WorldWideScience

Sample records for included conservative community

  1. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  2. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  3. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...... there is a generally accepted agreement that collective management (community forestry) will yield success in forest conservation. However, the claim is seldom rigorously examined. We suggest to have a review of the literature and to propose a first step to a test of the claim in order to reach a first generalization...... as to the success of community forestry in forest conservation. The review of the literature is the first step towards such an examination, enabling us to make some initial generalizations for further research. In the present paper, a statistical test is performed and the claim is found wanting. The reviewed papers...

  4. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  5. Democracy in Conservation – Wall Painting Conservation and Church Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2007-01-01

    Wall painting conservation in Denmark has been functioning within a democratically organised church infrastructure for more than 100 years, which permits an overview of community involvement in conservation over a longer period. The case stories presented here show widely varying attitudes held...

  6. Deconstructing Community for Conservation: Why Simple Assumptions are Not Sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Kerry Ann; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation policies advocate engagement with local people, but conservation practice has sometimes been criticised for a simplistic understanding of communities and social context. To counter this, this paper explores social structuring and its influences on conservation-related behaviours at the site of a conservation intervention near Pipar forest, within the Seti Khola valley, Nepal. Qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaires and Rapid Rural Appraisal demonstrate how links between groups directly and indirectly influence behaviours of conservation relevance (including existing and potential resource-use and proconservation activities). For low-status groups the harvesting of resources can be driven by others' preference for wild foods, whilst perceptions of elite benefit-capture may cause reluctance to engage with future conservation interventions. The findings reiterate the need to avoid relying on simple assumptions about 'community' in conservation, and particularly the relevance of understanding relationships between groups, in order to understand natural resource use and implications for conservation.

  7. Communities` attitudes towards conservation in Gashakagumti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the attitudes of communities around GashakaGumti National Park towards conservation. It also investigated factors that influence these conservation attitudes. Data were obtained through structured questionnaire which covered demographic characteristics, perceived benefits and challenges derived ...

  8. 76 FR 65527 - Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County, CA: Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...] Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan for Yolo County, CA: Environmental Impact... coordination with the Yolo County Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan Joint Powers... Yolo County Natural Heritage Program Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan...

  9. Community Concern on Environmental Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Fajar Adie; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Research on the relationship between humans and the environment is always very interesting to be studied. This paper is one of the studies of sustainable development in its implementation with the empowerment of society that comes from the community itself. So far, community studies related to development occasionally target the growth of the economic side only. Community study on the environment becomes an alternative choice, compared with human relationships with humans themselves, or humans with human needs themselves. The study of community development by looking at the environment can be a wise choice, where all activities of fulfilling human needs are always inseparable from the element of interaction with the environment. Community development that is based on the environment itself, will give a better impact, just solely. Various methods of learning human relationships. A community-based environmental assessment study can be an alternative choice to support a sustainable development mission, which is development that has a positive impact on the present and the future.

  10. The forgotten resource: Community perspectives on conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such data confirm people living in rural communities adjacent to protected areas have limited impact on conservation policies and initiatives on the island. ... Cette recherche suggère que la politique de conservation doit être réévaluée et qu'il y a lieu de rechercher de nouvelles pratiques permettant d'intégrer les traditions ...

  11. Local community perceptions of conservation policy: rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    local autonomy would help to boost local villagers' self-esteem, and enable local communities to have a more equal playing field for future negotiations with conservation authorities. Furthermore, this would also likely trigger more ...... principles: (i) equity of risks and benefits, (ii) recognition of rights, and (iii) participation in ...

  12. communities` attitudes towards conservation in gashakagumti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, 2015. COMMUNITIES` ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONSERVATION IN GASHAKAGUMTI NATIONAL. PARK NIGERIA. 1Odebiyi, B. R., 1 Ayeni S. M.,1 Umunna, M. O.,2Johnson, J.J.. Department of Wildlife and ...

  13. Community-based Ecotourism in Tenganan Dauh Tukad: An Indigenous Conservation Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sardiana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based ecotourism involves conservation, business, and community development. It is a subset of nature-based tourism that are owned and managed by the community and used to improve the well-being of its community members. Research conducted in Indigenous Tenganan Dauh Tukad Village, Bali. This paper examines the linkage of community participation in ecotourism with the conservation practices and perspectives. This study revealed that there is a positive linkage between community participation to their practices and perspective of conservation. This includes conservation of biodiversity environment and cultural heritage of the local community.

  14. Soil conservation according the international community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, Rachele

    2015-01-01

    The land is a finite resource. Desertification, climate change, pollution, human settlements and human activities, threaten the integrity of the soil and its ability to 'nourishing the planet'. In a growing awareness, the international community is by multiplying the action to promote overall defence and soil conservation measures, starting with the fight against desertification, with the aim of arriving at a Land Degradation Neutrality to 2050. [it

  15. Oral mucosal melanoma: conservative treatment including laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Campos-Ramos, Eunice; Pasche, Philippe; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto

    2011-05-01

    To discuss the convenience of laser surgery as optimal treatment for melanoma of the oral mucosa. A retrospective evaluation of four patients with primary oral melanomas treated at a single Cancer Institution in Mexico City. Two patients were treated with resection of the melanoma with CO2 laser together with extraction of the involved dental organs and curettage of the alveolar walls. These two cases had melanoma in situ with multiple isolated foci. The third patient had a lesion with vertical growth, who was submitted to partial maxillectomy along with selective dissection of bilateral neck levels I-V with a negative report and the fourth patient had a history of oral nodular melanoma and presented with lymph node metastasis. According to follow-up status, there was no distant metastasis in any of the patients reported here. In our experience, conservative management with CO2 laser is adequate for melanomas of the oral mucosa with extraction of the dental organs and curettage of the alveoli to achieve complete surgical resection microscopically without sacrifice of the quality of life. Management of the neck is controversial. We recommend selective therapeutic resection of the neck only if it is found to be clinically positive. Elective dissection has not shown to have an impact in overall survival.

  16. Community Based Educational Model on Water Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiajeng, L.; Parwita, I. G. L.; Wiraga, I. W.; Mudhina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous research showed that there were indicators of water crisis in the northern and eastern part of Denpasar city and most of coastal area experienced on seawater intrusion. The recommended water conservation programs were rainwater harvesting and educate the community to develop a water saving and environmentally conscious culture. This research was conducted to built the community based educational model on water conservation program through ergonomics SHIP approach which placed the human aspect as the first consideration, besides the economic and technically aspects. The stakeholders involved in the program started from the problem analyses to the implementation and the maintenance as well. The model was built through three main steps, included determination of accepted design; building the recharge wells by involving local communities; guidance and assistance in developing a water saving and environmentally conscious culture for early childhood, elementary and junior high school students, community and industry. The program was implemented based on the “TRIHITA KARANA” concept, which means the relationship between human to God, human-to-human, and human to environment. Through the development of the model, it is expected to grow a sense of belonging and awareness from the community to maintain the sustainability of the program.

  17. Role of community forest reserves in wildlife conservation in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sacred groves and community forests are common ways for local rural African people to conserve natural resources. The importance of traditional approach in wildlife conservation was evaluated with line transect method utilized to assess five community forests. Comparable species richness with similar size protected ...

  18. When will community management conserve biodiversity? Evidence from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E. Hecht

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both development practitioners and conservation organizations are focused on community ownership and management of natural resources as a way to create incentives for the conservation of biodiversity. This has led to the implementation of a number of large community-based conservation projects in sub-Saharan Africa, in countries including Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda. While the concept is logical, and valuation studies may suggest that conservation is more valuable than other uses of the resources in some areas, there has been little detailed analysis of the financial costs and benefits to the communities, to determine whether they would actually have an incentive to conserve if they had more extensive legal rights to the resources. This paper assesses the conditions under which this approach may be viable, based on a valuation study of the resources of Mount Mulanje in southern Malawi.Les spécialistes du développement et les organisations de conservation s’intéressent à la propriété et à la gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles comme moyen de créer des mesures d’incitation en faveur de la conservation de la biodiversité. Cette approche a conduit à la mise en œuvre d’un certain nombre de grands projets de conservation communautaires en Afrique subsaharienne, notamment en Namibie, au Zimbabwe, au Malawi, en Zambie et au Rwanda. Même si cette approche est logique et si les études d’évaluation semblent suggérer que, dans certaines régions, la conservation est plus utile que l’exploitation des ressources, il existe peu d’analyses détaillées sur les coûts et les avantages financiers que cela engendrerait pour les communautés, analyses qui permettraient de déterminer si le développement des droits légaux des communautés sur ces ressources les inciterait à les conserver. Ce rapport évalue les conditions de viabilité de cette approche sur la base d’une étude d’évaluation des

  19. Community-based conservation in a globalized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Fikret

    2007-09-25

    Communities have an important role to play in biodiversity conservation. However, community-based conservation as a panacea, like government-based conservation as a panacea, ignores the necessity of managing commons at multiple levels, with vertical and horizontal interplay among institutions. The study of conservation in a multilevel world can serve to inform an interdisciplinary science of conservation, consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity, to establish partnerships and link biological conservation objectives with local development objectives. Improving the integration of conservation and development requires rethinking conservation by using a complexity perspective and the ability to deal with multiple objectives, use of partnerships and deliberative processes, and learning from commons research to develop diagnostic tools. Perceived this way, community-based conservation has a role to play in a broad pluralistic approach to biodiversity protection: it is governance that starts from the ground up and involves networks and linkages across various levels of organization. The shift of attention to processes at multiple levels fundamentally alters the way in which the governance of conservation development may be conceived and developed, using diagnostics within a pluralistic framework rather than a blueprint approach.

  20. To what extent do potential conservation donors value community-aspects of conservation projects in low income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy R; Young, Richard P; Gibbons, James M; Jones, Julia P G

    2018-01-01

    There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of conservation projects is valuable for future marketing of conservation. We conducted a discrete choice experiment with visitors to a UK zoo, while simultaneously conducting a revealed preference study through a real donation campaign on the same sample. Respondents showed the highest willingness to pay for projects that have local community involvement in management (95% confidence interval £9.82 to £15.83), and for improvement in threatened species populations (£2.97 - £13.87). Both of these were significantly larger than the willingness to pay for projects involving provision of alternative livelihoods, or improving the condition of conservation sites. Results of the simultaneous donation campaign showed that respondents were very willing to donate the suggested £1 or above donation (88% made a donation, n = 1798); there was no effect of which of the two campaigns they were exposed to (threatened species management or community involvement in management). The small number of people who did not make a donation had a higher stated willingness to pay within the choice experiment, which may suggest hypothetical bias. Conservationists increasingly argue that conservation should include local communities in management (for both pragmatic and moral reasons). It is heartening that potential conservation donors seem to agree.

  1. Inclusion Strategies for Bringing Dance to Conservative Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Shawn Renee

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author uses the term "conservative dancers" to describe dancers who live in communities or families that are socially, culturally, or religiously conservative with ideological consistency, adhering to traditional values that they deem to be moral (e.g., modest dress, clear gender roles and separation, purity, family…

  2. Community motivations to engage in conservation behavior to conserve the Sumatran orangutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Danielle; Gramotnev, Galina; Baxter, Greg; Butler, James R A; Wich, Serge A; McAlpine, Clive A

    2016-08-01

    Community-based conservation programs in developing countries are often based on the assumption that heteronomous motivation (e.g., extrinsic incentives such as economic rewards and pressure or coercion to act) will incite local communities to adopt conservation behaviors. However, this may not be as effective or sustainable as autonomous motivations (e.g., an intrinsic desire to act due to inherent enjoyment or self-identification with a behavior and through freedom of choice). We analyzed the comparative effectiveness of heteronomous versus autonomous approaches to community-based conservation programs through a case study of Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) conservation in 3 villages in Indonesia. Each village had a different conservation program design. We surveyed people (n = 240) to determine their motivations for and behavior changes relative to orangutan and orangutan habitat (forest) protection. Heteronomous motivations (e.g., income from tourism) led to greater self-reporting of behavior change toward orangutan protection. However, they did not change self-reported behavior toward forest (i.e., orangutan habitat) protection. The most effective approach to creating self-reported behavior change throughout the community was a combination of autonomous and heteronomous motivations. Individuals who were heteronomously motivated to protect the orangutan were more likely to have changed attitudes than to have changed their self-reported behavior. These findings demonstrate that the current paradigm of motivating communities in developing countries to adopt conservation behaviors primarily through monetary incentives and rewards should consider integrating autonomous motivational techniques that promote the intrinsic values of conservation. Such a combination has a greater potential to achieve sustainable and cost-effective conservation outcomes. Our results highlight the importance of using in-depth sociopsychological analyses to inform the design and

  3. Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nthiga, R.W.; Duim, van der V.R.; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism-conservation enterprises (TCEs), such as eco-lodges, are a relatively new strategy of the African Wildlife Foundation for enhancing community livelihoods and wildlife conservation in wildlife-rich areas outside state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigates the extent

  4. Community and ecotourist perceptions of forest conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different interests in forest resources by various stakeholders may result in differences in perceived value of forest conservation. In order to test this hypothesis, we compared the valuation by international ecotourists and local respondents of the perceived benefits of the Mabira Central Forest Reserve. The factors that ...

  5. Avifauna of Ishaqbini Community Conservancy in Ijara District, NE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ishaqbini community conservancy, in the arid northern-eastern Kenya was established in 006 by local pastoralists as a community initiative to safeguard their wildlife heritage especially the endemic Hirola Beatragus hunteri. Prior to this survey there were no known recent avifaunal surveys for the area despite the fact that ...

  6. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

  7. Assessing and prioritizing ecological communities for monitoring in a regional habitat conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierl, Lauren A; Franklin, Janet; Deutschman, Douglas H; Regan, Helen M; Johnson, Brenda S

    2008-07-01

    In nature reserves and habitat conservation areas, monitoring is required to determine if reserves are meeting their goals for preserving species, ecological communities, and ecosystems. Increasingly, reserves are established to protect multiple species and communities, each with their own conservation goals and objectives. As resources are always inadequate to monitor all components, criteria must be applied to prioritize both species and communities for monitoring and management. While methods for prioritizing species based on endangerment or risk have been established, approaches to prioritizing ecological communities for monitoring are not well developed, despite a long-standing emphasis on communities as target elements in reserve design. We established guidelines based on four criteria derived from basic principles of conservation and landscape ecology--extent, representativeness, fragmentation, and endangerment--to prioritize communities in the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Plan (MSCP). The MSCP was one of the first multiple-species habitat conservation areas established in California, USA, and it has a complex spatial configuration because of the patterns of surrounding land use, which are largely urbanized. In this case study, high priority communities for monitoring include coastal sage scrub (high endangerment, underrepresented within the reserve relative to the region, and moderately fragmented), freshwater wetlands, and coastal habitats (both have high fragmentation, moderate endangerment and representativeness, and low areal extent). This framework may be useful to other conservation planners and land managers for prioritizing the most significant and at-risk communities for monitoring.

  8. The contribution of community wisdom to conservation ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predavec, Martin; Lunney, Daniel; Hope, Ben; Stalenberg, Eleanor; Shannon, Ian; Crowther, Mathew S; Miller, Indrie

    2016-06-01

    Scientists have traditionally collected data on whether a population is increasing, decreasing, or staying the same, but such studies are often limited by geographic scale and time frame. This means that for many species, understanding of trends comes from only part of their ranges at particular periods. Working with citizen scientists has the potential to overcome these limits. Citizen science has the added benefit of exposing citizens to the scientific process and engaging them in management outcomes. We examined a different way of using citizen scientists (instead of data collection). We asked community members to answer a question directly and thus examined whether community wisdom can inform conservation. We reviewed the results of 3 mail-in surveys that asked community members to say whether they thought koala populations were increasing, decreasing, or staying the same. We then compared the survey results with population trends derived from more traditional research. Population trends identified through community wisdom were similar to the trends identified by traditional research. The community wisdom surveys, however, allowed the question to be addressed at much broader geographical scales and time frames. Studies that apply community wisdom have the benefit of engaging a broad section of the community in conservation research and education and therefore in the political process of conserving species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT-CHE

    2011-04-14

    The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

  10. Primate conservation: integrating communities through environmental education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Suzana M

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education has evolved over the years to respond to the varied complexities found in the different localities where it is practiced. In many parts of the world where biodiversity is rich, social conditions are poor, so educators have included sustainable development alternatives to better the environment and the livelihoods of local communities. Primate conservation education programs, which are often based in areas that face such challenges, have been a vanguard in creating means to integrate people with their natural environment and thus conquer supporters for the protection of natural habitats. In the search for effectiveness they have adopted evaluation methods to help assess what was offered. An example from Brazil is described in this commentary. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Conservation through community: An attempt to untangle a tangled word.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeraj Koul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation is not something that can be thrust upon a community, and neither can it be labelled as a measure to take away a people’s rights and nor can it be used as a force to make others adhere to rules and laws from outside; by outside I mean you and me and your or my Government. I am not writing to highlight that conservation should not happen with the community but I do believe that older community bonds are broken or they have started to brake and the ways implied earlier no longer hold in the field. Most of us are still hanging on to older approaches to community conservation but the younger generation in a community has moved beyond, now it is rare to see a community come together for the sake of collective benefits and also when conservation measures take longer to deliver the fruits and the sustained release of impacts over a period of time it makes people forget the changes made to the immediate environment, except for a few visible ones. This too is forgotten with time until the cycle of destruction repeats itself. Previously, the community used to look at water, forests and other natural resources as common resources and they used to protect them, but the present generation does not understand common resources. In their terms it has to be yours or mine or else it is the Government’s. There is no fourth dimension, i.e. the common resource which used to be a main dimension of conservation. The vanishing concept of the common resource has brought about the biggest destruction ever. New ways of conservation have to be found as older traditional ways of conservation may still work in some places but they will be not adhered to by the majority. I am not saying this because community led work isn’t good enough, but because the community system was previously woven into social fabric and there was mutual dependence. However, the social fabric has changed a lot over recent years and so has traditional community bonding. The west lost

  12. Environmental Conservation And Sustainable Development In Oil Producing Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbon, I.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of oil and gas exploration, development and production on the environment and local environmental standards and guidelines are highlighted and compared to prevailing environmental conditions in some of the oil producing communities. The effect of environmental pollution on the sustainable development of oil producing communities is analyzed. The responses of the inhabitants of oil producing communities to environmental degradation in detail. So also are the reactions of the oil producing companies and the Federal government. Special emphasis is placed on the activities of relevant governmental institutions in oil producing areas. Finally, a strategy for ensuring environmental conservation and sustainable development in oil producing communities is proposed

  13. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  14. Customizing a rangefinder for community-based wildlife conservation initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.

    2011-01-01

    Population size of many threatened and endangered species is relatively unknown because estimating animal abundance in remote parts of the world, without access to aircraft for surveying vast areas, is a scientific challenge with few proposed solutions. One option is to enlist local community members and train them in data collection for large line transect or point count surveys, but financial and sometimes technological constraints prevent access to the necessary equipment and training for accurately quantifying distance measurements. Such measurements are paramount for generating reliable estimates of animal density. This problem was overcome in a survey of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, Mongolia, by converting an inexpensive optical sporting rangefinder into a species-specific rangefinder with visual-based categorical labels. Accuracy trials concluded 96.86% of 350 distance measures matched those from a laser rangefinder. This simple customized optic subsequently allowed for a large group of minimally-trained observers to simultaneously record quantitative measures of distance, despite language, education, and skill differences among the diverse group. The large community-based effort actively engaged local residents in species conservation by including them as the foundation for collecting scientific data.

  15. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism is a pillar of the new IUCN “Lemurs of Madagascar” conservation action plan (2013–2016), and can allow rural communities to (i) secure revenue for habitat protection; (ii) create ... But, obviously, an ecotourist site needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy Mahaloka site.

  16. Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya | Okech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies show that the majority of the local people around protected areas have negative feelings about state policies and conservation programmes. The alienation of grazing land for the exclusive use of wildlife and tourists has a very direct impact upon the pastoralist communities, and prompts them to raise ...

  17. Native fish conservation areas: a vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Richard N. Williams; Russell F. Thurow; Leah Elwell; David P. Philipp; Fred A. Harris; Jeffrey L. Kershner; Patrick J. Martinez; Dirk Miller; Gordon H. Reeves; Christopher A. Frissell; James R. Sedell

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we...

  18. Can Community Forests Be Compatible With Biodiversity Conservation in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Klintuni Boedhihartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest lands in Indonesia are classified as state lands and subject to management under agreements allocated by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. There has been a long-standing tension between the ministry and local communities who argue that they have traditionally managed large areas of forest and should be allowed to continue to do so. A series of recent legal and administrative decisions are now paving the way for the allocation of forests to local communities. There is a hypothesis that the communities will protect the forests against industrial conversion and that they will also conserve biodiversity. This hypothesis needs to be closely examined. Conservation of biodiversity and management for local benefits are two different and potentially conflicting objectives. This paper reviews examples of forests managed by local communities in Indonesia and concludes that there is very limited information available on the conservation of natural biodiversity in these forests. I conclude that more information is needed on the status of biodiversity in community managed forests. When forests are allocated for local management, special measures need to be in place to ensure that biodiversity values are monitored and maintained.

  19. Micro-Credit and Community Wildlife Management: Complementary Strategies to Improve Conservation Outcomes in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Emmanuel; Chapman, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Community wildlife management programs in African protected areas aim to deliver livelihood and social benefits to local communities in order to bolster support for their conservation objectives. Most of these benefits are delivered at the community level. However, many local people are also seeking more individual or household-level livelihood benefits from community wildlife management programs because it is at this level that many of the costs of protected area conservation are borne. Because community wildlife management delivers few benefits at this level, support for their conservation objectives amongst local people often declines. The study investigated the implications of this for reducing poaching in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Three community wildlife management initiatives undertaken by Park management were compared with regard to their capacity to deliver the individual and household-level benefits sought by local people: community conservation services, wildlife management areas and community conservation banks. Interviews were carried out with poachers and local people from four villages in the Western Serengeti including members of village conservation banks, as well as a number of key informants. The results suggest that community conservation banks could, as a complementary strategy to existing community wildlife management programs, potentially provide a more effective means of reducing poaching in African protected areas than community wildlife management programs alone.

  20. Variegated tropical landscapes conserve diverse dung beetle communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. Methods The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes—LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture. We baited each pitfall trap with 30 g of human feces and left open for a 48 h period. We also measured three environmental variables reflecting structural differences among the studied classes: canopy cover, local vegetation heterogeneity and soil sand content. Results We collected 52 species and 2,695 individuals of dung beetles. We observed significant differences in the mean species richness, abundance and biomass among classes, with forest fragments presenting the highest values, forest corridors and coffee plantations presenting intermediate values, and pastures the lowest values. Regarding community structure, we also found significant differences among classes. Canopy cover was the only variable explaining variation in dung beetle species richness, abundance, biomass, and community structure. The relative importance of spatial turnover was greater than nestedness-resultant component in all studied landscapes. Discussion This study evaluated the ecological patterns of dung beetle communities in variegated tropical landscapes highlighting the importance of these landscapes for conservation of tropical biodiversity. However, we encourage variegation for the management of landscapes that have already been fragmented

  1. 78 FR 75939 - Bay Delta Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, Sacramento, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... patterns, including breeding, feeding, and sheltering (50 CFR 17.3(c)). NMFS defines ``harm'' to include... impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, spawning, rearing, migrating, feeding, or... conservation strategy includes measures that will be implemented outside of the statutory Delta to complement...

  2. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-08-23

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Successful Community-Based Conservation: The Story of Millbank and Pterourus (Papilio) homerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, Eric; Parnell, John; Lewis, Delano S

    2017-07-14

    The literature on community-based environmental management is very extensive and the discussion of the pros and cons is continuing. Presented here is an example of a successful interaction between university-based entomologists and a local rural community, detailing the change in the attitude of the town of Millbank, Jamaica, from a Giant Swallowtail Butterfly collecting site to a model for community protection of a species and its environment. A review of some of the research work on community-based conservation efforts is included. These linkages take a considerable time to establish and the efforts spent by scientific personnel, governmental representatives and eco-tourists are itemized to emphasize how specific conservation activities have inspired confidence in the local community, thus engendering trust and mutual respect between the two groups. Reviews of the developed legislative support from both international and state entities also must be in place, and these are included in chronological detail as much as possible. Finally, a review of the long-term funding of educational and other local programs providing a level of stability to the conservation effort, until the local community can take over the protection of the species and/or habitat, is provided. Of utmost importance is a comprehensive educational campaign to not only sensitize the community, but the larger society, so that there can be buy-in from all stakeholders.

  4. Striking a balance: socioeconomic development and conservation in grassland through community-based zoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Leisher

    Full Text Available The goal of preserving nature is often in conflict with economic development and the aspirations of the rural poor. Nowhere is this more striking than in native grasslands, which have been extensively converted until a mere fraction of their original extent remains. This is not surprising; grasslands flourish in places coveted by humans, primed for agriculture, plantations, and settlements that nearly always trump conservation efforts. The Umgano grassland conservation and poverty reduction project in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa uses community-based spatial planning to balance the conversion of its lower-conservation value grasslands to a timber plantation, while conserving higher-value grasslands for heritage purposes and managed livestock grazing. Ten years after project launch, we measured the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the project using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index remote sensing data and over 500 household interviews, as compared with similar non-conserved areas. Zoned management of the Umgano area had resulted in between 9% and 17% greater average peak production in the grassland areas compared to control sites. There was also a 21% gain in incomes for the roughly one hundred people employed by the forestry efforts, when compared to others in their village. Community-based spatial zoning is an overlooked tool for balancing conservation and development but may require, as we found in Umgano, certain critical factors including strong local leadership, an accountable financial management mechanism to distribute income, outside technical expertise for the zoning design, and community support.

  5. Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, María-Consuelo

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than state-managed conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Moving Toward Spatial Solutions in Marine Conservation with Indigenous Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Community and resource user support has often been declared as essential to achieving globally agreed targets for marine protection. Given that indigenous people in Canada have resource use rights, we engaged two indigenous communities in British Columbia for their views on marine planning and protected areas. We developed a three-phased approach for executing our research: building research partnerships, carrying out individual interviews, and holding community discussion sessions. Participants expressed a common goal of recovering depleted species and ensuring the sustainability of indigenous fishing. We found strong support for spatial protection measures, and significant overlaps amongst participants in the areas suggested for protection. The most common type of protection recommended by participants was the exclusion of commercial and recreational fisheries while allowing for indigenous fishing; this stands in contrast to the emphasis on strict no-take MPAs advocated in the literature. Similarities in the goal, and level and areas of protection point to a gap in conservation approaches: the conservation of important areas and resources to indigenous people, allowing the continued practice and adaptation of their culture.

  7. Noah’s Ark Conservation Will Not Preserve Threatened Ecological Communities under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca Mary Bernadette; Carter, Oberon; Gilfedder, Louise; Porfirio, Luciana Laura; Lee, Greg; Bindoff, Nathaniel Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Effective conservation of threatened ecological communities requires knowledge of where climatically suitable habitat is likely to persist into the future. We use the critically endangered Lowland Grassland community of Tasmania, Australia as a case study to identify options for management in cases where future climatic conditions become unsuitable for the current threatened community. Methods We model current and future climatic suitability for the Lowland Themeda and the Lowland Poa Grassland communities, which make up the listed ecological community. We also model climatic suitability for the structurally dominant grass species of these communities, and for closely related grassland and woodland communities. We use a dynamically downscaled regional climate model derived from six CMIP3 global climate models, under the A2 SRES emissions scenario. Results All model projections showed a large reduction in climatically suitable area by mid-century. Outcomes are slightly better if closely related grassy communities are considered, but the extent of suitable area is still substantially reduced. Only small areas within the current distribution are projected to remain climatically suitable by the end of the century, and very little of that area is currently in good condition. Conclusions As the climate becomes less suitable, a gradual change in the species composition, structure and habitat quality of the grassland communities is likely. Conservation management will need to focus on maintaining diversity, structure and function, rather than attempting to preserve current species composition. Options for achieving this include managing related grassland types to maintain grassland species at the landscape-scale, and maximising the resilience of grasslands by reducing further fragmentation, weed invasion and stress from other land uses, while accepting that change is inevitable. Attempting to maintain the status quo by conserving the current structure and

  8. Noah's Ark conservation will not preserve threatened ecological communities under climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mary Bernadette Harris

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of threatened ecological communities requires knowledge of where climatically suitable habitat is likely to persist into the future. We use the critically endangered Lowland Grassland community of Tasmania, Australia as a case study to identify options for management in cases where future climatic conditions become unsuitable for the current threatened community.We model current and future climatic suitability for the Lowland Themeda and the Lowland Poa Grassland communities, which make up the listed ecological community. We also model climatic suitability for the structurally dominant grass species of these communities, and for closely related grassland and woodland communities. We use a dynamically downscaled regional climate model derived from six CMIP3 global climate models, under the A2 SRES emissions scenario.All model projections showed a large reduction in climatically suitable area by mid-century. Outcomes are slightly better if closely related grassy communities are considered, but the extent of suitable area is still substantially reduced. Only small areas within the current distribution are projected to remain climatically suitable by the end of the century, and very little of that area is currently in good condition.As the climate becomes less suitable, a gradual change in the species composition, structure and habitat quality of the grassland communities is likely. Conservation management will need to focus on maintaining diversity, structure and function, rather than attempting to preserve current species composition. Options for achieving this include managing related grassland types to maintain grassland species at the landscape-scale, and maximising the resilience of grasslands by reducing further fragmentation, weed invasion and stress from other land uses, while accepting that change is inevitable. Attempting to maintain the status quo by conserving the current structure and composition of Lowland

  9. Evolving hunting practices in Gabon: lessons for community-based conservation interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Walters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Addressing today's environmental challenges is intimately linked to understanding and improving natural resource governance institutions. As a result conservation initiatives are increasingly realizing the importance of integrating local perspectives of land tenure arrangements, natural resource rights, and local beliefs into conservation approaches. However, current work has not sufficiently considered the dynamic nature of natural resource governance institutions over time and the potential implications for current conservation interventions. We therefore explored how and why hunting governance has changed since the precolonial period in two ethnic hunting communities in Gabon, Central Africa, integrating various ethnographic methods with resource-use mapping, and a historic literature review. In both communities, hunting governance has undergone significant changes since the precolonial period. A closed-access, lineage-based system of resource use with strict penalties for trespassing, has evolved into a more open-access system, in which the influence of customary governance systems, including magico-political aspects, has declined. These changes have occurred mainly in response to policies and governance structures put in place by the colonial government and postindependence, early state laws. This included a policy of merging villages, the introduction of more modern hunting techniques such as guns and wire cables, and a shift from community to government ownership of the land. Current governance structures are thus the product of a complex mixture of customary, colonial and state influences. These findings suggest that a historical perspective of resource governance, gained through in-depth and long-term engagement with local communities, can provide important insights for community-based conservation approaches, such as helping to identify potential causes and perceptions of environmental change and to design more suitable conservation

  10. Psycho-social processes in dealing with legal innovation in the community: insights from biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paula; Mouro, Carla

    2011-06-01

    Mitigation measures for tackling the consequences of a changing climate will involve efforts of various types including the conservation of affected ecosystems. For this, communities throughout the world will be called on to change habits of land and water use. Many of these changes will emerge from the multilevel governance tools now commonly used for environmental protection. In this article, some tenets of a social psychology of legal innovation are proposed for approaching the psycho-social processes involved in how individuals, groups and communities respond to multilevel governance. Next, how this approach can improve our understanding of community-based conservation driven by legal innovation is highlighted. For this, the macro and micro level processes involved in the implementation of the European Natura 2000 Network of Protected Sites are examined. Finally, some insights gained from this example of multilevel governance through legal innovation will be enumerated as a contribution for future policy making aimed at dealing with climate change consequences.

  11. Community characteristics, conservative ideology, and child abuse rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David

    2015-03-01

    Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...] San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat... Program/Habitat Conservation Plan (NCCP/HCP), which the applicant has submitted with their incidental take...

  13. What Constitutes Success in Pacific Island Community Conserved Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Axford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, few if any community conserved areas (CCAs in the Pacific island region have been regarded as being successful. However, as success is rarely defined, what constitutes "success" is not clear. This paper reports an investigation into the way "outsiders" perceive success in Pacific island CCAs. An exploratory survey revealed six umbrella themes of success: the locus of control; local benefits; resource aspects; management; external stakeholder involvement; and sustainability. Multivariate analysis distinguished two groups, a Big picture group and a Locally focused group. These differ in how they define success, as well as their organizational alignment. The Big picture group, largely from funder agencies and international NGOs, were focused on the broad issues of success, especially the sustainability of CCAs. The Locally focused group was concerned with the practical workings and needs of successful CCAs in the Pacific; many in this group were based with Pacific island governments and NGOs or CCAs. The study concludes that success in CCAs should not be defined solely on project objectives, especially when these have been developed by an external entity or under their guidance. If they are, high rates of failure are to be expected.

