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Sample records for included complete lipid

  1. Exercises in experimental physics including complete solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, R.; Loos, G.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of exercises is not only addressed to students of physics but also to scientists of other branches and to engineers. Possibilities are offered to the student to gain control on his growing knowledge from the beginning of his studies until the examination. The individual exercises are linked thematically and are mostly composed by several single tasks. Complete and detailed numerical solutions are presented. The topics covered are: (1) Mechanics, (2) thermodynamics, (3) oscillations and their propagation, (4) electricity and magnetism, (5) atomic physics, and (6) nuclear physics. (KBE)

  2. Subcellular localization of secondary lipid metabolites including fragrance volatiles in carnation petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, K.A.; Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Pulse-chase labeling of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Improved White Sim) petals with [14C]acetate has provided evidence for a hydrophobic subcompartment of lipid-protein particles within the cytosol that resemble oil bodies, are formed by blebbing from membranes, and are enriched in lipid metabolites (including fragrance volatiles) derived from membrane fatty acids. Fractionation of the petals during pulse-chase labeling revealed that radiolabeled fatty acids appear first in microsomal membranes and subsequently in cytosolic lipid-protein particles, indicating that the particles originate from membranes. This interpretation is supported by the finding that the cytosolic lipid-protein particles contain phospholipid as well as the same fatty acids found in microsomal membranes. Radiolabeled polar lipid metabolites (methanol/ water-soluble) were detectable in both in situ lipid-protein particles isolated from the cytosol and those generated in vitro from isolated radiolabeled microsomal membranes. The lipid-protein particles were also enriched in hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-hexanol, volatiles of carnation flower fragrance that are derived from membrane fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Therefore, secondary lipid metabolites, including components of fragrance, appear to be formed within membranes of petal tissue and are subsequently released from the membrane bilayers into the cytosol by blebbing of lipid-protein particles

  3. Mitochondrial mass is inversely correlated to complete lipid oxidation in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2011-01-01

    oxidation (complete and incomplete) were determined in non-contracting myotubes established from 10 lean, 10 obese and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes precultured under normophysiological conditions. ATP, ADP, AMP, mitochondrial mass and energy charge were not different between groups. In diabetic myotubes......Exercise increases while physical inactivity decrease mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscles in vivo. It is unknown whether mitochondrial mass and substrate oxidation are related in non-contracting skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial mass, ATP, ADP, AMP, glucose and lipid...

  4. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

  5. HdhQ111 Mice Exhibit Tissue Specific Metabolite Profiles that Include Striatal Lipid Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Carroll

    Full Text Available The HTT CAG expansion mutation causes Huntington's Disease and is associated with a wide range of cellular consequences, including altered metabolism. The mutant allele is expressed widely, in all tissues, but the striatum and cortex are especially vulnerable to its effects. To more fully understand this tissue-specificity, early in the disease process, we asked whether the metabolic impact of the mutant CAG expanded allele in heterozygous B6.HdhQ111/+ mice would be common across tissues, or whether tissues would have tissue-specific responses and whether such changes may be affected by diet. Specifically, we cross-sectionally examined steady state metabolite concentrations from a range of tissues (plasma, brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, striatum, liver, white adipose tissue, using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry pipeline, from cohorts of 8 month old mutant and wild-type littermate mice that were fed one of two different high-fat diets. The differential response to diet highlighted a proportion of metabolites in all tissues, ranging from 3% (7/219 in the striatum to 12% (25/212 in white adipose tissue. By contrast, the mutant CAG-expanded allele primarily affected brain metabolites, with 14% (30/219 of metabolites significantly altered, compared to wild-type, in striatum and 11% (25/224 in the cerebellum. In general, diet and the CAG-expanded allele both elicited metabolite changes that were predominantly tissue-specific and non-overlapping, with evidence for mutation-by-diet interaction in peripheral tissues most affected by diet. Machine-learning approaches highlighted the accumulation of diverse lipid species as the most genotype-predictive metabolite changes in the striatum. Validation experiments in cell culture demonstrated that lipid accumulation was also a defining feature of mutant HdhQ111 striatal progenitor cells. Thus, metabolite-level responses to the CAG expansion mutation in vivo were tissue specific and

  6. Generation of complete electronic nuclear medicine reports including static, dynamic and gated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or

  7. Complete Loss and Thermal Model of Power Semiconductors Including Device Rating Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally pre-defined by experience with limited design flexibility. Consequently, a more complete loss and thermal model is proposed in this paper, which takes into account not only the electrical...

  8. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: factors influencing gonadal histology including germ cell pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprova-Pleskacova, Jana; Stoop, Hans; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Cools, Martine; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P; Drop, Stenvert L S; Snajderova, Marta; Lebl, Jan; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-05-01

    Patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are at an increased risk for the development of gonadal germ cell cancer. Residual androgen receptor (AR) activity and abnormal gonadal location may influence the survival of atypical germ cells and the development of other histopathological features. To assess this, we evaluated 37 gonads from 19 patients with complete androgen insensitivity (ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years). Histological abnormalities were examined using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and sections stained for POU5F1 and KITLG, markers of early changes in germ cells at risk for malignant transformation. Hamartomatous nodules (HNs), Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH), decreased germ cells, tubular atrophy and stromal fibrosis were more pronounced as age increased (Peffect of inguinal versus abdominal position of the gonads was difficult to assess because inguinal gonads were present primarily in the youngest individuals. In conclusion, many histological changes occur increasingly with age. Expected residual AR activity contributes to better survival of the general germ cell population in (post)pubertal age; however, it did not seem to have an important role in the survival of the germ cells at risk for malignant transformation (defined by POU5F1 positivity and KITLG overexpression) in complete androgen insensitivity. Comparison of the high percentage of patients in our study that were carrying germ cells with delayed maturation or pre-intratubular germ cell neoplasia with previously reported cumulative risk of tumor development in adult patients indicates that not all such precursor lesions in complete androgen insensitivity will progress to invasive germ cell cancer.

  9. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Completion of the universal I-Love-Q relations in compact stars including the mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Borja; Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Vera, Raül; Font, José A.

    2017-09-01

    In a recent paper, we applied a rigorous perturbed matching framework to show the amendment of the mass of rotating stars in Hartle's model. Here, we apply this framework to the tidal problem in binary systems. Our approach fully accounts for the correction to the Love numbers needed to obtain the universal I-Love-Q relations. We compute the corrected mass versus radius configurations of rotating quark stars, revisiting a classical paper on the subject. These corrections allow us to find a universal relation involving the second-order contribution to the mass δM. We thus complete the set of universal relations for the tidal problem in binary systems, involving four perturbation parameters, namely I, Love, Q and δM. These relations can be used to obtain the perturbation parameters directly from observational data.

