyday life after stroke. Whilst there are two dimensions of participation in this Persian sample of persons with stroke, the factors explaining participation seem to be the same across the cultures.

  19. Contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cohen, Jason A; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-09-01

    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title that supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on WM capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs), along with knowledge, WM span, and age, are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors.

  20. The time course of attentional deployment in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sigstad, Heather M; Swallow, Khena M

    2013-04-01

    The time course of attention is a major characteristic on which different types of attention diverge. In addition to explicit goals and salient stimuli, spatial attention is influenced by past experience. In contextual cueing, behaviorally relevant stimuli are more quickly found when they appear in a spatial context that has previously been encountered than when they appear in a new context. In this study, we investigated the time that it takes for contextual cueing to develop following the onset of search layout cues. In three experiments, participants searched for a T target in an array of Ls. Each array was consistently associated with a single target location. In a testing phase, we manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the repeated spatial layout and the search display. Contextual cueing was equivalent for a wide range of SOAs between 0 and 1,000 ms. The lack of an increase in contextual cueing with increasing cue durations suggests that as an implicit learning mechanism, contextual cueing cannot be effectively used until search begins.

  1. Pigeons Exhibit Contextual Cueing to Both Simple and Complex Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. PMID:24491468

  2. Contextual diversity facilitates learning new words in the classroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rosa

    Full Text Available In the field of word recognition and reading, it is commonly assumed that frequently repeated words create more accessible memory traces than infrequently repeated words, thus capturing the word-frequency effect. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that a seemingly related factor, contextual diversity (defined as the number of different contexts [e.g., films] in which a word appears, is a better predictor than word-frequency in word recognition and sentence reading experiments. Recent research has shown that contextual diversity plays an important role when learning new words in a laboratory setting with adult readers. In the current experiment, we directly manipulated contextual diversity in a very ecological scenario: at school, when Grade 3 children were learning words in the classroom. The new words appeared in different contexts/topics (high-contextual diversity or only in one of them (low-contextual diversity. Results showed that words encountered in different contexts were learned and remembered more effectively than those presented in redundant contexts. We discuss the practical (educational [e.g., curriculum design] and theoretical (models of word recognition implications of these findings.

  3. Hypobaric hypoxia impairs cued and contextual fear memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Punita; Kauser, Hina; Wadhwa, Meetu; Roy, Koustav; Alam, Shahnawaz; Sahu, Surajit; Kishore, Krishna; Ray, Koushik; Panjwani, Usha

    2018-04-26

    Fear memory is essential for survival, and its dysregulation leads to disorders. High altitude hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is known to induce cognitive decline. However, its effect on fear memory is still an enigma. We aimed to investigate the temporal effect of HH on fear conditioning and the underlying mechanism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained for fear conditioning and exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 25,000 ft for different durations (1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days). Subsequently, rats were tested for cued and contextual fear conditioning. Neuronal morphology, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were studied in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). We observed significant deficit in cued and contextual fear acquisition (at 1, 3 and 7 days) and consolidation (cued at 1 and 3 days and contextual fear at 1, 3 and 7 days) under HH. HH exposure with retraining showed the earlier restoration of contextual fear memory. Further, we found a gradual increase in the number of pyknotic and apoptotic neurons together with the increase in DNA fragmentation in mPFC, hippocampus, and BLA up to 7 days of HH exposure. The present study concludes that HH exposure equivalent to 25000 ft induced cued and contextual fear memory deficit (acquisition and consolidation) which is found to be correlated with the neurodegenerative changes in the limbic brain regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Contextual factors influencing leisure physical activity of urbanized indigenous adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Feng-En; Tsai, Feng-Chou; Lee, Ming-Been; Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Indigenous populations suffer from disparities in socioeconomic resources and health status. One approach to addressing these disparities is by targeting modifiable risk factors such as leisure physical activity (LPA). This study investigated and compared factors related to LPA among urbanized indigenous and nonindigenous adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey comprised fifth to ninth grade indigenous and nonindigenous students (n = 733). The nonindigenous students were matched with indigenous students on sex and academic achievement and used as a reference group. Data were collected through telephone interviews using structured questionnaires. Major items included: demographic characteristics; average time spent watching television per bout; participation in LPA; and stress and depression experiences. With the exception of the duration of television watching per bout, Chi-square and independent t tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between indigenous and nonindigenous adolescents in the selected LPA-related factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis including terms investigating interaction between ethnicity and the contextual factors included in this study indicated that the following factors were correlated with LPA participation: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.94], male sex (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.19-2.61), total hours spent watching television in the past 2 weeks (OR = 0.79, 95%CI = 0.63-0.99), life satisfaction (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = 1.04-4.90), and exercise enjoyment (OR = 3.40, 95%CI = 1.71-6.74). However, neither indigenous status (OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.19-5.79) nor any of the interaction terms reached the significant level. No significant ethnic differences were found in LPA participation. LPA was significantly correlated with age, male sex, total time spent watching television, life satisfaction, and enjoyment of exercise. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors.

  6. Selective inhibition of miR-92 in hippocampal neurons alters contextual fear memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetere, Gisella; Barbato, Christian; Pezzola, Silvia; Frisone, Paola; Aceti, Massimiliano; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Cogoni, Carlo; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Ruberti, Francesca

    2014-12-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) is implicated in memory formation; however, the function of miR-92 in this regulation is uncharacterized. The present study shows that training mice in contextual fear conditioning produces a transient increase in miR-92 levels in the hippocampus and decreases several miR-92 gene targets, including: (i) the neuronal Cl(-) extruding K(+) Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) protein; (ii) the cytoplasmic polyadenylation protein (CPEB3), an RNA-binding protein regulator of protein synthesis in neurons; and (iii) the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), one of the MEF2 genes which negatively regulates memory-induced structural plasticity. Selective inhibition of endogenous miR-92 in CA1 hippocampal neurons, by a sponge lentiviral vector expressing multiple sequences imperfectly complementary to mature miR-92 under the control of the neuronal specific synapsin promoter, leads to up-regulation of KCC2, CPEB3 and MEF2D, impairs contextual fear conditioning, and prevents a memory-induced increase in the spine density. Taken together, the results indicate that neuronal-expressed miR-92 is an endogenous fine regulator of contextual fear memory in mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Broadening the trans-contextual model of motivation: A study with Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cutre, D; Sicilia, Á; Beas-Jiménez, M; Hagger, M S

    2014-08-01

    The original trans-contextual model of motivation proposed that autonomy support from teachers develops students' autonomous motivation in physical education (PE), and that autonomous motivation is transferred from PE contexts to physical activity leisure-time contexts, and predicts attitudes, perceived behavioral control and subjective norms, and forming intentions to participate in future physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to test an extended trans-contextual model of motivation including autonomy support from peers and parents and basic psychological needs in a Spanish sample. School students (n = 400) aged between 12 and 18 years completed measures of perceived autonomy support from three sources, autonomous motivation and constructs from the theory of planned behavior at three different points in time and in two contexts, PE and leisure-time. A path analysis controlling for past physical activity behavior supported the main postulates of the model. Autonomous motivation in a PE context predicted autonomous motivation in a leisure-time physical activity context, perceived autonomy support from teachers predicted satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE, and perceived autonomy support from peers and parents predicted need satisfaction in leisure-time. This study provides a cross-cultural replication of the trans-contextual model of motivation and broadens it to encompass basic psychological needs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An exploration of contextual dimensions impacting goals of care conversations in postgraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda L; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael; Sarti, Aimee; Ajjawi, Rola

    2016-03-21

    Postgraduate medical trainees are not well prepared difficult conversations about goals of care with patients and families in the acute care clinical setting. While contextual nuances within the workplace can impact communication, research to date has largely focused on individual communication skills. Our objective was to explore contextual factors that influence conversations between trainees and patients/families about goals of care in the acute care setting. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study involving five focus groups with Internal Medicine trainees (n = 20) and a series of interviews with clinical faculty (n = 11) within a single Canadian centre. Thematic framework analysis was applied to categorize the data and identify themes and subthemes. Challenges and factors enabling goals of care conversations emerged within individual, interpersonal and system dimensions. Challenges included inadequate preparation for these conversations, disconnection between trainees, faculty and patients, policies around documentation, the structure of postgraduate medical education, and resource limitations; these challenges led to missed opportunities, uncertainty and emotional distress. Enabling factors were awareness of the importance of goals of care conversations, support in these discussions, collaboration with colleagues, and educational initiatives enabling skill development; these factors have resulted in learning, appreciation, and an established foundation for future educational initiatives. Contextual factors impact how postgraduate medical trainees communicate with patients/families about goals of care. Attention to individual, interpersonal and system-related factors will be important in designing educational programs that help trainees develop the capacities needed for challenging conversations.