  14. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  15. Community Use and Knowledge of Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida and Implications for Peruvian Dry Forest Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Depenthal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida Kunth is the keystone species in Peru’s highly threatened northern dry forests. Though uniquely adapted to thrive in arid environments, algarrobo extent along the Peruvian coast and particularly in La Libertad region has been drastically reduced by urban growth, agricultural expansion, and wood harvesting. Effective conservation of surviving dry forests in La Libertad will require initiatives grounded in field-based knowledge of surrounding communities’ interactions with algarrobo and their understanding of the trees’ importance. This research investigates how residents of distinct communities in or near the town of San Pedro de Lloc in La Libertad, know, use, and value algarrobo in three nearby dry forests. Methods include interviews with community residents and key stakeholders, as well as observation visits to local forests. Our results indicate that primary current uses of algarrobo include widespread domestic consumption of firewood, charcoal production for commercial use, and dependence on algarrobo dry forests as livestock forage. Community residents also value algarrobo trees for their ecological roles in producing oxygen, preventing the encroachment of sand dunes into neighborhoods, and as cultural patrimony. Building on these findings, we suggest a range of concrete ways in which local knowledge and use of algarrobo can support the conservation of this unique and fast-disappearing forest ecosystem.

  16. [Perception and attitude of rural community to the construction of Asian elephant conservation corridors in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Ling; Chen, Ming-Yong; Wu, Zhao-Lu; Wang, Qian; Dong, Yong-Hua

    2009-06-01

    By using contingent valuation method (CVM), an investigation was made from November 2007 to March 2008 on the perception and attitude of 196 households in 5 villages within 2 planned Asian elephant conservation corridors in Xishuangbanna to the construction of the corridors. 80.61% of the interviewees conditionally supported the corridors construction. The main factors affecting the interviewees' support willingness included their education level, per capita income, and perceptions to Asian elephant protection, human-elephant relations, and corridor utilization patterns and its beneficiaries, among which, the interviewees' awareness of Asian elephant conservation, corridor utilization patterns, and corridor beneficiaries had strong influence on the support willingness, with the correlation coefficient being 0.231, 0.236, and -0.304, respectively. The rural community holding the land tenure played a key role in the corridors construction. To effectively design and planning the construction of biological conservation corridor, it is necessary to have a deep understanding on the perceptions and attitudes of rural community to the construction of the corridor and to obtain their support and participation for this construction.

  17. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1) Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2) Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3) Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4) Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5) Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6) Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and carnivores

  18. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC, located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1 Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2 Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3 Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4 Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5 Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6 Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and

  19. Conservation status and community structure of cliff-nesting raptors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nesting raptor and raven populations resident in the mountains of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. We also assess the conservation value of these populations to inform the future management of the newly-established Table Mountain National ...

  20. Perspectives on Sustainable Resource Conservation in Community Nature Reserves: A Case Study from Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Guallar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The coalescing of development and conservation has recently given rise to community-based conservation. Under this framework, sustainable livelihood strategies are incorporated into conservation goals on the basis that the integration of local priorities into management guidelines benefits rather than impedes conservation efforts. Consistent with this approach, the Community Nature Reserve of Dindéfélo in Kédougou, Senegal endeavors to protect biodiversity without jeopardizing local people’s reliance on natural resources. In this article we provide evidence that sustainable resource conservation is a very powerful mechanism in redirecting labor and capital away from ecosystem-degrading activities. To do this, we present three examples of projects, aiming to illustrate different ways in which local people’s management and sustainable use of natural resources can be beneficial in terms of biodiversity conservation, socioeconomic development, and human well-being.

  1. Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

  2. A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Walter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our conservation work in coastal Melanesia, we have developed a cultural landscape approach that involves the construction of a conceptual model of environment that reflects the indigenous perceptions of landscape. This model incorporates cultural, ideational, and spiritual values alongside other ecosystem services and underpins the conservation activities, priorities, and organizational structure of our programs. This cultural landscape model was a reaction to a survey of environmental values conducted by our team in which Solomon Islanders reported far greater interest in conserving cultural heritage sites than any other ecosystem resources. This caused a radical rethinking of community-based conservation programs. The methodologies we adopted are derived from the fields of archaeology and historical anthropology, in which there is an established practice of working through research problems within the framework of indigenous concepts of, and relationship to, landscape. In our work in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, coastal communities have enthusiastically adopted conservation programs that are based on cultural landscape models that recognize indigenous values. A particularly useful tool is

  3. Perception of the use of the wild fauna and strategies of predial conservation with rural communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz J, Luisa; Moreno E, Felix A

    2003-01-01

    The study was to determine the rural population perception in regards of uses and relative availability of wildlife in the Iscala watershed. This information was needed to easy community participation in decisions such as designation of area for natural resources conservation needed to be included into the territorial environmental zones. The field works focus on people of the Iscala Centro, Norte and Sur driveways during a six-month period, Semi structured interviews were applied to 53 people. A list of 75 species including birds and mammals, identified during the field trip was elaborated. Besides, based on direct or indirect observation the way people use wildlife was discriminated as follows: food (21,3%), medicine (10,7%), pets (20%). They commonly use alive animals or death animals sub products such: as meat, skin, peaks, fat, blood, secretions and urine. According to people, 47% of wildlife species are considered as harmful animals. Incorporation and enhancement of community knowledge on environmental management will allow biodiversity conservation on the Iscala watershed

  4. A new approach to conservation: using community empowerment for sustainable well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaka Wali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental conservation community recognizes that the participation of local communities is essential for the success of conservation initiatives; however, much work remains to be done on how to integrate conservation and human well-being. We propose that an assets-based approach to environmental conservation and human well-being, which is grounded in a biocultural framework, can support sustainable and adaptive management of natural resources by communities in regions adjacent to protected areas. We present evidence from conservation and quality of life initiatives led by the Field Museum of Natural History over the past 17 years in the Peruvian Amazon. Data were derived from asset mapping in 37 communities where rapid inventories were conducted and from 38 communities that participated in longer term quality of life planning. Our main findings are that Amazonian communities have many characteristics, or assets, that recent scholarship has linked to environmental sustainability and good natural resource stewardship, and that quality of life plans that are based on these assets tend to produce priorities that are more consistent with environmental conservation. Importantly, we found that validating social and ecological assets through our approach can contribute to the creation of protected areas and to their long-term management. As strategies to engage local communities in conservation expand, research on how particular methodologies, such as an assets-based approach, is needed to determine how these initiatives can best empower local communities, how they can be improved, and how they can most effectively be linked to broader conservation and development processes.

  5. The role of community-based coastal conservation and development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change impacts fall disproportionately on the world's poorest, most marginalised communities, particularly those highly dependent on direct use of natural ... Such community-based approaches should therefore play a key role in adaptation efforts within the western Indian Ocean region, where many coastal ...

  6. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy Mahaloka ... Switzerland. Indian Ocean e-Ink. Promoting African Publishing and Education www.ioeink.com. Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG). Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. BP 3391 ..... the ecotourism sector. Adhering to the ...

  7. Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resources and sometimes agricultural land. In this instance, local people bear the cost of conservation because of foregoing the opportunity to use their land in alternate ways. Further, the wild animals in the parks usually move in and out of neighbouring farms and ranches in response to spatial and temporal occurrences in ...

  8. The Perceptions of Local Communities towards the Conservation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The important bird areas (IBA) concept provides a practical index of the diversity and condition of an ecosystem on a site-by-site basis using birds as indicators. It is believed that protecting and managing such sites will result in the conservation of some of the most sensitive, fragile and ecologically rich habitats in the world.

  9. Beyond harvests in the commons: multi-scale governance and turbulence in indigenous/community conserved areas in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton Bray

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some important elements of common property theory include a focus on individual communities or user groups, local level adjudication of conflicts, local autonomy in rule making, physical harvests, and low levels of articulation with markets. We present a case study of multi-scale collective action around indigenous/community conserved areas (ICCAs in Oaxaca, Mexico that suggests a modification of these components of common property theory. A multi-community ICCA in Oaxaca demonstrates the importance of inter-community collective action as key link in multi-scale governance, that conflicts are often negotiated in multiple arenas, that rules emerge at multiple scales, and that management for conservation and environmental services implies no physical harvests. Realizing economic gains from ICCAs for strict conservation may require something very different than traditional natural resource management. It requires intense engagement with extensive networks of government and civil society actors and new forms of community and inter-community collection action, or multi-scale governance. Multi-scale governance is built on trust and social capital at multiple scales and also constitutes collective action at multiple scales. However, processes of multi-scale governance are also necessarily “turbulent” with actors frequently having conflicting values and goals to be negotiated. We present an analytic history of the process of emergence of community and inter-community collective action around strict conservation and examples of internal and external turbulence. We argue that this case study and other literature requires an extensions of the constitutive elements of common property theory.

  10. Deep Conservation of Genes Required for Both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans Sleep Includes a Role for Dopaminergic Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Komudi; Ju, Jennifer Y.; Walsh, Melissa B.; DiIorio, Michael A.; Hart, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cross-species conservation of sleep-like behaviors predicts the presence of conserved molecular mechanisms underlying sleep. However, limited experimental evidence of conservation exists. Here, this prediction is tested directly. Measurements and Results: During lethargus, Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneously sleep in short bouts that are interspersed with bouts of spontaneous locomotion. We identified 26 genes required for Drosophila melanogaster sleep. Twenty orthologous C. elegans genes were selected based on similarity. Their effect on C. elegans sleep and arousal during the last larval lethargus was assessed. The 20 most similar genes altered both the quantity of sleep and arousal thresholds. In 18 cases, the direction of change was concordant with Drosophila studies published previously. Additionally, we delineated a conserved genetic pathway by which dopamine regulates sleep and arousal. In C. elegans neurons, G-alpha S, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A act downstream of D1 dopamine receptors to regulate these behaviors. Finally, a quantitative analysis of genes examined herein revealed that C. elegans arousal thresholds were directly correlated with amount of sleep during lethargus. However, bout duration varies little and was not correlated with arousal thresholds. Conclusions: The comprehensive analysis presented here suggests that conserved genes and pathways are required for sleep in invertebrates and, likely, across the entire animal kingdom. The genetic pathway delineated in this study implicates G-alpha S and previously known genes downstream of dopamine signaling in sleep. Quantitative analysis of various components of quiescence suggests that interdependent or identical cellular and molecular mechanisms are likely to regulate both arousal and sleep entry. Citation: Singh K, Ju JY, Walsh MB, Dilorio MA, Hart AC. Deep conservation of genes required for both Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans sleep includes a role for

  11. 75 FR 79013 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, CA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Wing, 11th Floor, 70 West Hedding Street, San Jose, CA 95110. You may also submit comments by facsimile... Fernando Street, San Jose, CA 95112. 3. Gilroy Library. 7387 Rosanna Street, Gilroy, CA 95020. 4. Morgan... limited to capture, harm, and harassment of burrowing owls as a result of implementing the conservation...

  12. Energy management: a program of energy conservation for the community college facility. [Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various Authors

    1978-01-01

    This handbook developes helps for assessing and improving the energy efficiency of the community-college facility. The TEEM approach (Total Educational Energy Management) is a labor-intensive approach which requires the commitment and participation of all segments of the college community. The TEEM program presented here defines a series of tasks selected, ordered, and implemented in such a way as to achieve two basic objectives: (1) reducing campus energy requirements, and (2) meeting those reduced energy requirements more efficiently without adversely affecting the quality of educational programs. This guide to large-scale energy conservation on college campuses includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and conservation measures implemented. A series of appendices provides more detailed information, charts, and worksheets related to all aspects of energy use. The TEEM program provides the basic structure for achieving a significant reduction in campus energy costs.

  13. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation: Friends or Strangers ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a meta-study of local management experiences in developing countries from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. In international organisations and NGOs there is a general accepted agreement that collective management will yield success in forest conservation. However...... the claim is seldom rigously examined. In the present paper, a statistical test is performed and the claim is found wanting....

  14. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  15. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košulič, Ondřej; Michalko, Radek; Hula, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40%) and red-listed threatened species (26%). The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small-scale improvements

  16. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  17. Expanding Canadian renewable and conservation expenses class 43.1 to include solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Class 43.1 is a tax measure that allows for accelerated write-offs of renewable energy products for business use. Technologies that are included in the class for accelerated write off include renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, geo-thermal, fuel cells, bio-gas, cogeneration systems, and district heating and solar. In 2005, the federal budget announced 2 changes to class 43.1 The write off rate has been increased from 30 per cent to 50 per cent. This change would reduce the effective cost of solar energy for business owners. The class has also been extended to include distribution assets for district energy assets and biogas equipment. However, no changes to the restrictions for solar were announced. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) argues that class 43.1 currently does not help the solar industries, nor do the proposed changes solve this situation. The restrictions placed on solar eliminate about 90 per cent of the industrial applications for solar that class 43.1 should support. Class 43.1 currently covers only 1 per cent of photovoltaic applications, 2 per cent of solar hot water applications, and 9 per cent of solar air heating applications. CanSIA claims that an increase in tax write-offs for photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar air heating would help increase the solar market from 1,060 kW to a market size of 11,600 kW. CanSIA has made recommendations to the federal government to remove the size restrictions for PV systems and to remove the restrictions on applications for solar thermal systems. 2 tabs

  18. Agrobiodiversity and in situ conservation in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Li, Diyu; Clements, David Roy; Zhang, Fudou; Jin, Guimei; Wu, Jianyong; Wei, Pingfang; Lin, Song; Xue, Dayuan

    2017-05-15

    Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China belongs to a global biodiversity and cultural hotspot. Agrobiodiversity plays an essential role in local livelihoods and traditional culture in the region. However, preliminary studies suggest that diversity of crop plants and livestock species is declining. We hypothesized that agrobiodiversity and traditional means of preserving agrobiodiversity are threatened because of changes in government policy in favor of commercial plantations, land use change and changes in traditional agricultural practices. We investigated whether or not agrobiodiversity was declining, the specific causes, and signs of active biodiversity conservation practices in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna which could form the basis for extensive in situ conservation programmes. A series of field studies to document trends in agrobiodiversity were conducted in different ethnic minority communities in Menghai County, Mengla County and Jinghong City of Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China between July 2015 and February 2016. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. A total of 360 ethnic households provided information on current status, functions, characteristics, changes, and threatened factors of farming crop and livestock resources. Some measures for in situ conservation of agricultural biological resources were also researched using PRA methods. Two hundred twenty-six crop varieties belonging to 31 families, 71 genera and 101 species were identified in Xishuangbanna, which included 83 vegetable crops, 77 food crops, 24 spice crops, 22 fruit crops, 13 cash crops, 6 oil crops, and 1 cloth crop, respectively. There were 15 livestock varieties, belonging to 6 major species: cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks, and geese. Different crop and livestock resources had their own characteristics, functions and threatened factors

  19. Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya is rich in biological diversity to which wildlife resources contribute a significant proportion. Many of the regions with abundant and diverse wildlife communities remaining in East Africa are occupied by pastoralists. Recent studies show that the majority of the local people around protected areas have negative feelings ...

  20. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  1. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  2. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  3. Developing an effective community conservation program for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A; Guillen, R; Lamilla, I; Soto, L

    2010-05-01

    Developing effective conservation programs that positively impact the survival of a species while considering the needs of local communities is challenging. Here we present an overview of the conservation program developed by Proyecto Tití to integrate local communities in the conservation of Colombia's critically endangered primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus). Our comprehensive assessment of the threats effecting the long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin allowed us to establish the primary components of our program. Proyecto Tití has three areas of emphasis: (1) scientific studies detailing the biology and long-term survival of the cotton-top tamarin, (2) conservation education programs to increase public awareness and conservation knowledge, and (3) community empowerment programs that demonstrate a valuable economic incentive to protecting wildlife and forested areas in Colombia. This integrated approach to conservation that involves local communities in activities that benefit individuals, as well as wildlife, has proven to be remarkably effective in protecting cotton-top tamarins and their forested habitat. Our bindes program, which uses small cook stoves made from clay, has demonstrated a marked reduction in the number of trees that have been harvested for firewood. Developing environmental entrepreneurs, who create products made from recycled plastic for sale in national and international markets, has had a significant impact in reducing the amount of plastic that has been littering the environment and threatening the health of wildlife, while creating a stable economic income for rural communities. Proyecto Tití has provided economic alternatives to local communities that have dramatically reduced the illegal capture of cotton-top tamarins and forest destruction in the region that has positively impacted the long-term survival of this critically endangered primate. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Including students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities in school extracurricular and community recreation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L; Miracle, Sally; Sheppard-Jones, Kathy

    2007-02-01

    We conducted an online statewide survey of teachers of students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities to determine the extent to which their students were included in school extracurricular and community recreation activities. For the 252 teacher respondents who indicated that their primary caseload consisted of students with significant intellectual disabilities, we report the numbers of students participating in school and community activities and the primary type of support students required to participate in each activity. Finally, we identify implications for practitioners who want to increase the participation of students with significant disabilities in school and community activities.

  5. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  6. Community and conservation reserves in southern India: status, challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanagavel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Community Reserves and Conservation Reserves illustrate a community-based co-management model, a first of its kind within the protected area (PA network of India. Such reserves mark a shift towards an inclusive and decentralised approach within PAs in the country. Three such reserves in southern India: the Aghanashini Lion-tailed Macaque Conservation Reserve, Kadalundi-Vallikunnu Community Reserve and Thirupaddaimaradur Conservation Reserve, were selected to examine the reasons for their creation, management and stakeholder dynamics, with an aim to review their productivity and potential replicability. The study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with Forest Department officials, local community members and researchers working in the three reserves. Insufficient interaction between the stakeholders appeared to be a common issue in two reserves. The functioning of the reserves was also influenced, and in some cases negatively affected, by local politics. Financial stability was crucial in the functioning of reserves, as was consistency in interaction and appropriate monitoring of management plans. These elements are recommended for sustaining such reserves and creating community-based management systems for conservation, to support an inclusive approach to PA management.

  7. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  8. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  9. Evaluating Safeguards in a Conservation Incentive Program: Participation, Consent, and Benefit Sharing in Indigenous Communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Krause

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Critics suggest that Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+ may not generate improvements in well-being for participating stakeholders, and may in fact undermine indigenous rights. To ensure positive social benefits from REDD+ projects, the United Nations REDD Programme has proposed core safeguards, including local stakeholder participation; free, prior, and informed consent; and equitable distribution of benefits. However, there is little experience to date in implementing and evaluating these safeguards. We apply these core safeguards as a framework to study how people in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon perceive and benefit from Programa Socio Bosque, a conservation incentive program in Ecuador's national REDD+ Programme portfolio. We interviewed 101 individuals in five communities that had participated in the Programa Socio Bosque for at least 18 months. Close to 80% of respondents reported that the decision to join Socio Bosque was made democratically, that they were familiar with the conservation goals of Socio Bosque, and that they were aware which area their community had selected for conservation. However, only 17% were familiar with the overall terms of the conservation agreement, implying that they were either not fully informed of or did not fully understand what they were consenting to in joining the program. Although the terms of the program require a community investment plan to be democratically developed by community members, less than half of respondents were aware of the existence of the investment plan, and fewer than 20% had participated in its development. The majority of respondents (61% reported that they did not know the amount of incentives that their community currently receives, and only 44% stated that incentives were managed democratically in communal assemblies. Moreover, although a slight majority (53% said they had noticed benefits to the community from participating in

  10. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Chiedza Ngonidzashe; Muboko, Never; Gandiwa, Edson

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities’ viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, ‘What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?’ Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities’ and PA staff’s views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation. PMID:28542185

  11. Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Agnes

    2004-05-01

    Community-based ecotourism (CBET) has become a popular tool for biodiversity conservation, based on the principle that biodiversity must pay for itself by generating economic benefits, particularly for local people. There are many examples of projects that produce revenues for local communities and improve local attitudes towards conservation, but the contribution of CBET to conservation and local economic development is limited by factors such as the small areas and few people involved, limited earnings, weak linkages between biodiversity gains and commercial success, and the competitive and specialized nature of the tourism industry. Many CBET projects cited as success stories actually involve little change in existing local land and resource-use practices, provide only a modest supplement to local livelihoods, and remain dependent on external support for long periods, if not indefinitely. Investment in CBET might be justified in cases where such small changes and benefits can yield significant conservation and social benefits, although it must still be recognized as requiring a long term funding commitment. Here, I aim to identify conditions under which CBET is, and is not, likely to be effective, efficient and sustainable compared with alternative approaches for conserving biodiversity. I also highlight the need for better data and more rigorous analysis of both conservation and economic impacts.

  12. Conservation, livelihoods and tourism: A case study of the Buhoma-Mukono Community-based Tourism Project in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2013-01-01

    In developing countries, communities neighboring protected areas continue to bear a disproportionate amount of the costs associated with conservation. Traditional community livelihood strategies such as hunting, logging, and plant harvesting are seen as major threats to protected areas. Therefore,

  13. Natural communities of the central Appalachian red spruce ecosystem and their conservation significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Byers

    2010-01-01

    Natural communities within the red spruce ecosystem of the central Appalachians are characterized by exceptionally high biodiversity and conservation value. This ecosystem stretches in a southwest - northeast trending band for 250 km along the high elevations of the Allegheny Mountains, from Greenbrier County, WV to Garrett County, MD.

  14. Community-Based Outdoor Education Using a Local Approach to Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazushi

    2005-01-01

    Local people of a community interact with nature in a way that is mediated by their local cultures and shape their own environment. We need a local approach to conservation for the local environment adding to the political or technological approaches for global environmental problems such as the destruction of the ozone layer or global warming.…

  15. Climate Watch and Spoonbill Watch: Engaging Communities in Climate Science and Bird Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, N. L.; Baker, R.; Bergstrom, E.; Cox, D.; Cox, G.; Dale, K.; Jensen, C.; Langham, G.; LeBaron, G.; Loftus, W.; Rowden, J.; Slavin, Z.; Smithson-Stanley, L.; Wilsey, C.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change poses serious challenges for conservation scientists and policymakers. Yet with these challenges come equally great opportunities to engage communities of concerned citizens in climate science and conservation. National Audubon Society's 2014 Birds and Climate Change report found that 314 North American bird species could lose over half their breeding or wintering ranges by 2080 due to climate change. Consequently, in 2016 Audubon developed two new crowd-sourced science programs that mobilized existing birding communities (i.e., Audubon Society chapters) in partnership with scientists to evaluate climate change effects on birds, and take action to protect vulnerable populations. Climate Watch expands upon traditional monitoring programs by involving citizen scientists in hypothesis-driven science, testing predictions of climate-driven range expansion in bluebirds developed by National Audubon Society scientists. Spoonbill Watch is a partnership between an Audubon research scientist and the Pelican Island Audubon Society community, in which citizen scientists monitor a Roseate Spoonbill colony recently established in response to changing habitat and climatic conditions. Additionally, Spoonbill Watch participants and leaders have moved beyond monitoring to take action to protect the colony, by working with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission towards getting the site declared as a Critical Wildlife Area and by conducting local outreach and education efforts. We will present overviews, lessons learned, and conservation goals and opportunities achieved during the pilot year of Climate Watch and Spoonbill Watch. Scientific - community partnerships such as these are essential to confront the threats posed by climate change.

  16. Protected Areas and Local Communities: an Inevitable Partnership toward Successful Conservation Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S. M. Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many protected areas (PAs have followed the conventional and exclusionary approach applied at Yellowstone in 1872. As such, many parks have failed to fully integrate other important factors, such as social, cultural, and political issues. In some cases, this has triggered adverse social impacts on local communities, disrupting their traditional ways of living and limiting their control of and access to natural resources. Such an outcome can undermine protection policies through conflicts between park managers and local communities. The success of conservation strategies through protected areas may lie in the ability of managers to reconcile biodiversity conservation goals with social and economic issues and to promote greater compliance of local communities with PA conservation strategies. However, there are very few quantitative studies identifying what the key factors are that lead to better compliance with PA conservation policies. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis of 55 published case studies from developing countries to determine whether the level of compliance of local communities with PA regulations was related to: (1 PA age, (2 PA area, (3 the existence of a buffer zone, (4 the level of protection as defined by IUCN categories, (5 gross domestic product per capita, (6 population density in the vicinity of PAs, and (7 the level of local community participation in PA management. We found that local community participation in the PA decision-making process was the only variable that was significantly related to the level of compliance with PA polices. In general, the higher the level of participation, the higher the level of compliance. This has important implications for PA management and suggests that greater inclusion of local communities in management should be a key strategy for ensuring the integrity of PAs.

  17. Trophy hunters' willingness to pay for wildlife conservation and community benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Tibebe Weldesemaet, Yitbarek; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Tadie, Degu; Hanley, Nick

    2015-08-01

    In the face of fundamental land-use changes, the potential for trophy hunting to contribute to conservation is increasingly recognized. Trophy hunting can, for example, provide economic incentives to protect wildlife populations and their habitat, but empirical studies on these relationships are few and tend to focus on the effects of benefit-sharing schemes from an ex post perspective. We investigated the conditions under which trophy hunting could facilitate wildlife conservation in Ethiopia ex ante. We used a choice experiment approach to survey international trophy hunters' (n = 224) preferences for trips to Ethiopia, here operationalized as trade-offs between different attributes of a hunting package, as expressed through choices with an associated willingness to pay. Participants expressed strong preferences and, consequently, were willing to pay substantial premiums for hunting trips to areas with abundant nontarget wildlife where domestic livestock was absent and for arrangements that offered benefit sharing with local communities. For example, within the range of percentages considered in the survey, respondents were on average willing to pay an additional $3900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue being given to local communities. By contrast, respondents were less supportive of hunting revenue being retained by governmental bodies: Willingness to pay decreased by $1900 for every 10 percentage points of the revenue given to government. Hunters' preferences for such attributes of hunting trips differed depending on the degree to which they declared an interest in Ethiopian culture, nature conservation, or believed Ethiopia to be politically unstable. Overall, respondents thus expressly valued the outcomes of nature conservation activities--the presence of wildlife in hunting areas--and they were willing to pay for them. Our findings highlight the usefulness of insights from choice modeling for the design of wildlife management and conservation

  18. Effects of conservation management of landscapes and vertebrate communities on Lyme borreliosis risk in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millins, Caroline; Gilbert, Lucy; Medlock, Jolyon; Hansford, Kayleigh; Thompson, Des Ba; Biek, Roman

    2017-06-05

    Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species. Available evidence suggests that increasing woodland extent, implementing biodiversity policies that encourage ecotonal habitat and urban greening can increase the risk of Lyme borreliosis by increasing suitable habitat for hosts and the tick vectors. However, this can depend on whether deer population management is carried out as part of these conservation activities. Exclusion fencing or culling deer to low densities can decrease tick abundance and Lyme borreliosis risk. As management actions often constitute large-scale perturbation experiments, these hold great potential to understand underlying drivers of tick and pathogen dynamics. We recommend integrating monitoring of ticks and the risk of tick-borne pathogens with conservation management activities. This would help fill knowledge gaps and the production of best practice guidelines to reduce risks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. How national context, project design, and local community characteristics influence success in community-based conservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeremy S; Waylen, Kerry A; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-12-26

    Community-based conservation (CBC) promotes the idea that conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for, local communities. However, CBC projects are neither consistently successful nor free of controversy. Innovative recent studies evaluating the factors associated with success and failure typically examine only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic) and explore synergies and trade-offs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context, project design, and local community characteristics affect these measures of success. Using bivariate analyses and multivariate proportional odds logistic regressions within a multilevel analysis and model-fitting framework, we show that project design, particularly capacity-building in local communities, is associated with success across all outcomes. In addition, some characteristics of the local community in which projects are conducted, such as tenure regimes and supportive cultural beliefs and institutions, are important for project success. Surprisingly, there is little evidence that national context systematically influences project outcomes. We also find evidence of synergies between pairs of outcomes, particularly between ecological and economic success. We suggest that well-designed and implemented projects can overcome many of the obstacles imposed by local and national conditions to succeed in multiple domains.

  20. Enjoying Our Backyard Buddies--Social Research Informing the Practice of Mainstream Community Education for the Conservation of Urban Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Richard; Webber, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Supporting urban communities to make changes that contribute to sustainable living is a challenge that many environment and conservation organisations embrace. However, many community education and involvement initiatives to date have tended to appeal mostly to those with knowledge and enthusiasm for protection and conservation of the environment,…

  1. Conservation of food tree species in Niger: towards a participatory approach in rural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez Leal, D.; Douma, S.; Madrigal, J.; Gómez-Ramos, A.; Vicenti, B.; Alía, R.; Mahamane, A.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Indigenous woody species play an important role as a complement on the diet of rural populations in Niger, especially in periods of food scarcity. However, these species are nowadays overexploited and management programmes are necessary to conserve them. In order to design a conservation programme for edible woody species, this paper presents a sociological analysis about the use of edible woody species and their products during shortage periods in Niger. Area of study: Four villages in two distinct agro-ecological regions were selected to conduct structured enquiries based on focus group discussions and surveys with key informants. Material and Methods: Perceptions of the conservation status of these species were identified; as well the factors affecting food values, perceptions, management and collection practices. Main results: Results show that B. senegalensis was a staple food in the driest areas, and M. crassifolia was used for fodder and human consumption in the most critical situations. The local communities related the drivers of species conservation status specific to the agro-ecological regions, and gender and ethnic differences were also identified. Research highlights: Understanding these factors constitutes a first step towards adaptive management strategies for the conservation of woody food species in rural communities of Niger. (Author)

  2. The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine recreational tourism is one of a number of threats to the Belize Barrier Reef but, conversely, represents both a motivation and source of resources for its conservation. The growth of tourism in Belize has resulted in the fact that many coastal communities are in varying stages of a socio-economic shift from dependence on fishing to dependence on tourism. In a nation becoming increasingly dependent on the health of its coral reef ecosystems for economic prosperity, a shift from extractive uses to their preservation is both necessary and logical. Through examining local perception data in five coastal communities in Belize, each attracting different levels of coral reef related tourism, this analysis is intended to explore the relationship between tourism development and local coral reef conservation awareness and support. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation between tourism development and coral reef conservation awareness and support in the study communities. The results also show a positive correlation between tourism development and local perceptions of quality of life, a trend that is most likely the source of the observed relationship between tourism and conservation. The study concludes that, because the observed relationship may be dependent on continued benefits from tourism as opposed to a perceived crisis in coral reef health, Belize must pay close attention to tourism impacts in the future. Failure to do this could result in a destructive feedback loop that would contribute to the degradation of the reef and, ultimately, Belize’s diminished competitiveness in the ecotourism market.

  3. Potential social, institutional, and environmental impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two Washington communities. [Seattle and Yakima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, E.; Olsen, M.

    1980-03-01

    The likely environmental, social, and institutional impacts of selected energy-conservation measures in two communities in Washington state are reported. The five conservation measures investigated in this study were: (1) retrofitting existing buildings; (2) district heating and Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES); (3) small automobiles and vehicle redesign; (4) land-use and housing modifications; and (5) electric-utility rate reform. Twenty potential impact areas were selected for analysis. These areas were divided into five categories of environmental impacts, economic impacts, community impacts, personal impacts, and overall quality of life in the community. The research was conducted in Seattle and Yakima, Washington. In each location, about two dozen public officials and business, labor, and community leaders were interviewed. Their diverse views are summarized. The Seattle respondents saw energy conservation as a highly desirable policy with a number of temporary, transitional problems arising as energy-conservation measures were implemented. Yakima respondents, in contrast, did not expect to encounter many serious energy problems in the foreseeable future and consequently viewed energy conservation as a relatively minor community concern. Moreover, they anticipated that many conservation measures, if implemented by the government, would encounter either apathy or resistance in their community. Two broad generalizations can bedrawn from these interviews: (1) energy conservation will basically be beneficial for the natural environment and our society; and (2) if energy conservation does become a dominant thrust in our society, it could stimulate and reinforce a much broader process of fundamental social change. (LCL)

  4. Comparison of translocation methods to conserve metallophyte communities in the Southeastern D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Stradic, Soizig; Séleck, Maxime; Lebrun, Julie; Boisson, Sylvain; Handjila, Guylain; Faucon, Michel-Pierre; Enk, Terrence; Mahy, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    In southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, unique metallophyte communities supporting numerous endemic species occurred on the highly mineralized copper cobalt (Cu-Co) hills throughout the province. These hills are economically valuable mineral reserves; mining activities represent therefore a threat to the long-term persistence of these communities. Ex situ conservation program was set up by a mining company to rescue and conserve the diversity of Cu-Co communities until restoration activities are initiated. Two kinds of Cu-Co communities: the steppe and the steppic savanna, were translocated using topsoil spreading and whole-turf translocation. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these two techniques in conserving Cu-Co communities and their potential use in future restoration programs. More than 2 years after the translocation, whole-turf translocation appeared to be the better technique for ex situ conservation of endemic Cu-Co species. Not only did whole-turf successfully translocate numerous target species that were not present in the topsoil areas, but it also resulted in fewer ruderal and non-target species compared to topsoil spreading. Topsoil spreading recorded low seedling emergence from seed bank due to large proportions of dormant seeds or the absence of a seed bank, especially for the steppic savanna. Restoration of the steppe is currently more successful than for steppic savanna where the lack of dominant and structuring species likely contributed to divergence in species composition compared to reference ecosystem. Our study stresses the fact that tropical old-growth grasslands, which require probably several centuries to assemble, are difficult to restore or translocate.

  5. Combining natural history collections with fisher knowledge for community-based conservation in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail S Golden

    Full Text Available Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae, to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can

  6. Combining Natural History Collections with Fisher Knowledge for Community-Based Conservation in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Abigail S.; Naisilsisili, Waisea; Ligairi, Isikele; Drew, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae), to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can offer a template

  7. Dynamic Edge Effects in Small Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Zachary M.; McCleery, Robert A.; Collier, Bret A.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Silvy, Nova J.; Taylor, Peter J.; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics. PMID:24040269

  8. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Zachary M; McCleery, Robert A; Collier, Bret A; Fletcher, Robert J; Silvy, Nova J; Taylor, Peter J; Monadjem, Ara

    2013-01-01

    Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.