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 endocytosis allows lipid mixing at the plasma membrane, but not complete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Vega Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently provided evidence that HIV-1 enters HeLa-derived TZM-bl and lymphoid CEMss cells by fusing with endosomes, whereas its fusion with the plasma membrane does not proceed beyond the lipid mixing step. The mechanism of restriction of HIV-1 fusion at the cell surface and/or the factors that aid the virus entry from endosomes remain unclear. Results We examined HIV-1 fusion with a panel of target cells lines and with primary CD4+ T cells. Kinetic measurements of fusion combined with time-resolved imaging of single viruses further reinforced the notion that HIV-1 enters the cells via endocytosis and fusion with endosomes. Furthermore, we attempted to deliberately redirect virus fusion to the plasma membrane, using two experimental strategies. First, the fusion reaction was synchronized by pre-incubating the viruses with cells at reduced temperature to allow CD4 and coreceptors engagement, but not the virus uptake or fusion. Subsequent shift to a physiological temperature triggered accelerated virus uptake followed by entry from endosomes, but did not permit fusion at the cell surface. Second, blocking HIV-1 endocytosis by a small-molecule dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, resulted in transfer of viral lipids to the plasma membrane without any detectable release of the viral content into the cytosol. We also found that a higher concentration of dynasore is required to block the HIV-endosome fusion compared to virus internalization. Conclusions Our results further support the notion that HIV-1 enters disparate cell types through fusion with endosomes. The block of HIV-1 fusion with the plasma membrane at a post-lipid mixing stage shows that this membrane is not conducive to fusion pore formation and/or enlargement. The ability of dynasore to interfere with the virus-endosome fusion suggests that dynamin could be involved in two distinct steps of HIV-1 entry - endocytosis and fusion within intracellular compartments.

  12. Multiple Beneficial Lipids Including Lecithin Detected in the Edible Invasive Mollusk Crepidula fornicata from the French Northeastern Atlantic Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dagorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive mollusk Crepidula fornicata, occurring in large amounts in bays along the French Northeastern Atlantic coasts, may have huge environmental effects in highly productive ecosystems where shellfish are exploited. The present study aims at determining the potential economic value of this marine species in terms of exploitable substances with high added value. Lipid content and phospholipid (PL composition of this mollusk collected on the Bourgneuf Bay were studied through four seasons. Winter specimens contained the highest lipid levels (5.3% dry weight, including 69% of PLs. Phosphatidylcholine (PC was the major PL class all year, accounting for 63.9% to 88.9% of total PLs. Consequently, the winter specimens were then investigated for PL fatty acids (FAs, and free sterols. Dimethylacetals (DMAs were present (10.7% of PL FA + DMA mixture revealing the occurrence of plasmalogens. More than forty FAs were identified, including 20:5n-3 (9.4% and 22:6n-3 (7.3% acids. Fourteen free sterols were present, including cholesterol at 31.3% of the sterol mixture and about 40% of phytosterols. These data on lipids of C. fornicata demonstrate their positive attributes for human nutrition and health. The PL mixture, rich in PC and polyunsaturated FAs, offers an interesting alternative source of high value-added marine lecithin.

  13. Data including GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of mixed, asymmetric bilayers including molecular topologies, equilibrated structures, and force field for lipids compatible with OPLS-AA parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Róg, Tomasz; Orłowski, Adam; Llorente, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In this Data in Brief article we provide a data package of GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of multicomponent, asymmetric lipid bilayers using the OPLS-AA force field. These data include 14 model bilayers composed of 8 different lipid molecules. The lipids present......, and cholesterol, while the extracellular leaflet is composed of SM, PC and cholesterol discussed in Van Meer et al. (2008) [2]. The provided data include lipids' topologies, equilibrated structures of asymmetric bilayers, all force field parameters, and input files with parameters describing simulation conditions...

  14. Methods of synthesis of deuterium labelled lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragina, N.A.; Chupin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for synthesis of deuterium-labelled hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid molecules and ways of obtaining selectively and completely deuterized phospholipids and their analogues are considered. The deuterium-labelled lipids are used for studies on structural organization and functioning of biological membranes, including studies with the NMP and neutron-diffraction methods of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions

  15. A single step solid-phase extraction method for complete separation of sterol oxidation products in food lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif; Dutta, Paresh C

    2009-01-02

    One of the crucial steps in determination of sterol oxidation products (SOPs) in foods is their enrichment and purifications by various preparative methods for further analysis by GC and GC-MS. Among the preparative methods, SPE of various adsorbents and solvent systems, are being used most widely. At present, no single step SPE method is suitable to completely separate the SOPs. In this study, a SPE (1g silica) method, suitable for both transesterified and cold saponified oil samples, was developed to separate completely SOPs from other lipid components. This method resulted in high recovery from rapeseed oil of added 5beta,6beta-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol (94-96%), cholest-5-en-3beta-ol-7-one(94%), cholestane-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol (88-91%), cholest-5-en-3beta,7alpha-diol and 5alpha,6alpha-epoxycholestan-3beta-ol (88-90%). The method has a high sample capacity of up to 1g transesterified or cold-saponified oil sample. The method was tested and applied to different vegetable oils and to monitor the effects of refining processes on POPs in hazelnut oil.

  16. Completed and attempted suicides among 18,154 subjects with schizophrenia included in a large simple trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Kane, John M; Geier, Jamie; Karayal, Onur; Kolluri, Sheela; Eng, Sybil M; Reynolds, Robert F; Strom, Brian L

    2014-03-01

    To characterize subgroups of subjects with schizophrenia from the Ziprasidone Observational Study of Cardiac Outcomes (ZODIAC) trial who either completed or attempted suicide and those who did not. The ZODIAC, conducted between February 2002 and March 2007, was an open-label, randomized, large simple trial of patients with schizophrenia (N = 18,154) followed up for 1 year by unblinded investigators providing usual care in 18 countries; the primary outcome measure was nonsuicide mortality. Every report on a completed or attempted suicide was independently adjudicated using a predefined algorithm. Primary analysis for the current report examined the association between completed or attempted suicides and the baseline variables using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Usage of "hard" or "soft" methods for attempted or completed suicide and distribution of suicide-related events by geographical region were also summarized. Overall incidences of subjects who either completed (35/18,154) or attempted (108/18,154) suicide were low, as were rates per person-time on assigned treatment analysis (0.24 for completed and 0.74 for attempted suicides per 100 person-years of exposure). The highest suicide-related mortality was seen among subjects recently diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among all potential baseline risk factors for completed suicide examined, the variables most associated with completed suicide were history of suicide attempts (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.33-5.12) and usage of antidepressant medication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI, 0.84-14.85). History of > 5 hospitalizations in the past (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.35-3.31) and history of suicide attempts (OR = 5.0; 95% CI, 3.21-7.76) were the variables most associated with attempted suicide among potential baseline risk factors for suicide attempts. Our results, obtained in a large prospective randomized study, confirm current clinical understanding regarding completed or attempted suicide in schizophrenia

  17. Data including GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of mixed, asymmetric bilayers including molecular topologies, equilibrated structures, and force field for lipids compatible with OPLS-AA parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Róg, Tomasz; Orłowski, Adam; Llorente, Alicia; Skotland, Tore; Sylvänne, Tuulia; Kauhanen, Dimple; Ekroos, Kim; Sandvig, Kirsten; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-06-01