  9. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R.; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J.; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians’ workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  10. A contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms among individuals with addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Corey R; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-11-01

    Numerous behavioral treatments for addictive disorders include components explicitly aimed at targeting self-regulation (e.g., coping and emotion regulation). We first provide a summary of key findings to date among studies that have examined self-regulation as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) in behavioral treatments for addictive disorders. Based on our review, we conclude that the role of self-regulation as a MOBC across behavioral treatments for addictive disorders is not well-characterized and findings are inconsistent across studies. For example, our review indicates that there is still inconsistent evidence that coping is a unique MOBC in cognitive-behavioral approaches for addictive behaviors. We propose that there has been slow progress in understanding self-regulation as a MOBC in addiction treatment because of a lack of attention to contextual factors. Accordingly, in the second half of this paper, we propose a contextual model of self-regulation change mechanisms, which emphasizes that the role of various facets of self-regulation as MOBC may depend on contextual factors in the immediate situational context (e.g., fluctuating internal and external cues) and in the broader context in which an individual is embedded (e.g., major life stressors, environmental conditions, dispositions). Additionally, we provide specific recommendations to guide future research for understanding both between-person and within-person self-regulation MOBC in addiction treatment. In particular, we provide key recommendations for how to capitalize on intensive longitudinal measurement methods (e.g., ecological momentary assessment) when bringing a contextual perspective to the study of self-regulation as MOBC in various addiction treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitating the implementation of evidence- based practice through contextual support and nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueny, Angela; Shever, Leah L; Lehan Mackin, Melissa; Titler, Marita G

    2015-01-01

    Nurse managers (NMs) play an important role promoting evidence-based practice (EBP) on clinical units within hospitals. However, there is a dearth of research focused on NM perspectives about institutional contextual factors to support the goal of EBP on the clinical unit. The purpose of this article is to identify contextual factors described by NMs to drive change and facilitate EBP at the unit level, comparing and contrasting these perspectives across nursing units. This study employed a qualitative descriptive design using interviews with nine NMs who were participating in a large effectiveness study. To stratify the sample, NMs were selected from nursing units designated as high or low performing based on implementation of EBP interventions, scores on the Meyer and Goes research use scale, and fall rates. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes that reflect the complex nature of infrastructure described by NMs and contextual influences that supported or hindered their promotion of EBP on the clinical unit. NMs perceived workplace culture, structure, and resources as facilitators or barriers to empowering nurses under their supervision to use EBP and drive change. A workplace culture that provides clear communication of EBP goals or regulatory changes, direct contact with CEOs, and clear expectations supported NMs in their promotion of EBP on their units. High-performing unit NMs described a structure that included nursing-specific committees, allowing nurses to drive change and EBP from within the unit. NMs from high-performing units were more likely to articulate internal resources, such as quality-monitoring departments, as critical to the implementation of EBP on their units. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of institutional contextual factors that can be used to support NMs in their efforts to drive EBP changes at the unit level.

  12. Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2010-01-01

    These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585

  13. Recovery from equipment failures in ATC: Determination of contextual factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, Branka; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Straeter, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) currently uses various approaches to determine and quantify human error. These approaches are increasingly being employed in various safety-critical domains, such as air traffic management and its ground component air traffic control. HRA research over the years has shown the important role of the context in which human errors take place. Recent techniques now put more emphasis on the definition of key contextual factors and their impact on the reliability of human performance. This paper presents a review of the current understanding of contextual factors in various industries. It uses this together with results from controller interviews to identify the contextual factors relevant to controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control. These factors should be used in conjunction with an appropriate method to analyse the performance of a controller during the process of recovery from failures

  14. Asian American women in science, engineering, and mathematics: Background contextual and college environment influences on self-efficacy and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Kristen E.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not

  15. Cognitive functions of intracellular mechanisms for contextual amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence for the hypothesis that input to the apical tufts of neocortical pyramidal cells plays a central role in cognition by amplifying their responses to feedforward input is reviewed. Apical tufts are electrically remote from the soma, and their inputs come from diverse sources including direct feedback from higher cortical regions, indirect feedback via the thalamus, and long-range lateral connections both within and between cortical regions. This suggests that input to tuft dendrites may amplify the cell's response to basal inputs that they receive via layer 4 and which have synapses closer to the soma. ERP data supporting this inference is noted. Intracellular studies of apical amplification (AA) and of disamplification by inhibitory interneurons targeted only at tufts are reviewed. Cognitive processes that have been related to them by computational, electrophysiological, and psychopathological studies are then outlined. These processes include: figure-ground segregation and Gestalt grouping; contextual disambiguation in perception and sentence comprehension; priming; winner-take-all competition; attention and working memory; setting the level of consciousness; cognitive control; and learning. It is argued that theories in cognitive neuroscience should not assume that all neurons function as integrate-and-fire point processors, but should use the capabilities of cells with distinct sites of integration for driving and modulatory inputs. Potentially 'unifying' theories that depend upon these capabilities are reviewed. It is concluded that evolution of the primitives of AA and disamplification in neocortex may have extended cognitive capabilities beyond those built from the long-established primitives of excitation, inhibition, and disinhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contextualization processes and the initial education of physics teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cândida de Macedo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Contextualization of school contents has been seen as a possibility of facilitating students’ learning, since it makes the educative process more significant to them. However, there is no agreement as to the meaning and the forms of applying such processes. Particularly in the area of Science teaching, the creation of thematic projects has been seen as a way of contextualizing school contents. It is noteworthy that the experience with the education of Physics teachers shows that the creation and execution of such projects brings many difficulties to teachers, the main obstacle being the understanding of what contextualized educative processes are. Having this in mind, a project has been elaborated with the objective of analyzing the comprehension Physics teachers that are going through teacher education courses have of the processes of contextualization. The data for this investigation has been obtained from students who attended a course of the Physics Teacher Education module at the Federal University of Itajubá. It is significant to mention that in this course students are asked to create three versions of a thematic project. In order to analyze the data, the procedure of Thematic Content and Category Analysis was adopted. This research shows that Physics teachers to be incorporate the discourses of the educative ideas throughout the course. However, there is a series of obstacles they face as they attempt to understand and carry out contextualized educative processes. Those difficulties are connected to their experience with this kind of educative process throughout the years they spend at school and in the teacher education course. We conclude thus that it is essential that contextualized educative activities be part of the reality of teacher education programs.

  17. Robust Contextual Bandit via the Capped-$\\ell_{2}$ norm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Feiyun; Zhu, Xinliang; Wang, Sheng; Yao, Jiawen; Huang, Junzhou

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the actor-critic contextual bandit for the mobile health (mHealth) intervention. The state-of-the-art decision-making methods in mHealth generally assume that the noise in the dynamic system follows the Gaussian distribution. Those methods use the least-square-based algorithm to estimate the expected reward, which is prone to the existence of outliers. To deal with the issue of outliers, we propose a novel robust actor-critic contextual bandit method for the mHealth inter...

  18. Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard; Hulgård, Lars; Jacobsen, Gurli

    Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspectsLinda Lundgaard Andersen & Lars Hulgård, Center for Social Enterprise, Roskilde UniversityGurli Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business SchoolCOST Action (EMPOWER‐SE)Working Group 1, Lisbon 28. february & 1. march 2018......Social enterprises in Denmark: Historical, contextual and conceptual aspectsLinda Lundgaard Andersen & Lars Hulgård, Center for Social Enterprise, Roskilde UniversityGurli Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business SchoolCOST Action (EMPOWER‐SE)Working Group 1, Lisbon 28. february & 1. march 2018...

  19. An empirical analysis on the adoption of electronic banking in the financial institutes using structural, behavioral and contextual factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ahmadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines contextual, structural and organizational factors, which can facilitate or slow down adoption of innovation in Electronic Banking in the financial Institutions. Three-dimensional model co-structure, co-behavioral, contextual (3C is used in this research. This schema is a logical model in the categories of models and many of concepts, events and organizational phenomena can be examined. Structural factors including type of the organization of institution, work distribution, preparing mobilization of resources and equipment and risk of decision-making sophistication influence on adoption of Electronic Banking. There are four contextual factors, which contribute in adoption of Electronic Banking including goals, strategies, culture and common norms. The five Behavioral Factors, which affect on electronic banking are connections and relations, skills and personal characters of employees, education, job satisfaction and banking work process. By studying the mentioned factors, we have realized that contextual factors plays important role on adoption of electronic Banking by employee and the behavioral and structural factors have minor impacts. The mentioned proposals are methods, which facilitate the adoption of electronic banking in the country.