  9. Dynamic edge effects in small mammal communities across a conservation-agricultural interface in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M Hurst

    Full Text Available Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.

  10. Conservation of Species- and Trait-Based Modeling Network Interactions in Extremely Acidic Microbial Community Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Kuang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding microbial interactions is essential to decipher the mechanisms of community assembly and their effects on ecosystem functioning, however, the conservation of species- and trait-based network interactions along environmental gradient remains largely unknown. Here, by using the network-based analyses with three paralleled data sets derived from 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, functional microarray, and predicted metagenome, we test our hypothesis that the network interactions of traits are more conserved than those of taxonomic measures, with significantly lower variation of network characteristics along the environmental gradient in acid mine drainage. The results showed that although the overall network characteristics remained similar, the structural variation was significantly lower at trait levels. The higher conserved individual node topological properties at trait level rather than at species level indicated that the responses of diverse traits remained relatively consistent even though different species played key roles under different environmental conditions. Additionally, the randomization tests revealed that it could not reject the null hypothesis that species-based correlations were random, while the tests suggested that correlation patterns of traits were non-random. Furthermore, relationships between trait-based network characteristics and environmental properties implied that trait-based networks might be more useful in reflecting the variation of ecosystem function. Taken together, our results suggest that deterministic trait-based community assembly results in greater conservation of network interaction, which may ensure ecosystem function across environmental regimes, emphasizing the potential importance of measuring the complexity and conservation of network interaction in evaluating the ecosystem stability and functioning.

  11. Forest owners' perceptions of ecotourism: Integrating community values and forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Piñeros, Sandra; Mayett-Moreno, Yesica

    2015-03-01

    The use of forest land for ecotourism has been well accepted due to its ability to provide income to local people and to conserve the forest. Preparing the forest with infrastructure to attract and educate visitors has been reported of importance. This study applied Q methodology in a small rural community of the State of Puebla, Mexico, to reveal forest owners' perceptions to build infrastructure in their forest as part of their ecotourism project. It also discloses forest owners' underlying motives to use their forest for ecotourism. Ecotourism is perceived as a complementary activity to farming that would allow women to be involved in community development. Low impact infrastructure is desired due to forest owners' perception to preserve the forest for the overall community well-being.

  12. Motivating conservation: Learning to care for other species in a local ecological community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Michael

    Large-scale, sustainable biodiversity conservation must motivate action by local communities. I united theories and practices in biology and psychology to study the process by which people are motivated to care for other species, and to what extent caring results in helping. Participants (N = 1200), age 8--22, interacted with native fish and aquatic insects in their habitats during 21 field experiences through Lake County, Montana educational institutions. Native fish were chosen because they are familiar to local people, yet different from people in their morphology, biomechanics, and habitat. In Phase I, two activity models for conservation emerged: the Habitat approach linked concepts in ecology, reciprocation, and a moral orientation toward justice, while the Behavior approach linked concepts in behavior, kin selection, and a moral orientation toward caring. These two approaches were compared in Phase II through seven sets of experiences that varied only in point of view: toward the habitat or toward behavior. I found that through sustained contact between people and local fish in their habitats, in the field and in cold-water aquaria, people empathized with fish more than with habitats. They perceived fish states by interpreting their behavior, and created meaning by focusing on fish social interactions with their habitat, with other fish, and with people. They used the information gained from empathy to identify ongoing conservation needs and to design conservation plans. Attention to behavior increased perception of human impacts on fish; perception of relatedness with fish; similarity with the physiology, behavior, minds and lives of fish; desire for non-material benefits in return for helping fish; and cohesion within participant groups. These perceptions varied with age and gender. For example, women and children emphasized values of non-material returns for time invested. This study recommends a behavioral-ecology approach for motivating conservation and

  13. Community Empowerment Program in Pinogu Subdistrict, Bone Bolango Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia: Concerning to The Unique Local Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Peni Sancayaningsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available First year of three year plan of Community Empowerment Program through Student Community Services (SCS of Gadjah Mada University was conducted in Pinogu Subdistrict, Bone Bolango Regency, Gorontalo Province in 2013. Pinogu is located on top of hill and reserved as the National Park of Bogani Nani Wartabone and this protects some endangered species, such as Tarsiers and Megapodon birds. As the most remote area, Pinogu had not been touched equally by the central government, therefore it was less developed. Pinogu had been popular with coffee plantations since Dutch colonial periods. This plantations was now too old and became forest. This SCS Program was designed to empowered local people for agribusiness including rejuvenate coffee plantation and coffee production and to educate local people to be aware of local biodiversity and understand how to conserve the most endangered species, Tarsiers and Maleo. Twenty one of UGM students from different study programs had been coached and trained priorly by Field Instructure within 3 months with the SCS-thematic programs and leadership; then they were mobilized to Pinogu and stayed for 2 months conducting the program. Two main programs out of 7 SCS thematic programs were successfully conducted during SCS activity in Pinogu, Bone Bolango Regency. Coffee agribusiness programs from up stream to down stream processes were trained to local community who interested in coffee production twice a week by students and biodiversity conservation was tought to junior high school students. These SCS program achievements were including establishment of anursary, improvement of local people skills in manage coffee plantation, selection of mature seed, seed drying, and good coffee processing, and also establishment of a coffee producing community. Conservation education on local endemic and endangered species—Megapodon birds (M. Maleo and Tarsiers (T. Spectrum—to junior high school students was

  14. The Role of Rural Communities in Conservation of Rangelands in Mahneshan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Karimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the action of rangeland-depended livestock holders regarding rangeland conservation, including protection and rehabilitation activities and to analyse relevant influencing factors, using a mixed method of survey and case study. The data were collected through analysing existing documents, focus groups, semi-structured and structured interviews using questionnaires submitted to 204 rural livestock holders in the Mahneshan Township. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. According to the results farmers’ knowledge regarding the role, importance and factors affecting rangeland degradation was relatively high, however they had a low level of knowledge and action about mechanical conservation techniques. The action of livestock holders in terms of biological conservation activities and grazing management showed a positive and signifincat corrletaion with variables such as implementing of rangeland projects, their interaction with external institutions, participating in extension training courses, education level and irrigated and rainfed agricultural land size. Moreover, based on a path analysis, 37% of the variance of the farmers’ actions regarding the rangeland conservation was explained by the variables such as rangeland rehabilitation actions, farmers’ conservation knowledge, farmers’ interaction with natural resources experts, beekeeping, and participating in extension training courses. Promotional and extension activities and farmers’ interaction with experts have a positive effect in enhancing farmers’ knowledge and actions for sustainable rangeland use and conservation.

  15. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  16. Local community knowledge and participation for animal diversity conservation in SSWP IV Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Oktafitria, Dwi; Wirawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Zainul; Alfarisy, M. Ulya; Azis, Abdul; Argiyanti, Sherly Eka; Fadilah, Via Nur

    2017-06-01

    Key to animal biodiversity conservation are the local communities that live in and around these sites as their livelihoods depend on the natural resources these sites provide. SSWP (Sub Satuan Wilayah Pembangunan) IV Sidoarjo covers Krian, Balongbendo, Tarik, Prambon, and Wonoayu subdistrict with the main function as technical agricultural, industrial zones supported by the low density of settlement activity. Development in this region which tend not balanced between technical agricultural and industrial activities, it is necessary to study in depth so that rapid industrial development can still pay attention to the environment because there is a trend change in agricultural land use and settlements for industrial activities. Take a look at the projections of potential future threats and potential huge biodiversity in SSWP IV is necessary to do a program with a strategic approach to community support efforts to efficiently manage potential biodiversity. As well as the development and diversification of food security program in the region is an abundant source of food. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo and knowing how the knowledge and participation of local communities on biodiversity of animals in the region. The study was conducted in August-September 2016 through direct field surveys for collecting animal biodiversity primary data. It also conducted a structured interview to determine how much knowledge and participation of local communities towards the conservation of biodiversity of animals in SSWP IV Sidoarjo. The results of field studies obtained 28 Aves species, 48 species of Insect, 14 species of Pisces, 4 species of Reptiles, 6 species of Mammals. It was known that there were a bird species with protected status in accordance with UU No. 5 1990 and least concern status in accordance with IUCN. While the results of the interview obtained 63% of 19 respondents did not know about the definition of

  17. Institutional Sustainability Barriers of Community Conservation Agreement as a Collaboration Management in Lore Lindu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Daeng Massiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of forest institutional arrangement is the issue of institutional sustainability in achieving sustainable forest ecosystem. This study aimed to explain the barriers of institutional sustainability Community Conservation Agreement (CCA designed in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, in Indonesia, as a collaborative management of national parks. This study is of descriptive which used qualitative approach, i.e. asking open-ended questions, reviewing documentation and analyzing textual of community conservation agreements. We found that the institutional sustainability barriers of CCA were the local decisions on collective-choice level and that the rules at operational level arranged in CCA were not in line with formal rules of national park management at the constitutional level. Furthermore, the low capacity of local institutions in heterogeneous villages with many migrants in controlling and regulating the forest use, especially in rehabilitation zone areas, also became a barrier to institutional sustainability of CCA. Therefore, institutional sustainability of CCA requires support of national park management policy that accommodates the sustainability of livelihoods of local communities in national parks, strengthening local institution's capacity, and ultimately integrating institution of CCA as part of LLNP management.

  18. New Idea for National Park Zoning System: a Synthesis between Biodiversity Conservation and Customary Community's Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Kosmaryandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of national park in customary region had aroused conflic since it had not incorporate traditional management system in its management system. The objectives of this research is to develop such policies for national park zonation that amalgamating the national-global interests for conservation on the one side and the customary community interests on the other side. Result shows that adaptation was needed toward the prevailing science-based ecologically-oriented regulation on zoning plan, so it would incorporate the community's custom in order to achieve effective management of national park. Appropriate and applicable zoning can be achieved through implementation of management mindset with customary people livelihood perspectives, zone establishment which give priority to the achievement of national park functions rather than the fulfillment of zone requirements, and adaptation of zone formation and criteria toward traditional land use as efforts to accommodate the interest of biodiversity conservation and customary people livelihood.Keywords:  national park, adaptation, costumary community, traditional land use, zonation

  19. Macro-economic effects of additional energy conservation in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, H.W.; Bakker, L.; Muizelaar, J.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs

  20. Medicinal, Aromatic and Cosmetic (MAC) plants for community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation in Bali, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, Liesbeth Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The general aim of this ethno-botanical study is to document, describe and analyse the Balinese community members’ knowledge, belief and practices with regard to medicinal, aromatic and cosmetic (MAC) plants in relation to community health and bio-cultural diversity conservation of MAC plants. This

  1. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, Girma; Tesfay, Girmay; Bauer, Hans; Ashenafi, Zelealem Tefera; de Iongh, Hans; Marino, Jorgelina

    2015-09-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources for the local communities and also sustain small populations of the endangered Ethiopian wolf ( Canis simensis). Questionnaires were designed to assess ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the livelihoods of the Amhara people living in Mount Abune Yosef and their attitudes toward Afroalpine and Ethiopian wolf conservation. Of the 120 households interviewed, selected randomly from across eight villages, 80 % benefited from natural resources by grazing their livestock and harvesting firewood and grasses. The majority (90 %) also suffered from livestock predation by Ethiopian wolves and common jackals (Canis aureus) and crop raiding by geladas ( Theropithecus gelada), birds, and rodents, yet more than half reported a positive attitudes toward Ethiopian wolves (66 %). People with positive attitudes tended to live close to the communal land, to own more livestock, and to be unaffected by conflict. Many also recognized the need to protect the Afroalpine habitats of Abune Yosef (71 %), and this attitude predominated among the literate, households that owned land, had smaller herds and were further away. We discussed how people's attitudes were modulated by human-wildlife conflicts and by the benefits derived from the access to natural resources in communal land, and the implications for the conservation of Afroalpine ecosystem and the flagship Ethiopian wolf.

  2. Resource Theft in Tropical Forest Communities: Implications for Non-timber Management, Livelihoods, and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Duchelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased devolution of forest ownership and management rights to local control has the potential to promote both conservation and livelihood development in remote tropical regions. Such shifts in property rights, however, can generate conflicts, particularly when combined with rapidly increasing values of forest resources. We explored the phenomenon of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa theft in communities in Western Amazonia. Through interviews with 189 Brazil nut collectors in 12 communities in Bolivia and Brazil and participation in the 2006 and 2007 harvests, we quantified relative income derived from Brazil nuts, reported nut thefts, and nut collection and management practices. We found a much greater incidence of reported Brazil nut thefts in Pando, Bolivia than in the adjacent state of Acre, Brazil. Our analyses suggest that three factors may have affected nut thefts in the forest: (1 contrasts in the timing and process of formally recognizing property rights, (2 different historic settlement patterns, and (3 varying degrees of economic dependence on Brazil nuts. Threat of theft influenced Brazil nut harvest regimes, with potentially long-term implications for forest-based livelihoods, and management and conservation of Brazil nut-rich forests in Western Amazonia.

  3. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  4. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  5. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  6. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. Minority marketing for resource conservation. A research project to study methods of outreach in Hispanic minority communities regarding issues of energy and resource conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Minority Marketing Program established baseline environmental informational data related to City of Tucson minority communities. The data is intended to be used to further develop the energy conservation, environmental education and neighborhood outreach programs. The goal of these new programs is to positively affect the participating rates of all City sponsored community environmental programs with a special emphasis on minority communities. The Minority Marketing Program developed a survey, in conjunction with the University of Arizona, to establish a database of environmental awareness information City-wide but with a special emphasis on an area composed of 10 census tracts within a primarily Hispanic community. This survey was constructed using federal non-proprietary software entitled Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL) and was administered as a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI), as well as a total design method mail-out survey. This approach produced data that is reliable within {+-} 5%. It will also establish a database against which future data can be compared.

  8. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  9. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

  10. Avian Communities in the Amazonian Cangas Vegetation: Biogeographic Affinities, Components of Beta-Diversity and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO H. BORGES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity. Bird communities in cangas patches exhibited statistically significant nested structure in respect to species richness and patch size. In contrast, the nested site arrangement was not affected by the isolation of patches. Number of species and composition are moderately affected by the area of cangas patches but not by its degree of isolation. To conserve this unique habitat are necessary a strict protection of carefully chosen patches of cangas and an investigation of the conservation value of secondary vegetation recovered by the mining companies.

  11. Effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas for conservation of lake fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cindy; Ellis, Lucy; de Kerckhove, Derrick T

    2017-10-08

    Freshwater protected areas are rare even though freshwater ecosystems are among the most imperiled in the world. Conservation actions within terrestrial protected areas (TPAs) such as development or resource extraction regulations may spill over to benefit freshwater ecosystems within their boundaries. Using data from 175 lakes across Ontario, Canada, we compared common indicators of fish-assemblage status (i.e., species richness, Shannon diversity index, catch per unit effort, and normalized-length size spectrum slopes) to evaluate whether TPAs benefit lake fish assemblages. Nearest neighbor cluster analysis was used to generate pairs of lakes: inside versus outside, inside versus bordering, and bordering versus outside TPAs based on lake characteristics. The diversity and abundance indicators did not differ significantly across comparisons, but normalized-length size spectrum slopes (NLSS) were significantly steeper in lakes outside parks. The latter indicated assemblage differences (greater abundances of small-bodied species) and less-efficient energy transfer through the trophic levels of assemblages outside parks. Although not significantly different, pollution- and turbidity-tolerant species were more abundant outside parks, whereas 3 of the 4 pollution-intolerant species were more abundant within parks. Twenty-one percent of the difference in slopes was related to higher total dissolved solids concentrations and angling pressure. Our results support the hypothesis that TPAs benefit lake fish assemblages and suggest that NLSS slopes are informative indicators for aquatic protected area evaluations because they represent compositional and functional aspects of communities. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States.Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United

  13. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G; Stewart, Susan I; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-08-02

    Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United States may

  14. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment

  15. 78 FR 14587 - Kelley-McDonough Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from John Kelley and Denise McDonough for a 10- year incidental take permit under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. The application addresses the potential for ``take'' of the federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail that is likely to occur incidental to the construction, maintenance, and occupation of a single-family residence on an existing legal single-family-zoned parcel in the unincorporated community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, California. The applicants would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate project activities that are likely to result in take of the Morro shoulderband snail as described in their plan. We invite comments from the public on the application package that includes the Kelley-McDonough Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail. This proposed action has been determined to be eligible for a Categorical Exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA).

  16. Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2013-01-01

    Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

  17. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  18. Conservation status, species composition, and distribution of Avian Community in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahnawaz Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are among the best indicators of environmental changes. Given the significance of birds for conservation planning and environmental assessments, there is a need to develop a better ecological understanding of avian community structure. In southeast Asia, the association among tropical birds with their habitat is poorly studied. To investigate the influence of different habitats on the avifauna, we studied the composition of local bird communities along habitat gradients characterized by environmental factors such as vegetation type and extent of anthropogenic pressure, using the open-radius point count method. This is the first attempt to document the status, composition, and distribution of avifauna in Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bihar, India. A total of 147 avian species belonging to 58 families and 20 orders were recorded during the study. It was found that the forest range Lakhisarai, with 50% of habitat heterogeneity, supports the highest avian density (6,428 individuals/km2 in the sanctuary, whereas the lowest bird density was recorded from the Munger forest range i.e. 3,847 individuals/km2, which also has the least habitat heterogeneity (i.e. 20%. The forest range Dharara (p = 0.006, and habitat categories degraded bamboo forest (p = 0.005 and forest edge with cultivation (p < 0.001 were found to support significantly higher bird diversity.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Mediterranean Gorgonian-Associated Microbial Communities Reveals Conserved Core and Locally Variant Bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    van de Water, Jeroen A J M

    2016-10-10

    Gorgonians are key habitat-forming species of Mediterranean benthic communities, but their populations have suffered from mass mortality events linked to high summer seawater temperatures and microbial disease. However, our knowledge on the diversity, dynamics and function of gorgonian-associated microbial communities is limited. Here, we analysed the spatial variability of the microbiomes of five sympatric gorgonian species (Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolini, Eunicella verrucosa, Leptogorgia sarmentosa and Paramuricea clavata), collected from the Mediterranean Sea over a scale of ∼1100 km, using next-generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiomes of all gorgonian species were generally dominated by members of the genus Endozoicomonas, which were at very low abundance in the surrounding seawater. Although the composition of the core microbiome (operational taxonomic units consistently present in a species) was found to be unique for each host species, significant overlap was observed. These spatially consistent associations between gorgonians and their core bacteria suggest intricate symbiotic relationships and regulation of the microbiome composition by the host. At the same time, local variations in microbiome composition were observed. Functional predictive profiling indicated that these differences could be attributed to seawater pollution. Taken together, our data indicate that gorgonian-associated microbiomes are composed of spatially conserved bacteria (core microbiome members) and locally variant members, and that local pollution may influence these local associations, potentially impacting gorgonian health.

  20. Fungal Communities Including Plant Pathogens in Near Surface Air Are Similar across Northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Nicolaisen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diversity of fungal spores in air is limited, and also the content of airborne spores of fungal plant pathogens is understudied. In the present study, a total of 152 air samples were taken from rooftops at urban settings in Slagelse, DK, Wageningen NL, and Rothamsted, UK together with 41 samples from above oilseed rape fields in Rothamsted. Samples were taken during 10-day periods in spring and autumn, each sample representing 1 day of sampling. The fungal content of samples was analyzed by metabarcoding of the fungal internal transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1 and by qPCR for specific fungi. The metabarcoding results demonstrated that season had significant effects on airborne fungal communities. In contrast, location did not have strong effects on the communities, even though locations were separated by up to 900 km. Also, a number of plant pathogens had strikingly similar patterns of abundance at the three locations. Rooftop samples were more diverse than samples taken above fields, probably reflecting greater mixing of air from a range of microenvironments for the rooftop sites. Pathogens that were known to be present in the crop were also found in air samples taken above the field. This paper is one of the first detailed studies of fungal composition in air with the focus on plant pathogens and shows that it is possible to detect a range of pathogens in rooftop air samplers using metabarcoding.

  1. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  2. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Joana Roque; Grilo, Clara; Boone, Randall B; Galvin, Kathleen A; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191) as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them"), and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion). Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  3. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Roque de Pinho

    Full Text Available The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191 as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them", and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion. Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  4. Participatory vulnerability assessment in the context of conservation and development projects: A case study of local communities in Southwest Cameroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    , and attractive prices for cash crops including cocoa, have created the opportunity for alternative sources of income that could have substantial impacts on smallholders as well as for conservation. The aim of this work was to identify risks and opportunities associated with conservation and development...

  5. Mitigating the conflict between pitfall-trap sampling and conservation of terrestrial subterranean communities in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kozel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean habitats are known for their rich endemic fauna and high vulnerability to disturbance. Many methods and techniques are used to sample the biodiversity of terrestrial invertebrate fauna in caves, among which pitfall trapping remains one of the most frequently used and effective ones. However, this method has turned out to be harmful to subterranean communities if applied inappropriately. Traditionally, pitfall traps have been placed in caves solely on the ground. Here we present an optimized technique of pitfall trapping to achieve a balance between sampling completeness and minimal disturbance of the fauna in the cave. Monthly we placed traps for two days in two parallel sets, a ground trap and an upper one−just below the ceiling−along the cave. In the upper set, about 10% additional species were recorded compared to the ground set. Greater species diversity in the cave was the consequence of both the increased sampling effort and the amplified heterogeneity of sampled microhabitats. In caves sampled by traditional pitfall trapping, overlooked species may be a consequence of methodological biases, leading to lower biodiversity estimates. In our research, incidence-based estimations mostly surpassed abundance-based ones and predicted 95% coverage of the species richness within about two years of sampling. The sampling used contributes at the same time to both the more effective and less invasive inventory of the subterranean fauna. Thus, it may serve as an optional sampling to achieve optimal balance between required data for biodiversity and ecological studies, and nature conservation goals.

  6. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  7. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  8. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  9. A guide to phylogenetic metrics for conservation, community ecology and macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, Marc W.; Carvalho, Silvia B.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Ferrier, Simon; Fritz, Susanne A.; Grenyer, Rich; Helmus, Matthew R.; Jin, Lanna S.; Mooers, Arne O.; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Redding, David W.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Winter, Marten; Mazel, Florent

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of phylogenies in ecology is increasingly common and has broadened our understanding of biological diversity. Ecological sub‐disciplines, particularly conservation, community ecology and macroecology, all recognize the value of evolutionary relationships but the resulting development of phylogenetic approaches has led to a proliferation of phylogenetic diversity metrics. The use of many metrics across the sub‐disciplines hampers potential meta‐analyses, syntheses, and generalizations of existing results. Further, there is no guide for selecting the appropriate metric for a given question, and different metrics are frequently used to address similar questions. To improve the choice, application, and interpretation of phylo‐diversity metrics, we organize existing metrics by expanding on a unifying framework for phylogenetic information. Generally, questions about phylogenetic relationships within or between assemblages tend to ask three types of question: how much; how different; or how regular? We show that these questions reflect three dimensions of a phylogenetic tree: richness, divergence, and regularity. We classify 70 existing phylo‐diversity metrics based on their mathematical form within these three dimensions and identify ‘anchor’ representatives: for α‐diversity metrics these are PD (Faith's phylogenetic diversity), MPD (mean pairwise distance), and VPD (variation of pairwise distances). By analysing mathematical formulae and using simulations, we use this framework to identify metrics that mix dimensions, and we provide a guide to choosing and using the most appropriate metrics. We show that metric choice requires connecting the research question with the correct dimension of the framework and that there are logical approaches to selecting and interpreting metrics. The guide outlined herein will help researchers navigate the current jungle of indices. PMID:26785932

  10. A guide to phylogenetic metrics for conservation, community ecology and macroecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Caroline M; Cadotte, Marc W; Carvalho, Silvia B; Davies, T Jonathan; Ferrier, Simon; Fritz, Susanne A; Grenyer, Rich; Helmus, Matthew R; Jin, Lanna S; Mooers, Arne O; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Redding, David W; Rosauer, Dan F; Winter, Marten; Mazel, Florent

    2017-05-01

    The use of phylogenies in ecology is increasingly common and has broadened our understanding of biological diversity. Ecological sub-disciplines, particularly conservation, community ecology and macroecology, all recognize the value of evolutionary relationships but the resulting development of phylogenetic approaches has led to a proliferation of phylogenetic diversity metrics. The use of many metrics across the sub-disciplines hampers potential meta-analyses, syntheses, and generalizations of existing results. Further, there is no guide for selecting the appropriate metric for a given question, and different metrics are frequently used to address similar questions. To improve the choice, application, and interpretation of phylo-diversity metrics, we organize existing metrics by expanding on a unifying framework for phylogenetic information. Generally, questions about phylogenetic relationships within or between assemblages tend to ask three types of question: how much; how different; or how regular? We show that these questions reflect three dimensions of a phylogenetic tree: richness, divergence, and regularity. We classify 70 existing phylo-diversity metrics based on their mathematical form within these three dimensions and identify 'anchor' representatives: for α-diversity metrics these are PD (Faith's phylogenetic diversity), MPD (mean pairwise distance), and VPD (variation of pairwise distances). By analysing mathematical formulae and using simulations, we use this framework to identify metrics that mix dimensions, and we provide a guide to choosing and using the most appropriate metrics. We show that metric choice requires connecting the research question with the correct dimension of the framework and that there are logical approaches to selecting and interpreting metrics. The guide outlined herein will help researchers navigate the current jungle of indices. © 2016 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley © Sons Ltd on behalf of

  11. ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT for ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT TOWARD COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND NATURAL CONSERVATION at TM GUNUNG HALIMUN SALAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Gilang Widagdyo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to analyze ecotourism development within Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak (TNGHS area and determine association among its elements which is ecotourism activities, community involvement, and natural conservation. To convey comprehensive and factual result, theoretical considerations appear as basis for this study as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis. Some theories tend to be guidance that will be confront with qualitative data that was obtain from interview with several expertise and community’s representative and compare with questionnaire distribution to determine how significant association occur between those three variables. The statistical analysis explains that ecotourism deliver positive impact toward local community and natural conservationDOI: 10.15408/etk.v11i1.1871

  12. Exploring local people's views on the livelihood impacts of privately versus community managed conservation strategies in the Ruvuma landscape of North Mozambique-South Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Calvo, Noelia; Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel

    2018-01-15

    It is broadly acknowledged that natural resources conservation strategies affect the livelihoods of local communities. Moreover, evidence suggests that these livelihood impacts, in turn, can influence conservation achievements. Yet, what constitutes a conservation strategy that communities perceive as acceptable and thus they would be willing to commit to over time remains poorly understood. This study explores the perceptions of communities regarding the effects of two different conservation strategies in the Ruvuma landscape: governmental land concessions and licenses to private tourist operators in North Mozambique, versus community-managed protected areas supported by NGOs in South Tanzania. The study engages communities in a series of semi-structured discussions about natural resource use, impact of the conservation strategies on their livelihoods, pressures on natural resources, and ways to address such pressures and reach an acceptable conservation strategy, from a community perspective. Our findings suggest that communities perceive as non-affordable current opportunity and damage costs in subsistence agriculture. A strategy integrating improved agricultural production, common use of the forest managed by communities, and joint ventures between communities and private companies for getting more benefits from trophy hunting are identified as acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R S; Nkedianye, D; Said, M Y; Kaelo, D; Neselle, M; Makui, O; Onetu, L; Kiruswa, S; Kamuaro, N Ole; Kristjanson, P; Ogutu, J; BurnSilver, S B; Goldman, M J; Boone, R B; Galvin, K A; Dickson, N M; Clark, W C

    2016-04-26

    We developed a "continual engagement" model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the creation of a core boundary-spanning team, including community facilitators, a policy facilitator, and transdisciplinary researchers, responsible for linking with a wide range of actors from local to global scales. Collaborative researcher-facilitator community teams integrated local and scientific knowledge to help communities and policy makers improve herd quality and health, expand biodiversity payment schemes, develop land-use plans, and fully engage together in pastoral and wildlife policy development. This model focused on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy maker needs. The facilitation team learned to be more effective by focusing on noncontroversial livelihood issues before addressing more difficult wildlife issues, using strategic and periodic engagement with most partners instead of continual engagement, and reducing costs by providing new scientific information only when deemed essential. We conclude by examining the role of facilitation in redressing asymmetries in power in researcher-community-policy maker teams, the role of individual values and character in establishing trust, and how to sustain knowledge-action links when project funding ends.

  14. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  15. Species diversity, vegetation pattern and conservation of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. communities in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Zhang, J.T.; Bai, X.; Shedayi, A.A.; Tariq, A.

    2017-01-01

    Gentiana macrophylla, native to mountainous areas of Central and Southern Asia, is most popular remedy for rheumatism and pains in Traditional Chinese Medicine with an extensive demand in local market. Our study aimed to classify G. macrophylla communities and to find out the impact of topographic and soil factors on their diversity and distribution in Dongling mountain meadow, Beijing, China. Seventy five samples in 15 transects separated by 50m distance in altitude along an elevation gradient (1592-2298m) were established by quadrate method. TWINSAPN and CCA were used for classification and ordination, respectively. Six diversity indices (Species richness, Shannon-Weiner heterogeneity, Simpson’s index, Hill’s index, Pielou evenness and McIntosh evenness) were used to analyze the pattern of species diversity and polynomial regression analysis was used to establish their relationship with environmental variables. TWINSPAN classified G. macrophylla communities into 8 types and CCA indicated that soil pH, soil temperature, soil type, disturbance, total N, total K, Mg and Zn were significantly related to these communities. Elevation was the most significant factor that affecting the diversity and distribution of G. macrophylla communities. Significant effect of environment, topography and disturbance to meadow communities of G. macrophylla highly suggests some important measures such as uprooting restriction, tourism limitation in meadow area, monitoring of functional diversity, fertilization, irrigation, cloning and cultivation to protect and conserve it and its communities to be used in medicine industry. (author)

  16. Assessing community-based conservation projects: A systematic review and multilevel analysis of attitudinal, behavioral, ecological, and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based conservation (CBC promotes the idea that long-term conservation success requires engaging with, and providing benefits for local communities. Though widespread, CBC projects are not always successful or free of controversy. With criticisms on all sides of the conservation debates, it is critical to have a better understanding of (1 whether CBC is an effective conservation tool, and (2 of the factors associated with the success or failure of CBC projects, and the scale at which these factors operate. Recent CBC reviews have typically examined only a single resource domain, have limited geographic scope, consider only one outcome, or ignore the nested nature of socioecological systems. To remedy these issues, we use a newly coded global comparative database of CBC projects identified by systematic review to evaluate success in four outcome domains (attitudes, behaviors, ecological, economic and explore synergies and tradeoffs among these outcomes. We test hypotheses about how features of the national context (H-NC, project design (H-PD, and local community characteristics (H-CC affect these four measures of success. Methods To add to a sample of 62 projects that we used from previous systematic reviews, we systematically searched the conservation literature using six terms in four online databases. To increase the number of projects for each country in order to conduct a multilevel analysis, we also conducted a secondary search using the Advancing Conservation in a Social Context online library. We coded projects for 65 pieces of information. We conducted bivariate analyses using two-dimensional contingency tables and proportional odds logistic regression and conducted multivariate analyses by fitting reduced form proportional odds logistic regression models that were selected using a forward stepwise AIC approach. Results The primary and secondary searches produced 74 new projects to go along with the 62

  17. Perception and use of fauna resources in communities surrounding a conservation unit in northeast Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.5668 Perception and use of fauna resources in communities surrounding a conservation unit in northeast Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.5668

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaise Sousa da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is threatened by many human activities, and the creation of new Conservation Units (CUs attempts to reduce this threat. However, this alone has not achieved the expected results. Partnerships are being established with local communities through research that includes the perceptions of these individuals. Environmental Perception has been used to understand and improve the people-environment relationship in these areas. The Caatinga Biome suffers threats and losses from anthropogenic action. Few of its areas are protected by CUs and further conservation efforts are needed. The Seridó Ecological Station (Seridó ESEC is one of the few CUs in the Caatinga of Rio Grande do Norte State (NE Brazil. An Environmental Perception study was carried out in this area using Ethnozoology concepts to investigate the perceptions of the surrounding communities and use of local fauna. Ninety-two interviews were conducted in 4 communities with 514 statements obtained in 58 vernacular names. The animal most cited was the Rhea (bird with 58 citations. Its main uses were medicinal or as human food. The rich local knowledge observed may be used in a partnership to correctly manage local resources in the Seridó ESEC.Biodiversity is threatened by many human activities, and the creation of new Conservation Units (CUs attempts to reduce this threat. However, this alone has not achieved the expected results. Partnerships are being established with local communities through research that includes the perceptions of these individuals. Environmental Perception has been used to understand and improve the people-environment relationship in these areas. The Caatinga Biome suffers threats and losses from anthropogenic action. Few of its areas are protected by CUs and further conservation efforts are needed. The Seridó Ecological Station (Seridó ESEC is one of the few CUs in the Caatinga of Rio Grande do Norte State (NE Brazil. An Environmental Perception study was

  18. Pastoral community organization, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Mongolia's Southern Gobi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe processes and impacts of collective action by mobile pastoralist communities, and of external support strategies to strengthen local institutions and cooperation in Mongolia’s southern Gobi. The need for pastoral mobility triggered the processes leading to community organization, and the emergence, or re-emergence, of local informal...