    In this Data in Brief article we provide a data package of GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of multicomponent, asymmetric lipid bilayers using the OPLS-AA force field. These data include 14 model bilayers composed of 8 different lipid molecules. The lipids present in these models are: cholesterol (CHOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (SOPE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (SOPS), N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM16), and N-lignoceroyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM24). The bilayers׳ compositions are based on lipidomic studies of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and exosomes discussed in Llorente et al. (2013) [1], showing an increase in the section of long-tail lipid species (SOPS, SOPE, and SM24) in the exosomes. Former knowledge about lipid asymmetry in cell membranes was accounted for in the models, meaning that the model of the inner leaflet is composed of a mixture of PC, PS, PE, and cholesterol, while the extracellular leaflet is composed of SM, PC and cholesterol discussed in Van Meer et al. (2008) [2]. The provided data include lipids׳ topologies, equilibrated structures of asymmetric bilayers, all force field parameters, and input files with parameters describing simulation conditions (md.mdp). The data is associated with the research article "Interdigitation of Long-Chain Sphingomyelin Induces Coupling of Membrane Leaflets in a Cholesterol Dependent Manner" (Róg et al., 2016) [3].

  18. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin is Required for the Assembly of Viral Components Including Bundled vRNPs at the Lipid Raft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takizawa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influenza glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA, which are associated with the lipid raft, have the potential to initiate virion budding. However, the role of these viral proteins in infectious virion assembly is still unclear. In addition, it is not known how the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP is tethered to the budding site. Here, we show that HA is necessary for the efficient progeny virion production and vRNP packaging in the virion. We also found that the level of HA does not affect the bundling of the eight vRNP segments, despite reduced virion production. Detergent solubilization and a subsequent membrane flotation analysis indicated that the accumulation of nucleoprotein, viral polymerases, NA, and matrix protein 1 (M1 in the lipid raft fraction was delayed without HA. Based on our results, we inferred that HA plays a role in the accumulation of viral components, including bundled vRNPs, at the lipid raft.

  19. Complete blood count risk score and its components, including RDW, are associated with mortality in the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Benjamin D; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Ridker, Paul M; Paynter, Nina P

    2015-04-01

    Previously, we showed that sex-specific complete blood count (CBC) risk scores strongly predicted risk of all-cause mortality in multiple sets of general medical patients. This study evaluated the CBC risk score in an independent, well-studied international primary risk population of lower-risk individuals initially free from cardiovascular (CV) disease. Observational secondary analysis of a randomized trial population. The previously derived and validated CBC score was evaluated for association with all-cause mortality among CV disease-free females (n = 6568) and males (n = 10,629) enrolled for up to 5 years in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial. Associations of the CBC score with CV mortality and with major CV disease were also tested. The CBC score predicted all-cause mortality, with univariable hazard ratio (HR) 4.83 (95% CI 3.70-6.31) for the third CBC score tertile vs. the first tertile, and HR 2.31 (CI 1.75-3.05) for the second tertile (p trend JUPITER endpoint (p trend = 0.015). c-statistics for mortality were 0.729 among all, and 0.722 and 0.750 for females and males, respectively. The CBC risk score was strongly associated with all-cause mortality among JUPITER trial participants and had good discrimination. It also predicted CV-specific outcomes. This CBC score may be useful in identifying cardiac disease-free individuals at increased risk of mortality. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Environmental Toxin Acrolein Alters Levels of Endogenous Lipids, Including TRP Agonists: A Potential Mechanism for Headache Driven by TRPA1 Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma; Kunkler, Phillip E; Manchanda, Meera; Sangani, Kishan; Stuart, Jordyn M; Oxford, Gerry S; Hurley, Joyce H; Bradshaw, Heather B

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N -acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N -arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization.

  1. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  2. A Case Report of Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Breast Including Histological Characteristics and Intrinsic Subtype Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kimura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia, who had received long-term treatment with neuroleptics, noticed a painless, pea-sized lump in her right breast. She was admitted to our hospital and a malignant tumor was diagnosed. The patient underwent a conservative radical mastectomy (Patey’s operation. The excised tumor measured 2.0 × 1.2 × 1.1 cm in diameter, and its cut surface was grayish-white. Histologically, tumor cells with clear to foamy cytoplasm were invariably Oil Red O-positive and periodic acid Schiff-negative with or without diastase digestion. The tumor was diagnosed as a lipid-rich carcinoma accompanied by an in situ component. Neuroleptics increase serum prolactin levels by interfering with dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, although prolactin was not detected, the tumor cells expressed prolactin receptor, indicating prolactin as the genesis of this neoplasm. In immunohistochemical intrinsic subtype analysis, the tumor was negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 and 2, and basal cytokeratins (CK5, CK6, and CK14, indicating an unclassified (all-marker negative subtype. Axillary lymph nodes were free of metastasis (stage I, and the patient has been well for 20 years without any evidence of recurrence.

  3. The association of the Clock 3111 T/C SNP with lipids and lipoproteins including small dense low-density lipoprotein: results from the Mima study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Kaoru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clock molecule plays major roles in circadian rhythmicity and regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to cardiometabolic disorders. The existence of small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL in the circulation, an abnormality of lipid metabolism, in part associated with lifestyle, is also one of risk parameters for cardiometabolic disorders. The 3111 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the Clock gene has been reported to be associated with lifestyle including morning/evening preference. We investigated whether the Clock 3111 T/C SNP may affect lipids and lipoproteins including sdLDL. Methods In 365 community-dwelling subjects (170 men and 195 women, mean age 63 ± 14 years, the 3111 T/C SNP was genotyped using a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. The levels of sdLDL were measured with the electrophoretic separation of lipoproteins employing the Lipoprint system. Results The frequency of the Clock 3111 C allele was 0.14. The area of sdLDL did not differ between the subjects with obesity and those without. In carriers of T/T homozygotes, the area of sdLDL was significantly higher compared with carriers of the C allele (T/C or C/C (1.7 ± 3.4 vs. 0.8 ± 1.9%; p Clock 3111 T/C SNP (β = -0.114, p Conclusion Our findings indicated that the Clock 3111 T/C SNP might be associated with the existence of sdLDL.