  20. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  1. Sociodemographic and social contextual predictors of multiple health behavior change: data from the Healthy Directions-Small Business study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Amy E; Sapp, Amy L; Li, Yi; Marino, Miguel; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-03-01

    Multiple modifiable health behaviors contribute to the chronic diseases that are the leading causes of death in the USA. Disparities for meeting recommended health behavior guidelines exist across occupational classes and socioeconomic levels. The purpose of this paper was to investigate sociodemographic and social contextual predictors of multiple health behavior change in a worksite intervention. We analyzed data on four diet and exercise variables from an intervention trial with worksite-level randomization. Eight hundred forty-one employees had complete data from baseline (response rate = 84 %) and follow-up surveys (response rate = 77 %). Multilevel logistic regression estimated associations between least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-selected sociodemographic and social contextual predictor variables and the multiple health behavior change outcome (changing 2+ versus 0 behaviors). Gender, being married/partnered, and perceived discrimination were significantly associated with multiple health behavior change. Sociodemographic and social contextual factors predict multiple health behavior change and could inform the design and delivery of worksite interventions targeting multiple health behaviors.

  2. Regional contextual influences on short sleep duration: a 50 universities population-based multilevel study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.

  3. Social contextual factors contributing to child and adolescent labor: an ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between social contextual factors and child and adolescent labor. METHODS: Population-based cohort study carried out with 2,512 families living in 23 subareas of a large urban city in Brazil from 2000 to 2002. A random one-stage cluster sampling was used to select families. Data were obtained through individual household interviews using questionnaires. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was estimated for each district. New child and adolescent labor cases were those who had their first job over the two-year follow-up. The annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor was the response variable and predictors were contextual factors such as lack of social support, social deprivation, unstructured family, perceived violence, poor school quality, poor environment conditions, and poor public services. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: There were selected 943 families corresponding to 1,326 non-working children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years. Lack of social support, social deprivation, perceived violence were all positively and individually associated with the annual cumulative incidence of child and adolescent labor. In the multiple linear regression model, however, only lack of social support and perceived violence in the neighborhood were positively associated to child and adolescent labor. No effect was found for poor school quality, poor environment conditions, poor public services or unstructured family. CONCLUSIONS: Poverty reduction programs can reduce the contextual factors associated with child and adolescent labor. Violence reduction programs and strengthening social support at the community level may contribute to reduce CAL.

  4. What makes you tic? Translational approaches to study the role of stress and contextual triggers in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple, recurring motor and phonic tics. Rich empirical evidence shows that the severity of tics and associated manifestations is increased by several stressors and contextual triggers; however, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for symptom exacerbation in TS remain poorly understood. This conceptual gap partially reflects the high phenotypic variability in tics, as well as the existing difficulties in operationalizing and standardizing stress and its effects in a clinical setting. Animal models of TS may be highly informative tools to overcome some of these limitations; these experimental preparations have already provided critical insights on key aspects of TS pathophysiology, and may prove useful to identify the neurochemical alterations induced by different stressful contingencies. In particular, emerging knowledge on the role of contextual triggers in animal models of TS may inform the development of novel pharmacological interventions to reduce tic fluctuations in this disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What makes you tic? Translational approaches to study the role of stress and contextual triggers in Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple, recurring motor and phonic tics. Rich empirical evidence shows that the severity of tics and associated manifestations is increased by several stressors and contextual triggers; however, the neurobiological mechanisms responsible for symptom exacerbation in TS remain poorly understood. This conceptual gap partially reflects the high phenotypic variability in tics, as well as the existing difficulties in operationalizing and standardizing stress and its effects in a clinical setting. Animal models of TS may be highly informative tools to overcome some of these limitations; these experimental preparations have already provided critical insights on key aspects of TS pathophysiology, and may prove useful to identify the neurochemical alterations induced by different stressful contingencies. In particular, emerging knowledge on the role of contextual triggers in animal models of TS may inform the development of novel pharmacological interventions to reduce tic fluctuations in this disorder. PMID:27939782

  6. Contextual modulation of primary visual cortex by auditory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, L S; Paton, A T; Muckli, L

    2017-02-19

    Early visual cortex receives non-feedforward input from lateral and top-down connections (Muckli & Petro 2013 Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 23, 195-201. (doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020)), including long-range projections from auditory areas. Early visual cortex can code for high-level auditory information, with neural patterns representing natural sound stimulation (Vetter et al. 2014 Curr. Biol. 24, 1256-1262. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.04.020)). We discuss a number of questions arising from these findings. What is the adaptive function of bimodal representations in visual cortex? What type of information projects from auditory to visual cortex? What are the anatomical constraints of auditory information in V1, for example, periphery versus fovea, superficial versus deep cortical layers? Is there a putative neural mechanism we can infer from human neuroimaging data and recent theoretical accounts of cortex? We also present data showing we can read out high-level auditory information from the activation patterns of early visual cortex even when visual cortex receives simple visual stimulation, suggesting independent channels for visual and auditory signals in V1. We speculate which cellular mechanisms allow V1 to be contextually modulated by auditory input to facilitate perception, cognition and behaviour. Beyond cortical feedback that facilitates perception, we argue that there is also feedback serving counterfactual processing during imagery, dreaming and mind wandering, which is not relevant for immediate perception but for behaviour and cognition over a longer time frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. The Evolution of Contextual Information Processing in Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phivos Mylonas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After many decades of flourishing computer science it is now rather evident that in a world dominated by different kinds of digital information, both applications and people are forced to seek new, innovative structures and forms of data management and organization. Following this blunt observation, researchers in informatics have strived over the recent years to tackle the non-unique and rather evolving notion of context, which aids significantly the data disambiguation process. Motivated by this environment, this work attempts to summarize and organize in a researcher-friendly tabular manner important or pioneer related research works deriving from diverse computational intelligence domains: Initially, we discuss the influence of context with respect to traditional low-level multimedia content analysis and search, and retrieval tasks and then we advance to the fields of overall computational context-awareness and the so-called human-generated contextual elements. In an effort to provide meaningful information to fellow researchers, this brief survey focuses on the impact of context in modern and popular computing undertakings of our era. More specifically, we focus to the presentation of a short review of visual context modeling methods, followed by the depiction of context-awareness in modern computing. Works dealing with the interpretation of context by human-generated interactions are also discussed herein, as the particular domain gains an ever-increasing proportion of related research nowadays. We then conclude the paper by providing a short discussion on (i the motivation behind the included context type categorization into three main pillars; (ii the findings and conclusions of the survey for each context category; and (iii a couple of brief advices derived from the survey for both interested developers and fellow researchers.

  8. Specker's parable of the overprotective seer: A road to contextuality, nonlocality and complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Spekkens, Robert W.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    In 1960, the mathematician Ernst Specker described a simple example of nonclassical correlations, the counter-intuitive features of which he dramatized using a parable about a seer, who sets an impossible prediction task to his daughter's suitors. We revisit this example here, using it as an entree to three central concepts in quantum foundations: contextuality, Bell-nonlocality, and complementarity. Specifically, we show that Specker's parable offers a narrative thread that weaves together a large number of results, including the following: the impossibility of measurement-noncontextual and outcome-deterministic ontological models of quantum theory (the 1967 Kochen-Specker theorem), in particular, the recent state-specific pentagram proof of Klyachko; the impossibility of Bell-local models of quantum theory (Bell's theorem), especially the proofs by Mermin and Hardy and extensions thereof; the impossibility of a preparation-noncontextual ontological model of quantum theory; the existence of triples of positive operator valued measures (POVMs) that can be measured jointly pairwise but not triplewise. Along the way, several novel results are presented: a generalization of a theorem by Fine connecting the existence of a joint distribution over outcomes of counterfactual measurements to the existence of a measurement-noncontextual and outcome-deterministic ontological model; a generalization of Klyachko's proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem from pentagrams to a family of star polygons; a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in the style of Hardy's proof of Bell's theorem (i.e., one that makes use of the failure of the transitivity of implication for counterfactual statements); a categorization of contextual and Bell-nonlocal correlations in terms of frustrated networks; a derivation of a new inequality testing preparation noncontextuality; some novel results on the joint measurability of POVMs and the question of whether these can be modeled noncontextually. Finally

  9. Identifying Meaningful Behaviors for Social Competence: A Contextual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Emily D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Geske, Jenenne; Warnes, William A.