  19. Community Resource Uses and Ethiopian Wolf Conservation in Mount Abune Yosef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genbere, G.E.; , de, Iongh H.H.

    2015-01-01

    People who perceive economic benefits and enjoy unrestricted access to natural resources tend to support ecosystem conservation efforts. Our study explores whether this remains true in remnant patches of Afroalpine ecosystem in North Ethiopia, where communal land provides valuable natural resources

  20. Measuring the impacts of community-based grasslands conservation in Mongolia’s Gobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisher, C.; Hess, S.; Boucher, T.M.; van Beukering, P.J.H.; Sanjayan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed a donor-funded grassland management project designed to create both conservation and livelihood benefits in the rangelands of Mongolia's Gobi desert. The project ran from 1995 to 2006, and we used remote sensing Normalized Differential Vegetation Index data from 1982 to 2009 to compare

  1. Participatory mapping to identify indigenous community use zones : Implications for conservation planning in southern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Brown, Greg; Verweij, Pita A.; Boot, René

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale development projects often overlap forest areas that support the livelihoods of indigenous peoples, threatening in situ conservation strategies for the protection of biological and cultural diversity. To address this problem, there is a need to integrate spatially-explicit information on

  2. Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuri, Ruedi; Sattelmayer, Martin; Elsig, Simone; Kolly, Chloé; Tal, Amir; Taeymans, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions for pain, function and range of motion in adults with shoulder impingement. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Data sources Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Embase and PEDro were searched from inception to January 2017. Study selection criteria Randomised controlled trials including participants with shoulder impingement and evaluating at least one conservative intervention against sham or other treatments. Results For pain, exercise was superior to non-exercise control interventions (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.94, 95% CI −1.69 to −0.19). Specific exercises were superior to generic exercises (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −0.99 to −0.32). Corticosteroid injections were superior to no treatment (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.04 to −0.26), and ultrasound guided injections were superior to non-guided injections (SMD −0.51, 95% CI −0.89 to −0.13). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) had a small to moderate SMD of −0.29 (95% CI −0.53 to −0.05) compared with placebo. Manual therapy was superior to placebo (SMD −0.35, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.01). When combined with exercise, manual therapy was superior to exercise alone, but only at the shortest follow-up (SMD −0.32, 95% CI −0.62 to −0.01). Laser was superior to sham laser (SMD −0.88, 95% CI −1.48 to −0.27). Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) was superior to sham (−0.39, 95% CI −0.78 to –0.01) and tape was superior to sham (−0.64, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.12), with small to moderate SMDs. Conclusion Although there was only very low quality evidence, exercise should be considered for patients with shoulder impingement symptoms and tape, ECSWT, laser or manual therapy might be added. NSAIDS and corticosteroids are superior to placebo, but it is unclear how these treatments compare to exercise. PMID:28630217

  3. Comparative analysis of sugarcane bagasse metagenome reveals unique and conserved biomass-degrading enzymes among lignocellulolytic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Charoensawan, Varodom; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most abundant agricultural wastes, sugarcane bagasse is largely under-exploited, but it possesses a great potential for the biofuel, fermentation, and cellulosic biorefinery industries. It also provides a unique ecological niche, as the microbes in this lignocellulose-rich environment thrive in relatively high temperatures (50°C) with varying microenvironments of aerobic surface to anoxic interior. The microbial community in bagasse thus presents a good resource for the discovery and characterization of new biomass-degrading enzymes; however, it remains largely unexplored. We have constructed a fosmid library of sugarcane bagasse and obtained the largest bagasse metagenome to date. A taxonomic classification of the bagasse metagenome reviews the predominance of Proteobacteria, which are also found in high abundance in other aerobic environments. Based on the functional characterization of biomass-degrading enzymes, we have demonstrated that the bagasse microbial community benefits from a large repertoire of lignocellulolytic enzymes, which allows them to digest different components of lignocelluoses into single molecule sugars. Comparative genomic analyses with other lignocellulolytic and non-lignocellulolytic metagenomes show that microbial communities are taxonomically separable by their aerobic "open" or anoxic "closed" environments. Importantly, a functional analysis of lignocellulose-active genes (based on the CAZy classifications) reveals core enzymes highly conserved within the lignocellulolytic group, regardless of their taxonomic compositions. Cellulases, in particular, are markedly more pronounced compared to the non-lignocellulolytic group. In addition to the core enzymes, the bagasse fosmid library also contains some uniquely enriched glycoside hydrolases, as well as a large repertoire of the newly defined auxiliary activity proteins. Our study demonstrates a conservation and diversification of carbohydrate-active genes among diverse

  4. Costing Coastal Conservation: The Case for Community-led Mangrove Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Suthawan Sathirathai

    1998-01-01

    The destruction of mangrove forests for commercial gain is one of the most pressing environmental problems facing Southeast Asia. This study has shown that it makes better economic sense to conserve this vital resource than to destroy it. The study looked at the Surat Thani Province of southern Thailand, where substantial areas of mangrove have been cleared for shrimp farming. It compared the financial returns to this commercial exploitation with the economic benefits of sustainably using the...

  5. Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-08-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers' livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components-supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand-must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances. © 2015, Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Orgunity as the sum of organisation and community: An example of Ornithological Society and Nature Conservation Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Podjed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on ethnographic research, highlights the dynamics of relationships in DOPPS, the Slovenian ornithological and nature conservation society, and describes a mixture of voluntary and professional activities in the organization. The article also addresses the conflicts among different groups that exist within DOPPS and describes the reciprocity, cooperation and unification of the cultural assumptions which are important for achieving common goals. The author claims that unstable and conflicting relationships in the association have led to a unique combination of hierarchical organization and egalitarian community. The British social anthropologist Martin Parker names this combination “orgunity”. Though structured and organized, a social form of this kind is based on the rudimentary affiliation and solidarity of its members. The boundary between work and leisure is blurred, hierarchical relationships are not clearly defined, members contribute equally to the production of the group and to various activities, mainly like-minded individuals are recruited, decision-making is carried out at a slow pace and on the basis of democratic processes, etc. Many of these characteristics can be seen in DOPPS, which functions as an amalgamation of an organization and a network or a community. The organization therefore complements the symbiotic network or community and creates an entity that cannot be illustrated with a simple two-dimensional model such as organizational chart. Two models of cooperation are intertwined in an orgunity: a hierarchical organization with a pyramid structure and a horizontal community or a network of volunteers in which relationships are constantly redefined.

  7. Community Attitudes toward School-Based Sexuality Education in a Conservative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…

  8. Understanding and Resolving Conflict Between Local Communities and Conservation Authorities in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourcq, De K.; Thomas, E.; Arts, B.; Vranckx, A.; Léon-sicard, T.; Damme, Van P.

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts between indigenous and local communities, on the one hand, and national protected area administrations on the other are pervasive. A better understanding of these park-people conflicts would assist in suitable policy changes to constructively address them while concurrently pursuing

  9. Fuelling the tragedy of the commons in Indigenous Community Conserved Areas: A case study from the Southern Isthmus, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Solís, Constanza

    2014-01-01

    Summary\\ud This dissertation presents the first evaluation of a VCA in terms of its multi-scalar governance approach with reference to the principles of the ICCAs category and the CPR principles for institutional arrangements for sustainable natural resource management. The research techniques applied to develop this research included: (1) document revision on national legislation for protected establishment and management; (2) forty four semi-structured interviews with conservation practitio...

  10. Optimized cryopreservation of mixed microbial communities for conserved functionality and diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof

    Full Text Available The use of mixed microbial communities (microbiomes for biotechnological applications has steadily increased over the past decades. However, these microbiomes are not readily available from public culture collections, hampering their potential for widespread use. The main reason for this lack of availability is the lack of an effective cryopreservation protocol. Due to this critical need, we evaluated the functionality as well as the community structure of three different types of microbiomes before and after cryopreservation with two cryoprotective agents (CPA. Microbiomes were selected based upon relevance towards applications: (1 a methanotrophic co-culture (MOB, with potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, environmental pollutants removal and bioplastics production; (2 an oxygen limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND biofilm, with enhanced economic and ecological benefits for wastewater treatment, and (3 fecal material from a human donor, with potential applications for fecal transplants and pre/probiotics research. After three months of cryopreservation at -80 °C, we found that metabolic activity, in terms of the specific activity recovery of MOB, aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and anaerobic AOB (AnAOB, anammox in the OLAND mixed culture, resumes sooner when one of our selected CPA [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and DMSO plus trehalose and tryptic soy broth (DMSO+TT] was added. However, the activity of the fecal community was not influenced by the CPA addition, although the preservation of the community structure (as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was enhanced by addition of CPA. In summary, we have evaluated a cryopreservation protocol that succeeded in preserving both community structure and functionality of value-added microbiomes. This will allow individual laboratories and culture collections to boost the use of microbiomes in biotechnological applications.

  11. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.

  12. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-I: Assessing Community Awareness of Childhood Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted first into yes and no sets…

  13. Including a Service Learning Educational Research Project in a Biology Course-II: Assessing Community Awareness of Legionnaires' Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Amal

    2012-01-01

    For a university service learning educational research project addressing Legionnaires' disease (LD), a Yes/No questionnaire on community awareness of LD was developed and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The 456 questionnaires completed by the participants were sorted into yes and no sets based on responses obtained to…

  14. A systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation: processes, interrelationships, and human culture: presentation of a systemic view of biodiversity and its conservation that emphasizes complex interrelationships among subsystems and includes human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor J; Gómez, Andrés; Porzecanski, Ana L

    2010-12-01

    Historically, views and measurements of biodiversity have had a narrow focus, for instance, characterizing the attributes of observable patterns but affording less attention to processes. Here, we explore the question: how does a systems thinking view - one where the world is seen as elements and processes that connect and interact in dynamic ways to form a whole - affect the way we understand biodiversity and practice conservation? We answer this question by illustrating the systemic properties of biodiversity at multiple levels, and show that biodiversity is a collection of dynamic systems linking seemingly disparate biological and cultural components and requiring an understanding of the system as a whole. We conclude that systems thinking calls traditional views of species, ecosystem function, and human relationships with the rest of biodiversity into question. Finally, we suggest some of the ways in which this view can impact the science and practice of conservation, particularly through affecting our conservation targets and strategies. Copyright © 2010 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mitigating the conflict between pitfall-trap sampling and conservation of terrestrial subterranean communities in caves

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kozel; Tanja Pipan; Nina Šajna; Slavko Polak; Tone Novak

    2017-01-01

    Subterranean habitats are known for their rich endemic fauna and high vulnerability to disturbance. Many methods and techniques are used to sample the biodiversity of terrestrial invertebrate fauna in caves, among which pitfall trapping remains one of the most frequently used and effective ones. However, this method has turned out to be harmful to subterranean communities if applied inappropriately. Traditionally, pitfall traps have been placed in caves solely on the ground. Here we present a...

  16. Biogeography of Parasitic Nematode Communities in the Galápagos Giant Tortoise: Implications for Conservation Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Fournié

    Full Text Available The Galápagos giant tortoise is an icon of the unique, endemic biodiversity of Galápagos, but little is known of its parasitic fauna. We assessed the diversity of parasitic nematode communities and their spatial distributions within four wild tortoise populations comprising three species across three Galápagos islands, and consider their implication for Galápagos tortoise conservation programmes. Coprological examinations revealed nematode eggs to be common, with more than 80% of tortoises infected within each wild population. Faecal samples from tortoises within captive breeding centres on Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristobal islands also were examined. Five different nematode egg types were identified: oxyuroid, ascarid, trichurid and two types of strongyle. Sequencing of the 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from adult nematodes passed with faeces identified novel sequences indicative of rhabditid and ascaridid species. In the wild, the composition of nematode communities varied according to tortoise species, which co-varied with island, but nematode diversity and abundance were reduced or altered in captive-reared animals. Evolutionary and ecological factors are likely responsible for the variation in nematode distributions in the wild. This possible species/island-parasite co-evolution has not been considered previously for Galápagos tortoises. We recommend that conservation efforts, such as the current Galápagos tortoise captive breeding/rearing and release programme, be managed with respect to parasite biogeography and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes in addition to the biogeography of the host.

  17. Biogeography of Parasitic Nematode Communities in the Galápagos Giant Tortoise: Implications for Conservation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, Guillaume; Goodman, Simon J; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Vélez, Alberto; Patiño, Leandro; Millins, Caroline; Gibbons, Lynda M; Fox, Mark T; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The Galápagos giant tortoise is an icon of the unique, endemic biodiversity of Galápagos, but little is known of its parasitic fauna. We assessed the diversity of parasitic nematode communities and their spatial distributions within four wild tortoise populations comprising three species across three Galápagos islands, and consider their implication for Galápagos tortoise conservation programmes. Coprological examinations revealed nematode eggs to be common, with more than 80% of tortoises infected within each wild population. Faecal samples from tortoises within captive breeding centres on Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristobal islands also were examined. Five different nematode egg types were identified: oxyuroid, ascarid, trichurid and two types of strongyle. Sequencing of the 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from adult nematodes passed with faeces identified novel sequences indicative of rhabditid and ascaridid species. In the wild, the composition of nematode communities varied according to tortoise species, which co-varied with island, but nematode diversity and abundance were reduced or altered in captive-reared animals. Evolutionary and ecological factors are likely responsible for the variation in nematode distributions in the wild. This possible species/island-parasite co-evolution has not been considered previously for Galápagos tortoises. We recommend that conservation efforts, such as the current Galápagos tortoise captive breeding/rearing and release programme, be managed with respect to parasite biogeography and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes in addition to the biogeography of the host.

  18. A Community Livelihood Approach to Agricultural Heritage System Conservation and Tourism Development: Xuanhua Grape Garden Urban Agricultural Heritage Site, Hebei Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The designation, conservation and tourism development of agricultural heritage systems, which are embedded with intricate human–nature relations, could significantly influence community livelihoods. Therefore, a livelihood approach is critical for agricultural heritage conservation and the sustainability of the hosting community. Taking Guanhou Village, Xuanhua Grape Garden Urban Agricultural Heritage Site as an example, this study examines impacts of heritage conservation and tourism on the community livelihood system and its implications for community livelihood sustainability. A sustainable livelihood framework is adopted to guide the analysis. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with management officials, village leaders and village residents. The research identified the importance of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS designation on raising government support and public awareness on conservation. Tourism emerges as an alternative livelihood to some residents which exerts positive economic influence. However, tourism participation is currently at a low level which restricted the distribution of benefits. The sustainability of local rural livelihood is at risk due to the rapid urbanization, the decline of human resources and the insufficient integration of traditional agriculture with tourism. Practical implications were discussed to enhance local participation and tourism contribution to GIAHS conservation.

  19. Including a service learning educational research project in a biology course-I: Assessing community awareness of childhood lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Shakra, Amal; Saliim, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A university course project was developed and implemented in a biology course, focusing on environmental problems, to assess community awareness of childhood lead poisoning. A set of 385 questionnaires was generated and distributed in an urban community in North Carolina, USA. The completed questionnaires were sorted fırst into yes and no sets based on the responses obtained for the fırst question, which gauged the participants' awareness of lead as an indoor pollutant at 71% (n=273)...

  20. Challenges of transfrontier conservation areas: Natural resources nationalism, security and regionalism in the southern African development community region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswell Rusinga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs initiatives in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region offer hope for providing a mechanism for resolving political tensions and conflicts which are not only related to environmental issues but to security concerns as well. The geopolitical implications of TFCAs in the SADC region cannot be overemphasised with regard to international relations and regional integration. The SADS region is characterised by histories of contested military balance of power and geopolitical rivalries which have a potential to degenerate into military confrontation. Although there is a strong belief in multilateral co-operation among SADC member countries, most of them often engage the international community at the bilateral level. Moreover, there is disharmony in constitutional applications of the rule of law, respect of human rights and good governance. However, TFCAs initiatives in Southern Africa have been seen as offering an opportunity to heal the wounds of pre- and post-independence wars of destabilisation through the encouragement of inter-state collaboration and co-operation by giving governments an opportunity for mutual action on issues of common interest.

  1. BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF THE WHITECLAWED CRAYFISH HABITAT BASED ON MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES: USEFULNESS FOR ITS CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANDJEAN F.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the macroinvertebrates of three brooks harbouring the white-clawed crayfish was conducted in Haute-Vienne department (France. Its aim was to increase our understanding of these ecosystems to help the conservation of A. pallipes. These brooks run through pastoral areas with well-developed riparian vegetation, which offers an important shade. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and conductivity fell within the ranges found for this species. A total of 34, 31, 29 taxa and 1 502, 1 364, 2 707 individuals of macrobenthos were collected in Holme, Besque and Bellecombe streams, respectively. Results showed good to very good water quality with IBGN scores ranging from 15 (Bellecombe to 17 (Holme and Besque, reflecting a limited impact of the anthropogenic disturbances. Taxa diversity were high for Holme and Besque with Shannon index around 3.2, translating a great heterogeneity of habitat and an equilibrated faunal community. Bellecombe showed a limited diversity with Shannon index of 1.42, resulting from the presence of numberous Chironomidae. This brook suffers probably weak organic pollution which could be related to the low water flow observed during the sampling. The similarity test according to Jaccard index showed high percentage of common taxa among ETP (Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Plecoptera between all sites. The high similarity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities could be an useful criteria to identify brooks for restocking purpose.

  2. Adaptation to heavy rainfall events: watershed-community planning of soil and water conservation technologies in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadat, Feras; Al-Wadaey, Ahmed; Masri, Zuhair; Sakai, Hirokazu

    2010-05-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other research, predict a significant future increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy rainfall events in many regions. This increase runoff and soil erosion, and reduce agricultural productivity, as well as increasing risks of flood damage to crops and infrastructure. Implementing adaptation measures and improved land management through erosion control and soil protection are among those that protect water and agriculture and limit their vulnerability. Soil erosion control practices are often based on long-term climatic averages. Special attention is needed to provide protection against average high-return frequency storms as well as severe storms with low-return frequency. Suitable and affordable soil conservation plans, coupled with an appropriate enabling environment, are needed. A watershed and community were selected in the mountainous area of North West Syria. The fields represent the non-tropical highland dry areas and dominated by olive orchards on steep slopes. Farmers were aware of resource degradation and productivity reduction, but lacked financial capital to implement the needed adaptation measures. A micro-credit system was established with the help of the UNDP Global Environment Facility - Small Grants Program (GEF-SGP) with small grants available for each farmer. Haphazard implementation on scattered fields proved inefficient in demonstrating obvious impact. Therefore, each watershed was classified into three erosion risk categories (high, moderate and low), derived from maps of flow accumulation, slope steepness, slope shape and land use. Using field survey of land ownership, the boundaries of 168 farms in the watersheds were mapped. Farmers' fields were classified using the erosion-risk map and considering the on-farm erosion hazard and the off-farm effect on other farmers' fields following the hillslope sequence. More than 60% of the farms were

  3. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  4. Developing Guidelines for the Community Land Conservation Planning Process: With an Analysis of the West Virginia New River Parkway Project

    OpenAIRE

    Childers, Jonathan Aragorn

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to establish land conservation, or the prudent use of land and its protection from indiscriminate use and development, have recently been on an upswing in the United States. Effective conservation initiatives accurately address appropriate land use issues, adequately protect resources, and provide for sustainable use and return of benefits to citizens affected by the conservation. Efficient conservation programs consider multiple perspectives on conservation issues and respond to pe...

  5. 78 FR 52900 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Southwest Region Region 5, (CA, HI, Guam, American Samoa, Federated States of Micronesia and other Pacific... of due diligence, including signed option or purchase and sale agreement, title search, minerals...

  6. 45 CFR 2516.410 - What must a community-based entity include in an application for a grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Application... Corporation in the grant application package. (c) Assurances that the applicant will— (1) Keep such records... fiscal audits and program evaluations; (2) Prior to the placement of a participant, consult with the...

  7. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  8. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  9. Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Adkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts.

  10. Microbial communities analysis assessed by pyrosequencing--a new approach applied to conservation state studies of mural paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, T; Mirão, J; Candeias, A; Caldeira, A T

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the microbial communities present in mural paintings is of utmost importance to develop effective conservation and mitigation strategies. The present paper describes a methodological approach for the detailed characterisation of microorganisms thriving in mural paintings by combining culture-dependent methods that allow the identification of microorganisms capable of growing in the laboratory conditions and to obtain high cell densities for further studies, and culture independent methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. The coupled use of culture-dependent methods and DGGE does not give enough information to investigate the diversity and abundance of microorganisms present in wall paintings. Pyrosequencing, a novel molecular technique, used here for the first time in this area of research, allowed the identification of a large number of microorganisms, confirming some already identified by the cultivation-dependent methods such as fungi of the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium, but also providing a great contribution in the identification of several genera and species, not previously identified in these artworks, giving also a detailed overview of contaminants which was not possible with the other approaches. The results obtained on several mural painting samples show a strong relationship between the most deteriorated areas of the paintings and higher microbial contamination.

  11. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  12. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  13. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 8-10: Conservation of Energy; Impulse and Momentum; and Rotational Motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  14. Fourth report on birds from the Cape Verde Islands, including notes on conservation and records of 11 taxa new to the archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent data on status and distribution of resident and migrant birds in the Cape Verde Islands are presented, including records of 11 taxa new to the archipelago, viz. Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis, White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus, Great White Egret Casmerodius albus, Semipalmated Plover

  15. Notes on distribution, conservation, and taxonomy OF birds from the Cape Verde Islands, including records of six species new to the archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent data on the distribution of birds in the Cape Verde Islands are presented, including records of six species new to the archipelago, viz. Pintail Anas acuta, Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla, Snipe Gallinago gallinago, Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica, African Sand Martin Riparia

  16. Predaceous water beetles (Coleoptera, Hydradephaga) of the Lake St Lucia system, South Africa: biodiversity, community ecology and conservation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Bird, Matthew S; Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Water beetles are one of the dominant macroinvertebrate groups in inland waters and are excellent ecological indicators, reflecting both the diversity and composition of the wider aquatic community. The predaceous water beetles (Hydradephaga) make up around one-third of known aquatic Coleoptera and, as predators, are a key group in the functioning of many aquatic habitats. Despite being relatively well-known taxonomically, ecological studies of these insects in tropical and subtropical systems remain rare. A dedicated survey of the hydradephagan beetles of the Lake St Lucia wetlands (South Africa) was undertaken between 2013 and 2015, providing the first biodiversity census for this important aquatic group in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site within the Maputaland biodiversity hotspot. A total of 32 sites covering the entire spectrum of waterbody types were sampled over the course of three collecting trips. The Lake St Lucia wetlands support at least 68 species of Hydradephaga, a very high level of diversity comparing favourably with other hotspots on the African continent and elsewhere in the world and a number of taxa are reported for South Africa for the first time. This beetle assemblage is dominated by relatively widespread Afrotropical taxa, with few locally endemic species, supporting earlier observations that hotspots of species richness and centres of endemism are not always coincident. Although there was no significant difference in the number of species supported by the various waterbody types sampled, sites with the highest species richness were mostly temporary depression wetlands. This contrasts markedly with the distribution of other taxa in the same system, such as molluscs and dragonflies, which are most diverse in permanent waters. Our study is the first to highlight the importance of temporary depression wetlands and emphasises the need to maintain a variety of wetland habitats for aquatic conservation in this biodiverse

  17. Seasonal and Interannual Fluctuation of the Microbial Soil Community in a Maize Field under Long-Term Conservation Agriculture Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramírez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil’s microbiological settlement in a Zea mays parcel under long-term agricultural practices aiming to minimize the disruption of the soil’s structure, composition and natural biodiversity was analyzed by culture-dependent and culture-independent processes. Of the different processes, morphological-type differentiation of cultured microflora produced the best results and, while Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-agarose electrophoresis has also provided us with reliable ones, soil PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis did not, which may occur because of the dependence of the method on the practice. Over a three-year period, this soil seemed very stable as its C/N ratio remained roughly constant and available for microbial growth. Because no soil overturning occurred, we were able to maintain most of the cultured microbial population whose fluctuations depended only on edaphoclimatic conditions. The number of cultured bacteria, molds, total microorganisms, and the biodiversity indices were usually lower in the driest season (fall than in the rest of the year, except for Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, which showed the opposite behavior. Coincident with the rise in temperature during the summer, the relative abundance of Gram+ bacteria increased, mostly reflecting an increase in the spore-forming bacteria Streptomyces and Bacillus. Despite these variations, the evenness index and the quantity of distinct microbiological life remained practically unaltered, recovering their maximum levels when the proper edaphoclimatic conditions were present, which indicates the long-term stability of the microbial community in this soil. The performed study put forward important insights for assessing the sustainability of maize production under long-term conservation agriculture management systems, highlighting that adequate management might prevent the degradation of soil quality, thus contributing to promote sustainable agriculture.

  18. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kathryn; Bennett, Kathleen; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-01-01

    polypharmacy is an important risk factor for falls, but recent studies suggest only when including medications associated with increasing the risk of falls. a prospective, population-based cohort study. 6,666 adults aged ≥50 years from The Irish Longitudinal study on Ageing. participants reported regular medication use at baseline. Any subsequent falls, any injurious falls and the number of falls were reported 2 years later. The association between polypharmacy (>4 medications) or fall risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls or injurious falls was assessed using modified Poisson regression. The association with the number of falls was assessed using negative binomial regression. during follow-up, 231 falls per 1,000 person-years were reported. Polypharmacy including antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of any fall (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54), of injurious falls (aRR 1.51, 95% CI 1.10-2.07) and a greater number of falls (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.60, 95% CI 1.19-2.15), but antidepressant use without polypharmacy and polypharmacy without antidepressants were not. The use of benzodiazepines was associated with injurious falls when coupled with polypharmacy (aRR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.87), but was associated with a greater number of falls (aIRR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05-1.65), independent of polypharmacy. Other medications assessed, including antihypertensives, diuretics and antipsychotics, were not associated with outcomes. in middle-aged and older adults, polypharmacy, including antidepressant or benzodiazepine use, was associated with injurious falls and a greater number of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diverse Cone-Snail Species Harbor Closely Related Streptomyces Species with Conserved Chemical and Genetic Profiles, Including Polycyclic Tetramic Acid Macrolactams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Quezada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces are Gram-positive bacteria that occupy diverse ecological niches including host-associations with animals and plants. Members of this genus are known for their overwhelming repertoire of natural products, which has been exploited for almost a century as a source of medicines and agrochemicals. Notwithstanding intense scientific and commercial interest in Streptomyces natural products, surprisingly little is known of the intra- and/or inter-species ecological roles played by these metabolites. In this report we describe the chemical structures, biological properties, and biosynthetic relationships between natural products produced by Streptomyces isolated from internal tissues of predatory Conus snails, collected from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using chromatographic, spectroscopic and bioassays methodology, we demonstrate that Streptomyces isolated from five different Conus species produce identical chemical and antifungal profiles – comprising a suite of polycyclic tetramic acid macrolactams (PTMs. To investigate possible ecological (and evolutionary relationships we used genome analyses to reveal a close taxonomic relationship with other sponge-derived and free-living PTM producing Streptomyces (i.e., Streptomyces albus. In-depth phylogenomic analysis of PTM biosynthetic gene clusters indicated PTM structure diversity was governed by a small repertoire of genetic elements, including discrete gene acquisition events involving dehydrogenases. Overall, our study shows a Streptomyces-Conus ecological relationship that is concomitant with specific PTM chemical profiles. We provide an evolutionary framework to explain this relationship, driven by anti-fungal properties that protect Conus snails from fungal pathogens.

  20. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation. PMID:28686608

  1. Biodiversity conservation in an anthropized landscape: Trees, not patch size drive, bird community composition in a low-input agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Cárdenas-García, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach. Community composition was obtained through a year of census transects in 12 orchards. The presence of trees in the orchards was the major driver of bird communities followed by seasonality; bird communities are independent of patch size, except for small orchard patches that benefit black-chin sparrows, which are considered a sensitive species. At least 55 species of six trophic guilds (insectivores, granivores, carnivores, nectivores, omnivores, and frugivores) used the orchards. Orchards provide adequate habitat and food resources for several sensitive species of resident and migratory sparrows. The attributes that make orchards important for birds: trees, shrubs, herb seeds, and open patches can be managed to maintain native biodiversity in highly anthropized regions with an urgent need to find convergence between production and biological conservation.

  2. Developing the continuum of dental education: including dental foundation trainers in the delivery of a community-based clinical teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; Ash, P J; Chadwick, B L; Herbert, R A; Cowpe, J G

    2012-11-01

    Despite advances in evidence-based dental school educational programmes, the charge is sometimes made that dental students are 'no longer as good as they used to be'. Recent modifications have meant that dental education is now a 'life-long experience', of which dental school is the initial, albeit very important, component. Contemporary dental students will normally enter dental foundation (DF) training on completion of dental school. As such there may be value in including DF trainers in dental school teaching programmes. The aim of this paper is to report the experiences, feedback and opinions of these DF trainers following their first-hand experience of the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff, and assess if their perspectives of contemporary dental student education changed following this. DF trainers were invited to attend the community-based clinical teaching programme at Cardiff on an observer basis. Twenty-four DF trainers attended, following which evaluation questionnaires were completed. Information sought included opinions and attitudes to the teaching programme, the physical environment in which the teaching programme took place, knowledge and attitudes towards community-based clinical teaching and modifications that DF trainers would make to the teaching programme to further improve the knowledge, skills and attributes of dental school graduates for DF training. Responses were received from 20 DF trainers (response rate = 83%). All 20 respondents felt that the teaching provided within the community-based clinical teaching programme was appropriate, with one respondent noting that it was like 'a day in the life of a dental practice', 'where anything could present'. Sixteen respondents were satisfied with the scope and content of the community-based clinical teaching programme, with a small number recommending inclusion of teaching in relation to inlays/onlays (n = 2), simple orthodontics (n = 1) and splinting (n = 1). Eighteen

  3. Connecting Asian Heritage Conservation to the Idea of Performative Regionalism: A Case of Community-Enhancing Design Interventions in the Historical Art District of Liulichang Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Thamrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The active and sometimes ruthless modernisation in Asia has triggered an urgent need to secure the protection and continuation of its rich heritage and diverse regional attributes. However, as in the case of China, the Asian perspective of conservation is different from the West in terms of the nature or ways of design interventions produced and its purposes. This phenomenon has frequently triggered criticisms from heritage conservation professionals. Hence, the objective of this paper is to explore the interventions done on Asian heritage sites, taking the Liulichang Art District in Beijing as the case study, and analyze the positive influence they have brought. The paper starts by distinguishing the Asian concept and values of authenticity in conservation that differ from the West and how these principles have been applied in Liulichang, a famous ancient street known for the selling and practice of classical Chinese arts, mostly for Chinese painting. Using the phenomenological method of analysis, the paper further elaborates on the importance of community building in learning and appreciating the art of Chinese painting and discusses the positive impact made by the design interventions in Liulichang, particularly in terms of community engagement and creation of novel ways to accommodate traditional cultural practices of Chinese painting. Results reflect that the Asian perspective of conservation do not always follow the principle of minimum intervention favoured by the West, but how contemporary interventions could be merged into the heritage site to revive regional communities and cultural activities, connecting Asian architectural conservation with the design approach coined by Barbara Allen (2005 as Performative Regionalism, hence developing the idea and practice of this approach as a result of the discussion. Rather than merely following textual or scientific procedures like in the West, this approach requires a more experiential way of

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PERCEPTION OF RURAL COMMUNITIES AND ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE: SUBSIDIES FOR PRIORITY AREA FOR CONSERVATION PROPOSITION IN THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE SEMIARID, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mycarla Araujo Lucena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Priority Areas for Conservation are defined in order to protect environments that are home to a richness of species, endemisms and/or endangered species. However, besides these factors, additional studies such as Environmental Perception of local communities and Landscape Analysis are relevant to assess and minimize the negative effects caused to natural environments. In this context and in this perspective, the Mountain Range Complex João do Vale was studied, located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, which holds a set of landscapes with different vegetation types that are being replaced by various economic activities resulting from disordered population growth and consequent exploitation of natural resources' potential. The use of these resources, in most cases, occurs improperly, leading to a depletion of this potential. This study proposes to combine Analysis of Landscape, through a Geographic Information System (GIS, to the Environmental Perception of rural communities in order to define Priority Areas for Conservation. Perception data were obtained through direct observation, questioning, interviews and application forms (n = 240; as to the landscape, data from slope maps, Permanent Preservation Areas (PPA and Environmental Vulnerability were used. The Content Analysis used for perception data showed that respondents have a sense of topophilia regarding where they live, hold a vast knowledge about natural resources and responded positively when asked about the choice of an exclusive area for conservation. These results coupledwith the Analysis of Landscape allowed with of Priorty Areas for Conservation in this Mountain Range Complex with three categories of priority low, medium and high.