  4. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  5. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  6. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of

  7. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Xia; Sun, Shi-Chun; Sundberg, Per; Ren, Wei-Cheng; Norenburg, Jon L

    2012-04-17

    The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of Bilateria and some lophotrochozoans suggests that the

  8. Parenteral nutrition including an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion for intensive care patients in China: a pharmacoeconomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Feng,1 Chao Li,1 Tian Zhang,1 Lorenzo Pradelli2 1Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2AdRes Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, Torino, Italy Background/objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN incorporating omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsions has been shown to be cost effective in Western populations. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation was performed within the Chinese intensive care unit (ICU setting. This assessed whether the additional acquisition cost of PN with omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid vs standard PN was offset by improved clinical outcomes that can reduce subsequent costs. Materials and methods: A pharmacoeconomic discrete event simulation model was developed, based on an update to efficacy data from a previous international meta-analysis, with China-specific clinical and economic input parameters. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the effects of uncertainty around input parameters. Results: The model predicted that PN with an omega-3 fatty-acid-enriched lipid emulsion was more effective and less costly than PN with standard lipid emulsions for Chinese ICU patients, as follows: reduced length of overall hospital length of stay (19.48 vs 21.35 days, respectively, reduced length of ICU stay (5.03 vs 6.18 days, respectively, and prevention of 35.6% of nosocomial infections leading to a lower total cost per patient (¥47 189 [US $6937] vs ¥54 783 [US $8053], respectively. Additional treatment costs were offset by savings in overall hospital and ICU stay cost, and antibiotic cost, resulting in a mean cost saving of ¥7594 (US $1116 per patient. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. Conclusions: PN enriched with an omega-3 fatty-acid-containing lipid emulsion vs standard PN may be effective in reducing length of hospital and ICU stay and infectious complications in

  9. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  10. Hermann Hankel's "On the general theory of motion of fluids". An essay including an English translation of the complete Preisschrift from 1861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villone, Barbara; Rampf, Cornelius

    2017-12-01

    The present is a companion paper to "A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on Lagrangian fluid dynamics" by Frisch, Grimberg and Villone [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 537-556 (2017)]. Here we present the English translation of the 1861 prize manuscript from Göttingen University "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten" (On the general theory of the motion of the fluids) of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873), which was originally submitted in Latin and then translated into German by the Author for publication. We also provide the English translation of two important reports on the manuscript, one written by Bernhard Riemann and the other by Wilhelm Eduard Weber during the assessment process for the prize. Finally, we give a short biography of Hermann Hankel with his complete bibliography.

  11. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  12. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  13. Hermann Hankel's "On the general theory of motion of fluids". An essay including an English translation of the complete Preisschrift from 1861

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villone, Barbara; Rampf, Cornelius

    2018-01-01

    The present is a companion paper to "A contemporary look at Hermann Hankel's 1861 pioneering work on Lagrangian fluid dynamics" by Frisch, Grimberg and Villone [Eur. Phys. J. H 42, 537-556 (2017)]. Here we present the English translation of the 1861 prize manuscript from Göttingen University "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten" (On the general theory of the motion of the fluids) of Hermann Hankel (1839-1873), which was originally submitted in Latin and then translated into German by the Author for publication. We also provide the English translation of two important reports on the manuscript, one written by Bernhard Riemann and the other by Wilhelm Eduard Weber during the assessment process for the prize. Finally, we give a short biography of Hermann Hankel with his complete bibliography. Originally published in German as "Zur allgemeinen Theorie der Bewegung der Flüssigkeiten. Eine von der philosophischen Fakultät der Georgia Augusta am 4. Juni 1861 gekrönte Preisschrift".

  14. Whole Genome Sequencing and Comparisons of Different Chinese Rabies Virus Lineages Including the First Complete Genome of an Arctic-like Strain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Guo, Zhen Yang; Zhang, Jian; Tao, Xiao Yan; Zhu, Wu Yang; Tang, Qing; Liu, Hong Tu

    2016-05-01

    To learn the rabies genome molecular characteristics and compare the difference of China rabies lineages. The complete genomes of 12 strains from different China rabies lineages were amplified and sequenced, and all the China street strain genomes (total 43), Arctic and Arctic-like genomes were aligned using ClustalX2, the genome homologies were analyzed using MegAlign software, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed by MEGA 5. First Arctic-like rabies genome in China (CQH1202D) was reported, and we supplemented the rabies genome data of China, ensuring at least one genome was available in each China lineage. The genome size of China V (11908nt) is obviously shorter than other lineages' (11923-11925nt) for the difference of N-P non-coding regions. Among different lineages, the genome homologies are almost under 90%. CQH1202D (China IV lineage) has close relationship with strains from South Korea and they share about 95% genome similarities. The molecular characteristics of 6 different China rabies lineages were compared and analyzed from genome level, which benefits for continued comprehensive rabies surveillance, rabies prevention and control in China. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. An Inactivated Rabies Virus-Based Ebola Vaccine, FILORAB1, Adjuvanted With Glucopyranosyl Lipid A in Stable Emulsion Confers Complete Protection in Nonhuman Primate Challenge Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed F; Kurup, Drishya; Hagen, Katie R; Fisher, Christine; Keshwara, Rohan; Papaneri, Amy; Perry, Donna L; Cooper, Kurt; Jahrling, Peter B; Wang, Jonathan T; Ter Meulen, Jan; Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J

    2016-10-15

    The 2013-2016 West African Ebola virus (EBOV) disease outbreak was the largest filovirus outbreak to date. Over 28 000 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases have been reported, with a 53% case-fatality rate. The magnitude and international impact of this EBOV outbreak has highlighted the urgent need for a safe and efficient EBOV vaccine. To this end, we demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of FILORAB1, a recombinant, bivalent, inactivated rabies virus-based EBOV vaccine, in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Our results demonstrate that the use of the synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A in stable emulsion (GLA-SE) as an adjuvant increased the efficacy of FILORAB1 to 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge, with no to mild clinical signs of disease. Furthermore, all vaccinated subjects developed protective anti-rabies virus antibody titers. Taken together, these results support further development of FILORAB1/GLA-SE as an effective preexposure EBOV vaccine. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Lipid peroxidation in bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P; Makkar, H P

    1983-01-01

    Bovine whole semen, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma did not undergo lipid peroxidation when aerobically incubated. However, lipid peroxidation was induced in washed spermatozoa in the presence of iron or iron plus sodium ascorbate, whereas heating, sonication, or treatment with proteolytic enzymes did not have any effect. The time required for formation of optimum concentration of lipid peroxides in washed spermatozoa is very short as compared to other systems. Lipid peroxides are entirely contributed by the lipid fraction of spermatozoa. Formation of lipid peroxides is completely inhibited by the presence of seminal plasma in incubation mixture.

  17. lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and anthropometry as cardiovascular risk factors and their association with dietary .... Training included sessions on ethical and general research philosophies applicable to ... the training sessions whereby the fieldworkers had to interview and complete multiple 24-hour.

  18. Nutrients and neurodevelopment: lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Horacio F; Visentin, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    Nutrients, lipids in particular, make up the central nervous system structure and play major functional roles: they stimulate development, migration, and nerve cell differentiation. They are part of gray matter, white matter, nerve nuclei, and synaptogenesis. Breast milk contains lipids which are crucial for infant brain development. The lipid profile of breast milk was used as a guideline for the development of breast milk substitutes. However, to date, no substitute has matched it. Complementary feeding should include docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, other polyunsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and complex lipids found in milk fat. The lipid composition of breast milk depends on maternal intake and nutritional status during pregnancy and breast-feeding. It has a great impact on development. Our goal is to review scientific literature regarding the role of lipids on infant brain development and the importance of breast milk lipid composition, maternal diet, and complementary feeding. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  19. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus group reveal a conserved genomic island MmGI-1 related to putative lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898. Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1, in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32% and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%, as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States. The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC.