    An exploratory study was conducted which assessed behaviors that characterize social competence in the 2nd and 5th grades. A contextual approach was used to gather information from 2nd and 5th grade children and their parents and teachers regarding the behaviors they perceived to be important for getting along well with peers. Data were gathered…

  10. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  11. Students' Views on Contextual Vocabulary Teaching: A Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Bahadir Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The current study is a quantitative research that aims to throw light on the place of students' views on contextual vocabulary teaching in conformity with Constructivism (CVTC) in the field of foreign language teaching. Hence, the study investigates whether any significant correlation exists between the fourth year university students' attitudes…

  12. On the problem of contextuality in macroscopic magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kurzyński, Paweł; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Thompson, Jayne; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2013-01-01

    We show that sharp measurements of total magnetization cannot be used to reveal contextuality in macroscopic many-body systems of spins of arbitrary dimension. We decompose each such measurement into set of projectors corresponding to well-defined value of total magnetization. We then show that such sets of projectors are too restricted to construct Kochen–Specker sets.

  13. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  14. Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wich, S.A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han de; Schaik, Carel P. van

    2003-01-01

    Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud

  15. Using Embedded Visual Coding to Support Contextualization of Historical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the think-aloud protocols of 48 randomly assigned undergraduate students to understand what effect embedding a visual coding system, based on reliable visual cues for establishing historical time period, would have on novice history students' ability to contextualize historic documents. Results indicate that using…

  16. Modeling Contextual Determinants of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    As a result, it was argued to go beyond the KABP determinant studies to focus on contextual ... guided most of the determinant studies which formed a basis .... risk factor, i.e. gender power relations or ..... communication with Anna Meyer-Weitz.

  17. Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about "Light Propagation" and "Visibility of Objects" using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233…

  18. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBee, E.; Ratcliffe, T.; Picho, K.; Artino, A.R.; Schuwirth, L.; Kelly, W.; Masel, J.; Vleuten, C. van der; Durning, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe

  19. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to

  20. Contextual Clues Vocabulary Strategies Choice among Business Management Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Nurshafezan; Muhammad, Ahmad Mazli; Kasim, Aini Mohd

    2018-01-01

    New trends in vocabulary learning focus on strategic vocabulary learning to create more active and independent language learners. Utilising suitable contextual clues strategies is seen as vital in enabling and equipping language learners with the skill to guess word meaning accurately, moving away from dependency on a dictionary to improve their…

  1. Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, transformation and society: a contextual analysis of South Africa's SANCOR-managed marine and coastal research programmes. D Scott. Abstract. The paper aims to describe and analyse three research programmes over the period 1995–2011 managed by the South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic ...

  2. Neuroscientific evidence for contextual effects in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa

    2014-02-01

    Both internal and external states can cause inconsistencies in decision behavior. I present examples from behavioral decision-making literature and review neuroscientific knowledge on two contextual influences: framing effects and social conformity. The brain mechanisms underlying these behavioral adjustments comply with the dual-process account and simple learning mechanisms, and are weak indicators for unintentionality in decision-making processes.

  3. The role of peripheral vision in implicit contextual cuing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual cuing refers to the ability to learn the association between contextual information of our environment and a specific target, which can be used to guide attention during visual search. It was recently suggested that the storage of a snapshot image of the local context of a target underlies implicit contextual cuing. To make such a snapshot, it is necessary to use peripheral vision. In order to test whether peripheral vision can underlie implicit contextual cuing, we used a covert visual search task, in which participants were required to indicate the orientation of a target stimulus while foveating a fixation cross. The response times were shorter when the configuration of the stimuli was repeated than when the configuration was new. Importantly, this effect was still found after 10 days, indicating that peripherally perceived spatial context information can be stored in memory for long periods of time. These results indicate that peripheral vision can be used to make a snapshot of the local context of a target.

  4. Contextual Compression of Large-Scale Wind Turbine Array Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Potter, Kristin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clyne, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2017-12-04

    Data sizes are becoming a critical issue particularly for HPC applications. We have developed a user-driven lossy wavelet-based storage model to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large-scale wind turbine array simulations. The model stores data as heterogeneous blocks of wavelet coefficients, providing high-fidelity access to user-defined data regions believed the most salient, while providing lower-fidelity access to less salient regions on a block-by-block basis. In practice, by retaining the wavelet coefficients as a function of feature saliency, we have seen data reductions in excess of 94 percent, while retaining lossless information in the turbine-wake regions most critical to analysis and providing enough (low-fidelity) contextual information in the upper atmosphere to track incoming coherent turbulent structures. Our contextual wavelet compression approach has allowed us to deliver interative visual analysis while providing the user control over where data loss, and thus reduction in accuracy, in the analysis occurs. We argue this reduced but contextualized representation is a valid approach and encourages contextual data management.

  5. Negotiating Academic Teacher Identity Shifts during Higher Education Contextual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…

  6. Enhancing Argumentative Writing Skill through Contextual Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Aceng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the influence of contextual learning model and critical thinking ability toward argumentative writing skill on university students. The population of the research was 147 university students, and 52 university students were used as sample with multi stage sampling. The results of the research indicate that; group of…

  7. Travelling Policies and Contextual Considerations: On Threshold Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Adam; Kondakci, Yasar; Emil, Serap

    2018-01-01

    Educational policy borrowing has become rather common in our globalised world. However, the literature lacks contextual criteria that may be employed by researchers and policy makers to assess the correspondence of a particular policy to the local context of a borrowing system. Based on a secondary analysis of documents and research reports, this…

  8. Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., & Specht, M. (2009). Awareness for Contextualized Digital Contents in Ubiquitous Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium of the Fourth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France. [unpublished

  9. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  10. Contextualizing the Impacts of Homelessness on Academic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Goff, Peter; Miller, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Students experiencing homelessness are also often living in poverty and may share many of the same characteristics and experiences with children in low-income housing. Scholars aim to understand the impacts of homelessness above and beyond the effects of poverty, but studies are mixed. Contextual factors--such as the localized…

  11. Disentangling task and contextual performance : a multitrait-multimethod approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Xanthopoulou, D.; Tsaousis, I.; Bakker, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    This study among 244 employees and their colleagues working in various sectors investigated the dimensionality of self-ratings and peer-ratings of task and contextual performance, using the scales of Goodman and Svyantek (1999). By applying the multitrait-multimethod approach, we examined the degree

  12. Contextualization of topics: browsing through the universe of bibliographic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Rob; Wang, Shenghui; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes how semantic indexing can help to generate a contextual overview of topics and visually compare clusters of articles. The method was originally developed for an innovative information exploration tool, called Ariadne, which operates on bibliographic databases with tens of

  13. Contextual segment-based classification of airborne laser scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, George; Coenen, Maximilian; Rottensteiner, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Classification of point clouds is needed as a first step in the extraction of various types of geo-information from point clouds. We present a new approach to contextual classification of segmented airborne laser scanning data. Potential advantages of segment-based classification are easily offset

  14. Contextual factors and social consequences of incident disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2008-01-01

    practice modify the employment effect of disease. We have studied risk of labour market exclusion following incident hospitalization for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and whether this risk may be modified by contextual factors on the municipal level. Methods: A cohort design on a 10% random sample...

  15. Contextualizing user centered design with agile methods in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Y.; Kifle, Mesfin

    2017-01-01

    in contextualization of UCD practices: personas mediated between rural and urban users and developers. Personas helped also customer representatives as well as product owners to understand users and their requirements and allowed to test releases against persona requirements before deployment. Personas were updated...

  16. spirituality and contextuality 1. the historiography of spirituality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contextuality or historicity of spirituality is not self-evident. Not until modern times, in Europe, did it become more or less normal to look at spirituality from a historical perspective. It is thus not strange that the historiography of spirituality arose from the nineteenth century. In that time, the historical perspective was ...