  5. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  6. Effect of conservation management on bees and insect-pollinated grassland plant communities in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batáry, P.; Báldi, A.; Sárospataki, M.; Kohler, F.; Verhulst, J.; Knop, E.; Herzog, F.; Kleijn, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these

  7. High-throughput sequencing reveals microbial communities in drinking water treatment sludge from six geographically distributed plants, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Ma, Chunxia; Wang, Yuting; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2018-04-10

    The microbial community structures of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) generated for raw water (RW) from different locations and with different source types - including river water, lake water and reservoir water -were investigated using high-throughput sequencing. Because the unit operations in the six DWTPs were similar, community composition in fresh sludge may be determined by microbial community in the corresponding RW. Although Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes were the dominant phyla among the six DWTS samples, no single phylum exhibited similar abundance across all the samples, owing to differences in total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, Al, Fe, and chloride in RW. Three genera of potentially toxic cyanobacteria (Planktothrix, Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis), and four potential pathogens (Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus, Prevotella copri and Rickettsia) were found in sludge samples. Because proliferation of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and Rickettsia in RW was mainly affected by nutrients, while growth of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides ovatus and Prevotella copri in RW may be influenced by Fe, control of nutrients and Fe in RW is essential to decrease toxic cyanobacteria and pathogens in DWTS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  9. Conservation of rare species of marine flora and fauna of the Russian Arctic National Park, included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and in the IUCN Red List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Gavrilo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Arctic National Park is a marine Protected Area playing a significant role in conservation of rare and protected endemic species of the Arctic fauna and flora, included in the IUCN Red List and/or in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The Russian Arctic National Park is considered to be: (1 the major ground for the reproduction of the Atlantic walrus stock inhabiting the north-eastern Kara-Barents Sea Region; (2 the key area maintaining the globally threatened Svalbard population of the bowhead whale; (3 the principal denning grounds of the Barents Sea sub-population of the polar bear in Russia; (4 important summer feeding grounds of the beluga whale; (5 the key breeding ground of the ivory gull in the European Arctic; (6 the only proved breeding grounds of the light-bellied brent goose in Russia. The major efforts in studying rare species in the Russian Arctic National Park are aimed at the monitoring and research on the ivory gull, Atlantic walrus and the polar bear. These studies are performed both by the scientists and staff of the National Park and by specialists working in other scientific institutes. The data on the other species are obtained occasionally. Here, we state the major threat for the rare marine species and define the activities of high priority for further conservation, monitoring and research.

  10. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects to assess coral resilence and the resilence of communities to climate change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to assess coral resilence and the resilence of communities to climate change: Climate and resilience-based...

  11. ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY SOME OF THE TRIBAL COMMUNITIES OF PANCHET SOIL CONSERVATION DIVISION, BANKURA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debatri Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indigenous Traditional knowledge (ITK is scientifically and culturally significant. This article focuses on the documentation of ITK of medicinal plants that are used against different diseases by the tribal people of Panchet Soil Conservation Division of Bankura district, West Bengal. A comprehensive survey was carried out between July 2014–January 2016 in 19 different locations of Panchet Soil Conservation Division. Data were obtained through semi–structured questionnaires, participant observation and plant walks with 33 respondents. A total of 12 plants belonging to 11 families were documented for 19 different disorders. Out of 12 plants 10 have been reported as new uses for the first time. It is expected that the documentation of medicinal plant knowledge will further promote bio-prospecting and pharmaceutical research.

  12. Fish communities of the Sacramento River Basin: Implications for conservation of native fishes in the Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J.T.; Brown, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    The associations of resident fish communities with environmental variables and stream condition were evaluated at representative sites within the Sacramento River Basin, California between 1996 and 1998 using multivariate ordination techniques and by calculating six fish community metrics. In addition, the results of the current study were compared with recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage to provide a wider perspective of the condition of resident fish communities in the Central Valley of California as a whole. Within the Sacramento drainage, species distributions were correlated with elevational and substrate size gradients; however, the elevation of a sampling site was correlated with a suite of water-quality and habitat variables that are indicative of land use effects on physiochemical stream parameters. Four fish community metrics - percentage of native fish, percentage of intolerant fish, number of tolerant species, and percentage of fish with external anomalies - were responsive to environmental quality. Comparisons between the current study and recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage suggested that differences in water-management practices may have significant effects on native species fish community structure. Additionally, the results of the current study suggest that index of biotic integrity-type indices can be developed for the Sacramento River Basin and possibly the entire Central Valley, California. The protection of native fish communities in the Central Valley and other arid environments continues to be a conflict between human needs for water resources and the requirements of aquatic ecosystems; preservation of these ecosystems will require innovative management strategies.

  13. The contribution of DNA metabarcoding to fungal conservation: diversity assessment, habitat partitioning and mapping red-listed fungi in protected coastal Salix repens communities in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Gravendeel, Barbara; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Neilen, Manon; Lammers, Youri; Raes, Niels; Semenova, Tatiana A; de Knijff, Peter; Noordeloos, Machiel E

    2014-01-01

    Western European coastal sand dunes are highly important for nature conservation. Communities of the creeping willow (Salix repens) represent one of the most characteristic and diverse vegetation types in the dunes. We report here the results of the first kingdom-wide fungal diversity assessment in S. repens coastal dune vegetation. We carried out massively parallel pyrosequencing of ITS rDNA from soil samples taken at ten sites in an extended area of joined nature reserves located along the North Sea coast of the Netherlands, representing habitats with varying soil pH and moisture levels. Fungal communities in Salix repens beds are highly diverse and we detected 1211 non-singleton fungal 97% sequence similarity OTUs after analyzing 688,434 ITS2 rDNA sequences. Our comparison along a north-south transect indicated strong correlation between soil pH and fungal community composition. The total fungal richness and the number OTUs of most fungal taxonomic groups negatively correlated with higher soil pH, with some exceptions. With regard to ecological groups, dark-septate endophytic fungi were more diverse in acidic soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi were represented by more OTUs in calcareous sites, while detected arbuscular mycorrhizal genera fungi showed opposing trends regarding pH. Furthermore, we detected numerous red listed species in our samples often from previously unknown locations, indicating that some of the fungal species currently considered rare may be more abundant in Dutch S. repens communities than previously thought.

  14. A Prospective Cohort Study on the Effect of a Balance Training Program, Including Calf Muscle Strengthening, in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Carol A; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the number 1 cause of injury, fractures, and death among the older population. In fact, one-third of adults older than 60 years will experience 1 or more falls annually. Factors including inactivity and decreased mobility are associated with overall declines in strength, balance, and functional mobility in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a balance training program, including calf muscle strengthening, in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate how calf muscle strength correlates with risk factors for falls. Community-dwelling older adults from a local senior center were invited to participate in a 5-week (10 sessions), 1-on-1, balance training program, which included calf muscle strengthening. All the participants were evaluated before and after the intervention. The outcome measures were static balance, unilateral heel-rise test, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the 30-second Chair Stand Test (30-sCST), and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale. Twenty-eight participants (6 males and 22 females) mean (standard deviation) age of 78 years were included in the study and completed the baseline evaluation. Eight participants did not complete the study. Static balance with eyes closed, heel rise, TUG, 30-sCST, and the Activity Balance Confidence Scale improved significantly (P calf muscle strengthening performed twice a week for 5 weeks resulted in significant improvements in calf muscle strength, functional performance and balance, as well as a significant improvement in balance confidence. The results from this study identify the importance unilateral calf muscle strength has to falls risk among older adults.

  15. Audit of Trichomonas vaginalis test requesting by community referrers after a change from culture to molecular testing, including a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Liselle; Wilson, Janet; McAuliffe, Gary; Upton, Arlo

    2017-06-16

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prevalence varies among different communities and peoples. The availability of robust molecular platforms for the detection of TV has advanced diagnosis; however, molecular tests are more costly than phenotypic methodologies, and testing all urogenital samples is costly. We recently replaced culture methods with the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification test on specific request and as reflex testing by the laboratory, and have audited this change. Data were collected from August 2015 (microbroth culture and microscopy) and August 2016 (Aptima TV assay) including referrer, testing volumes, results and test cost estimates. In August 2015, 10,299 vaginal swabs, and in August 2016, 2,189 specimens (urogenital swabs and urines), were tested. The positivity rate went from 0.9% to 5.3%, and overall more TV infections were detected in 2016. The number needed to test and cost for one positive TV result respectively was 111 and $902.55 in 2015, and 19 and $368.92 in 2016. Request volumes and positivity rates differed among referrers. The methodology change was associated with higher overall detection of TV, and reductions in the numbers needed to test/cost for one TV diagnosis. Our audit suggests that there is room for improvement with TV test requesting in our community.

  16. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  17. Riparian reserves within oil palm plantations conserve logged forest leaf litter ant communities and maintain associated scavenging rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gray, C. L.; Lewis, O. T.; Chung, A. Y. C.; Fayle, Tom Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0021-8901 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; Australian Research Council Discovery Grant(AU) DP140101541 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : agroecosystems * bait removal * biodiversity conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.196, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2664.12371/epdf

  18. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  19. Assessment of streamside management zones for conserving benthic macroinvertebrate communities following timber harvest in eastern Kentucky headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Adkins; Christopher Barton; Scott Grubbs; Jeffrey Stringer; Randy Kolka

    2016-01-01

    Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ) configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ...

  20. 77 FR 54605 - Longworth Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Community of Los...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, CA AGENCY: Fish and... addresses the potential for ``take'' of the federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail that is likely to... project activities that are likely to result in take of the Morro shoulderband snail as described in their...

  1. 78 FR 12346 - Jennings Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Community of Los...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Snail, Community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, CA AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...'' of the federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (= banded dune snail; Helminthoglypta walkeriana... mitigate project activities that are likely to result in take of the Morro shoulderband snail as described...

  2. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  3. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. A case study of culturally appropriate conservation education

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Michele. Schermann

    2016-01-01

    Create culturally appropriate conservation education materials for Hmong Americans, including new refugees and elders with little proficiency in English, as well as the broader, multigenerational Hmong community. This case study discusses an organizational response from the USDA Forest Service, in partnership with others, to better serve the Hmong American community....

  6. The effects of Mary Rose conservation treatment on iron oxidation processes and microbial communities contributing to acid production in marine archaeological timbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Preston

    Full Text Available The Tudor warship the Mary Rose has reached an important transition point in her conservation. The 19 year long process of spraying with polyethylene glycol (PEG has been completed (April 29(th 2013 and the hull is air drying under tightly controlled conditions. Acidophilic bacteria capable of oxidising iron and sulfur have been previously identified and enriched from unpreserved timbers of the Mary Rose, demonstrating that biological pathways of iron and sulfur oxidization existed potentially in this wood, before preservation with PEG. This study was designed to establish if the recycled PEG spray system was a reservoir of microorganisms capable of iron and sulfur oxidization during preservation of the Mary Rose. Microbial enrichments derived from PEG impregnated biofilm collected from underneath the Mary Rose hull, were examined to better understand the processes of cycling of iron. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was utilised to demonstrate the biological contribution to production of sulfuric acid in the wood. Using molecular microbiological techniques to examine these enrichment cultures, PEG was found to mediate a shift in the microbial community from a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and Brevunidimonas sp, to a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and the iron oxidising Alicyclobacillus sp. Evidence is presented that PEG is not an inert substance in relation to the redox cycling of iron. This is the first demonstration that solutions of PEG used in the conservation of the Mary Rose are promoting the oxidation of ferrous iron in acidic solutions, in which spontaneous abiotic oxidation does not occur in water. Critically, these results suggest PEG mediated redox cycling of iron between valence states in solutions of 75% PEG 200 and 50% PEG 2000 (v/v at pH 3.0, with serious implications for the future use of PEG as a conservation material of iron rich wooden archaeological artefacts.

  7. The Challenge of Planning Conservation Strategies in Threatened Seascapes: Understanding the Role of Fine Scale Assessments of Community Response to Cumulative Human Pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Guarnieri

    Full Text Available Assessing the distribution and intensity of human threats to biodiversity is a prerequisite for effective spatial planning, harmonizing conservation purposes with sustainable development. In the Mediterranean Sea, the management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs is rarely based on explicit consideration of the distribution of multiple stressors, with direct assessment of their effects on ecosystems. This gap limits the effectiveness of protection and is conducive to conflicts among stakeholders. Here, a fine scale assessment of the potential effects of different combinations of stressors (both land- and marine-based on vulnerable rocky habitats (i.e. lower midlittoral and shallow infralittoral along 40 km of coast in the western Mediterranean (Ionian Sea has been carried out. The study area is a paradigmatic example of socio-ecological interactions, where several human uses and conservation measures collide. Significant differences in the structure of assemblages according to different combinations of threats were observed, indicating distinct responses of marine habitats to different sets of human pressures. A more complex three-dimensional structure, higher taxon richness and β-diversity characterized assemblages subject to low versus high levels of human pressure, consistently across habitats. In addition, the main drivers of change were: closeness to the harbour, water quality, and the relative extension of beaches. Our findings suggest that, although efforts to assess cumulative impacts at large scale may help in individuating priority areas for conservation purposes, the fact that such evaluations are often based on expert opinions and not on actual studies limits their ability to represent real environmental conditions at local scale. Systematic evaluations of local scale effects of anthropogenic drivers of change on biological communities should complement broad scale management strategies to achieve effective sustainability of human

  8. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  9. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shambhu Paudel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica (GRD is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27 and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets. Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam

  10. Results of breast conservation therapy from a single-institution community hospital in Hawaii with a predominantly Japanese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemori, Mark; Prygrocki, Maria C.T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome data from breast conservation therapy performed at the Kuakini Medical Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The remarkably low rates of recurrence found in this study prompted a review of the literature and evaluation of the prognostic factors that may explain these results. Methods and materials: The data from patients with Tis, T1 or T2 breast tumors, treated with lumpectomy and radiotherapy during the 12-year period between January 1990 and December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed and compared to results found in national publications. Results: Current follow-up data was available in 97.1% of patients who met these criteria, identifying a total of 896 patients who were analyzed in this study. With a median follow-up exceeding 6 years, the local in-breast failure rate was 0.67%. Survival data was superior to the National Cancer Data Base for each stage of disease. Conclusion: This low rate of local relapse is extraordinary and unmatched by the published results generally cited in the literature. The findings are consistent with other studies reporting unusually low rates of breast cancer recurrence in patients of Japanese ancestry

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  12. Conewago Stream Teams - including youth in watershed restoration creates local watershed connections, prompts community service, and increases water literacy in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Fetter; Sanford Smith; Matt Royer

    2016-01-01

    Youth in Pennsylvania’s Dauphin, Lebanon, and Lancaster Counties were invited to be part of a unique opportunity: a chance to learn, hands-on, about the water in their own community and how their daily lives impact that water. This is the mission of the 4-H Stream Teams program, which was piloted within the Conewago Creek Watershed and surrounding communities in 2010-...

  13. Saving the superstar: a review of the social factors affecting tiger conservation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-12-30

    Tiger conservation in India represents an excellent case study of the many challenges facing conservation programs internationally. It is well understood that tigers are sensitive to human disturbances and large areas of habitat need to be protected for their conservation. Such protected areas in India are managed by the governments using an exclusionary approach. However, this approach is known to create several issues with local communities, including historical, legal, livelihood and management issues; with a volume of literature suggesting the inclusion of local communities in management. Yet, other evidence suggests that inclusion of communities in tiger conservation may lead to anthropogenic disturbances that can jeopardize tigers. The gravity of the situation is reflected in the recent disappearance of tigers from two key protected areas in India, the Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves. This review paper connects the key literature from conservation biology, environmental history, management sciences, policy and political sciences to underline the gridlock of tiger conservation: it needs exclusive protected areas that antagonize communities, and it depends on the support of the same communities for success. We examine the possibility of reconciliation between these disciplines, and assert that research on tiger conservation needs to allow for an increasingly interdisciplinary approach. We call for a more integrated approach to tiger conservation, to examine the values inherent in conservation and to shed more light on the social factors that affect tiger conservation schemes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What happens to soil ecological properties when conservation reserve program land is disturbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, expiring Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts results in the conversion of restored CRP land back to croplands, potentially reversing multiple ecological benefits including C sequestration potential and microbial biodiversity. We evaluated microbial community composition (fatty ac...

  15. Conservation strategies for Africa's large mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J

    2001-01-01

    Africa's large mammals are conserved for their aesthetic, scientific and economic values. Many of these species face a gloomy future precipitated by a combination of factors directly and indirectly influenced by the activities of man, including habitat loss, overexploitation, poor management of designated protected areas, and the vulnerability of small isolated populations. Africa's designated protected areas and biodiversity hotspots are also under threat, highlighting the importance of embracing community participation to address accelerating poverty and malnutrition. Innovative strategies are required for the conservation of Africa's mammals, such as the integration of a wide range of species in the production landscape, including the farming community. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have been established with the combined objectives of conserving biodiversity, creating new jobs in the tourism and wildlife industry, and promoting a culture of peace. These areas extend far beyond traditional national parks, providing opportunities for integrating large mammals into sustainable land-use practices, at the same time as addressing some of the continent's more pressing socioeconomic needs. Research on African mammals will inevitably have to change direction to accommodate the growing threats and changed circumstances. Priorities will include the identification of corridors associated with TFCA establishment, the determination of the economic value of certain species in consumptive use programmes, research on contraception as a management option in restricted areas, and further work on the indirect use value of species. There will also be worthwhile opportunities to be pursued with ex situ conservation programmes, but these need to be focussed more efficiently.

  16. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BALZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  18. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. SIPKOVA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  19. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  20. From individuals to populations to communities: a dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Olivier; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

    2013-05-07

    Individual metabolism, predator-prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the

  1. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  2. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    in conservation biology. This has allowed assessment of the impact of genetic drift on genetic variation, of the level of inbreeding within populations, and of the amount of gene flow between or within populations. Recent developments in genomic techniques, including next generation sequencing, whole genome scans...... and gene-expression pattern analysis, have made it possible to step up from a limited number of neutral markers to genome-wide estimates of functional genetic variation. Here, we focus on how the transition of conservation genetics to conservation genomics leads to insights into the dynamics of selectively...

  4. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a result of fulfilling the criteria for enrollment in either the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >35%, sinus rhythm, New York Heart Association II–IV or the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI to determine impact on global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF study (LVEF <40%, New York Heart Association II–IV, glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min, was also assessed. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out in all 371 patients treated in this community heart function clinic for at least a 12-month period. The patients were elderly (mean age 74±13.3 years and predominately male (61.5% with symptomatic (82.5% moderate left-ventricular dysfunction (LVEF 45.4%±15.6%. A substantial proportion of the patients also had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (52.8%. The total use of beta blockers exceeded 87%, while 100% of patients without a documented contraindication or intolerance to a beta blocker received therapy. Adherence to other guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies specifically for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection was high: 86.1% of the eligible patients were treated with an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker and 61.9% received a mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist. We determined that 13.7% of the complement of this heart

  5. Conservation in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  6. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  7. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  8. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M; Weixelman, Dave A; Lile, David F; Tate, Kenneth W; Snell, Laura K; Roche, Leslie M

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  9. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  10. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  11. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  12. The Role of Counseling in an Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program: Counseling in a Work Oriented Setting (The Importance of Including Counseling Courses within the Curriculum of the Associate Degree in Labor Studies Program at the Community College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Bruce

    This research had a two-fold purpose: (1) to assess the need for a labor studies program at the community college level; and (2) to consider the advisability of including within such a curriculum a cross-section of adult/family/worker-oriented counseling and guidance courses. The study employed a questionnaire completed by union delegates, which…

  13. Reorganization of the Peralta Community College District: A Study of Reorganization of the Territory Presently Included in the Plumas County Portion of the District. Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Weston M.

    In compliance with legislative mandate, this two-part report provides a comprehensive feasibility assessment of the reorganization of territory presently included in the Plumas County portion of the Peralta Community College District (PCCD). Part I begins with an overview of the study and its background, and then discusses barriers to and…

  14. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  15. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  16. Effectiveness of amphibians as biodiversity surrogates in pond conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Christiane; Oertli, Beat

    2017-04-01

    Amphibian decline has led to worldwide conservation efforts, including the identification and designation of sites for their protection. These sites could also play an important role in the conservation of other freshwater taxa. In 89 ponds in Switzerland, we assessed the effectiveness of amphibians as a surrogate for 4 taxonomic groups that occur in the same freshwater ecosystems as amphibians: dragonflies, aquatic beetles, aquatic gastropods, and aquatic plants. The ponds were all of high value for amphibian conservation. Cross-taxon correlations were tested for species richness and conservation value, and Mantel tests were used to investigate community congruence. Species richness, conservation value, and community composition of amphibians were weakly congruent with these measures for the other taxonomic groups. Paired comparisons for the 5 groups considered showed that for each metric, amphibians had the lowest degree of congruence. Our results imply that site designation for amphibian conservation will not necessarily provide protection for freshwater biodiversity as a whole. To provide adequate protection for freshwater species, we recommend other taxonomic groups be considered in addition to amphibians in the prioritization and site designation process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Faecal virome of healthy chickens reveals a large diversity of the eukaryote viral community, including novel circular ssDNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Diane A; Cibulski, Samuel P; Finkler, Fabrine; Teixeira, Thais F; Varela, Ana Paula M; Cerva, Cristine; Loiko, Márcia R; Scheffer, Camila M; Dos Santos, Helton F; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Roehe, Paulo M

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on the identification of the faecal virome of healthy chickens raised in high-density, export-driven poultry farms in Brazil. Following high-throughput sequencing, a total of 7743 de novo-assembled contigs were constructed and compared with known nucleotide/amino acid sequences from the GenBank database. Analyses with blastx revealed that 279 contigs (4 %) were related to sequences of eukaryotic viruses. Viral genome sequences (total or partial) indicative of members of recognized viral families, including Adenoviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae, were identified, some of those representing novel genotypes. In addition, a range of circular replication-associated protein encoding DNA viruses were also identified. The characterization of the faecal virome of healthy chickens described here not only provides a description of the viruses encountered in such niche but should also represent a baseline for future studies comparing viral populations in healthy and diseased chicken flocks. Moreover, it may also be relevant for human health, since chickens represent a significant proportion of the animal protein consumed worldwide.

  18. Dynamics of land-use change and conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States: environmental and economic implications with linkages to rural community well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William; Hoag, Dana; Johnson, Rex; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Rural America has changed dramatically over the last century, from having over half the population living in rural settings to only 20 percent residing in a rural area today, and outmigration of younger populations from rural communities remains a constant issue for local governing officials. A declining tax base and concurrent rising costs for maintenance and repair of aging infrastructure add further challenges to policy decisions. Reduced enrollment has caused school closures or mergers. Farm consolidation and technical advances reduced the demand for local labor. On the positive side, however, record-high commodity prices have amplified farm income to new heights. The increased revenues can lead to farmers spending additional money within the local region, while at the same time increased transportation of products has impacted local infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Such dynamics present challenges for municipal leaders charged with promoting economic development and balanced spending, while at the same time maintaining the way of life and rural character that are so important to area residents. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States covers much of the Northern Great Plains, including parts of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and a small part of Montana, and extends across a broad swath of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The region is defined largely by its rural character but has experienced extensive land conversion over the last century, with agricultural areas replacing native prairie habitat. Additional pressures arise from oil and gas development, global markets for agricultural production, and increased demands for biofuel feedstocks. Record-high commodity prices increase pressure on the native prairie as farmers look for new cropland acres. The volatility of commodity prices has raised fears over the intensity of land conversion to row-crop agriculture, the economic health and resiliency of rural communities, and ultimately

  19. Assessment of the conservation measures partnership's effort to improve conservation outcomes through adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kent H; Hulvey, Kristin B; Williamson, Matthew; Schwartz, Mark W

    2018-01-03

    Conservation practice has demonstrated an increasing desire for accountability of actions, particularly with respect to effectiveness, efficiency, and impact to specified objectives. This has been accompanied by increased attention to achieving adaptive management. In 2003 practitioners representing several prominent conservation non-governmental organizations (NGO's) launched a community of practice called the Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP). This organization has worked to establish standards of conservation practice to improve accountability of conservation actions through adaptive management. The focal organizing entity for the CMP has been the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation (OS). We present results of an evaluation, using an online survey and personal interviews, of the first decade of CMP and the OS. We find that the CMP, has garnered a positive reputation among the leading scientists across conservation NGO's and succeeded at developing a large user base of the OS. However, the CMP has not fully achieved its goal of making the OS standard operating procedure for the large NGO's. This lack of institutionalization is attributable to multiple causes, including an increase in the number of competing decision support frameworks and challenges achieving full cycle adaptive management. We find that users strongly feel that the OS fosters better conservation practice and highly value the OS for improving their practice. A primary objective of the OS is to assist practitioners to achieve full cycle adaptive management in order to better integrate learning into improving the effectiveness and efficiency of actions. However, we find that most practitioners have not yet achieved cycle completion for their projects. We summarize recommendations for improving effectiveness of the CMP, OS, and generally for conservation practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  1. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List...... and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates...

  2. Improving conservation outcomes with insights from local experts and bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenn, Nora; Schmook, Birgit; Reyes, Yol; Calmé, Sophie

    2014-08-01

    We describe conservation built on local expertise such that it constitutes a hybrid form of traditional and bureaucratic knowledge. Researchers regularly ask how local knowledge might be applied to programs linked to protected areas. By examining the production of conservation knowledge in southern Mexico, we assert local expertise is already central to conservation. However, bureaucratic norms and social identity differences between lay experts and conservation practitioners prevent the public valuing of traditional knowledge. We make this point by contrasting 2 examples. The first is a master's thesis survey of local experts regarding the biology of the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) in which data collection took place in communities adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. The second is a workshop sponsored by the same reserve that instructed farmers on how to monitor endangered species, including the King Vulture. In both examples, conservation knowledge would not have existed without traditional knowledge. In both examples, this traditional knowledge is absent from scientific reporting. On the basis of these findings, we suggest conservation outcomes may be improved by recognizing the knowledge contributions local experts already make to conservation programming. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Building Connections among Lands, People and Communities: A Case Study of Benefits-Based Management Plan Development for the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Knopf; Kathleen L. Andereck; Karen Tucker; Bill Bottomly; Randy J. Virden

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of Study This paper demonstrates how a Benefits-Based Management paradigm has been useful in guiding management plan development for an internationally significant natural resource – the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in Colorado. Through a program of survey research, a database on benefits desired by various stakeholder groups was created....

  4. Voluntary cooperation in the provision of a semi-public good : Community-based soil and water conservation in semi-arid India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the question whether households in India’s semi-arid tropics can be expected to voluntarily maintain semi-public investments in soil and water conservation. Increasingly, public investment programs decentralise project planning, implementation and management to local

  5. The Effect of Community-Based Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Welemariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation (SWC practices in the northern highlands of Ethiopia have important implications for land restoration and biodiversity recovery. The present study determined soil macroinvertebrate (SMI abundance and diversity in response to spatial conditions i.e., generated by different conservation practices, soil depth, and temporal seasonality with the wet and dry season. The SWC practices considered were exclosure + terrace, exclosure alone, terraces, and non-conserved grazing lands. Each SWC measure was selected in three sites that were considered as replications due to low heterogeneity in terms of human and livestock disturbances and biophysical factors. Soil macroinvertebrates were collected using a monolith according to tropical soil biology and fertility (TSBF method. The highest density (55% of SMI was found in exclosures followed by terraces 26%. Non-conserved communal grazing lands account for only 19% of the total. Shannon diversity index was significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.21 in the exclosures supported with terraces and the lowest (0.9 was observed in the non-conserved communal grazing lands. Diversity was also significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.26 in wet than dry season (0.70. The highest (41% Sorensen similarity index among SMI was found between exclosures with terraces and exclosures alone during the wet season. The lowest (20% Sorensen similarity index was found between terraces alone and exclosures with terraces in dry season. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in upper (0–10 cm than lower (10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depth. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was positively and strongly correlated with soil moisture (R2 = 0.85 and soil organic carbon stock (R2 = 0.95. However, it was negatively (R2 = −0.71 correlated with bulk density. Generally, the abundance and diversity of SMI increased as exclosures and communal grazing lands are supported with terraces.

  6. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  7. Conservation science in developing countries: an inside perspective on the struggles in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Joaquin; Guada, Hedelvy J.; Doyle, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Human exploitation of sea turtles in Venezuela dates back at least 800 years and continues to the present day. The first concerns about the status of sea turtle populations arose in the 1970s, and the projects from this early era were a tagging program, beach evaluation and in situ nest protection. Since then, efforts to develop a sea turtle research and conservation sector in Venezuela have resulted in a number of successes and rather more failures. Among the achievements is a course 'Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation Techniques', which has now been run for 15 years and has educated several hundred participants and enabled the establishment of a valuable professional network, and the publication of the Venezuelan 'Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan' in 2000. But Venezuela shares with other developing countries some crucial shortcomings which have restricted the success of conservation and research efforts. Whilst regulations relating to protected areas and natural resource use have proliferated, enforcement is weak. Community-based projects and environmental education programs exist, but levels of participation are low. A large number of conservation approaches have been applied, including head-starting and nest translocation to hatcheries, but their value as conservation tools remains unproven. Research has increased, but its impact on decision-making is not significant. Taking an insider's perspective on the challenges to date in sea turtle research and conservation in Venezuela reveals much about the reality facing conservation scientists in developing countries and the forces that shape and can potentially derail research and conservation efforts

  8. Homozygosity mapping of the gene for Chediak-Higashi syndrome to chromosome 1q42-q44 in a segment of conserved synteny that includes the mouse beige locus (bg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Oh, Jangsuk; Karim, M.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypopigmentation or oculocutaneous albinism and severe immunologic deficiency with neutropenia and lack of natural killer (NK) cell function. Most patients die in childhood from pyogenic infections or an unusual lymphoma-like condition. A hallmark of the disorder is giant inclusion bodies seen in all granule-containing cells, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, melanocytes, mast cells, and neurons. Similar ultrastructural abnormalities occur in the beige mouse, which thus has been suggested to be homologous to human CHS. High-resolution genetic mapping has indicated that the bg gene region of mouse chromosome 13 is likely homologous to the distal portion of human chromosome 1q. Accordingly, we carried out homozygosity mapping using markers derived from distal human chromosome 1q in four inbred families or probands with CHS. Our results indicate that the human CHS gene maps to an 18.8-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42-q44 and that human CHS therefore is very likely homologous to mouse bg. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Colorful Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  10. Addressing Trade-offs: Experiences from Conservation and Development Initiatives in the Mkuze Wetlands, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika C. Dahlberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Present-day conservation policies generally include the aim to integrate biodiversity conservation and local development, and describe this as a win-win solution that can satisfy all interests. This is challenged by research claiming that many efforts fail to match practice to rhetoric. South Africa has made strong commitments to fulfill the dual goals of conservation and development, and the iSimangaliso Wetland Park is promoted as an example of this. We explore present and potential outcomes of conservation and development interventions in a community bordering the Wetland Park through the perspective of different stakeholders, with the aim of uncovering opportunities and risks. In terms of improving local livelihoods as well as involvement in conservation, the success of the studied interventions varied. Local communities may accept restrictions on resource use as a result of realistic and fairly negotiated trade-offs, but if perceived as unjust and imposed from above, then mistrust and resistance will increase. In this area, collaboration between conservation organizations and the local community had improved, but still faced problems associated with unequal power relations, unrealistic expectations, and a lack of trust, transparency, and communication. As unsustainable efforts are a waste of funds and engagement, and may even become counterproductive, policy visions need to be matched by realistic allocations of staff, time, funds, and training. At the national and international level, the true cost of conservation has to be recognized and budgeted for if efforts at integrating conservation and development are to succeed.

  11. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang

    2015-12-01

    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Conservation business: sustaining Africa's future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Sonnekus

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas in Africa are threatened by a lack of funds to conduct their work effectively and by extremely poor communities that surround their resource-rich areas. We believe that conservation staff suffer from mental blocks. They assume that business and profitability reflect unethical processes that destroy natural resources. We developed a workshop process that allows conservationists to integrate entrepreneurial thinking with conservation principles and ethics. We measured perceptions both before and after such a workshop to assess the impact of the process. The process assisted conservationists at the Southern African Wildlife College to develop the integrated mental frameworks that are required to develop conservation into a sustainable business. The group internalised the new mental framework, whereby conservation and business, when integrated in an ethical manner, are viewed as virtually synonymous. The group also identified many innovative ways in which they could derive sustainable income from their natural resources while simultaneously achieving their conservation objectives.

  13. Exporting conservation

    OpenAIRE

    LTRA-12

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record Soil degradation represents a major threat to food security, particularly in mountainous regions of Southeast Asia, where rainfall can wash away inches of topsoil. This article presents conservation agriculture as a potential solution, focusing on the work that North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University conducts in Southeast Asia in conjunction with regional partners as part of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) collabo...

  14. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  15. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  16. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart P. Hardegree; Bruce A. Roundy; Nancy L. Shaw; Corey A. Moffet; Thomas A. Monaco; Thomas A. Jones; Edward F. Redente

    2009-01-01

    NRCS range-planting Conservation Practice standards are used to develop management recommendations for improving vegetation composition an productivity of grazed plant communities. Individual Conservation Practice recommendations are implemented within a Conservation-Management-System in areas where the existing plant-community attributes are insufficient to meet...