  20. Synergistic and complete reversal of the multidrug resistance of mitoxantrone hydrochloride by three-in-one multifunctional lipid-sodium glycocholate nanocarriers based on simultaneous BCRP and Bcl-2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a severe obstacle to successful chemotherapy due to its complicated nature that involves multiple mechanisms, such as drug efflux by transporters (P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) and anti-apoptotic defense (B-cell lymphoma, Bcl-2). To synergistically and completely reverse MDR by simultaneous inhibition of pump and non-pump cellular resistance, three-in-one multifunctional lipid-sodium glycocholate (GcNa) nanocarriers (TMLGNs) have been designed for controlled co-delivery of water-soluble cationic mitoxantrone hydrochloride (MTO), cyclosporine A (CsA - BCRP inhibitor), and GcNa (Bcl-2 inhibitor). GcNa and dextran sulfate were incorporated as anionic compounds to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of MTO (up to 97.8%±1.9%) and sustain the release of cationic MTO by electrostatic interaction. The results of a series of in vitro and in vivo investigations indicated that the TMLGNs were taken up by the resistant cancer cells by an endocytosis pathway that escaped the efflux induced by BCRP, and the simultaneous release of CsA with MTO further efficiently inhibited the efflux of the released MTO by BCRP; meanwhile GcNa induced the apoptosis process, and an associated synergistic antitumor activity and reversion of MDR were achieved because the reversal index was almost 1.0.

  1. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Known As Coronary Risk Panel Formal Name Lipid Profile This article was last reviewed on June 29, ... phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are classified by their density into high-density ...

  2. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  3. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  4. Lipid somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Menon, Anant K.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipids diffuse rapidly in the plane of the membrane but their ability to flip spontaneously across a membrane bilayer is hampered by a significant energy barrier. Thus spontaneous flip-flop of polar lipids across membranes is very slow, even though it must occur rapidly to support diverse...... aspects of cellular life. Here we discuss the mechanisms by which rapid flip-flop occurs, and what role lipid flipping plays in membrane homeostasis and cell growth. We focus on conceptual aspects, highlighting mechanistic insights from biochemical and in silico experiments, and the recent, ground......-breaking identification of a number of lipid scramblases....

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Young Adults Treated for Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip, Alveolus, and Palate by a Treatment Protocol Including Two-Stage Palatoplasty: Speech Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Isabelle Francisca Petronella Maria; Bittermann, Dirk; Janssen, Laura; Bittermann, Gerhard Koendert Pieter; Boonacker, Chantal; Haverkamp, Sarah; de Wilde, Hester; Van Der Heul, Marise; Specken, Tom Fjmc; Koole, Ron; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan Cornelis; Mink van der Molen, Aebele Barber

    2017-05-01

    No consensus exists on the optimal treatment protocol for orofacial clefts or the optimal timing of cleft palate closure. This study investigated factors influencing speech outcomes after two-stage palate repair in adults with a non-syndromal complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). This was a retrospective analysis of adult patients with a UCLP who underwent two-stage palate closure and were treated at our tertiary cleft centre. Patients ≥17 years of age were invited for a final speech assessment. Their medical history was obtained from their medical files, and speech outcomes were assessed by a speech pathologist during the follow-up consultation. Forty-eight patients were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 21 years (standard deviation, 3.4 years). Their mean age at the time of hard and soft palate closure was 3 years and 8.0 months, respectively. In 40% of the patients, a pharyngoplasty was performed. On a 5-point intelligibility scale, 84.4% received a score of 1 or 2; meaning that their speech was intelligible. We observed a significant correlation between intelligibility scores and the incidence of articulation errors (Pspeech assessment, and 11%-17% of the patients exhibited increased nasalance scores, assessed through nasometry. The present study describes long-term speech outcomes after two-stage palatoplasty with hard palate closure at a mean age of 3 years old. We observed moderate long-term intelligibility scores, a relatively high incidence of persistent hypernasality, and a high pharyngoplasty incidence.

  6. Radioinduced lipid peroxidation: factors determining the oxidizability of lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remita, S.

    2001-01-01

    Lipids are the essential components of cell membranes and lipoproteins. Their peroxidation plays an important role in numerous pathologies in which oxidative stress is involved. Lipid peroxidation occurs through a chain reaction that contributes to membrane damage in cells. It results in the conversion of fatty acids to polar hydroperoxides and leads to the breakdown or malfunction of the membrane. Lipids are amphiphilic molecules that aggregate in aqueous solutions into micelles and liposoms. The effect of this structural organization is significant in studies of radiation-induced peroxidation damage in highly ordered biological systems such as biological membranes. In this paper, a synthesis of the data concerning radioinduced lipid peroxidation is completed by an original review of the different parameters that determine lipid oxidizability. In addition, the influence of lipid aggregation and the effect of molecular packing are discussed. (author)

  7. LMSD: LIPID MAPS structure database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Manish; Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Brown, Alex; Dennis, Edward A.; Glass, Christopher K.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Murphy, Robert C.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Russell, David W.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2007-01-01

    The LIPID MAPS Structure Database (LMSD) is a relational database encompassing structures and annotations of biologically relevant lipids. Structures of lipids in the database come from four sources: (i) LIPID MAPS Consortium's core laboratories and partners; (ii) lipids identified by LIPID MAPS experiments; (iii) computationally generated structures for appropriate lipid classes; (iv) biologically relevant lipids manually curated from LIPID BANK, LIPIDAT and other public sources. All the lipid structures in LMSD are drawn in a consistent fashion. In addition to a classification-based retrieval of lipids, users can search LMSD using either text-based or structure-based search options. The text-based search implementation supports data retrieval by any combination of these data fields: LIPID MAPS ID, systematic or common name, mass, formula, category, main class, and subclass data fields. The structure-based search, in conjunction with optional data fields, provides the capability to perform a substructure search or exact match for the structure drawn by the user. Search results, in addition to structure and annotations, also include relevant links to external databases. The LMSD is publicly available at PMID:17098933

  8. Acyl-Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Shorrosh, Basil; Beisson, Fred; Andersson, Mats X.; Arondel, Vincent; Bates, Philip D.; Baud, Sébastien; Bird, David; DeBono, Allan; Durrett, Timothy P.; Franke, Rochus B.; Graham, Ian A.; Katayama, Kenta; Kelly, Amélie A.; Larson, Tony; Markham, Jonathan E.; Miquel, Martine; Molina, Isabel; Nishida, Ikuo; Rowland, Owen; Samuels, Lacey; Schmid, Katherine M.; Wada, Hajime; Welti, Ruth; Xu, Changcheng; Zallot, Rémi; Ohlrogge, John