  17. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC.We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account.The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of

  18. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Cunningham, Colleen M; Hanley, Gillian E

    2010-12-29

    Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC), Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC. We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account. The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of prescription drugs. Some

  19. Predicting Performance with Contextualized Inventories, No Frame-of-reference Effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, D.J.; Born, M.P.; de Vries, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed that contextualized personality inventories have incremental predictive validity over generic personality inventories when predicting job performance. This study aimed to investigate the differences between two types of contextualization of items: Adding an 'at work'

  20. Contextual learning theory: Concrete form and a software prototype to improve early education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    In 'contextual learning theory' three types of contextual conditions (differentiation of learning procedures and materials, integrated ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress) are related to four aspects of the learning process (diagnostic, instructional, managerial, and

  1. Help me if I can't: Social interaction effects in adult contextual word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-11-01

    A major challenge in second language acquisition is to build up new vocabulary. How is it possible to identify the meaning of a new word among several possible referents? Adult learners typically use contextual information, which reduces the number of possible referents a new word can have. Alternatively, a social partner may facilitate word learning by directing the learner's attention toward the correct new word meaning. While much is known about the role of this form of 'joint attention' in first language acquisition, little is known about its efficacy in second language acquisition. Consequently, we introduce and validate a novel visual word learning game to evaluate how joint attention affects the contextual learning of new words in a second language. Adult learners either acquired new words in a constant or variable sentence context by playing the game with a knowledgeable partner, or by playing the game alone on a computer. Results clearly show that participants who learned new words in social interaction (i) are faster in identifying a correct new word referent in variable sentence contexts, and (ii) temporally coordinate their behavior with a social partner. Testing the learned words in a post-learning recall or recognition task showed that participants, who learned interactively, better recognized words originally learned in a variable context. While this result may suggest that interactive learning facilitates the allocation of attention to a target referent, the differences in the performance during recognition and recall call for further studies investigating the effect of social interaction on learning performance. In summary, we provide first evidence on the role joint attention in second language learning. Furthermore, the new interactive learning game offers itself to further testing in complex neuroimaging research, where the lack of appropriate experimental set-ups has so far limited the investigation of the neural basis of adult word learning in

  2. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir G; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Following saline or nicotine (at 0.0275, 0.045, 0.09 and 0.18 mg/kg) administration, C57BL/6J mice were trained in a contextual discrimination paradigm, in which the subjects received presentations of conditioned stimuli (CS) that co-terminated with a foot-shock in one context (context A (CXA)) and only CS presentations without foot-shock in a different context (context B (CXB)). Therefore, CXA was designated as the 'dangerous context', whereas CXB was designated as the 'safe context'. Our results suggested that saline-treated animals showed a strong discrimination between dangerous and safe contexts, while acute nicotine dose-dependently impaired contextual safety discrimination (Experiment 1). Furthermore, our results demonstrate that nicotine-induced impairment of contextual safety discrimination learning was not a result of increased generalized freezing (Experiment 2) or contingent on the common CS presentations in both contexts (Experiment 3). Finally, our results show that increasing the temporal gap between CXA and CXB during training abolished the impairing effects of nicotine (Experiment 4). The findings of this study may help link nicotine exposure to the safety learning deficits seen in anxiety disorder and PTSD patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. How does an invasive social wasp deal with changing contextual cues while foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, M; D'Adamo, P

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we explore how an invasive social wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), deals with contextual changes while searching for a food source that is no longer available. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different degrees of context modification on wasp behavior. Learning sessions consisted of a variable number of feeding trials during which an individual wasp fed from a landmark array made up of a feeder surrounded by four cylinders of the same color. The food and cylinders were subsequently removed from the training site, and this learned landmark array was modified in such a way that information relating to color and/or location of the resulting feeding arrays varied from that previously learned. The results indicate that the color most recently associated with food is prioritized over a formerly learned color, and this pattern is also maintained when wasps have learned the alternative color during a higher number of feeding experiences. This highlights the high plasticity with which V. germanica responds to unpredictable contextual changes while foraging.

  5. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng

    2018-01-28

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  6. Multiperson visual focus of attention from head pose and meeting contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Sileye O; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel contextual model for the recognition of people's visual focus of attention (VFOA) in meetings from audio-visual perceptual cues. More specifically, instead of independently recognizing the VFOA of each meeting participant from his own head pose, we propose to jointly recognize the participants' visual attention in order to introduce context-dependent interaction models that relate to group activity and the social dynamics of communication. Meeting contextual information is represented by the location of people, conversational events identifying floor holding patterns, and a presentation activity variable. By modeling the interactions between the different contexts and their combined and sometimes contradictory impact on the gazing behavior, our model allows us to handle VFOA recognition in difficult task-based meetings involving artifacts, presentations, and moving people. We validated our model through rigorous evaluation on a publicly available and challenging data set of 12 real meetings (5 hours of data). The results demonstrated that the integration of the presentation and conversation dynamical context using our model can lead to significant performance improvements.

  7. Contextualizing public stigma: Endorsed mental health treatment stigma on college and university campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Ramirez, Daniel; Hernandez, Erik L

    2018-01-01

    Scholars suggest that public mental health stigma operates at a meso-level and is associated with severity of symptoms, disclosure, self-esteem, and treatment-seeking behavior. However, the operationalization of public stigma nearly always comes from an individual-level generalization of what others believe. Using data from over 60,000 students on 75 U.S. college and university campuses between 2009 and 2015, we contextualize public stigma by creating a school-level measure of students' individual-level endorsed mental health treatment stigma. We present multilevel logistic regression models for 21 different dependent variables. We find that even after controlling for individual-level stigma scores, school-level stigma is negatively associated with self-reports of suicidal ideation and self-injury, although not associated with screens for depression or anxiety. Moreover, school-level stigma is negatively associated with medication use, counseling and therapy visits, and to a lesser degree, informal support. We suggest that future research should continue to examine the contextual environment of public stigma, while policymakers may be able to implement changes to significantly reduce stigma at this level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contextual Multi-Scale Region Convolutional 3D Network for Activity Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Xu, Huijuan; Saenko, Kate; Ghanem, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Activity detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. Detecting activities of different temporal scales is particularly challenging. In this paper, we propose the contextual multi-scale region convolutional 3D network (CMS-RC3D) for activity detection. To deal with the inherent temporal scale variability of activity instances, the temporal feature pyramid is used to represent activities of different temporal scales. On each level of the temporal feature pyramid, an activity proposal detector and an activity classifier are learned to detect activities of specific temporal scales. Temporal contextual information is fused into activity classifiers for better recognition. More importantly, the entire model at all levels can be trained end-to-end. Our CMS-RC3D detector can deal with activities at all temporal scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. We test our detector on two public activity detection benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Extensive experiments show that the proposed CMS-RC3D detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on THUMOS14 by a substantial margin and achieves comparable results on ActivityNet despite using a shallow feature extractor.

  9. Residential rurality and oral health disparities: influences of contextual and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SangNam; Burdine, James N; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Charles D

    2011-02-01

    The purposes of the study were (a) to identify disparities between urban and rural adults in oral health and (b) to examine contextual (i.e., external environment and access to dental care) and individual (i.e., predisposing, enabling, and lifestyle behavioral) factors associated with oral health problems in a community population. Study data were derived from a two-stage, telephone-mailed survey conducted in 2006. The subjects were 2,591 adults aged 18 years and older. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics for categorical variables were applied to explore conditional independence between both health access and individual factors and oral health problems after controlling for the urban or rural residence. Logistic regression was used to investigate the simultaneous associations of contextual and individual factors in both rural and urban areas. Approximately one quarter (24.1%) of the study population reported oral health problems. Participants residing in rural areas reported more oral health disparities. Oral health problems were significantly associated with delaying dental care. These problems also were more common among those who were less educated, were African American, skipped breakfast every day, and currently smoked. The study findings suggest that oral health disparities persist for people in rural areas, and improving oral health status is strongly related to better access to oral health care and improved lifestyles in both rural and urban areas.

  10. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA of children with physical disabilities (PD in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class and at home (before dinner during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9–56.0% (p < 0.01 of the variance predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA after controlling for demographic variables. Prompts to be active were positively associated with MVPA at school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  11. Role of contextual factors in the rehabilitation of adolescent survivors of traumatic brain injury: emerging concepts identified through modified narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Threats, Travis

    2015-07-01

    Recently research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) intervention has identified the benefits of contextualized, embedded, functionally based approaches to maximize treatment outcomes. An essential component of contextualized intervention is the direct and purposeful consideration of the broader context, in which the person with TBI functions. However, systematic consideration of contextual factors remains limited both in research and clinical practice. The purposes of this modified narrative review were (1) to provide a succinct review of the available literature regarding the contextual factors that are specific to adolescent survivors of TBI, one of highest incidence groups for brain injury; (2) to connect these contextual factors to the direct long-term management of TBI and to identify their potential impact on outcome; and (3) to highlight areas that are open to research and clinical advances that could enhance positive outcomes for adolescent survivors of TBI. The framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; 2007) was used as a foundation for this review. A systematic literature search was conducted using databases and hand searches. A total of 102 articles were originally identified. Twenty-five original research articles, eight review papers and four expert opinion papers met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the final review. The body of research specifically focused on contextual factors is an emerging area. Early findings indicate that a focus on the direct modification of contextual factors is promising for the facilitation of positive outcomes long into the chronic phase of management for adolescences who have survived a TBI. The contextual factors included in this review were the overall ability of the school to support a student post-TBI, family psychosocial risk (sibling/sibling relationships/stress/burden/support), coping

  12. Contextual cueing based on the semantic-category membership of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    GOUJON, A

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. In the proposed study, contextual cueing task with lexical displays was used. The semantic-category membership of the contextual words predicted the location of the t...