  17. Acknowledging conservation trade-offs and embracing complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Paul D; Adams, William M; Brosius, J Peter; Zia, Asim; Bariola, Nino; Dammert, Juan Luis

    2011-04-01

    There is a growing recognition that conservation often entails trade-offs. A focus on trade-offs can open the way to more complete consideration of the variety of positive and negative effects associated with conservation initiatives. In analyzing and working through conservation trade-offs, however, it is important to embrace the complexities inherent in the social context of conservation. In particular, it is important to recognize that the consequences of conservation activities are experienced, perceived, and understood differently from different perspectives, and that these perspectives are embedded in social systems and preexisting power relations. We illustrate the role of trade-offs in conservation and the complexities involved in understanding them with recent debates surrounding REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a global conservation policy designed to create incentives to reduce tropical deforestation. Often portrayed in terms of the multiple benefits it may provide: poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and climate-change mitigation; REDD may involve substantial trade-offs. The gains of REDD may be associated with a reduction in incentives for industrialized countries to decrease carbon emissions; relocation of deforestation to places unaffected by REDD; increased inequality in places where people who make their livelihood from forests have insecure land tenure; loss of biological and cultural diversity that does not directly align with REDD measurement schemes; and erosion of community-based means of protecting forests. We believe it is important to acknowledge the potential trade-offs involved in conservation initiatives such as REDD and to examine these trade-offs in an open and integrative way that includes a variety of tools, methods, and points of view. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  19. In search of conservation impact. A comment on Schusser 2012: Who determines biodiversity? An analysis of actors' power and interests in community forestry in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis; Balooni, Kulbhushan

    2014-01-01

    The paper 'Who determines biodiversity?' concludes that community forestry contributes to improvement of biodiversity and that this outcome is shaped by certain powerful actors. We do not find that these conclusions are adequately supported by the evidence presented and argue that the study...

  20. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  1. Teacher-Community Cooperation to Promote Sustainability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Some teachers reported interacting and engaging in diverse activities with members of the community to conserve the local wetlands. Forums for interaction and action mentioned by the teachers included public baraza, women's groups, church, youth groups, local community, parents' meetings and environmental days.

  2. CONSERVATION AND THE CLASSROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MUSEUM COURSE. The McGregor Museum offered a 'Bring Conservation to the Classroom' course for teachers of all subjects at all levels at the Teachers' Centre in March 1985. As the Museum is both a Cultural and Natural History museum the course included both these aspects of the environment. The aims of the ...

  3. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  4. Conservation Is Job One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzai, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

  5. Austere conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Moyo, Francis; Kicheleri, Rose Peter

    2016-01-01

    We explore how the regime of rules over access to land, natural, and financial resources reflects the degree of community ownership of a Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania. Being discursively associated with participatory and decentralised approaches to natural resource management, WMA...

  6. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  7. 75 FR 48934 - Coral Reef Conservation Program Implementation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... institutions with demonstrated expertise in the conservation of coral reefs. Each category of funding under... of implementing cooperative coral reef conservation, protection, restoration, or education projects...; conflict resolution initiatives; community outreach and education; and that promote safe and ecologically...

  8. How effective are conservation brochures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Morey, M.J. (Illinois State Univ., Normal (United States))

    1991-08-15

    This article examines the success of utility conservation efforts like those of a northern Illinois utility that successfully used awareness and education mail outs to consumers. Topics discussed include research design and survey results, information sources, socioeconomic characteristics, energy conservation measures taken, and likelihood of positive consumer responses.

  9. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  10. Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of nature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bouma, JA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the linkages between poverty, livelihoods and nature in four biodiversity hotspots in South Africa. To involve communities in protected area management, biodiversity conservation can be improved and negative livelihood impacts...

  11. Global large carnivore conservation and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.

    2015-01-01

    International cooperation, including through international legal instruments, appears important for the conservation of large carnivores worldwide. This is due to, inter alia, the worrying conservation status and population trends of many large carnivore species; the importance of large carnivores

  12. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  13. Energy conserving site design case study-Radisson, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, Jacob; Hrabak, Robert; Jacobs, Robert; Ryder, Richard; Schultz, Robert; Reimann, Robert G.; Paulo, Frances X.; Crandall, David B.; Belle, John; Pavliv, Mark; Seanor, Arthur; Chandler, Marty; Till, Howard B.; Lester, William; O' Brien, Michael; Rediowski, Jan; Phillips, Howard; Cahill, Michael; Matteson, Eric; Cathey, John

    1979-12-01

    A case study of project planning and design for energy conservation at Radisson New Community, Baldwinsville, New York is described. The new community includes a 95-acre residential site and a 51-acre town center. Energy-conserving plans developed for both sites have focused on passive measures to reduce energy use for space heating. Utility systems options have been identified for both sites. The case study overview contains data on location, climatology, local meteorology. Development plans for both the residential and town center areas are described. After a description of the team structure, methodological considerations, and impediments to implementation, the implementation program is given. (MCW)

  14. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest...

  15. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard B.; Russell, Diane; West, Paige; Brosius, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss various vantage points gained through the authors’ experience of approaching conservation through a “cultural lens.” We then draw out more general concerns that many anthropologists hold with respect to conservation, summarizing and commenting on the work of the Conservation and Community Working Group within the Anthropology and Environment Section of the American Anthropological Association. Here we focus on both critiques and contributions the discipline of anthropology makes with regard to conservation, and show how anthropologists are moving beyond conservation critiques to engage actively with conservation practice and policy. We conclude with reflections on the possibilities for enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue and practice through reflexive questioning, the adoption of disciplinary humility, and the realization that “cross-border” collaboration among conservation scholars and practitioners can strengthen the political will necessary to stem the growing commoditization and ensuing degradation of the earth’s ecosystems.

  16. Conservation as a Core Asset for Livelihood Security in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dossiers. Building capacity for coastal communities to manage marine resources in Tanzania : Marine Conservation and Management Areas and Conservation Committees Group. Dossiers. Building capacity for coastal communities to manage marine resources in Tanzania : Seaweed (Mwani) Farming Group. Dossiers.

  17. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  18. A Step Towards Conservation for Interior Alaska Tribes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Carlo

    2012-07-07

    This project includes a consortium of tribes. The tribes include Hughes (representing the consortium) Birch Creek, Huslia, and Allakaket. The project proposed by Interior Regional Housing Authority (IRHA) on behalf of the villages of Hughes, Birch Creek, Huslia and Allakaket is to develop an energy conservation program relevant to each specific community, educate tribe members and provide the tools to implement the conservation plan. The program seeks to achieve both energy savings and provide optimum energy requirements to support each tribe's mission. The energy management program will be a comprehensive program that considers all avenues for achieving energy savings, from replacing obsolete equipment, to the design and construction of energy conservation measures, the implementation of energy saving operation and maintenance procedures, the utilization of a community-wide building energy management system, and a commitment to educating the tribes on how to decrease energy consumption. With the implementation of this program and the development of an Energy Management Plan, these communities can then work to reduce the high cost of living in rural Alaska.

  19. Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Amy L; Kujala, Heini; Ives, Christopher D; Gordon, Ascelin; Lentini, Pia E; Wintle, Brendan A; Nicholson, Emily; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-08-01

    The consideration of information on social values in conjunction with biological data is critical for achieving both socially acceptable and scientifically defensible conservation planning outcomes. However, the influence of social values on spatial conservation priorities has received limited attention and is poorly understood. We present an approach that incorporates quantitative data on social values for conservation and social preferences for development into spatial conservation planning. We undertook a public participation GIS survey to spatially represent social values and development preferences and used species distribution models for 7 threatened fauna species to represent biological values. These spatially explicit data were simultaneously included in the conservation planning software Zonation to examine how conservation priorities changed with the inclusion of social data. Integrating spatially explicit information about social values and development preferences with biological data produced prioritizations that differed spatially from the solution based on only biological data. However, the integrated solutions protected a similar proportion of the species' distributions, indicating that Zonation effectively combined the biological and social data to produce socially feasible conservation solutions of approximately equivalent biological value. We were able to identify areas of the landscape where synergies and conflicts between different value sets are likely to occur. Identification of these synergies and conflicts will allow decision makers to target communication strategies to specific areas and ensure effective community engagement and positive conservation outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Conservation issues:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Peder Winkel

    2006-01-01

    National Parks have a long historical development. In the later decades the trend has been to include more cultural elements/landscapes and public participation.......National Parks have a long historical development. In the later decades the trend has been to include more cultural elements/landscapes and public participation....

  1. Adaptive social impact management for conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Hallam, Maery; Bennett, Nathan J

    2018-04-01

    Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits. We bring together insights from social impact assessment, adaptive management, social learning, knowledge coproduction, cross-scale governance, and environmental planning to propose a definition and framework for adaptive social impact management (ASIM). We define ASIM as the cyclical process of monitoring and adaptively managing social impacts over the life-span of an initiative through the 4 stages of profiling, learning, planning, and implementing. We outline 14 steps associated with the 4 stages of the ASIM cycle and provide guidance and potential methods for social-indicator development, predictive assessments of social impacts, monitoring and evaluation, communication of results, and identification and prioritization of management responses. Successful ASIM will be aided by engaging with best practices - including local engagement and collaboration in the process, transparent communication of results to stakeholders, collective deliberation on and choice of interventions, documentation of shared learning at the site level, and the scaling up of insights to inform higher-level conservation policies-to increase accountability, trust, and perceived legitimacy among stakeholders. The ASIM process is broadly applicable to conservation, environmental management, and development initiatives at various

  2. The Clawpack Community of Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, K. T.; LeVeque, R. J.; Ketcheson, D.; Ahmadia, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Clawpack, the Conservation Laws Package, has long been one of the standards for solving hyperbolic conservation laws but over the years has extended well beyond this role. Today a community of open-source codes have been developed that address a multitude of different needs including non-conservative balance laws, high-order accurate methods, and parallelism while remaining extensible and easy to use, largely by the judicious use of Python and the original Fortran codes that it wraps. This talk will present some of the recent developments in projects under the Clawpack umbrella, notably the GeoClaw and PyClaw projects. GeoClaw was originally developed as a tool for simulating tsunamis using adaptive mesh refinement but has since encompassed a large number of other geophysically relevant flows including storm surge and debris-flows. PyClaw originated as a Python version of the original Clawpack algorithms but has since been both a testing ground for new algorithmic advances in the Clawpack framework but also an easily extensible framework for solving hyperbolic balance laws. Some of these extensions include the addition of WENO high-order methods, massively parallel capabilities, and adaptive mesh refinement technologies, made possible largely by the flexibility of the Python language and community libraries such as NumPy and PETSc. Because of the tight integration with Python tecnologies, both packages have benefited also from the focus on reproducibility in the Python community, notably IPython notebooks.

  3. Technology for nature conservation: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N

    2015-11-01

    Information age technology has the potential to change the game for conservation by continuously monitoring the pulse of the natural world. Whether or not it will depends on the ability of the conservation sector to build a community of practice, come together to define key technology challenges and work with a wide variety of partners to create, implement, and sustain solutions. I describe why these steps are necessary, outline the latest developments in the field and offer actionable ways forward for conservation agencies, universities, funding bodies, professional societies, and technology corporations to come together to realize the revolution that computational technologies can bring for biodiversity conservation.

  4. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  5. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Institutional Canopy of Conservation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research has shown that the most effective strategy for sustaining biodiversity around and beyond parks involves strong community engagement that links livelihoods and aspirations to conservation benefits. The project will take a knowledge-action approach to engaging communities, their partnering institutions, and local ...

  7. Conservation and Unscripted Development: Proximity to Park Associated with Development and Financial Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research on the social dynamics of biodiversity conservation has shown that parks and protected areas have added hardship to rural communities throughout much of the developing world. Nonetheless, some recent studies have found evidence of poverty alleviation near protected areas. To build on these conflicting accounts, I use a comparative, mixed-methods design to examine opportunistic, unplanned, i.e., unscripted, development in indigenous communities near Tarangire National Park (TNP in northern Tanzania. I ask the questions: (1 How is proximity to TNP related to community-level infrastructural development? (2 How has the process of development changed over time? and (3 How is proximity to TNP related to infrastructure-related social outcomes at the household-level? Results from semistructured interviews show that, compared with distant communities, communities near TNP have developed more extensive education and water infrastructure in the past decade by procuring financial support from a greater diversity of external organizations, including wildlife-related organizations. Correspondingly, household survey results show that education measures are positively associated with proximity to TNP, controlling for other factors. These findings support the notion that development can accrue near protected areas in ways that are diverse, uncoordinated, and opportunistic, and correspondingly distinct from heralded community-based conservation, community-based natural resource management, and integrated conservation and development project initiatives.

  8. Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative strategic plan 2015 - 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl; Schroff, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (NWB LCC) is a voluntary, diverse, self-directed management-science partnership, informing and promoting integrated science, sustainable natural and cultural resource management, and conservation to address impacts of climate change and other stressors within and across ecosystems. The NWB LCC area includes parts of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Our partnership reflects both the broad geographic scope and an extensive array of active and engaged participants including resource management organizations, government representatives, policy makers, Tribes and First Nations, industry leaders, researchers, non-governmental organizations, and research/education institutions. Bringing together diverse partners will help assure the northwest boreal is a functioning, sustainable landscape. We live in an era of profound conservation challenges, including the loss and fragmentation of habitats, genetic isolation, invasive species, and unnatural wildfire. The effects of rapidly changing climate are already evident on the landscape. In these circumstances, it is imperative that natural resource management agencies, science providers, Tribes, First Nations, conservation organizations, and other stakeholders work together to understand the drivers and impacts of landscape change and to determine how best to address those challenges. Further, it is essential that the public and communities receive clear communication about the vision and activities of the NWB LCC. Open public access to NWB LCC activities and products will promote acceptance and support of the science that guides potential changes in management action and conservation strategy. This strategic plan provides a great opportunity for the NWB LCC to share our approach and intentions to the LCC members, collaborators, communities, and the public at large.

  9. Land management restrictions and options for change in perpetual conservation easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  10. Effectiveness of integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment in severe schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar I disorders: Four-year follow-up of the ACCESS II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöttle, Daniel; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Ruppelt, Friederike; Bussopulos, Alexandra; Frieling, Marietta; Nika, Evangelia; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Golks, Dietmar; Kerstan, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Schödlbauer, Michael; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sarikaya, Gizem; Sengutta, Mary; Luedecke, Daniel; Wittmann, Linus; Ohm, Gunda; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Gallinat, Jürgen; Wiedemann, Klaus; Bock, Thomas; Karow, Anne; Lambert, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The ACCESS-model offers integrated care including assertive community treatment to patients with psychotic disorders. ACCESS proved more effective compared to standard care (ACCESS-I study) and was successfully implemented into clinical routine (ACCESS-II study). In this article, we report the 4-year outcomes of the ACCESS-II study. Between May 2007 and December 2013, 115 patients received continuous ACCESS-care. We hypothesized that the low 2-year disengagement and hospitalization rates and significant improvements in psychopathology, functioning, and quality of life could be sustained over 4 years. Over 4 years, only 10 patients disengaged from ACCESS. Another 23 left for practical reasons and were successfully transferred to other services. Hospitalization rates remained low (13.0% in year 3; 9.1% in year 4). Involuntary admissions decreased from 35% in the 2 years prior to ACCESS to 8% over 4 years in ACCESS. Outpatient contacts remained stably high at 2.0-2.4 per week. We detected significant improvements in psychopathology (effect size d = 0.79), illness severity (d = 1.29), level of functioning (d = 0.77), quality of life (d = 0.47) and stably high client satisfaction (d = 0.02) over 4 years. Most positive effects were observed within the first 2 years with the exception of illness severity, which further improved from year 2 to 4. Within continuous intensive 4-year ACCESS-care, sustained improvements in psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, low service disengagement and re-hospitalization rates, as well as low rates of involuntary treatment, were observed in contrast to other studies, which reported a decline in these parameters once a specific treatment model was stopped. Yet, stronger evidence to prove these results is required. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01888627.

  11. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  12. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart P. Hardegree; Thomas A. Jones; Bruce A. Roundy; Nancy L. Shaw; Thomas A. Monaco

    2011-01-01

    The Range Planting Conservation Practice Standard is used to inform development of Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) management recommendations for improving vegetation composition and productivity of grazed plant communities. Range planting recommendations are generally implemented within an integrated conservation management system in conjunction with...

  13. Plant conservation in the Anthropocene – Challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H. Heywood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive efforts that have been made to conserve plant diversity across the world during the past few decades, it is becoming increasingly evident that our current strategies are not sufficiently effective to prevent the continuing decline in biodiversity. As a recent report by the CBD indicates, current progress and commitments are insufficient to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets by 2020. Threatened species lists continue to grow while the world's governments fail to meet biodiversity conservation goals. Clearly, we are failing in our attempts to conserve biodiversity on a sufficient scale. The reasons for this situation are complex, including scientific, technical, sociological, economic and political factors. The conservation community is divided about how to respond. Some believe that saving all existing biodiversity is still an achievable goal. On the other hand, there are those who believe that we need to accept that biodiversity will inevitably continue to be lost, despite all our conservation actions and that we must focus on what to save, why and where. It has also been suggested that we need a new approach to conservation in the face of the challenges posed by the Anthropocene biosphere which we now inhabit. Whatever view one holds on the above issues, it is clear that we need to review the effectiveness of our current conservation strategies, identify the limiting factors that are preventing the Aichi goals being met and at the same time take whatever steps are necessary to make our conservation protocols more explicit, operational and efficient so as to achieve the maximum conservation effect. This paper addresses the key issues that underlie our failure to meet agreed targets and discusses the necessary changes to our conservation approaches. While we can justifiably be proud of our many achievements and successes in plant conservation in the past 30 years, which have helped slow the rate of loss, unless we devise a

  14. Sustainable utilization and conservation of plant biodiversity in montane ecosystems: the western Himalayas as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Page, Sue E; Ahmad, Habib; Harper, David M

    2013-08-01

    Conservation of the unique biodiversity of mountain ecosystems needs trans-disciplinary approaches to succeed in a crowded colloquial world. Geographers, conservationists, ecologists and social scientists have, in the past, had the same conservation goals but have tended to work independently. In this review, the need to integrate different conservation criteria and methodologies is discussed. New criteria are offered for prioritizing species and habitats for conservation in montane ecosystems that combine both ecological and social data. Ecological attributes of plant species, analysed through robust community statistical packages, provide unbiased classifications of species assemblages and environmental biodiversity gradients and yield importance value indices (IVIs). Surveys of local communities' utilization of the vegetation provides use values (UVs). This review suggests a new means of assessing anthropogenic pressure on plant biodiversity at both species and community levels by integrating IVI and UV data sets in a combined analysis. Mountain ecosystems are hot spots for plant conservation efforts because they hold a high overall plant diversity as communities replace each other along altitudinal and climatic gradients, including a high proportion of endemic species. This review contributes an enhanced understanding of (1) plant diversity in mountain ecosystems with special reference to the western Himalayas; (2) ethnobotanical and ecosystem service values of mountain vegetation within the context of anthropogenic impacts; and (3) local and regional plant conservation strategies and priorities.

  15. The rural farmer and plant genetic resources conservation: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods of conservation used by rural farmers were studied in the Fanteakwa District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Ten rural communities were randomly selected, and10 rural farmers were interviewed in each community. Questions posed ranged from methods of conservation to traditional belief systems associated ...

  16. Monitoring and conservation of the Critically Endangered Alaotran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, our observations and analysis suggest that the protection provided by the local community to H. alaotrensis in Andreba is contributing to the conservation of this Critically Endangered species. This highlights the need to continue working on engaging the local communities in the conservation of the marshes at Lac ...

  17. Landscape-scale conservation design across biotic realms: sequential integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Paul B; Baldwin, Robert F; Hanks, R Daniel

    2017-11-06

    Systematic conservation planning has been used extensively throughout the world to identify important areas for maintaining biodiversity and functional ecosystems, and is well suited to address large-scale biodiversity conservation challenges of the twenty-first century. Systematic planning is necessary to bridge implementation, scale, and data gaps in a collaborative effort that recognizes competing land uses. Here, we developed a conservation planning process to identify and unify conservation priorities around the central and southern Appalachian Mountains as part of the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative (App LCC). Through a participatory framework and sequential, cross-realm integration in spatial optimization modeling we highlight lands and waters that together achieve joint conservation goals from LCC partners for the least cost. This process was driven by a synthesis of 26 multi-scaled conservation targets and optimized for simultaneous representation inside the program Marxan to account for roughly 25% of the LCC geography. We identify five conservation design elements covering critical ecological processes and patterns including interconnected regions as well as the broad landscapes between them. Elements were then subjected to a cumulative threats index for possible prioritization. The evaluation of these elements supports multi-scaled decision making within the LCC planning community through a participatory, dynamic, and iterative process.

  18. A Horizon Scan of Global Conservation Issues for 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Broad, Steven; Caine, Jacqueline; Clout, Mick; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Keim, Brandon; LeAnstey, Becky; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Mortimer, Diana; Ockendon, Nancy; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Rockström, Johan; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Wright, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our seventh annual horizon scan, in which we aimed to identify issues that could have substantial effects on global biological diversity in the future, but are not currently widely well known or understood within the conservation community. Fifteen issues were identified by a team that included researchers, practitioners, professional horizon scanners, and journalists. The topics include use of managed bees as transporters of biological control agents, artificial superintelligence, electric pulse trawling, testosterone in the aquatic environment, building artificial oceanic islands, and the incorporation of ecological civilization principles into government policies in China. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The conservation attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    Forsaking his inheritance and its assurance of a comfortable existence, Guatama Buddha adopted the life of a pauper to seek the intellectual joys of pure contemplation. Under a mulberry tree, it is said, he propounded a 12-point program of ethical conduct stressing the development of a disinterested outlook in each individual. Temples, ritual, and idols he considered distractions from the basic need. He felt that there was a basic need for the development of an attitude.The Brahmins as well as the lower castes recognized the merits of the system suggested by Buddha, but they molded his teachings into an accessory to existing rituals and dogma. They soon forgot that Guatama wanted no idols and no temples. They forgot his admonition that an attitude was the thing that really counted. Despite his expressed wish, today Buddha in stone, in bronze, and in gold ponders these things in thousands of temples and hears the prayers of millions who still seek the truths of an ethical life.Today, conservation has its temples. The temples of conservation include hundreds of irrigation reservoirs; it has prayer-sticks in miles of contour plow furrows, and the Buddha of a drop-inlet structure looks down on a conservation pool in myriad detention dams.Conservation is well established today in the minds of the American public. It seems appropriate to analyze at this time just what it is that is established in the public mind. In what ways have we, too, substituted the temples, the ritual, and the idols for an attitude?

  20. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  1. Threats to intact tropical peatlands and opportunities for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucoux, K H; Lawson, I T; Baker, T R; Del Castillo Torres, D; Draper, F C; Lähteenoja, O; Gilmore, M P; Honorio Coronado, E N; Kelly, T J; Mitchard, E T A; Vriesendorp, C F

    2017-12-01

    Large, intact areas of tropical peatland are highly threatened at a global scale by the expansion of commercial agriculture and other forms of economic development. Conserving peatlands on a landscape scale, with their hydrology intact, is of international conservation importance to preserve their distinctive biodiversity and ecosystem services and maintain their resilience to future environmental change. We explored threats to and opportunities for conserving remaining intact tropical peatlands; thus, we excluded peatlands of Indonesia and Malaysia, where extensive deforestation, drainage, and conversion to plantations means conservation in this region can protect only small fragments of the original ecosystem. We focused on a case study, the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (PMFB) in Peru, which is among the largest known intact tropical peatland landscapes in the world and is representative of peatland vulnerability. Maintenance of the hydrological conditions critical for carbon storage and ecosystem function of peatlands is, in the PMFB, primarily threatened by expansion of commercial agriculture linked to new transport infrastructure that is facilitating access to remote areas. There remain opportunities in the PMFB and elsewhere to develop alternative, more sustainable land-use practices. Although some of the peatlands in the PMFB fall within existing legally protected areas, this protection does not include the most carbon-dense (domed pole forest) areas. New carbon-based conservation instruments (e.g., REDD+, Green Climate Fund), developing markets for sustainable peatland products, transferring land title to local communities, and expanding protected areas offer pathways to increased protection for intact tropical peatlands in Amazonia and elsewhere, such as those in New Guinea and Central Africa which remain, for the moment, broadly beyond the frontier of commercial development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. Conservation of freshwater turtles in Amazonia: retrospective and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson de Souza Alcântara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the current status of conservation of freshwater turtles of the Amazon and the absence of the genus Podocnemis the Official List of Species of Brazilian Fauna Threatened with Extinction. Amazonian turtles are used as food by indigenous people and fisherman communities. However, fishing of adult females, uncontrolled egg collecting, habitat degradation and trafficking in wildlife have caused the decline of these populations. Nevertheless, Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis were not included in the Brazil’s official list of animals threatened. Therefore, the turtles remain at great risk, due to the intense pressure that they are suffering. It is recommended that the criteria and the conservation status are reviewed including those animals in the category of vulnerable and to ensure a thorough review and modification in the current Brazilian law to be covered studies and management of turtles for subsistence, respecting and adding value to way of life of Amazonian peoples.

  3. Heart of borneo as a ′Jalan Tikus′: Exploring the links Between indigenous rights, extractive and exploitative industries, and conservation at the World Conservation Congress 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitchner Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Fourth World Conservation Congress in Barcelona in October 2008, a number of motions were passed that emphasised human and indigenous rights and the role of the private sector, particularly extractive and exploitative industries, in conservation. These issues are highly relevant to the ongoing World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-led Heart of Borneo (HoB conservation initiative, which is situated in an area with overlapping political jurisdictions and an array of possible futures, which could include new or expanded protected areas, community-managed conservation programmes, or oil palm plantations potentially covering millions of hectares. The HoB initiative is ambiguous in the sense that its borders are not fixed, its land and resource management strategies are not clearly defined, its projects are not predetermined, and its policies regarding who benefits from it are not obvious. HoB is also ambitious, and its actors must negotiate a number of different types of scales: geographic, political, economic, institutional, and ecological. These factors offer both opportunities and weaknesses both for conservation and for local and indigenous communities living within the HoB area. Using HoB as an example, I show how small NGOs, national branches of multinational NGOs like WWF, and local and indigenous communities must walk a ′jalan tikus′ to accomplish conservation and indigenous rights goals. I also offer suggestions on how the motions passed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN membership can be incorporated into HoB planning on the ground.

  4. Mixing It Up: The Role of Hybridization in Forest Management and Conservation under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine K. Janes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest tree hybrid zones provide a wealth of novel genetic variation that can be harnessed to safeguard populations in changing climates. In the past 30 years, natural and artificial forest hybrid zones have facilitated significant contributions to selective breeding programs, conservation, and our understanding of the evolutionary processes and mechanisms that influence the maintenance of species and community interactions. This review highlights advances in these areas using forest hybrid zones. Taking examples from well-known genera, including eucalypt, poplar, oak and spruce, this review details the important role hybrid zones play in managing conservation of genetic variation, the environmental and non-environmental factors that influence barriers to reproduction, and the impact that genetic ancestry may have on community biodiversity. Given increasing concern surrounding species adaptability under rapidly changing conditions, we describe how the study of forest hybrid zones, using quantitative and genomic approaches, can facilitate conservation of genetic diversity and long-term species management.

  5. Environmental protection by cost minimization: Least Cost Planning for traffic. Includes a guide for the application in local communities; Umweltentlastung durch Kostenminimierung: Least Cost Planning im Verkehr. Mit Leitfaden fuer die Anwendung in Kommunen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracher, T.; Diegmann, V.; Eckart, C.F.; Liwicki, M.; Lobenberg, G.; Wetzel, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Informatik, Verkehrs- und Umweltplanung mbH (IVU), Berlin (Germany); Bergmann, M.; Uricher, A.; Lueers, A. [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Becker, U.; Karl, G.; Karl, B.; Voellings, A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verkehrsoekologie

    1999-08-01

    An intermodal approach for the evaluation of transportation services on the municipal level was developed. Both non-motorised and motorised transportation were included. The approach aims at helping communities to provide an economically and ecologically viable transport policy. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) was developed to transfer the successful concept of Least Cost Planning from the energy sector to transportation. The conclusion from an analysis of LCTP literature and present evaluation methods was that an improved approach should be intermodal and integrate users, public bodies and transport companies as well as all planning sectors. An approach was developed firstly to identify and clarify transportation expenditures and incomes of a city within a year, and secondly for the evaluation of planning alternatives. This was illustrated for the access system of an industrial area with adjacent railway services in the town of Freiburg. Three alternatives were compared: the extension of a tramway line, the upgrading of the present bus system, and the development of a service and bicycle provision concept for rail stations and companies. Besides income and expenditure for each alternative, the effects on transport demand, the impact on air pollution and noise and on space consumption were presented. As a result, the bicycle concept is in most items better than its alternatives. The final report has three volumes and there is an extra guideline for implementing the method within municipalities. It includes a set of excel sheet tables for an easy application (all in German). (orig.) [German] Fuer die Verkehrsplanung wurde ein verkehrstraegeruebergreifendes Bewertungsverfahren fuer Kommunen entwickelt, das motorisierte und nicht motorisierte Verkehrstraeger einbezieht. Das Verfahren soll Gemeinden unterstuetzen, eine oekonomische und oekologisch vertraegliche Verkehrspolitik zu verfolgen. Least Cost Transportation Planning (LCTP) zielt darauf ab, das fuer

  6. Synthesis agrobiodiversity - conservation and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Bruin, J.; Rijn, van P.

    2007-01-01

    Biodiversity, including that of insects, should be preserve or even enhanced for its own sake, sometimes encouraged by international organizations. In agricultural areas an additional reason for its conservation is the ecological services it can provide to agriculture, including the natural control

  7. Adaptive management: A tool for conservation practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Salafsky, N.; Margoluis, R.; Redford, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This e-book is a hands on guide for conservation practitioners interested in improving their collaborative conservation methods through adaptive management processes. This includes a triangulation of experience, theory and methods from business, social, and hard sciences. While this includes a review of the theoretical literature, this book is more focused on providing practitioners with tools to help them incorporate adaptive management techniques into conservation pr...

  8. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders [Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Dragvoll (Norway)

    2005-10-15

    Integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs) have frequently been established in Africa to improve wildlife conservation and the welfare of local communities. However, their effectiveness has been hampered by conflicts and illegal harvesting. This paper focuses on the strategic interaction between the manager of a protected area and a group of local people. The park manager benefits from wildlife through tourism and hunting. The local people benefit through hunting, but also bear the wildlife damage. ICDPs relying on money transfers to the local people from the park manager may or may not promote wildlife conservation. In addition, the welfare of the local people are ambiguous. (author) [Wildlife; Conservation; Conflicts; Local welfare].

  10. DOE Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Heat Pump Centered Integrated Community Energy Systems (HP-ICES) Project is a multiphase undertaking seeking to demonstrate one or more operational HP-ICES by the end of 1983. The seven phases include System Development, Demonstration Design, Design Completion, HP-ICES Construction, Operation and Data Acquisition, HP-ICES Evaluation, and Upgraded Continuation. This project is sponsored by the Community Systems Branch, Office of Buildings and Community Systems, Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Solar Applicaions, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of the Community Systems Program and is managed by the Energy and Environmental Systems Division of Argonne Natinal Laboratory.

  11. Education and Nature Conservation: an Urgent Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Pereira-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at pointing out not only Costa Rica’s richness in terms of flora and fauna, but also the risk we face if we are unable to educate citizens for the appropriate nature conservation. In this sense, the authors state that it is through education that nature conversation, which is a necessity, can be promoted among citizens and communities. This is the reason why conservation and education must create an urgent alliance.

  12. Marine protected areas increase resilience among coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, Camille; Aaron MacNeil, M; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Julian Caley, M

    2016-06-01

    With marine biodiversity declining globally at accelerating rates, maximising the effectiveness of conservation has become a key goal for local, national and international regulators. Marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely advocated for conserving and managing marine biodiversity yet, despite extensive research, their benefits for conserving non-target species and wider ecosystem functions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of coral reef communities to natural disturbances, including coral bleaching, coral diseases, Acanthaster planci outbreaks and storms. Using a 20-year time series from Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we show that within MPAs, (1) reef community composition was 21-38% more stable; (2) the magnitude of disturbance impacts was 30% lower and (3) subsequent recovery was 20% faster that in adjacent unprotected habitats. Our results demonstrate that MPAs can increase the resilience of marine communities to natural disturbance possibly through herbivory, trophic cascades and portfolio effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Environmental variables affecting the success of conservation farming in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gatere, Lydiah; Delve, R.; Hobbs, P.; DeGloria, S.; Lehmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses conservation farming methods in Zambia. The research highlights how conservation farming methods may help to negate environmental variables that hinder crop production, such as lack of rainfall and poor soil quality. The study compares conservation farming practices with variable amendments, including cow manure, gliricidia leaves, biochar, and fertilizer applications. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  14. Conservation of forest genetic resources in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. St. Clair; S. Lipow; K. Vance-Borland; R. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity is recognized as an important requirement of sustainable forest management. Gene conservation activities include in situ conservation of native stands in reserves and ex situ conservation in seed banks, genetic tests, seed and breeding orchards, and other plantations of known identity. We present an example from Oregon and Washington...