    2013-01-01

    Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the variations in acyl chain composition expand the number of structures to several hundred possible molecular species. Acyl lipids in the form of triacylglycerol account for 35% of the weight of Arabidopsis seeds and represent their major form of carbon and energy storage. A layer of cutin and cuticular waxes that restricts the loss of water and provides protection from invasions by pathogens and other stresses covers the entire aerial surface of Arabidopsis. Similar functions are provided by suberin and its associated waxes that are localized in roots, seed coats, and abscission zones and are produced in response to wounding. This chapter focuses on the metabolic pathways that are associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of the acyl lipids mentioned above. These pathways, enzymes, and genes are also presented in detail in an associated website (ARALIP: http://aralip.plantbiology.msu.edu/). Protocols and methods used for analysis of Arabidopsis lipids are provided. Finally, a detailed summary of the composition of Arabidopsis lipids is provided in three figures and 15 tables. PMID:23505340

  9. Fasting Is Not Routinely Required for Determination of a Lipid Profile: Clinical and Laboratory Implications Including Flagging at Desirable Concentration Cutpoints-A Joint Consensus Statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Langsted, Anne; Mora, Samia; Kolovou, Genovefa; Baum, Hannsjörg; Bruckert, Eric; Watts, Gerald F; Sypniewska, Grazyna; Wiklund, Olov; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M John; Cobbaert, Christa; Descamps, Olivier S; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kamstrup, Pia R; Pulkki, Kari; Kronenberg, Florian; Remaley, Alan T; Rifai, Nader; Ros, Emilio; Langlois, Michel

    2016-07-01

    To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles. Extensive observational data, in which random non-fasting lipid profiles have been compared with those determined under fasting conditions, indicate that the maximal mean changes at 1-6 h after habitual meals are not clinically significant [+0.3 mmol/L (26 mg/dL) for triglycerides; -0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for total cholesterol; -0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol; +0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated remnant cholesterol; -0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated non-HDL cholesterol]; concentrations of HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) are not affected by fasting/non-fasting status. In addition, non-fasting and fasting concentrations vary similarly over time and are comparable in the prediction of cardiovascular disease. To improve patient compliance with lipid testing, we therefore recommend the routine use of non-fasting lipid profiles, whereas fasting sampling may be considered when non-fasting triglycerides are >5 mmol/L (440 mg/dL). For non-fasting samples, laboratory reports should flag abnormal concentrations as triglycerides ≥2 mmol/L (175 mg/dL), total cholesterol ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L (115 mg/dL), calculated remnant cholesterol ≥0.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL), calculated non-HDL cholesterol ≥3.9 mmol/L (150 mg/dL), HDL cholesterol ≤1 mmol/L (40 mg/dL), apolipoprotein A1 ≤1.25 g/L (125 mg/dL), apolipoprotein B ≥1.0 g/L (100 mg/dL), and lipoprotein(a) ≥50 mg/dL (80th percentile); for fasting samples, abnormal concentrations correspond to triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Life-threatening concentrations require separate referral for the risk of pancreatitis when triglycerides are >10 mmol/L (880 mg/dL), for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia when LDL cholesterol

  10. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...... feature of vesicles carrying PM cargo and suggests a common lipid-based mechanism for their formation....

  11. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  12. Heart, lipids and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Winhofer, Yvonne; Krššák, Martin; Krebs, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases. © 2017 The authors.

  13. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hwan; Ju, Hye-Kyoung; Han, Jae-Yeong; Park, Jong-Seo; Kim, Ik-Hyun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2017-04-01

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome. Three CGMMV isolates (OMpj, Wpj, and Mpj) were separately evaluated for infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrated by either Agroinfiltration or inoculation with in vitro RNA transcripts. CGMMV nucleotide identities to other tobamoviruses were calculated from pairwise alignments using DNAMAN. CGMMV identities were 49.89% to tobacco mosaic virus; 49.85% to pepper mild mottle virus; 50.47% to tomato mosaic virus; 60.9% to zucchini green mottle mosaic virus; and 60.96% to kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, confirming that CGMMV is a distinct species most similar to other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. We further performed phylogenetic analysis to determine relationships of our new Korean CGMMV isolates to previously characterized isolates from Canada, China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, and Taiwan available from NCBI. Analysis of CGMMV amino acid sequences showed three major clades, broadly typified as 'Russian,' 'Israeli,' and 'Asian' groups. All of our new Korean isolates fell within the 'Asian' clade. Neither the 128 nor 186 kDa RdRps of the three new isolates showed any detectable gene silencing suppressor function.

  15. Completion milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbury, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Southeastern Environmental Resources Alliance (SERA) is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy, the states of Georgia and South Carolina, and Westinghouse US Department of Energy, the states of Georgia Savannah River Company (WSRC). The original proposal for SERA, submitted under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), is based on improving the competitiveness of manufacturers within Georgia and South Carolina by addressing the costs associated with environmental and waste management issues. By using the many technologies available through the national laboratories, universities, the Savannah River Site, and the commercial sector, SERA will improve the competitive position of companies that would otherwise have no access to those technologies. This Start-Up Plan details the steps SERA will take to begin effective operations by June 1, 1995, and will focus on the short-term needs of the program. This plan will serve as a supplement to the original SERA proposal, and will address the major milestones included in the Department of Energy's Cooperative Agreement. Also documented are the planning processes that SERA will use to ensure the long-term viability of the program. The planning process will include additional work elements that are referenced by the original proposal, but, for the purposes of program start-up, are not immediately addressed. The major milestones and schedules are provided for each goal

  16. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  17. Completely practicable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, P.; Preisig, H.

    2005-01-01

    This interview with Peter Hartmann and Hansruedi Preisig takes a look at the question why today's housing should be mechanically ventilated, why in spite of this such installations are quite few and far between and what must be done to change the situation. Questions covered include the reasons why housing should be equipped with such systems, the damage due to condensation and dampness resulting from too low an air-exchange rate. The use of such ventilation systems in northern countries is discussed and the history of efforts made in this direction in Switzerland is reviewed. The reasons for the limited success of fan-assisted balanced ventilation are reviewed. Health aspects are also discussed as are the main arguments for the installation of such systems in modern housing. The weak points of present day systems are looked at and measures to be taken are discussed. Finally, the role of architects in propagating the idea of fan-assisted balanced ventilation is discussed

  18. A Molecular Probe for the Detection of Polar Lipids in Live Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie A Bader

    Full Text Available Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells. Here we describe the potential for ReZolve-L1™ to localise to intracellular compartments containing polar lipids, such as for example sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine. In live Drosophila fat body tissue from third instar larvae, ReZolve-L1™ interacted mainly with lipid droplets, including the core region of these organelles. The presence of polar lipids in the core of these lipid droplets was confirmed by Raman mapping and while this was consistent with the distribution of ReZolve-L1™ it did not exclude that the molecular probe might be detecting other lipid species. In response to complete starvation conditions, ReZolve-L1™ was detected mainly in Atg8-GFP autophagic compartments, and showed reduced staining in the lipid droplets of fat body cells. The induction of autophagy by Tor inhibition also increased ReZolve-L1™ detection in autophagic compartments, whereas Atg9 knock down impaired autophagosome formation and altered the distribution of ReZolve-L1™. Finally, during Drosophila metamorphosis fat body tissues showed increased ReZolve-L1™ staining in autophagic compartments at two hours post puparium formation, when compared to earlier developmental time points. We concluded that ReZolve-L1™ is a new live cell imaging tool, which can be used as an imaging reagent for the detection of polar lipids in