  13. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  14. Changing ‘Multi-Problem Families’ – Developing a Multi-Contextual Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years the Marlborough Family Service in London has pioneered multi-family work with marginalized families presenting simultaneously with abuse and neglect, family violence, substance misuse, educational failure and mental illness. The approach is based on a systemic multi-contextual mode and this chapter describes the evolving work, including the establishment of the first permanent multiple family day setting, specifically designed for and solely dedicated to the work with seemingly ‘hopeless’ families. The ingredients of ‘therapeutic assessments’ of parents and families are outlined and the importance of initial network meetings with professionals and family members is emphasized.

  15. Teaching science in light of world view: The effect of contextualized instruction on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossard, Paula Rae

    Authors of recent science reform documents promote the goal of scientific literacy for all Americans (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989, 1993). Some students, however, feel apprehensive about learning science due to perceptions that science is antagonistic to their world views (Alters, 2005; Esbenshade, 1993). This study investigated the effect of an introductory science course taught in the context of a Christian, theistic world view on the scientific compatibility of religious college students' world views. For the purposes of this study, students' understanding of the nature of science, affective attitudes toward science, and beliefs regarding creation were used as indicators of the scientific compatibility of their world views. One hundred and seventy-one students enrolled in a core curriculum, introductory science course at a Christian university participated in this study by completing pre-instruction and post-instruction survey packets that included demographic information, the Student Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry questionnaire (Liang et al., 2006), the Affective Attitude toward Science Scale (Francis & Greer, 1999), and the Origins Survey (Tenneson & Badger, personal communication, June, 2008). Two-tailed paired samples t tests were used to test for significant mean differences in the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if relationships were present among the indicator variables at a .05 level before and after instruction. Students' self-identified positions regarding creation were analyzed using a chi-square contingency table. Results indicated that there were statistically significant changes in all indicator variables after instruction of the contextualized course. The direction of these changes and shifts in students' self-identified positions regarding creation supported the conclusion that students developed a more

  16. The Coming Challenge: Are Community Colleges Ready for the New Wave of Contextual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Dan; Souders, John C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Defines contextual learning, or presenting new information to students in familiar contexts. Argues that community colleges must be ready for an anticipated increase in contextual learners due to its use in tech prep programs. Describes elements of contextual learning, its application in the classroom, and ways that colleges can prepare for…

  17. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  18. Impact of Contextuality on Mobile Learning Acceptance: An Empirical Study Based on a Language Learning App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan; Constantine, Georges Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on contextualized features for mobile language learning apps. The scope of this paper is to explore students' perceptions of contextualized mobile language learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extended Technology Acceptance Model was developed to analyze the effect of contextual app features on students'…

  19. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  20. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  1. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  2. The effects of contextual learning instruction on science achievement of male and female tenth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samantha Jones

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest

  3. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  4. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W.; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F.; de Kort, Wim L.A.M.; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. Methods The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Results Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Discussion Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood

  5. Individual, contextual and network characteristics of blood donors and non-donors: a systematic review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Tjeerd W; Bekkers, René; Klinkenberg, Elisabeth F; De Kort, Wim L A M; Merz, Eva-Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ageing population and recent migration flows may negatively affect the blood supply in the long term, increasing the importance of targeted recruitment and retention strategies to address donors. This review sought to identify individual, network and contextual characteristics related to blood donor status and behaviour, to systematically discuss differences between study results, and to identify possible factors to target in recruitment and retention efforts. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with a predefined PROSPERO protocol (CRD42016039591). After quality assessments by multiple independent raters, a final set of 66 peer-reviewed papers, published between October 2009 and January 2017, were included for review. Individual and contextual characteristics of blood donor status and behaviour were categorised into five main lines of research: donor demographics, motivations and barriers, adverse reactions and deferral, contextual factors, and blood centre factors. Results on donor demographics, motivations and barriers, and contextual factors were inconclusive, differing between studies, countries, and sample characteristics. Adverse reactions and deferral were negatively related to blood donor behaviour. Blood centre factors play an important role in donor management, e.g., providing information, reminders, and (non-)monetary rewards. No studies were found on network characteristics of (non-)donors. Although individual and contextual characteristics strongly relate to blood donor status and behaviour, mechanisms underlying these relations have not been studied sufficiently. We want to stress the importance of longitudinal studies in donor behaviour, exploring the role of life events and network characteristics within blood donor careers. Increased understanding of donor behaviour will assist policy makers of blood collection agencies, with the ultimate goal of safeguarding a sufficient and matching blood supply.

  6. Evaluating health inequity interventions: applying a contextual (external) validity framework to programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kaye; Müller-Clemm, Werner; Ysselstein, Margaretha; Sachs, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Including context in the measurement and evaluation of health in equity interventions is critical to understanding how events that occur in an intervention's environment might contribute to or impede its success. This study adapted and piloted a contextual validity assessment framework on a selection of health inequity-related programs funded by the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF) between 1998 and 2006. The two overarching objectives of this study were (1) to determine the relative amount and quality of attention given to conceptualizing, measuring and validating context within CHSRF funded research final reports related to health-inequity; and (2) to contribute evaluative evidence towards the incorporation of context into the assessment and measurement of health inequity interventions. The study found that of the 42/146 CHSRF programs and projects, judged to be related to health inequity 20 adequately reported on the conceptualization, measurement and validation of context. Amongst these health-inequity related project reports, greatest emphasis was placed on describing the socio-political and economical context over actually measuring and validating contextual evidence. Applying a contextual validity assessment framework was useful for distinguishing between the descriptive (conceptual) versus empirical (measurement and validation) inclusion of documented contextual evidence. Although contextual validity measurement frameworks needs further development, this study contributes insight into identifying funded research related to health inequities and preliminary criteria for assessing interventions targeted at specific populations and jurisdictions. This study also feeds a larger critical dialogue (albeit beyond the scope of this study) regarding the relevance and utility of using evaluative techniques for understanding how specific external conditions support or impede the successful implementation of health inequity interventions. Copyright

  7. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  8. Project DEGRUPE: Goals and Historiographical Contextualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COELHO, Maria Helena da Cruz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the main axes of the project DEGRUPE whose principal objective is to study the role of the clergy in the construction of the Iberian monarchies and mobility circuits designed by these protagonists. To fulfill this objective, the interuniversity project team of DEGRUPE opted for a comparative perspective between different kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The second part of this paper consists of a brief analysis of the underlying historiographical framework of the project including mainly research on relationship between clergy and royalty in the middle ages.

  9. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  10. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  11. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics and Contextual Variables on Infant-Mother Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Bogat, G. Anne; von Eye, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effects of maternal characteristics, social support, and risk factors on infant-mother attachment in a heterogeneous sample. Two hundred and six women between the ages of 18 and 40 were interviewed during their last trimester of pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal…

  12. Antecedents of Career Exploration among Hong Kong Chinese University Students: Testing Contextual and Developmental Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Raysen; Arnold, John

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the antecedents of career exploration. We apply the perspectives of Flum and Blustein [Flum, H., & Blustein, D. L. (2000). Reinvigorating the study of vocational exploration: A framework for research. "Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56", 380-404] for the first time in Hong Kong, and we also test…

  13. Exploring Relationships between Presage Variables of Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers Related to Teaching Contextualized Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationships between mathematics ability, personal mathematics efficacy, mathematics teaching efficacy, personal teaching efficacy, and background characteristics of preservice agricultural education teachers. Data were collected for two years at the University of Florida. Fourteen…

  14. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  15. The Dynamic Multiprocess Framework: Evidence from Prospective Memory with Contextual Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember to execute delayed intentions is referred to as prospective memory. Previous theoretical and empirical work has focused on isolating whether a particular prospective memory task is supported either by effortful monitoring processes or by cue-driven spontaneous processes. In the present work, we advance the Dynamic Multiprocess Framework, which contends that both monitoring and spontaneous retrieval may be utilized dynamically to support prospective remembering. To capture the dynamic interplay between monitoring and spontaneous retrieval we had participants perform many ongoing tasks and told them that their prospective memory cue may occur in any context. Following either a 20-min or a 12-hr retention interval, the prospective memory cues were presented infrequently across three separate ongoing tasks. The monitoring patterns (measured as ongoing task cost relative to a between-subjects control condition) were consistent and robust across the three contexts. There was no evidence for monitoring prior to the initial prospective memory cue; however, individuals who successfully spontaneously retrieved the prospective memory intention, thereby realizing that prospective memory cues could be expected within that context, subsequently monitored. These data support the Dynamic Multiprocess Framework, which contends that individuals will engage monitoring when prospective memory cues are expected, disengage monitoring when cues are not expected, and that when monitoring is disengaged, a probabilistic spontaneous retrieval mechanism can support prospective remembering. PMID:23916951

  16. The Dynamic Multiprocess Framework: Evidence from Prospective Memory with Contextual Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill Talley

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember to execute delayed intentions is referred to as prospective memory. Previous theoretical and empirical work has focused on isolating whether a particular prospective memory task is supported either by effortful monitoring processes or by cue-driven spontaneous processes. In the present work, we advance the Dynamic Multiprocess Framework, which contends that both monitoring and spontaneous retrieval may be utilized dynamically to support prospective remembering. To capt...