  15. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  16. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  17. Social participation and oak forest conservation: Paipa and Duitama study case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Torres, Vivian Constanza; Palacio Tamayo, Dolly Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Social dynamics within social participation is a crucial issue for the accomplishment of forest conservation. In order to contribute to this field, a study of 31 institutional and community organized actors' cooperative practices, within forest conservation processes in Paipa and Duitama, located at the oak forests conservation corridor Guantiva, La Rusia, Iguaque in Colombia, was made, applying Social Network Analysis (SNA). Particularly, this article inquiry is about models of participation of these actors within the period of 2004-2008, looking at their projects and actions as management practices of forest conservation. The research questions were how social participation is included and understood in the conservation of these oak forests, observing cooperative practices amongst this set of actors, at local level. The results are related with the structural patterns of co-participation established amongst these actors within each other's projects and actions and the impact of those in the aim of forest conservation at local level, regarding power relations and its impact on forest conservation.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Paradoxes in Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    David Pearce

    2005-01-01

    Biodiversity is important for human wellbeing, but it is declining. Measures to conserve biodiversity are essential but may be a waste of effort if several paradoxes are not addressed. The highest levels of diversity are in nations least able to practise effective conservation. The flow of funds to international biodiversity conservation appears trivial when compared to the scale of biodiversity loss. International agreements may not actually protect or conserve more than what would have been...

  20. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  1. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper puzzles over why symmetry, so central to particle physics today, was so little attended to in the 1950s when the need for it was becoming profound, with the notion of parity violation and other break-downs in conservation laws, such as angular momentum and charge conjugation. Group theory, including Lie groups, would also have helped understanding of the particle physics discoveries of the 1950s such as strange particles, resonances, and associated production. They were adopted ten years too late by the physics community. (UK)

  2. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  3. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  5. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  6. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  7. Heroes or thieves? The ethical grounds for lingering concerns about new conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea Batavia; Michael Paul Nelson

    2016-01-01

    After several years of intense debate surrounding so-called new conservation, there has been a general trend toward reconciliation among previously dissenting voices in the conservation community, a “more is more” mentality premised upon the belief that a greater diversity of conservation approaches will yield greater conservation benefits. However, there seems good...

  8. Local Knowledge and Conservation of Seagrasses in the Tamil Nadu State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newmaster AF

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Local knowledge systems are not considered in the conservation of fragile seagrass marine ecosystems. In fact, little is known about the utility of seagrasses in local coastal communities. This is intriguing given that some local communities rely on seagrasses to sustain their livelihoods and have relocated their villages to areas with a rich diversity and abundance of seagrasses. The purpose of this study is to assist in conservation efforts regarding seagrasses through identifying Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK from local knowledge systems of seagrasses from 40 coastal communities along the eastern coast of India. We explore the assemblage of scientific and local traditional knowledge concerning the 1. classification of seagrasses (comparing scientific and traditional classification systems, 2. utility of seagrasses, 3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK of seagrasses, and 4. current conservation efforts for seagrass ecosystems. Our results indicate that local knowledge systems consist of a complex classification of seagrass diversity that considers the role of seagrasses in the marine ecosystem. This fine-scaled ethno-classification gives rise to five times the number of taxa (10 species = 50 local ethnotaxa, each with a unique role in the ecosystem and utility within coastal communities, including the use of seagrasses for medicine (e.g., treatment of heart conditions, seasickness, etc., food (nutritious seeds, fertilizer (nutrient rich biomass and livestock feed (goats and sheep. Local communities are concerned about the loss of seagrass diversity and have considerable local knowledge that is valuable for conservation and restoration plans. This study serves as a case study example of the depth and breadth of local knowledge systems for a particular ecosystem that is in peril. Key words: local health and nutrition, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, conservation and natural resources management, consensus

  9. School and community relations in North America: Creative tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.

    1980-09-01

    School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.

  10. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  11. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  12. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  13. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  14. REVIEW: The evolving linkage between conservation science and practice at The Nature Conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter; Groves, Craig; Marvier, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) was founded by ecologists as a United States land trust to purchase parcels of habitat for the purpose of scientific study. It has evolved into a global organization working in 35 countries 'to conserve the lands and waters on which all life depends'. TNC is now the world 's largest conservation non-governmental organization (NGO), an early adopter of advances in ecological theory and a producer of new science as a result of practising conservation.The Nature Conservancy 's initial scientific innovation was the use of distributional data for rare species and ecological communities to systematically target lands for conservation. This innovation later evolved into a more rigorous approach known as 'Conservation by Design' that contained elements of systematic conservation planning, strategic planning and monitoring and evaluation.The next scientific transition at TNC was a move to landscape-scale projects, motivated by ideas from landscape ecology. Because the scale at which land could be set aside in areas untouched by humans fell far short of the spatial scale demanded by conservation, TNC became involved with best management practices for forestry, grazing, agriculture, hydropower and other land uses.A third scientific innovation at TNC came with the pursuit of multiobjective planning that accounts for economic and resource needs in the same plans that seek to protect biodiversity.The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment prompted TNC to become increasingly concerned with ecosystem services and the material risk to people posed by ecosystem deterioration.Finally, because conservation depends heavily upon negotiation, TNC has recently recruited social scientists, economists and communication experts. One aspect still missing, however, is a solid scientific understanding of thresholds that should be averted. Synthesis and applications . Over its 60-plus year history, scientific advances have informed The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 's actions

  15. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Willis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009 highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  16. Understanding conservationists' perspectives on the new-conservation debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, George; Sandbrook, Chris; Fisher, Janet A

    2017-04-01

    A vibrant debate about the future direction of biodiversity conservation centers on the merits of the so-called new conservation. Proponents of the new conservation advocate a series of positions on key conservation ideas, such as the importance of human-dominated landscapes and conservation's engagement with capitalism. These have been fiercely contested in a debate dominated by a few high-profile individuals, and so far there has been no empirical exploration of existing perspectives on these issues among a wider community of conservationists. We used Q methodology to examine empirically perspectives on the new conservation held by attendees at the 2015 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). Although we identified a consensus on several key issues, 3 distinct positions emerged: in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations, in favor of biocentric approaches but with less emphasis on wilderness protection than prominent opponents of new conservation, and in favor of the published new conservation perspective but with less emphasis on increasing human well-being as a goal of conservation. Our results revealed differences between the debate on the new conservation in the literature and views held within a wider, but still limited, conservation community and demonstrated the existence of at least one viewpoint (in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations) that is almost absent from the published debate. We hope the fuller understanding we present of the variety of views that exist but have not yet been heard, will improve the quality and tone of debates on the subject. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of...

  18. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  19. Traditional African Knowledge In Biodiversity Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tropical forest ecosystem is one of the most important ecosystems of the world, because it contains a large proportion of the world's biodiversity and provides many environmental functions. Local communities have successfully conserved these resources that are of interest to them through laws and taboos. These range ...

  20. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  1. Plant conservation progress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri Havens; Andrea Kramer; Ed. Guerrant

    2017-01-01

    Effective national plant conservation has several basic needs, including: 1) accessible, up-to-date information on species distribution and rarity; 2) research and management capacity to mitigate the impact of threats that make plants rare; 3) effective networks for conserving species in situ and ex situ; 4) education and training to make sure the right people are...

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of specially protected areas for conservation of Antarctica's botanical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A; Ireland, Louise C; Convey, Peter; Fleming, Andrew H

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation is sparsely distributed over Antarctica's ice-free ground, and distinct plant communities are present in each of the continent's 15 recently identified Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs). With rapidly increasing human activity in Antarctica, terrestrial plant communities are at risk of damage or destruction by trampling, overland transport, and infrastructure construction and from the impacts of anthropogenically introduced species, as well as uncontrollable pressures such as fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) activity and climate change. Under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, the conservation of plant communities can be enacted and facilitated through the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs). We examined the distribution within the 15 ACBRs of the 33 ASPAs whose explicit purpose includes protecting macroscopic terrestrial flora. We completed the first survey using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite remote sensing to provide baseline data on the extent of vegetation cover in all ASPAs designated for plant protection in Antarctica. Large omissions in the protection of Antarctic botanical diversity were found. There was no protection of plant communities in 6 ACBRs, and in another 6, area was included in an ASPA that protected vegetation. Protected vegetation cover within the 33 ASPAs totaled 16.1 km(2) for the entire Antarctic continent; over half was within a single protected area. Over 96% of the protected vegetation was contained in 2 ACBRs, which together contributed only 7.8% of the continent's ice-free ground. We conclude that Antarctic botanical diversity is clearly inadequately protected and call for systematic designation of ASPAs protecting plant communities by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties, the members of the governing body of the continent. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society

  3. Opportunities and obstacles for rangeland conservation in San Diego County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Farley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working landscapes such as rangelands are increasingly recognized as having high conservation value, providing a variety of ecosystem services, including food, fiber, habitat, recreation, open space, carbon storage, and water, in addition to a broad range of social benefits. However, conversion of rangelands to other land uses has been prevalent throughout the western United States, leading to greater attention in the conservation community to the importance of collaborating with private landowners. The level of interest in collaborative conservation among private landowners and the types of conservation programs they choose to participate in depend on the social, economic, and environmental context. We used GIS analysis and interviews with ranchers to evaluate rangeland conversion and participation in conservation programs among ranchers in San Diego County, California, USA, which is part of a biodiversity hotspot with high plant species richness and a large number of endemic and rare species. We found that > 25% of rangelands were converted to other uses, primarily urbanization, over the past 25 years while the area of public rangeland increased by 9%. Interviews revealed that ranchers in San Diego County have had limited involvement with most conservation programs, and a critical factor for nonparticipation was providing programs access to private land, along with other issues related to trust and social values. Among ranchers who had participated in conservation programs, the payment level and the agency or organization administering the program were key factors. Our results provide insight into factors influencing whether and when ranchers are likely to participate in conservation initiatives and illustrate that private and public land conservation are strongly linked and would be more effective if the two strategies were better integrated.

  4. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  5. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  7. Ecological sustainability as the fourth landmark in the development of conservation ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter S; Tuttle, Julie P

    2013-10-01

    Aldo Leopold, in "The Land Ethic," made 2 important contributions to conservation ethics: he emphasized the community and ecosystem levels of organization and he explicitly included people as members of the biotic community. Leopold's writings remain eloquent, inspirational, and influential, but the ideas he describes are inherently complex, and ecological science has continued to evolve since "The Land Ethic" was published in 1949. We used 4 sets of quotations from Leopold's essays to develop our commentary on the meaning of and challenges in interpreting his work and to explore the ongoing development of conservation ethics: the "A-B cleavage" (Leopold's description of the contrast between utilitarian value versus a broader definition of value in nature), "land health" and the rightness of human action, the right of all species to continued existence in natural populations "at least in spots," and humans as "plain member[s] and citizen[s]" of the "land-community." We define the broader function of land and land health in "The Land Ethic" as including completeness, dynamic stability, and self-renewal in a way that incorporates the needs of humans and all other species. We argue that the consequences of implementing Leopold's land ethic include multiple conservation goals nested within an overall systems approach and that conservation science must clarify the implications of Leopold's ethic by quantitatively investigating and defining large-scale, system-level ecological sustainability. At this scale, land use will encompass areas ranging from large expanses of wilderness to areas dominated by humans. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Primary care physicians' perceived barriers, facilitators and strategies to enhance conservative care for older adults with chronic kidney disease: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam-Tham, Helen; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Campbell, David J T; Thomas, Chandra M; Fruetel, Karen; Quinn, Robert R; King-Shier, Kathryn M

    2016-11-01

    Although primary care physicians (PCPs) are often responsible for the routine care of older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), there is a paucity of evidence regarding their perspectives and practice of conservative (non-dialysis) care. We undertook a qualitative study to describe barriers, facilitators and strategies to enhance conservative, non-dialysis, CKD care by PCPs in the community. Semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews were conducted with PCPs from Alberta, Canada. Participants were identified using a snowball sampling strategy and purposively sampled based on sex, age and rural/urban location of clinical practice. Eligible participants had managed at least one patient ≥75 years with Stage 5 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate primary care for >20 years (14/27). Perceived barriers to conservative CKD care included: managing expectations of kidney failure for patients and their families; dealing with the complexity of medical management of patients requiring conservative care; and challenges associated with managing patients jointly with specialists. Factors that facilitated conservative CKD care included: establishing patient/family expectations early; preserving continuity of care; and utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach. Suggested strategies for improving conservative care included having: direct telephone access to clinicians familiar with conservative care; treatment decision aids for patients and their families; and a conservative care clinical pathway to guide management. PCPs identified important barriers and facilitators to conservative care for their older patients with Stage 5 CKD. Further investigation of potential strategies that address barriers and enable facilitators is required to improve the quality of conservative care for older adults in the community. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Arbuthnot, Margaret; Blackman, Allen; Brooks, Sharon E; Giovannucci, Daniele; Gross, Lee; Kennedy, Elizabeth T; Komives, Kristin; Lambin, Eric F; Lee, Audrey; Meyer, Daniel; Newton, Peter; Phalan, Ben; Schroth, Götz; Semroc, Bambi; Van Rikxoort, Henk; Zrust, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time. The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi-experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time-series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land-use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and

  10. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Improving the key biodiversity areas approach for effective conservation planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Knight, AT

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available in regional conservation planning for local stakeholders, expanding the Alliance for Zero Extinction program to include a broader range of threatened species, and allow local stakeholders to nominate KBAs on the basis of their own regional conservation...

  12. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Puhakka

    Full Text Available In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1.

  13. Bird diversity, birdwatching tourism and conservation in Peru: a geographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1).

  14. Conservation of biodiversity as a strategy for improving human health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Salkeld, Daniel J; Titcomb, Georgia; Hahn, Micah B

    2017-06-05

    The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions. Developing practical and self-sustaining biodiversity conservation interventions will require significant investment in disease ecology research to determine when and where they will be effective.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Bird Diversity, Birdwatching Tourism and Conservation in Peru: A Geographic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, Liisa; Salo, Matti; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2011-01-01

    In the face of the continuing global biodiversity loss, it is important not only to assess the need for conservation, through e.g. gap analyses, but also to seek practical solutions for protecting biodiversity. Environmentally and socially sustainable tourism can be one such solution. We present a method to spatially link data on conservation needs and tourism-based economic opportunities, using bird-related tourism in Peru as an example. Our analysis highlighted areas in Peru where potential for such projects could be particularly high. Several areas within the central and northern Andean regions, as well as within the lowland Amazonian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto emerge as promising for this type of activity. Mechanisms to implement conservation in these areas include e.g. conservation and ecotourism concessions, private conservation areas, and conservation easements. Some of these mechanisms also offer opportunities for local communities seeking to secure their traditional land ownership and use rights. (Spanish language abstract, Abstract S1). PMID:22132078

  16. Conservation implications when the next predators are known. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson; Christine A. Ribic

    2012-01-01

    Conservation and management of passerines has largely focused on habitat manipulation or restoration because the natural communities on which these birds depend have been destroyed and fragmented. However, productivity is another important aspect of avian conservation, and nest predation can be a large source of nesting mortality for passerines. Recent studies using...

  17. Conservation agriculture for food security in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    University of the Philippines - Los Baños

    2010-01-01

    This brochure describes the project to promote Conservation Agriculture as a technologically-feasible, economically-viable, environmentally-sustainable and gender-responsive production system that will contribute to food security of small farm communities in the Philippines. LTRA-12 (Conservation agriculture for food security in Cambodia and the Philippines)

  18. The Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on part of a broad study to investigate indigenous knowledge applied by the Lesotho Highlands communities to conserve biodiversity. A questionnaire was administered in 12 villages, to a population of 139 interviewees. It guided interviews on conservation of selected faunal and floral species with ...

  19. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouborg, N. Joop; Pertoldi, Cino; Loeschcke, Volker; Bijlsma, Kuke; Hedrick, Phil W.

    Over the past twenty years conservation genetics has progressed from being mainly a theory-based field of population biology to a full-grown empirical discipline. Technological developments in molecular genetics have led to extensive use of neutral molecular markers such as microsatellites in

  20. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  1. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  2. How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico?

    OpenAIRE

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine de Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes.We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimator...

  3. Impact of local empowerment on conservation practices in a highly developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...

  4. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, Edward T; Fitzsimons, James A; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  5. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Connor, Ben; Culshaw, Caroline; Dicks, Lynn V; Dinsdale, Jason; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Roux, Xavier Le; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Mortimer, Diana; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Seymour, Colleen L; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Gleave, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home > Archives: Madagascar Conservation & Development. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  9. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  10. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  12. Conservation of Beclardia macrostachya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    emphasis need to be placed on conservation and also protection of plants from poaching. Effective management of ... The conservation of any taxon requires information about the ecogeographic structure of the target taxon and such ... The main aspects considered for understanding the biology of this orchid were the study.

  13. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  15. Animal models and conserved processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greek Ray

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is

  16. Animal models and conserved processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek, Ray; Rice, Mark J

    2012-09-10

    The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter-species extrapolation when the trait or response

  17. A state-based national network for effective wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meretsky, Vicky J.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Davis, Frank W.; Stoms, David M.; Scott, J. Michael; Figg, Dennis; Goble, Dale D.; Griffith, Brad; Henke, Scott E.; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Yaffee, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    State wildlife conservation programs provide a strong foundation for biodiversity conservation in the United States, building on state wildlife action plans. However, states may miss the species that are at the most risk at rangewide scales, and threats such as novel diseases and climate change increasingly act at regional and national levels. Regional collaborations among states and their partners have had impressive successes, and several federal programs now incorporate state priorities. However, regional collaborations are uneven across the country, and no national counterpart exists to support efforts at that scale. A national conservation-support program could fill this gap and could work across the conservation community to identify large-scale conservation needs and support efforts to meet them. By providing important information-sharing and capacity-building services, such a program would advance collaborative conservation among the states and their partners, thus increasing both the effectiveness and the efficiency of conservation in the United States.

  18. Geographic bias in citation rates of conservation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijaard, Erik; Cardillo, Marcel; Meijaard, Emily M; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether the impact of conservation science is greater for research conducted in countries with more pressing conservation problems. We quantified research impact for 231 countries based on 2 citation metrics (mean cites per paper and h index) and fitted models predicting research impact based on number of threatened bird and mammal species (as a measure of conservation importance of a country) and a range of demographic variables. Citation rates of conservation research increased as a country's conservation need increased and as human population, quality of governance, and wealth increased. Even after accounting for these factors, citation rates among regions and countries within regions varied significantly. The conservation research community needs to consider ways to begin addressing the entrenched disadvantages some countries have when it comes to initiating projects and producing high-quality research. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Conserved superenergy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazkoz, Ruth; Senovilla, Jose M M; Vera, Rauel

    2003-01-01

    We exploit once again the analogy between the energy-momentum tensor and the so-called 'superenergy' tensors in order to build conserved currents in the presence of Killing vectors. First of all, we derive the divergence-free property of the gravitational superenergy currents under very general circumstances, even if the superenergy tensor is not divergence-free itself. The associated conserved quantities are explicitly computed for the Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild solutions. The remaining cases, when the above currents are not conserved, lead to the possibility of an interchange of some superenergy quantities between the gravitational and other physical fields in such a manner that the total, mixed, current may be conserved. Actually, this possibility has been recently proved to hold for the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system of field equations. By using an adequate family of known exact solutions, we present explicit and completely non-obvious examples of such mixed conserved currents

  20. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  1. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  2. PERCEPTION OF HOST COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DORCAS

    PERCEPTION OF HOST COMMUNITIES TOWARD THE IMPLEMENTATION OF. PARK LAWS IN OKOMU NATIONAL ... Keywords; Perception, Host communities, Park laws, Implementation, Wildilife conservation. INTRODUCTION. The contributions ... which were not taken into account at the time these national parks were ...

  3. Students as Citizen Scientists - Earth Conservation Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document has an overview of the student workshops on water quality monitoring used to generate citizen scientists. It also includes the main components of the curriculum and contact information for the Earth Conservation Corps to interested parties.

  4. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  5. Conservation and energy efficiency plan 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This plan outlined details of Nova Scotia's proposed $5 million incremental investment in energy efficiency and conservation measures in 2006. The plan was developed through consultation with various Canadian utilities, customers and external stakeholders. A team of stakeholders identified lighting, pricing, partnerships and education as opportunities offering the greatest potential for results. Market research was conducted to identify market potential and the identification of barriers to customer adoption of programs as well as customer expectations regarding program implementation. It was anticipated that the plan will reduce electricity usage and result in significant savings for customers, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The aim of the plan is to help build a conservation and energy efficiency culture in Nova Scotia and to bring Nova Scotia Power together with community-based partners. Specific plans for 2007 included: a 72 GWh reduction in annual electricity usage; approximately $7.7 million in annual savings to customers; a 16 MW reduction in peak electricity demand; and a 50 thousand tonne reduction of GHGs. A business case was presented along with details of proposed residential, commercial and industrial programs. A cost benefit analysis was provided, as well as an outline of the plan's budget and organizational structure. It was concluded that the success of the various program elements will be based on quantitative and qualitative data on the actual effect on energy use of each customer sector, as well as its effect on system demand profiles. Data will be collected through the use of customer surveys, questionnaires, and direct feedback from partners, educators and manufactures and suppliers. 11 tabs., 16 figs

  6. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  7. Patrimony and partnership: conserving the khipu legacy of Rapaz, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peters

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Khipu, cord objects used for recordinginformation, are associated with the Incas; however, in two known cases, khipu survive in Peru as communal patrimony, still in ritual use. This article describes the khipu of San Cristóbal de Rapaz and a project of in situ conservation, conducted in collaboration with the local community. It was necessary to develop a strategy to protect the khipu, while allowing their continued use in sacred rituals. This challenged the basic principles of preventive conservation, but through the collaborative process compromises were achieved, acceptable both to conservators and to the community, which has now resumed responsibility for preservation of the patrimony.

  8. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  9. No. 186-Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Magali; Ross, Sue

    2018-02-01

    To outline the evidence for conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence. Conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence include behavioural changes, lifestyle modification, pelvic floor retraining, and use of mechanical devices. To provide understanding of current available evidence concerning efficacy of conservative alternatives for managing urinary incontinence; to empower women to choose continence therapies that have benefit and that have minimal or no harm. The Cochrane Library and Medline (1966 to 2005) were searched to find articles related to conservative management of incontinence. Review articles were appraised. The quality of evidence is rated, and recommendations are made using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Evidence for the efficacy of conservative management options for urinary incontinence is strong. These options can be advocated as primary interventions with minimal or no harm to women. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...... into the process of commodification of nature in order to examine the institutional, economic, and social conditions that enable destinations to benefit from conservation through tourism. Using examples from conservation-based tourism projects in Tanzania, the paper makes a critical examination...

  11. Climate Change and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEDIG, F. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conserving forest genetic resources and, indeed, preventing species extinctions will be complicated by the expected changes in climate projected for the next century and beyond. This paper uses case examples from rare spruces (Picea sp. from North America to discuss the interplay of conservation, genetics, and climate change. New models show how climate change will affect these spruces, making it necessary to relocate them if they are to survive, a tool known as assisted migration or, preferably, assisted colonization. The paper concludes with some speculation on the broader implications of climate change, and the relevance of conservation to preserving the necessary ecological services provided by forests.

  12. Making conservation research more relevant for conservation practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, W.F.; Koster, H.; Grooten, M.; Anderson, A.B.; Zuidema, P.A.; Zwick, S.; Zagt, R.J.; Lynam, A.J.; Linkie, M.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2012-01-01

    Conservation scientists and practitioners share many of the same goals. Yet in a majority of cases, we argue, research conducted by academic conservation scientists actually makes surprisingly few direct contributions to environmental conservation. We illustrate how researchers can increase the

  13. Planning, implementing, and monitoring multiple-species habitat conservation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet; Regan, Helen M; Hierl, Lauren A; Deutschman, Douglas H; Johnson, Brenda S; Winchell, Clark S

    2011-03-01

    Despite numerous recommendations for various aspects of the design and monitoring of habitat conservation plans, there remains a need to synthesize existing guidelines into a comprehensive scheme and apply it to real-world conservation programs. We review tools for systematic conservation planning and elements for designing and implementing ecological monitoring in an adaptive management context. We apply principles of monitoring design to the San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) in California, USA--one of the first multispecies habitat conservation plans, located in a landscape where high biodiversity and urban development converge. Tools for spatial conservation planning are aimed to conserve biodiversity, often in the context of a limited budget. In practice, these methods may not accommodate legislative mandates, budgetary uncertainties, and the range of implementation mechanisms available across consortia of stakeholders. Once a reserve is implemented, the question becomes whether it is effective at conserving biodiversity, and if not, what actions are required to make it effective. In monitoring plan development, status and threats should be used to prioritize species and communities that require management action to ensure their persistence. Conceptual models documenting the state of knowledge of the system should highlight the main drivers affecting status and trends of species or communities. Monitoring strategies require scientifically justified decisions based on sampling, response, and data design. Because the framework illustrated here tackles multiple species, communities, and threats at the urban-wildland interface, it will have utility for ecosystem managers struggling to design monitoring programs.

  14. Development of new technologies in electric power conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation reviews overall progress in electricity conservation in the United States and describes major policies that have contributed to the development and implementation of new electricity conserving technologies. A variety of government and utility conservation programs are covered including: research and development programs, equipment and building efficiency standards, and utility incentive programs. (author)

  15. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  16. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  17. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  18. Monitoring for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D; Williams, Byron K

    2006-12-01

    Human-mediated environmental changes have resulted in appropriate concern for the conservation of ecological systems and have led to the development of many ecological monitoring programs worldwide. Many programs that are identified with the purpose of 'surveillance' represent an inefficient use of conservation funds and effort. Here, we revisit the 1964 paper by Platt and argue that his recommendations about the conduct of science are equally relevant to the conduct of ecological monitoring programs. In particular, we argue that monitoring should not be viewed as a stand-alone activity, but instead as a component of a larger process of either conservation-oriented science or management. Corresponding changes in monitoring focus and design would lead to substantial increases in the efficiency and usefulness of monitoring results in conservation.

  19. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  1. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel......Analysis suggests that progress in conservation of plastics objects and artworks can be described by a series of overlapping mesocycles. Focus has been placed for periods of 5-10 years each on determining the degradation pathways in the 1990s, developing strategies to inhibit those pathways from...... plastics has been the origin of the data describing lifetimes. By contrast, mesocycles in developing suitable storage and display microclimates for plastics have mirrored preventive conservation practices for natural polymeric materials. The rate of the third mesocycle, interventive conservation, has been...

  2. Conservation of wading birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  3. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  4. Examining the extinction of the Barbary lion and its implications for felid conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Simon A; Fellous, Amina; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Roberts, David L

    2013-01-01

    Estimations of species extinction dates are rarely definitive, yet declarations of extinction or extirpation are important as they define when conservation efforts may cease. Erroneous declarations of extinctions not only destabilize conservation efforts but also corrode local community support. Mismatches in perceptions by the scientific and local communities risk undermining sensitive, but important partnerships. We examine observations relating to the decline and extinction of Barbary lions in North Africa. Whilst the extinction predates the era of the scientific conservation movement, the decline is relatively well documented in historical records. Recently unearthed accounts suggest Barbary lions survived later than previously assumed. We use probabilistic methods to estimate a more recent extinction date for the subspecies. The evidence presented for a much later persistence of lions in North Africa, including generations when sightings were nil, suggests caution when considering felid populations as extinct in the wild. The case raises the possibility that captive animals descended from the Moroccan royal collection are closer contemporaries to wild Barbary lions. Furthermore, our results highlight the vulnerability of very small lion populations and the significance of continued conservation of remnant lion populations in Central and West Africa.

  5. Examining the extinction of the Barbary lion and its implications for felid conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Black

    Full Text Available Estimations of species extinction dates are rarely definitive, yet declarations of extinction or extirpation are important as they define when conservation efforts may cease. Erroneous declarations of extinctions not only destabilize conservation efforts but also corrode local community support. Mismatches in perceptions by the scientific and local communities risk undermining sensitive, but important partnerships. We examine observations relating to the decline and extinction of Barbary lions in North Africa. Whilst the extinction predates the era of the scientific conservation movement, the decline is relatively well documented in historical records. Recently unearthed accounts suggest Barbary lions survived later than previously assumed. We use probabilistic methods to estimate a more recent extinction date for the subspecies. The evidence presented for a much later persistence of lions in North Africa, including generations when sightings were nil, suggests caution when considering felid populations as extinct in the wild. The case raises the possibility that captive animals descended from the Moroccan royal collection are closer contemporaries to wild Barbary lions. Furthermore, our results highlight the vulnerability of very small lion populations and the significance of continued conservation of remnant lion populations in Central and West Africa.

  6. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, United States... concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities. DATES..., Director, Ecological Sciences Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation...

  7. Role of indigenous knowledge systems in the conservation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D0MINICS

    The indigenous knowledge systems are a significant resource which would contribute to the increased efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability in environmental conservation among rural communities of developing countries in particular. They form the basis for community-level decision making in areas pertaining to food ...

  8. Moral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    This article explores the twin issues of whether organizations can act as ethical agents and what it means to exert moral influence over others. A discursive perspective is advanced that characterizes ethics as the action of communities based on promises. The received view of ethics as either the universal principles or individual responsibility is criticized as inadequate. Moral influence within community is considered under the various headings of democracy, office, brotherhood, agency, witness, and promise making. Moral influence among communities can include the damaging methods of "the superior position," coercion and misrepresentation, and appeal to third parties and the sound methods of rhetoric and promise making.

  9. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  10. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne Gisselmann; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...... records, from patients seen from January 2009 onwards with a diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis and more than 6 months' follow up were audited. Demographic data, results of magnetic resonance imaging and time to secondary surgery for rectosigmoid endometriosis were registered. RESULTS: Data on 238...... patients diagnosed with rectosigmoid endometriosis were included. In all, 78 (32.8%) patients had primary surgery, 27 (11.3%) had secondary surgery and 133 (55.9%) continued conservative treatment throughout the observation period. Patients who underwent primary or secondary surgery were younger than...

  11. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...... included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...

  12. The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolás; Vázquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by

  13. Biodiversity Conservation in the REDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Gary D; Wells, Philip L; Meijaard, Erik; Struebig, Matthew J; Marshall, Andrew J; Obidzinski, Krystof; Tan, Aseng; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Yaap, Betsy; Ferry Slik, Jw; Morel, Alexandra; Perumal, Balu; Wielaard, Niels; Husson, Simon; D'Arcy, Laura

    2010-11-23

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tropics also harbour more than half the world's threatened species, raising the possibility that reducing GHG emissions by curtailing tropical deforestation could provide substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation. Here we explore the potential for such co-benefits in Indonesia, a leading source of GHG emissions from land cover and land use change, and among the most species-rich countries in the world. We show that focal ecosystems for interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia do not coincide with areas supporting the most species-rich communities or highest concentration of threatened species. We argue that inherent trade-offs among ecosystems in emission reduction potential, opportunity cost of foregone development and biodiversity values will require a regulatory framework to balance emission reduction interventions with biodiversity co-benefit targets. We discuss how such a regulatory framework might function, and caution that pursuing emission reduction strategies without such a framework may undermine, not enhance, long-term prospects for biodiversity conservation in the tropics.

  14. Biodiversity Conservation in the REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Slik JW

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The tropics also harbour more than half the world's threatened species, raising the possibility that reducing GHG emissions by curtailing tropical deforestation could provide substantial co-benefits for biodiversity conservation. Here we explore the potential for such co-benefits in Indonesia, a leading source of GHG emissions from land cover and land use change, and among the most species-rich countries in the world. We show that focal ecosystems for interventions to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia do not coincide with areas supporting the most species-rich communities or highest concentration of threatened species. We argue that inherent trade-offs among ecosystems in emission reduction potential, opportunity cost of foregone development and biodiversity values will require a regulatory framework to balance emission reduction interventions with biodiversity co-benefit targets. We discuss how such a regulatory framework might function, and caution that pursuing emission reduction strategies without such a framework may undermine, not enhance, long-term prospects for biodiversity conservation in the tropics.

  15. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  16. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  17. Transforming conservation science and practice for a postnormal world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew J; Lavorel, Sandra; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae E; Wyborn, Carina A; Fazey, Ioan; Gorddard, Russell; Mace, Georgina M; Foden, Wendy B; Dunlop, Michael; Prentice, I Colin; Crowley, John; Leadley, Paul; Degeorges, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    We examine issues to consider when reframing conservation science and practice in the context of global change. New framings of the links between ecosystems and society are emerging that are changing peoples' values and expectations of nature, resulting in plural perspectives on conservation. Reframing conservation for global change can thus be regarded as a stage in the evolving relationship between people and nature rather than some recent trend. New models of how conservation links with transformative adaptation include how decision contexts for conservation can be reframed and integrated with an adaptation pathways approach to create new options for global-change-ready conservation. New relationships for conservation science and governance include coproduction of knowledge that supports social learning. New processes for implementing adaptation for conservation outcomes include deliberate practices used to develop new strategies, shift world views, work with conflict, address power and intergenerational equity in decisions, and build consciousness and creativity that empower agents to act. We argue that reframing conservation for global change requires scientists and practitioners to implement approaches unconstrained by discipline and sectoral boundaries, geopolitical polarities, or technical problematization. We consider a stronger focus on inclusive creation of knowledge and the interaction of this knowledge with societal values and rules is likely to result in conservation science and practice that meets the challenges of a postnormal world. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Searches for violation of muon number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redwine, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The question of violation of muon number conservation is one which has occupied considerable attention and resources in recent years. The first generation of experiments at the medium energy accelerators has now been completed and the next generation of experiments is ready to begin. The history of muon number conservation is reviewed, including the reasons for the present belief that the conservation law may not be exact. The experiments that have been completed in the last few years are discussed. The new experiments that are being mounted and planned at several laboratories are discussed, and the relationship of these types of experiments to other studies, such as searches for neutrino oscillations, are considered

  19. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  20. Innovating through commons use: community-based enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Berkes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Community-based enterprises are of interest to commons researchers because they offer a means to study how local institutions respond to opportunities, develop networks, new skills and knowledge, and evolve. Nevertheless, the relationship between commons and community-based enterprises has received little attention, with a few exceptions (Bray et al. 2005; Berkes and Davidson-Hunt 2007. Therefore, we decided to organize a conference session and explore this relationship in more detail. We invited a diverse array of scholars and practitioners active with indigenous enterprises, community development, community forestry, ecotourism and conservation-development projects. This Special Issue includes peer-reviewed and edited versions of seven of the papers (plus two additional invited papers presented at the two panels on “Innovating through commons use: community-based enterprises”, at the 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC 2008 in Cheltenham, England.