  19. A Molecular Probe for the Detection of Polar Lipids in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Christie A; Shandala, Tetyana; Carter, Elizabeth A; Ivask, Angela; Guinan, Taryn; Hickey, Shane M; Werrett, Melissa V; Wright, Phillip J; Simpson, Peter V; Stagni, Stefano; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lay, Peter A; Massi, Massimiliano; Plush, Sally E; Brooks, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells. Here we describe the potential for ReZolve-L1™ to localise to intracellular compartments containing polar lipids, such as for example sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine. In live Drosophila fat body tissue from third instar larvae, ReZolve-L1™ interacted mainly with lipid droplets, including the core region of these organelles. The presence of polar lipids in the core of these lipid droplets was confirmed by Raman mapping and while this was consistent with the distribution of ReZolve-L1™ it did not exclude that the molecular probe might be detecting other lipid species. In response to complete starvation conditions, ReZolve-L1™ was detected mainly in Atg8-GFP autophagic compartments, and showed reduced staining in the lipid droplets of fat body cells. The induction of autophagy by Tor inhibition also increased ReZolve-L1™ detection in autophagic compartments, whereas Atg9 knock down impaired autophagosome formation and altered the distribution of ReZolve-L1™. Finally, during Drosophila metamorphosis fat body tissues showed increased ReZolve-L1™ staining in autophagic compartments at two hours post puparium formation, when compared to earlier developmental time points. We concluded that ReZolve-L1™ is a new live cell imaging tool, which can be used as an imaging reagent for the detection of polar lipids in different intracellular

  20. A Molecular Probe for the Detection of Polar Lipids in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Christie A.; Shandala, Tetyana; Carter, Elizabeth A.; Ivask, Angela; Guinan, Taryn; Hickey, Shane M.; Werrett, Melissa V.; Wright, Phillip J.; Simpson, Peter V.; Stagni, Stefano; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Lay, Peter A.; Massi, Massimiliano; Brooks, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells. Here we describe the potential for ReZolve-L1™ to localise to intracellular compartments containing polar lipids, such as for example sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine. In live Drosophila fat body tissue from third instar larvae, ReZolve-L1™ interacted mainly with lipid droplets, including the core region of these organelles. The presence of polar lipids in the core of these lipid droplets was confirmed by Raman mapping and while this was consistent with the distribution of ReZolve-L1™ it did not exclude that the molecular probe might be detecting other lipid species. In response to complete starvation conditions, ReZolve-L1™ was detected mainly in Atg8-GFP autophagic compartments, and showed reduced staining in the lipid droplets of fat body cells. The induction of autophagy by Tor inhibition also increased ReZolve-L1™ detection in autophagic compartments, whereas Atg9 knock down impaired autophagosome formation and altered the distribution of ReZolve-L1™. Finally, during Drosophila metamorphosis fat body tissues showed increased ReZolve-L1™ staining in autophagic compartments at two hours post puparium formation, when compared to earlier developmental time points. We concluded that ReZolve-L1™ is a new live cell imaging tool, which can be used as an imaging reagent for the detection of polar lipids in different intracellular

  1. Lipids in airway secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, K.R.; DeFeudis O'Sullivan, D.; Opaskar-Hincman, H.; Reid, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids form a significant portion of airway mucus yet they have not received the same attention that epithelial glycoproteins have. We have analysed, by thin layer chromatography, lipids present in airway mucus under 'normal' and hypersecretory (pathological) conditions.The 'normals' included (1) bronchial lavage obtained from healthy human volunteers and from dogs and (2) secretions produced ''in vitro'' by human (bronchial) and canine (tracheal) explants. Hypersecretory mucus samples included (1) lavage from dogs made bronchitic by exposure to SO 2 , (2) bronchial aspirates from acute and chronic tracheostomy patients, (3) sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis and (4) postmortem secretions from patients who died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or from status asthmaticus. Cholesterol was found to be the predominant lipid in 'normal' mucus with lesser amounts of phospholipids. No glycolipids were detected. In the hypersecretory mucus, in addition to neutral and phospholipids, glycolipids were present in appreciable amounts, often the predominant species, suggesting that these may be useful as markers of disease. Radioactive precursors 14 C acetate and 14 C palmitate were incorporated into lipids secreted ''in vitro'' by canine tracheal explants indicating that they are synthesised by the airway. (author)

  2. COMPLETE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littera Aperta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Abstract: In its open and interdisciplinary scope, volume 2 of Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continues the path opened in volume 1. It includes papers which belong to a wide range of periods, genres, nationalities and methodological approaches. Two complementary papers look into the figure of ghosts in the Classical writers Aristophanes and Lucretius: “The ghosts in Aristophanes’ Frogs” by Soraya Planchas Gallarte (Universidad Complutense de Madrid; and “Templa Serena against Acherusia Templa: A Materialistic Explanation of Ghosts in Lucretius” by Ángel J. Traver Vera (Junta de Extremadura. Juan de Dios Torralbo Caballero (Universidad de Córdoba analyzes the narrative techniques of the novel History of the Nun (1688 by the English writer Aphra Behn. In the field of contemporary world literature in English, Miryam Librán Moreno (Universidad de Extremadura traces the far-reaching influence of Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus on the story of Túrin Turambar by J.R.R. Tolkien; and the researcher Damlègue Lare, from the University of Lomé (Togo, surveys Efo Kodjo Mawugbe’s procedures to debunk African patriarchal patterns of thought in his feminist play In the Chest of a Woman (2008. As a cultural complement to these research pieces, Gabriel Laguna Mariscal (Universidad de Córdoba interviews the Spanish philosopher Javier Gomá Lanzón about the philosophy of the interviewee himself, the role of the philosopher in the modern society and the relevance of Humanities in the education of citizenry. Gabriel Laguna also publishes a review about a book that Javier Gomá coauthors together with Carlos García Gual and Fernando Savater: Muchas felicidades. Tres visiones y más de la idea de felicidad. // LITTERA APERTA (Vol. 2 - 2014. Resumen: El volumen 2 de Littera Aperta. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies continúa la línea interdisciplinar y abierta del volumen 1, al incluir

  3. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  5. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  6. Lipid storage myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Claudio; Dimauro, Salvatore

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an update on disorders of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle exclusively or predominantly and to summarize recent clinical, genetic, and therapeutic studies in this field. Over the past 5 years, new clinical phenotypes and genetic loci have been described, unusual pathogenic mechanisms have been elucidated, and novel pharmacological approaches have been developed. At least one genetic defect responsible for the myopathic form of CoQ10 deficiency has been identified, causing a disorder that is allelic with the late-onset riboflavine-responsive form of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency. Novel mechanisms involved in the lipolytic breakdown of cellular lipid depots have been described and have led to the identification of genes and mutations responsible for multisystemic neutral lipid storage disorders, characterized by accumulation of triglyceride in multiple tissues, including muscle. Defects in lipid metabolism can affect either the mitochondrial transport and oxidation of exogenous fatty acid or the catabolism of endogenous triglycerides. These disorders impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle, causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness, or recurrent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis triggered by exercise, fasting, or infections. Clinical and genetic characterization of these disorders has important implications both for accurate diagnostic approach and for development of therapeutic strategies.