  17. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  18. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant–Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M.; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N.; Xu, Joy H.

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF–THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation. PMID:26779051

  19. Modeling contextual influences on parents with intellectual disability and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Catherine; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Matthews, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Many parents with intellectual disability experience living conditions associated with risk for children and parents. This study used structural equation modeling to test a theoretical model of the relationships among parent, child, family, and contextual variables in 120 Australian families where a parent had an intellectual disability. Findings revealed that parenting practices had a direct effect on children's well being, that social support was associated with children's well being through the mediator of parenting practices, and that access to social support had a direct influence on parenting practices. Implications of the findings for research, intervention, and policy are explored, with the goal of promoting optimal well being for children who are raised by parents with intellectual disability.

  20. Stochastic Relational Presheaves and Dynamic Logic for Contextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kishida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presheaf models provide a formulation of labelled transition systems that is useful for, among other things, modelling concurrent computation. This paper aims to extend such models further to represent stochastic dynamics such as shown in quantum systems. After reviewing what presheaf models represent and what certain operations on them mean in terms of notions such as internal and external choices, composition of systems, and so on, I will show how to extend those models and ideas by combining them with ideas from other category-theoretic approaches to relational models and to stochastic processes. It turns out that my extension yields a transitional formulation of sheaf-theoretic structures that Abramsky and Brandenburger proposed to characterize non-locality and contextuality. An alternative characterization of contextuality will then be given in terms of a dynamic modal logic of the models I put forward.

  1. Influence of affective meaning on memory for contextual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2004-06-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors investigated the influence of the affective meaning of words on memory for 2 kinds of contextual features that differ in the amount of effortful processes they require to be encoded in memory (i.e., color and spatial location). The main results showed that memory for color, in which words were typed, was better for emotional than for neutral words, but only when color information was learned incidentally. In contrast, spatial location of the words was better remembered for emotional than for neutral words whatever the encoding conditions (intentional vs. incidental). It is suggested that the influence of affective meaning on context memory may involve an automatic attraction of attention to contextual features associated with emotional words. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  2. Contextual cueing effects despite spatially cued target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Andrea; Schubö, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Reaction times (RT) to targets are faster in repeated displays relative to novel ones when the spatial arrangement of the distracting items predicts the target location (contextual cueing). It is assumed that visual-spatial attention is guided more efficiently to the target resulting in reduced RTs. In the present experiment, contextual cueing even occurred when the target location was previously peripherally cued. Electrophysiologically, repeated displays elicited an enhanced N2pc component in both conditions and resulted in an earlier onset of the stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (s-LRP) in the cued condition and in an enhanced P3 in the uncued condition relative to novel displays. These results indicate that attentional guidance is less important than previously assumed but that other cognitive processes, such as attentional selection (N2pc) and response-related processes (s-LRP, P3) are facilitated by context familiarity.

  3. [Effect of object consistency in a spatial contextual cueing paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that attention can be quickly guided to a target location in a visual search task when the spatial configurations of search items and/or the object identities were repeated in the previous trials. This phenomenon is termed contextual cueing. Recently, it was reported that spatial configuration learning and object identity learning occurred independently, when novel contours were used as search items. The present study examined whether this learning occurred independently even when the search items were meaningful. The results showed that the contextual cueing effect was observed even if the relationships between the spatial locations and object identities were jumbled (Experiment 1). However, it disappeared when the search items were changed into geometric patterns (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the spatial configuration can be learned independent of the object identities; however, the use of the learned configuration is restricted by the learning situations.

  4. Introducing a New Contextualization for the Work of Henrique Oswald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Soares Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available his article proposes a new contextualization for the work of Henrique Oswald (1852-1931. It presents the reasons why common assumptions regarding the composer’s image are to be judged inadequate; studies the music environment of Florence in the late 19th Century; contextualizes the event of the New Italian Instrumental Renaissance; and, finally, investigates Oswald's relation to this cultural environment. As a conclusion, it is found that his work is to be understood in an European perspective. Like most of his Italian contemporaries, Oswald is primarily inclined to use the German model of excellence while writing instrumental works, whereas the increasing French influence becomes preponderant only after the turn of the 20th century.

  5. Contextualization in hypermedia news report: narrative and immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Canavilhas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mobile journalism and, particularly, hypermedia stories get new possibilities for making narratives, boosted by the mobility itself, and also by the use of touchable screens, accelerometer, GPS receiver and permanent connection to the internet. Due to these potentials, tablets, smartphones and wearables reconfigure processes and journalistic narratives for the web. From this premise, the article focuses the research in hypermedia storytelling for mobile devices, aiming to observe how the hypertext resources are used in the contextualization of journalistic narratives published at mobile devices (tablets and smartphones. To achieve this aim, we realized a systematic analysis from newspaper editions of Globo A Mais journal for two months. This was done by selecting a case exemplifying the way the hypertext features can serve the contextualization.

  6. Role of the hippocampus in contextual modulation of fear extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingzhi Kong; Xihong Wu; Liang Li

    2008-01-01

    Fear extinction is an important form of emotional learning, and affects neural plasticity. Cue fear extinction is a classical form of inhibitory learning that can be used as an exposure-based treatment for phobia, because the long-term extinction memory produced during cue fear extinction can limit the over-expression of fear. The expression of this inhibitory memory partly depends on the context in which the extinction learning occurs. Studies such as transient inhibition, electrophysiology and brain imaging have proved that the hippocampus - an important structure in the limbic system - facilitates memory retrieval by contextual cues.Mediation of the hippocampus-medial prefrontal lobe circuit may be the neurobiological basis of this process.This article has reviewed the role of the hippocampus in the learning and retrieval of fear extinction.Contextual modulation of fear extinction may rely on a neural network consisting of the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala.

  7. Optimal Classical Simulation of State-Independent Quantum Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán; Gu, Mile; Gühne, Otfried; Xu, Zhen-Peng

    2018-03-01

    Simulating quantum contextuality with classical systems requires memory. A fundamental yet open question is what is the minimum memory needed and, therefore, the precise sense in which quantum systems outperform classical ones. Here, we make rigorous the notion of classically simulating quantum state-independent contextuality (QSIC) in the case of a single quantum system submitted to an infinite sequence of measurements randomly chosen from a finite QSIC set. We obtain the minimum memory needed to simulate arbitrary QSIC sets via classical systems under the assumption that the simulation should not contain any oracular information. In particular, we show that, while classically simulating two qubits tested with the Peres-Mermin set requires log224 ≈4.585 bits, simulating a single qutrit tested with the Yu-Oh set requires, at least, 5.740 bits.

  8. Contextual analysis of coping: implications for immigrants' mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong

    2002-01-01

    Providing high quality and effective health care services that are culturally acceptable and appropriate to clients has become an important issue for many health care providers. This paper explores problems associated with the traditional model that views coping according to hierarchical style and traits. While some scholars who have adopted this theoretical framework have made many contributions to the development of stress and coping theories, limitations are present. Using Vietnamese immigrants' experiences as examples, I argue that coping theories should emphasize the contextual nature of stress and coping, and that coping should be viewed as a dynamic process that varies under different social, cultural, political, economic, and historical conditions. Drawing from the work of others on coping, culture, imperialism, and colonialism, I explore the way that certain cultural conceptualizations determine how individuals cope. An understanding of the contextual nature of coping and of a Vietnamese immigrant's experience of coping with stressors and illness has implications for mental health care practice and research.