  1. Resource Conservation and a Sustainable Las Vegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechota, Thomas C. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-05-15

    This research project developed educational, research, and outreach activities that addressed the challenges of Las Vegas as related to a secure energy supply through conservation, clean and adequate water supply, economic growth and diversification, air quality, and the best use of land, and usable public places. This was part of the UNLV Urban Sustainability Initiative (USI) that responded to a community and state need where a unifying vision of sustainability was developed in a cost-effective manner that promoted formal working partnerships between government, community groups, and industry.

  2. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  3. Women, Human-Wildlife Conflict, and CBNRM: Hidden Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Elizabeth Khumalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM programmes are designed to ensure that rural residents benefit from conservation initiatives. But where human-wildlife conflict threatens life and livelihood, wildlife impacts can undermine the goals of CBNRM. Based on research on women′s experiences in Namibia′s Kwandu Conservancy, we examine both the visible and hidden impacts of human-wildlife conflict. In Kwandu Conservancy, the effects of human-wildlife conflict are ongoing, reaching beyond direct material losses to include hidden impacts such as persistent worries about food insecurity, fears for physical safety, and lost investments. Existing vulnerabilities related to poverty and marital statuses make some women more susceptible to wildlife impacts, and less able to recover from losses or to access compensation. This process may actually deepen the vulnerability of women whose economic status is already marginal. Because the benefits of wildlife conservation accrue at multiple scales, we recommend that the cost of human-wildlife conflict be better distributed, with additional resources for prevention and compensation made available for conservancy residents.

  4. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  5. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, Raf; Ortveld, Koev van; November, Eva

    2016-01-01

    communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified...... and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate change. Forest management interventions are essential and should be supported by environmental education and other forms of public engagement....

  6. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  7. Conservation and human rights: the need for international standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oviedo, Gonzalo [International Union for the Conservation of Nature (International organizations without location); Pabon, Luis [The Nature Conservancy (United States); Painter, Michael; Redford, Kent [The Wildlife Conservation Society (United States); Siegele, Linda [Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (United Kingdom); Springer, Jenny [WWF-US (United States); Thomas, David [Birdlife International (International organizations without location); Painemilla, Kristen Walker [Conservation International (United States); Roe, Dilys

    2010-05-15

    Conservation doesn't happen in a vacuum. In recent years, awareness has grown of the relationship of international conservation practice to indigenous peoples and local communities, and especially the links between conservation and human rights. The impacts protected areas can have on rural communities – such as evictions and lost access to natural resources – are now under particular scrutiny. Concern is meanwhile rising over the human rights implications of some climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. But awareness is also growing of the positive contributions of nature conservation to the rights of people to secure their livelihoods, enjoy healthy and productive environments, and live with dignity. International NGOs can play a central role in supporting and promoting conservation actions that respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, and help sustain their livelihoods. Many conservation organisations have long worked towards this. It is vital that they hold to consistent principles and implement measures that ensure their application, so their action on conservation remains accountable, transparent and sustainable.

  8. Optimal fire histories for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke T; Bennett, Andrew F; Clarke, Michael F; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Fire is used as a management tool for biodiversity conservation worldwide. A common objective is to avoid population extinctions due to inappropriate fire regimes. However, in many ecosystems, it is unclear what mix of fire histories will achieve this goal. We determined the optimal fire history of a given area for biological conservation with a method that links tools from 3 fields of research: species distribution modeling, composite indices of biodiversity, and decision science. We based our case study on extensive field surveys of birds, reptiles, and mammals in fire-prone semi-arid Australia. First, we developed statistical models of species' responses to fire history. Second, we determined the optimal allocation of successional states in a given area, based on the geometric mean of species relative abundance. Finally, we showed how conservation targets based on this index can be incorporated into a decision-making framework for fire management. Pyrodiversity per se did not necessarily promote vertebrate biodiversity. Maximizing pyrodiversity by having an even allocation of successional states did not maximize the geometric mean abundance of bird species. Older vegetation was disproportionately important for the conservation of birds, reptiles, and small mammals. Because our method defines fire management objectives based on the habitat requirements of multiple species in the community, it could be used widely to maximize biodiversity in fire-prone ecosystems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  10. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  11. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jain, Amit; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management. PMID:24104705

  12. Unseen sentinels: local monitoring and control in conservation's blind spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sheil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although official on-the-ground environmental monitoring is absent over much of the world, many people living in these regions observe, manage, and protect their environment. The autonomous monitoring processes associated with these activities are seldom documented and appear poorly recognized by conservation professionals. We identified monitoring activities in three villages in the Mamberamo-Foja region (Mamberamo Regency of Papua (Indonesian New Guinea. In each village we found evidence that local monitoring contributes to effective protection and deters unregulated exploitation. Although everyone gathers observations and shares information, there are also specific roles. For example, the Ijabait hereditary guardians live at strategic sites where they control access to resource-rich lakes and tributaries along the Tariku River. Often, monitoring is combined with and thus influences other activities: for example, hunting regularly includes areas judged vulnerable to incursions by neighboring communities. We identified various examples of community members intervening to prevent and deter outsiders from exploiting resources within their territories. Enforcement of rules and assessment of resource status also help prevent local overexploitation within the communities. Clearly, local people are effective in protecting large areas in a relatively natural state. We discuss the value of these autonomous monitoring and protection processes, their neglect, and the need for explicit recognition by those concerned about these people and their environments, as well as about conservation. We highlight a potential "tragedy of the unseen sentinels" when effective local protection is undermined not because these local systems are invisible, but because no one recognizes what they see.

  13. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  14. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  15. Tissue-specific DNA methylation is conserved across human, mouse, and rat, and driven by primary sequence conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Sears, Renee L; Xing, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Daofeng; Rockweiler, Nicole B; Jang, Hyo Sik; Choudhary, Mayank N K; Lee, Hyung Joo; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Arand, Jason; Tabers, Brianne; Gu, C Charles; Cicero, Theodore J; Wang, Ting

    2017-09-12

    Uncovering mechanisms of epigenome evolution is an essential step towards understanding the evolution of different cellular phenotypes. While studies have confirmed DNA methylation as a conserved epigenetic mechanism in mammalian development, little is known about the conservation of tissue-specific genome-wide DNA methylation patterns. Using a comparative epigenomics approach, we identified and compared the tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns of rat against those of mouse and human across three shared tissue types. We confirmed that tissue-specific differentially methylated regions are strongly associated with tissue-specific regulatory elements. Comparisons between species revealed that at a minimum 11-37% of tissue-specific DNA methylation patterns are conserved, a phenomenon that we define as epigenetic conservation. Conserved DNA methylation is accompanied by conservation of other epigenetic marks including histone modifications. Although a significant amount of locus-specific methylation is epigenetically conserved, the majority of tissue-specific DNA methylation is not conserved across the species and tissue types that we investigated. Examination of the genetic underpinning of epigenetic conservation suggests that primary sequence conservation is a driving force behind epigenetic conservation. In contrast, evolutionary dynamics of tissue-specific DNA methylation are best explained by the maintenance or turnover of binding sites for important transcription factors. Our study extends the limited literature of comparative epigenomics and suggests a new paradigm for epigenetic conservation without genetic conservation through analysis of transcription factor binding sites.

  16. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  17. An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.

  18. Do protected areas and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa Karki, Shova

    2013-10-15

    Effective biodiversity protection and improved human welfare as 'win-win' situations have been the foundation for protected areas and conservation incentives. However, conserving land in this way can become a development issue that restricts agricultural expansion and resource exploitation, with potentially substantial costs to people living in conditions of high social impoverishment and high critical natural capital. This paper investigates whether Nepal's Bardia National Park and conservation incentives have contributed to the sustainable livelihoods of households. Data on household livelihoods and conservation benefits were collected through a questionnaire survey of 358 households and community workshops in three villages. Different impacts on household livelihoods were observed between the villages. It was found that these impacts were dependent on household characteristics, access to prior capital, and the social position of the household within society. Households lacking resources, being poor and belonging to lower castes were least included and also benefited less from development projects. As finance in the form of development projects from organisations continues to flow to the communities, it is important that detailed livelihood planning focussing on alternative regenerative livelihoods and micro-enterprises in the informal sector is included to target those households that are highly dependent on park resources. Livelihood planning must also include a clear linkage between livelihood enhancing activities and the conservation programme so that communities are aware that the benefits they receive are due to the protected area. Appreciation of benefits and their positive impact on livelihoods is important for the sustainability of incentive-based programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementing `bio-prospecting reproductive knowledge': An effort scenario to conserved Indonesian biodiversity and endemicity toward a post-modern globalized world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia has a mega-diversity of plant and animal. The local people in Indonesia usually take the benefits of plant diversity in their environment. The use of herbal medicine is widespread, not only for local people but also for modern society. The aim of this study is to review plant medicine with a role in the reproduction system of Indonesian society, and also conservation biodiversity efforts of endemic plants in Indonesia. These include Sauropus androgynus, Elephantopus scaber, and Polycias obtusa. All of them have already been proven as stimuli of the reproductive system, with immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The role of rural community in Indonesia was to conserve the herbal plants in their environment and obtain some benefits to maintain their good health. Besides rural communities, government, companies, and researchers also have a role in the conservation of herbal medicine.

  20. Place-Based Dialogics: Adaptive Cultural and Interpersonal Approaches to Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey K. Sowards

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines conservation campaigns and how they employ place-based interpersonal communication tactics to better engage local communities in rural locations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Colombia. In collaboration with the non-governmental organization Rare, the authors explore how social marketing campaigns coupled with interpersonal communication can influence communities that are often considered the most marginalized and affected by environmental problems. Field research was conducted in Indonesia since 2008 and Colombia since 2014. Ethnography through participant observation and interviews were primary methods for data collection as well as a thorough analysis of organizational documents, such as websites, blogs, reports, and other written work. Using theories of dialogue and place-based studies of interpersonal communication, three key campaign strategies emerged from our research. First, cooperative engagement through semi-formalized information sharing is an important component of building a campaign in rural areas, which might include key stakeholder meetings, relationship building with local governmental, religious, and community leaders, and training sessions with local farmers or fishers. A second approach is based on critical listening and understanding through word of mouth involvement, such as community activities and improved understanding of the challenges that local people face in their communities. Finally, a third approach relates to the recognition of difference through engaging local culture. Campaign managers have used religious leaders, local languages, traditional customs and activities, and other place-based approaches to create inclusive conservation campaigns. These strategies demonstrate that conservation campaigns require intense interpersonal dialogue, long-term commitment, and place-based understanding.

  1. From the bench to the bush: New approaches to wildlife conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, A.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation introduces the benefits of using reproductive technologies for species preservation and conservation. It highlights the complementary aspects of this approach to that of habitat conservation techniques. It outlines some of the methods of reproductive biology that are being utilized in species protection. The presentation then covers an overview of the Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model and the steps that Cornell University is taking to develop conservation str...

  2. Global Conservation Priorities for Marine Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bryan P.; DiMatteo, Andrew D.; Bolten, Alan B.; Chaloupka, Milani Y.; Hutchinson, Brian J.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Mortimer, Jeanne A.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Amorocho, Diego; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bourjea, Jérôme; Bowen, Brian W.; Briseño Dueñas, Raquel; Casale, Paolo; Choudhury, B. C.; Costa, Alice; Dutton, Peter H.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Finkbeiner, Elena M.; Girard, Alexandre; Girondot, Marc; Hamann, Mark; Hurley, Brendan J.; López-Mendilaharsu, Milagros; Marcovaldi, Maria Angela; Musick, John A.; Nel, Ronel; Pilcher, Nicolas J.; Troëng, Sebastian; Witherington, Blair; Mast, Roderic B.

    2011-01-01

    Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs), and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts) we developed a “conservation priorities portfolio” system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58). We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority-setting for

  3. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  4. Global conservation priorities for marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Wallace

    Full Text Available Where conservation resources are limited and conservation targets are diverse, robust yet flexible priority-setting frameworks are vital. Priority-setting is especially important for geographically widespread species with distinct populations subject to multiple threats that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. Marine turtles are widely distributed and exhibit intra-specific variations in population sizes and trends, as well as reproduction and morphology. However, current global extinction risk assessment frameworks do not assess conservation status of spatially and biologically distinct marine turtle Regional Management Units (RMUs, and thus do not capture variations in population trends, impacts of threats, or necessary conservation actions across individual populations. To address this issue, we developed a new assessment framework that allowed us to evaluate, compare and organize marine turtle RMUs according to status and threats criteria. Because conservation priorities can vary widely (i.e. from avoiding imminent extinction to maintaining long-term monitoring efforts we developed a "conservation priorities portfolio" system using categories of paired risk and threats scores for all RMUs (n = 58. We performed these assessments and rankings globally, by species, by ocean basin, and by recognized geopolitical bodies to identify patterns in risk, threats, and data gaps at different scales. This process resulted in characterization of risk and threats to all marine turtle RMUs, including identification of the world's 11 most endangered marine turtle RMUs based on highest risk and threats scores. This system also highlighted important gaps in available information that is crucial for accurate conservation assessments. Overall, this priority-setting framework can provide guidance for research and conservation priorities at multiple relevant scales, and should serve as a model for conservation status assessments and priority

  5. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  6. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  7. Urban bird conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, Robbert P.H.; Kooijmans, Jip Louwe; Kwak, Robert G.M.; Foppen, Ruud P.B.; Parsons, Holly; Awasthy, Monica; Sierdsema, Henk L.K.; Marzluff, John M.; Fernandez-Juricic, Esteban; Laet, de Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Following the call from the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity “Cities & Biodiversity Outlook” project to better preserve urban biodiversity, this paper presents stakeholder-specific statements for bird conservation in city environments. Based upon the current urban bird

  8. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and

  9. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    Ankarana. Nous illustrons chacun des centres d'endémisme avec une espèce symbolique et rapportons des aspects de son histoire naturelle et culturelle ainsi que de sa conservation. INTRODUCTION. Madagascar has a surface of 587,040 km2 ...

  10. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  11. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  12. Lattice-work corridors for climate change: a conceptual framework for biodiversity conservation and social-ecological resilience in a tropical elevational gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Townsend

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate change poses complex challenges for conservation, especially in tropical developing countries where biodiversity is high while financial and technical resources are limited. The complexity is heightened by uncertainty in predicted effects, both for ecological systems and human communities that depend heavily on natural resource extraction and use. Effective conservation plans and measures must be inexpensive, fast-acting, and able to increase the resilience of both the ecosystem and the social-ecological system. We present conservation practitioners with a framework that strategically integrates climate change planning into connectivity measures for tropical mountain ecosystems in Costa Rica. We propose a strategy for doubling the amount of habitat currently protected in riparian corridors using measures that are relatively low cost and fast-acting, and will employ and expand human capital. We argue that habitat connectivity must be enhanced along latitudinal gradients, but also within the same elevational bands, via a lattice-work corridor system. This is needed to facilitate range shifts for mobile species and evolutionary adaptation for less mobile species. We think that conservation measures within the elevational bands must include conservation-friendly land uses that improve current and future human livelihoods under dynamic conditions. Key components include community involvement, habitat priority-setting, forest landscape restoration, and environmental services payments. Our approach is fundamentally adaptive in that the conservation measures employed are informed by on-the-ground successes and failures and modified accordingly, but are relatively low risk and fast-acting. Our proposal, if implemented, would satisfy tenets of climate-smart conservation, improve the resilience of human and ecological communities, and be a model for other locations facing similar challenges.

  13. Energy-conserving development regulations: current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Almost every aspect of land development has an effect on energy use, from minute architectural details to broad considerations of urban density. Energy-efficiency depends in part on how development is planned and carried out. Conventional development regulations, such as zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, can be adapted in many ways to promote energy conservation at the community level. This report is about energy-efficient site and neighborhood design. It examines recent experiences of local governments that have adopted new development regulations or amended existing ones to promote energy conservation, more efficient generation and distribution, or a switch to alternative, renewable sources. Although much has been written in recent years about saving energy through community design, actual experience in applying these new ideas is still limited. To date, most communities have focused their efforts on studying the problem, documenting consumption patterns, and writing reports and plans. Only a handful have amended their land-use controls for the express purpose of saving energy. This study identifies 13 of these pioneering communities, after undertaking a survey of over 1400 local, regional, and state planning agencies. It takes a look at their experiences, to learn what has been done, how well it has worked, and what problems have been encountered.

  14. Integrating Conservation and Development in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kilbane Gockel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have critiqued integrated conservation and development projects for failing to attain either of their two major goals. This paper evaluates one such project in Peru's Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, which entailed community-based natural resource-management plans for palm and aquatic resources. We conducted semistructured interviews with reserve inhabitants (n=57 during May 2007, as well as key-informant interviews with state and non-governmental organization (NGO staff. Monitoring data and reports from NGOs were important secondary sources in this study. The intervention has improved the status of targeted species and has improved the well-being of participants. This project worked well for a number of reasons, including the long-term commitment of the implementing organization, the social capital and legitimacy provided by participation in management groups, and the fact that local knowledge was incorporated into resource-management techniques.

  15. Beyond predictions: biodiversity conservation in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence P; Jackson, Stephen T; House, Joanna I; Prentice, Iain Colin; Mace, Georgina M

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to become a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century, but accurate predictions and effective solutions have proved difficult to formulate. Alarming predictions have come from a rather narrow methodological base, but a new, integrated science of climate-change biodiversity assessment is emerging, based on multiple sources and approaches. Drawing on evidence from paleoecological observations, recent phenological and microevolutionary responses, experiments, and computational models, we review the insights that different approaches bring to anticipating and managing the biodiversity consequences of climate change, including the extent of species' natural resilience. We introduce a framework that uses information from different sources to identify vulnerability and to support the design of conservation responses. Although much of the information reviewed is on species, our framework and conclusions are also applicable to ecosystems, habitats, ecological communities, and genetic diversity, whether terrestrial, marine, or fresh water.

  16. Dignity-conserving care in palliative care settings: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Larkin, Philip; Connolly, Michael; Barry, Catriona; Narayanasamy, Melanie; Östlund, Ulrika; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2015-07-01

    To report an integrative review of evidence relating to dignity-conserving care in palliative care settings. It will also suggest avenues for future research. Research suggests that dignity is welcomed by those receiving palliative and end of life care. However, as dignity is a subjective term, it is not always explicit how this may be employed by nurses. Given that the preferred place of care for patients with palliative care needs is the home, the issue of dignity may be particularly important for community nurses. Therefore, synthesising evidence of dignity-conserving care for community nurses caring for people with palliative care needs provides clarity in a complex area of palliative care research. Integrative literature review. The review involved key bibliographic and review databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA and PsycInfo. Medical Subject Headings and free terms were undertaken for articles published from January 2009-September 2014 and retrieved papers were assessed against inclusion criteria. Final included articles were reviewed for reported dignity-conserving care actions, which were classified under nine themes of the Dignity Model. Thirty-one articles were included. Nine Dignity Model themes were used to classify care actions: Level of Independence; Symptom Distress; Dignity-Conserving Perspectives; Dignity-Conserving Practices; Privacy Boundaries; Social Support; Care Tenor; Burden to Others; and Aftermath Concerns. Reported care actions included listening, conveying empathy, communication and involving patients in care. Care actions could be classified under most of Dignity Model themes. However, there were less reported care actions related to Level of Independence and Aftermath Concerns, which meant that these had to be formulated independently. Future research should be structured around these areas to determine appropriate care actions for nurses to give dignity-conserving care that addresses these specific themes. Synthesising the

  17. Empowering Local People through Community-based Resource Monitoring: a Comparison of Brazil and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Araujo Lima. Constantino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological resource monitoring systems are implemented in many countries and often depend on the participation of local people. It has been suggested that these systems empower local participants while promoting conservation. We reviewed three wildlife monitoring systems in indigenous lands and sustainable development reserves in Brazilian Amazonia and one in Namibian Caprivi conservancies, analyzing the strategies adopted and conditions that facilitated local empowerment, as well as potential impacts on conservation. This provided insights into potential avenues to strengthen empowerment outcomes of monitoring systems in Latin America and Africa. We assessed four dimensions of empowerment at individual and community scales: psychological, social, economic, and political. The conditions that facilitated local empowerment included the value of natural resources, rights to trade and manage resources, political organization of communities, and collaboration by stakeholders. The wide range of strategies to empower local people included intensifying local participation, linking them to local education, feeding information back to communities, purposefully selecting participants, paying for monitoring services, marketing monitored resources, and inserting local people into broader politics. Although communities were socially and politically empowered, the monitoring systems more often promoted individual empowerment. Marketing of natural resources promoted higher economic empowerment in conservancies in Namibia, whereas information dissemination was better in Brazil because of integrated education programs. We suggest that practitioners take advantage of local facilitating conditions to enhance the empowerment of communities, bearing in mind that increasing autonomy to make management decisions may not agree with international conservation goals. Our comparative analysis of cases in Latin America and Africa allows for a greater understanding of the

  18. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, François; Koskela, Jarkko; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C; Schüler, Silvio; Bozzano, Michele; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Bakys, Remigijus; Baldwin, Cathleen; Ballian, Dalibor; Black-Samuelsson, Sanna; Bednarova, Dagmar; Bordács, Sándor; Collin, Eric; de Cuyper, Bart; de Vries, Sven M G; Eysteinsson, Thröstur; Frýdl, Josef; Haverkamp, Michaela; Ivankovic, Mladen; Konrad, Heino; Koziol, Czesław; Maaten, Tiit; Notivol Paino, Eduardo; Oztürk, Hikmet; Pandeva, Ivanova Denitsa; Parnuta, Gheorghe; Pilipovič, Andrej; Postolache, Dragos; Ryan, Cathal; Steffenrem, Arne; Varela, Maria Carolina; Vessella, Federico; Volosyanchuk, Roman T; Westergren, Marjana; Wolter, Frank; Yrjänä, Leena; Zariŋa, Inga

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across Europe (33 countries). On the basis of information available in the European Information System on FGR (EUFGIS Portal), species distribution maps, and environmental stratification of the continent, we developed ecogeographic indicators, a marginality index, and demographic indicators to assess and monitor forest conservation efforts. The pan-European network has 1967 conservation units, 2737 populations of target trees, and 86 species of target trees. We detected a poor coincidence between FGR conservation and other biodiversity conservation objectives within this network. We identified 2 complementary strategies: a species-oriented strategy in which national conservation networks are specifically designed for key target species and a site-oriented strategy in which multiple-target units include so-called secondary species conserved within a few sites. The network is highly unbalanced in terms of species representation, and 7 key target species are conserved in 60% of the conservation units. We performed specific gap analyses for 11 tree species, including assessment of ecogeographic, demographic, and genetic criteria. For each species, we identified gaps, particularly in the marginal parts of their distribution range, and found multiple redundant conservation units in other areas. The Mediterranean forests and to a lesser extent the boreal forests are underrepresented. Monitoring the conservation efficiency of each unit remains challenging; however, conserved populations seem to be at risk of extinction. On the basis of our results, we recommend combining species-oriented and site-oriented strategies. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  20. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  1. Management of Alluvial Forests Included in Natura 2000 91E0* Habitat Type in Maramureş Mountains Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danci Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 habitat type 91E0* Alluvial forests of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae include three subtypes of forests. In the Maramureș Mountains Nature Park (MMNP the alluvial forests are represented by Alnus incana forest situated on the banks of mountain rivers. Starting from 2007, 70% of the MMNP is also a Natura 2000 site of community interest. In the standard form for the site are listed 18 Natura 2000 habitat types, but that of alluvial forests 91E0* is not listed either due to an error or lack of available research data. Our study seeks to provide information regarding this high conservation value habitat such as: structure, distribution,managementmeasures andmonitoring protocol. The purpose of this paper is to offer a management tool for this conservation value habitat which is also exposed to human impact more than any other priority habitat in MMNP.

  2. 76 FR 41810 - Francis Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, Los Osos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from Catherine M. and Ronald L. Francis (applicants) for a 5-year incidental take permit under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The application addresses the potential for ``take'' of the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) incidental to the construction and occupation of a single-family residence on a legal single-family-zoned parcel in the unincorporated community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, California. The applicants would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate project activities as described in their low-effect habitat conservation plan. We invite comments from the public on the application, which includes the Francis Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail (HCP) that has been determined to be eligible for a Categorical Exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA).

  3. 76 FR 41811 - Kellaway Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail, San Luis...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from Thomas R. Kellaway and Doris J. Redmon (applicants) for a 5-year incidental take permit under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The application addresses the potential for ``take'' of the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) incidental to the construction and occupation of two single-family residences, one on each of two legal parcels occupied by the species in the community of Los Osos, San Luis Obispo County, California. The applicants would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate project activities as described in their low-effect habitat conservation plan (plan). We invite comments from the public on the application, which includes the Kellaway Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the Morro Shoulderband Snail (HCP), which has been determined to be eligible for a Categorical Exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA).

  4. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  5. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  7. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  8. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, ecosystems and their constituent flora and fauna face the localized and broad-scale influence of human activities. Conservation practitioners and environmental managers struggle to identify and mitigate threats, reverse species declines, restore degraded ecosystems, and manage natural resources sustainably. Scientific research and evidence are increasingly regarded as the foundation for new regulations, conservation actions, and management interventions. Conservation biologists and managers have traditionally focused on the characteristics (e.g. abundance, structure, trends) of populations, species, communities, and ecosystems, and simple indicators of the responses to environmental perturbations and other human activities. However, an understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying conservation problems is becoming increasingly important for decision-making, in part because physiological tools and knowledge are especially useful for developing cause-and-effect relationships, and for identifying the optimal range of habitats and stressor thresholds for different organisms. When physiological knowledge is incorporated into ecological models, it can improve predictions of organism responses to environmental change and provide tools to support management decisions. Without such knowledge, we may be left with simple associations. ‘Conservation physiology’ has been defined previously with a focus on vertebrates, but here we redefine the concept universally, for application to the diversity of taxa from microbes to plants, to animals, and to natural resources. We also consider ‘physiology’ in the broadest possible terms; i.e. how an organism functions, and any associated mechanisms, from development to bioenergetics, to environmental interactions, through to fitness. Moreover, we consider conservation physiology to include a wide range of applications beyond assisting imperiled populations, and include, for example, the eradication of invasive

  9. How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled.

  10. Looking beyond rare species as umbrella species: Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and conservation of grassland and shrubland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Andrew D.; Elmore, R.D.; Leslie,, David M.; Will, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover throughout the eastern half of North America have caused substantial declines in populations of birds that rely on grassland and shrubland vegetation types, including socially and economically important game birds such as the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhites). As much attention is focused on habitat management and restoration for bobwhites, they may act as an umbrella species for other bird species with similar habitat requirements. We quantified the relationship of bobwhites to the overall bird community and evaluated the potential for bobwhites to act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds. We monitored bobwhite presence and bird community composition within 31 sample units on selected private lands in the south-central United States from 2009 to 2011. Bobwhites were strongly associated with other grassland and shrubland birds and were a significant positive predictor for 9 species. Seven of these, including Bell's Vireo (Vireo bell), Dicksissel (Spiza americana), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), are listed as species of conservation concern. Species richness and occupancy probability of grassland and shrubland birds were higher relative to the overall bird community in sample units occupied by bobwhites. Our results show that bobwhites can act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds, although the specific species in any given situation will depend on region and management objectives. These results suggest that efficiency in conservation funding can be increased by using public interest in popular game species to leverage resources to meet multiple conservation objectives.

  11. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  12. State industrial energy-conservation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.T.; Tatar, J.J.; Evans, A.R.; Anderson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    DOE's Office of Industrial Programs, in cooperation with the Office of State and Local Programs, sponsored a series of four workshops on state industrial energy-conservation programs in September and October, 1980. The workshops provided it a forum in which Federal and state officials could discuss: Federal programs supporting the development and implementation of industrial energy-conservation technology; Federal assistance available for state and local energy-conservation programs; states' programs and policy efforts to encourage industrial energy conservation, and identification of states' needs and recommendations for actions to meet the states' needs more effectively. The basic focus of the workshops was on industrial programs developed by the states through funding by the State Energy-Conservation Program. The objectives, background, and format of the workshops are described in Section 2. A summary of state industrial programs in Section 3 includes a program measure matrix and a discussion of elements in program design. Section 4 describes factors affecting the development, implementation, and evaluation of state industrial conservation programs. In Section 5 state needs, as perceived by the state representatives, are presented and discussed. Section 6 summarizes the states' suggestions as developed in the third session of each workshop.

  13. The social implications of using drones for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbrook, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, or 'drones', appear to offer a flexible, accurate and affordable solution to some of the technical challenges of nature conservation monitoring and law enforcement. However, little attention has been given to their possible social impacts. In this paper, I review the possible social impacts of using drones for conservation, including on safety, privacy, psychological wellbeing, data security and the wider understanding of conservation problems. I argue that negative social impacts are probable under some circumstances and should be of concern for conservation for two reasons: (1) because conservation should follow good ethical practice; and (2) because negative social impacts could undermine conservation effectiveness in the long term. The paper concludes with a call for empirical research to establish whether the identified social risks of drones occur in reality and how they could be mitigated, and for self-regulation of drone use by the conservation sector to ensure good ethical practice and minimise the risk of unintended consequences.

  14. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  15. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Emma Marie

    2013-01-01

    New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor...

  16. An Outline for Teaching Conservation in High Schools, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented are outlines of seventeen separate school subjects related to conservation. Each subject outline includes a general discussion, objectives, topics for study or discussion and suggested activities for the teacher to include in a unit on conservation. The outline furnishes broad objectives that can be used by state, county, and independent…

  17. Conservation of Mexican wetlands: role of the North American Wetlands Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's wetlands support a tremendous biological diversity and provide significant natural resource benefits to local communities. Because they are also critical stopover and wintering grounds for much of North America's waterfowl and other migratory birds, Mexico has become an important participant in continental efforts to conserve these resources through the North American Wetlands Conservation Act. Funding from the Act has supported partnerships in a number of Mexico's priority wetlands to conduct data analyses and dissemination, mapping, environmental education, wetland restoration, development of sustainable economic alternatives for local people, and reserve planning and management. These partnerships, with the close involvement of Mexico's Federal Government authority, the Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, have advanced conservation in a uniquely Mexican model that differs from that employed in the United States and Canada.

  18. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the NGO from the community. I argue that the failure of these projects involved two dynamics: 1 lack of coherence between the objectives of state agencies, conservation NGOs, and the local community; and 2 unequal ethnic relations, reproducing relations of colonial inequality and dictating how indigenous groups can participate in managing a territory for conservation. If collaboration and local participation are key in conservation management programs, these case studies suggest that greater institutional accountability and community autonomy are needed to make the practice of conservation more democratic and participatory. The expulsion of the NGO as a conservation and development broker also opened the space for, and possibilities of, post-development conservation practice that challenges the normalising expectations of Western biodiversity conservation.

  19. Strategic conservation planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Drew, C. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts. Identifying common goals allows the ENCSEVA team to develop strategies that leverage joint resources and are more likely to achieve desired impacts across the landscape. The Plan will also provide an approach for ENCSEVA to meet applied research needs (identify knowledge gaps), foster adaptive management principles, identify conservation priorities, prioritize threats (including potential impacts of climate change), and identify the required capacity to implement strategies to create more resilient landscapes. ENCSEVA seeks to support the overarching goals of the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) and to provide scientific and technical support for conservation at landscape scales as well as inform the management of natural resources in response to shifts in climate, habitat fragmentation and loss, and other landscape-level challenges (South Atlantic LCC 2012). The ENCSEVA ecoregion encompasses the northern third of the SALCC geography and offers a unique opportunity to apply landscape conservation at multiple scales through the guidance of local conservation and natural resource management efforts and by reporting metrics that reflect the effectiveness of those efforts (Figure 1). The Environmental Decision Analysis Team, housed within the North Carolina Cooperative

  20. Letting Wood Rot: A Case Study on Local Perceptions of Global Conservation Initiatives (Boumba, Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Müller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a pressing need for conservation in Africa and a push for such actions to be directed by the community, there is still much conflict both in academia and on the ground regarding the success and methods of community-based conservation. Employing key-informant interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation, we look at how one community has perceived the conservation actions in their village, Boumba, Niger, and the neighbouring national park, Park-W. This study examines local perceptions of the goals, priorities and methods of conservation in Park-W and the Boumba region. We demonstrate that while participants expressed positive alignment with perceived conservation goals, they did not agree with conservation priorities and felt strongly against the methods.  Reframing conservation discourse in the terms of sustainable-use or adaptive management may serve to help translate much of the conservation ethic to local realities. We argue that for local conservation to be culturally sustainable, programmers of conservation must engage the community on their own terms, and recognize the value of local perceptions.