  9. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  10. Contextual influences on pain communication in couples with and without a partner with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; MacNab, Ying C

    2017-10-01

    This is an experimental study of pain communication in couples. Despite evidence that chronic pain in one partner impacts both members of the dyad, dyadic influences on pain communication have not been sufficiently examined and are typically studied based on retrospective reports. Our goal was to directly study contextual influences (ie, presence of chronic pain, gender, relationship quality, and pain catastrophizing) on self-reported and nonverbal (ie, facial expressions) pain responses. Couples with (n = 66) and without (n = 65) an individual with chronic pain (ICP) completed relationship and pain catastrophizing questionnaires. Subsequently, one partner underwent a pain task (pain target, PT), while the other partner observed (pain observer, PO). In couples with an ICP, the ICP was assigned to be the PT. Pain intensity and PO perceived pain intensity ratings were recorded at multiple intervals. Facial expressions were video recorded throughout the pain task. Pain-related facial expression was quantified using the Facial Action Coding System. The most consistent predictor of either partner's pain-related facial expression was the pain-related facial expression of the other partner. Pain targets provided higher pain ratings than POs and female PTs reported and showed more pain, regardless of chronic pain status. Gender and the interaction between gender and relationship satisfaction were predictors of pain-related facial expression among PTs, but not POs. None of the examined variables predicted self-reported pain. Results suggest that contextual variables influence pain communication in couples, with distinct influences for PTs and POs. Moreover, self-report and nonverbal responses are not displayed in a parallel manner.

  11. Contextual Challenges to Safe Surgery in a Resource-limited Setting: A Multicenter, Multiprofessional Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Lin, Yihan; Ntakiyiruta, Georges; Mutabazi, Zeta A; Davis, William Austin; Morris, Megan A; Smink, Douglas S; Riviello, Robert; Yule, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Safe surgery should be available to all patients, no matter the setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual-specific challenges to safe surgical care encountered by surgeons and surgical teams in many in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to understand the ways in which surgical teams overcome them. Optimal surgical performance is highly complex and requires providers to integrate and communicate information regarding the patient, task, team, and environment to coordinate team-based care that is timely, effective, and safe. Resource limitations common to many LMICs present unique challenges to surgeons operating in these environments, but have never been formally described. Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed 34 experienced providers (surgeons, anesthetists, and nurses) at the 4 tertiary referral centers in Rwanda, to understand the challenges to safe surgical care and strategies to overcome them. Interview transcripts were coded line-by-line and iteratively analyzed for emerging themes until thematic saturation was reached. Rwandan-described challenges related to 4 domains: physical resources, human resources, overall systems support, and communication/language. The majority of these challenges arose from significant variability in either the quantity or quality of these domains. Surgical providers exhibited examples of resilient strategies to anticipate, monitor, respond to, and learn from these challenges. Resource variability rather than lack of resources underlies many contextual challenges to safe surgical care in a LMIC setting. Understanding these challenges and resilient strategies to overcome them is critical for both LMIC surgical providers and surgeons from HICs working in similar settings.

  12. Contextual influences affecting patterns of overweight and obesity among university students: a 50 universities population-based study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Yu, Lingwei; Barnett, Ross; Jiang, Shuhan; Peng, Sihui; Fan, Yafeng; Li, Lu

    2017-05-08

    Many studies have examined childhood and adolescent obesity, but few have examined young adults and the effect of their home and current living environments on prevalence rates. The present study explores contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among university students in China and, in particular, focuses on how the SES-obesity relationship varies across different geographical contexts. Participants were 11,673 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in overweight and obesity. Overall the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study sample was 9.5% (95% CI 7.7, 11.3%). After controlling for individual factors, both attributes of the home location (regional GDP per capita and rurality) and the current university location (city population) were found to be important, thus suggesting that the different origins of students affect current levels of obesity. At the individual level, while students with more financial resources were more likely to be obese, the extent of this relationship was highly dependent upon area income and city size. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among young adults and indicate a need to take into account both past as well as present environmental influences when considering the role of contextual factors in models of the nutrition transition.

  13. The Impact of Contextual Clue Selection on Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS[1] based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. [1]- This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.

  14. Neural correlates of contextual cueing are modulated by explicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Carmen E; Miller, Brennan B; Reber, Paul J; Cohen, Neal J; Paller, Ken A

    2011-10-01

    Contextual cueing refers to the facilitated ability to locate a particular visual element in a scene due to prior exposure to the same scene. This facilitation is thought to reflect implicit learning, as it typically occurs without the observer's knowledge that scenes repeat. Unlike most other implicit learning effects, contextual cueing can be impaired following damage to the medial temporal lobe. Here we investigated neural correlates of contextual cueing and explicit scene memory in two participant groups. Only one group was explicitly instructed about scene repetition. Participants viewed a sequence of complex scenes that depicted a landscape with five abstract geometric objects. Superimposed on each object was a letter T or L rotated left or right by 90°. Participants responded according to the target letter (T) orientation. Responses were highly accurate for all scenes. Response speeds were faster for repeated versus novel scenes. The magnitude of this contextual cueing did not differ between the two groups. Also, in both groups repeated scenes yielded reduced hemodynamic activation compared with novel scenes in several regions involved in visual perception and attention, and reductions in some of these areas were correlated with response-time facilitation. In the group given instructions about scene repetition, recognition memory for scenes was superior and was accompanied by medial temporal and more anterior activation. Thus, strategic factors can promote explicit memorization of visual scene information, which appears to engage additional neural processing beyond what is required for implicit learning of object configurations and target locations in a scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptance of lean redesigns in primary care: A contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dorothy; Gray, Caroline; Martinez, Meghan; Schmittdiel, Julie; Harrison, Michael I

    Lean is a leading change strategy used in health care to achieve short-term efficiency and quality improvement while promising longer-term system transformation. Most research examines Lean intervention to address isolated problems, rather than to achieve broader systemic changes to care delivery. Moreover, no studies examine contextual influences on system-wide Lean implementation efforts in primary care. The aim of this study was to identify contextual factors most critical to implementing and scaling Lean redesigns across all primary care clinics in a large, ambulatory care delivery system. Over 100 interviews and focus groups were conducted with frontline physicians, clinical staff, and operational leaders. Data analysis was guided by a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a popular implementation science framework. On the basis of expert recommendations, the modified framework targets factors influencing the implementation of process redesigns. This modified framework, the CFIR-PR, informed our identification of contextual factors that most impacted Lean acceptance among frontline physicians and staff. Several domains identified by the CFIR-PR were critical to acceptance of Lean redesigns. Regarding the implementation process acceptance was influenced by time and intensity of exposure to changes, "top-down" versus "bottom-up" implementation styles, and degrees of employee engagement in developing new workflows. Important factors in the inner setting were the clinic's culture and style of leadership, along with availability of information about Lean's effectiveness. Last, implementation efforts were impacted by individual and team characteristics regarding changed work roles and related issues of professional identity, authority, and autonomy. This study underscores the need for change leaders to consider the contextual factors that surround efforts to implement Lean in primary care. As Lean redesigns are scaled across a system

  16. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  17. Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    John Campbell; Craig McDonald; Tsholofelo Sethibe

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar ...

  18. Contextualizing Corporate Political Responsibilities: Neoliberal CSR in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Djelic, Marie-Laure; Etchanchu, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a historical analysis of the political role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) before it was even called CSR. We describe two ideal types of political responsibilities during the eras of 19th century paternalism in Europe and corporate trusteeship in the US. Our historical contextualization of recent scholarly work on a “political turn” of CSR offers a two-pronged critique: 1. Growing discussions on political CSR start from a problematic foundation that does not ho...

  19. Mining Contextual Information for Ephemeral Digital Video Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Chirag

    2009-01-01

    For centuries the archival community has understood and practiced the art of adding contextual information while preserving an artifact. The question now is how these practices can be transferred to the digital domain. With the growing expansion of production and consumption of digital objects (documents, audio, video, etc.) it has become essential to identify and study issues related to their representation. A cura­tor in the digital realm may be said to have the same responsibilities as on...

  20. NeuroD modulates opioid agonist-selective regulation of adult neurogenesis and contextual memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-04-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate or magnitude. Fentanyl-induced CPP required much longer time for extinction than morphine-induced CPP. We observed a parallel decrease in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis after morphine-induced CPP, but not after fentanyl-induced CPP. Increasing NeuroD activities with NeuroD-lentivirus (nd-vir) injection at the dentate gyrus before CPP training reversed morphine-induced decreases in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis, and prolonged the time required for extinction of morphine-induced CPP. On the other hand, decreasing NeuroD activities via injection of miRNA-190-virus (190-vir) reversed the fentanyl effect on NeuroD and neurogenesis and shortened the time required for extinction of fentanyl-induced CPP. Another contextual memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM), was affected similarly by alteration of NeuroD activities. The reduction in NeuroD activities either by morphine treatment or 190-vir injection decreased MWM task retention, while the increase in NeuroD activities by nd-vir prolonged MWM task retention. Thus, by controlling NeuroD activities, opioid agonists differentially regulate adult neurogenesis and subsequent contextual memory retention. Such drug-related memory regulation could have implications in eventual context-associated relapse.