  7. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  8. Genetics of Lipid and Lipoprotein Disorders and Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Plasma lipids, namely cholesterol and triglyceride, and lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein, serve numerous physiological roles. Perturbed levels of these traits underlie monogenic dyslipidemias, a diverse group of multisystem disorders. We are on the verge of having a relatively complete picture of the human dyslipidemias and their components. Recent advances in genetics of plasma lipids and lipoproteins include the following: (1) expanding the range of genes causing monogenic dyslipidemias, particularly elevated LDL cholesterol; (2) appreciating the role of polygenic effects in such traits as familial hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia; (3) accumulating a list of common variants that determine plasma lipids and lipoproteins; (4) applying exome sequencing to identify collections of rare variants determining plasma lipids and lipoproteins that via Mendelian randomization have also implicated gene products such as NPC1L1 , APOC3 , LDLR , APOA5 , and ANGPTL4 as causal for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; and (5) using naturally occurring genetic variation to identify new drug targets, including inhibitors of apolipoprotein (apo) C-III, apo(a), ANGPTL3, and ANGPTL4. Here, we compile this disparate range of data linking human genetic variation to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, providing a "one stop shop" for the interested reader.

  9. 2013 plant lipids Gordon Research conference and Gordon Research Seminar (January 27 - February 1, 2013 - Hotel Galvez, Galveston, TX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welti, Ruth

    2012-11-01

    Presenters will discuss the latest advances in plant and algal lipid metabolism, oil synthesis, lipid signaling, lipid visualization, lipid biotechnology and its applications, the physiological and developmental roles of lipids, and plant lipids in health. Sessions include: Producing Nutritional Lipids; Metabolic biochemistry in the next decade; Triacylglycerols: Metabolism, function, and as a target for engineering; Lipids in Protection, Reproduction, and Development; Genetic and Lipidomic Approaches to Understanding Lipid Metabolism and Signaling; Lipid Signaling in Stress Responses; New Insights on the Path to Triacylglycerols; Membrane Lipid Signaling; Lipid Visualization; Development of Biofuels and Industrial Lipids.

  10. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs disease, involve lipids. Lipids are fats or fat-like substances. They ...

  11. Lipid metabolism in the heart. Contribution of BMIPP to the diseased heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, Ryuji [Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Inst., Osaka (Japan). Kitano Hospital

    2001-10-01

    Lipid contributes greatly in cardiac metabolism to produce high energy ATPs, and is suggested to be related to the progression and deterioration of heart disease. It is fortunate that the I-123-betamethyliodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) imaging technique is now available in determining heart condition, but we must be cautious about the interpretation of images obtained with new tracer. From the uptake of BMIPP into the cell to breakdown and catabolism of it, there exist so many critical enzymatical pathways relating to the modification of BMIPP imaging. In clinical evaluation, the image will be translated as the integral effects of these pathways. In order words, we must be aware of these critical pathways regulating lipid metabolism and modifying factors in order to correctly understand BMIPP imaging. Lipid transport is affected by the albumin/FFA ratio in the blood, and extraction with membrane transporter proteins. Fatty acid binding protein (FABP) in the cytosole will play an important role in regulating lipid flux and following metabolism. Lipid will be utilized either for oxidation, triglyceride or phospholipid formation. For oxidation, carnitine palmitoil transferase is the key enzyme for the entrance of lipid into mitochondria, and oxidative enzymes such as acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, LCAD, HAD) will determine lipid use for the TCA cycle. ATPs produced in the mitochondria again limit the TG store. It is well known that BMIPP imaging completely changes in the ischemic condition, and is also shown that lipid metabolical regulation completely differs from normal in the very early phase of cardiac hypertrophy. In the process of deteriorating heart failure, metabolical switching of lipid with glucose will take place. In such a different heart disease conditions, it is clear that lipid metabolical regulation, including many lipid enzymes, works differently from in the healthy condition. These lipid enzymes are regulated by nuclear factor peroxisome

  12. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  13. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  14. Statistics a complete introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  15. Structural and functional roles of ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Dean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes. Ether lipids are also important for the organization and stability of lipid raft microdomains, cholesterol-rich membrane regions involved in cellular signaling. In addition to their structural roles, a subset of ether lipids are thought to function as endogenous antioxidants, and emerging studies suggest that they are involved in cell differentiation and signaling pathways. Here, we review the biology of ether lipids and their potential significance in human disorders, including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  16. Parenteral Nutrition and Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Maitreyi; Almutairdi, Abdulelah; Mulesa, Leanne; Alberda, Cathy; Beattie, Colleen; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-04-14

    Lipids have multiple physiological roles that are biologically vital. Soybean oil lipid emulsions have been the mainstay of parenteral nutrition lipid formulations for decades in North America. Utilizing intravenous lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition has minimized the dependence on dextrose as a major source of nonprotein calories and prevents the clinical consequences of essential fatty acid deficiency. Emerging literature has indicated that there are benefits to utilizing alternative lipids such as olive/soy-based formulations, and combination lipids such as soy/MCT/olive/fish oil, compared with soybean based lipids, as they have less inflammatory properties, are immune modulating, have higher antioxidant content, decrease risk of cholestasis, and improve clinical outcomes in certain subgroups of patients. The objective of this article is to review the history of IVLE, their composition, the different generations of widely available IVLE, the variables to consider when selecting lipids, and the complications of IVLE and how to minimize them.

  17. Using fluorescent lipids in live zebrafish larvae: From imaging whole animal physiology to subcellular lipid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J L; Carten, J D; Farber, S A

    2016-01-01

    Lipids serve essential functions in cells as signaling molecules, membrane components, and sources of energy. Defects in lipid metabolism are implicated in a number of pandemic human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Many aspects of how fatty acids and cholesterol are absorbed and processed by intestinal cells remain unclear and present a hurdle to developing approaches for disease prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the zebrafish is an excellent model for vertebrate lipid metabolism. In this chapter, we review commercially available fluorescent lipids that can be deployed in live zebrafish to better understand lipid signaling and metabolism. In this chapter, we present criteria one should consider when selecting specific fluorescent lipids for the study of digestive physiology or lipid metabolism in larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New aspects of phloem-mediated long-distance lipid signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Florian Benning

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and cannot move to appropriate hiding places or feeding grounds to escape adverse conditions. As a consequence, they evolved mechanisms to detect changes in their environment, communicate these to different organs, and adjust development accordingly. These adaptations include two long-distance transport systems which are essential in plants: the xylem and the phloem. The phloem serves as a major trafficking pathway for assimilates, viruses, RNA, plant hormones, metabolites, and proteins with functions ranging from synthesis to metabolism to signaling. The study of signaling compounds within the phloem is essential for our understanding of plant communication of environmental cues. Determining the nature of signals and the mechanisms by which they are communicated through the phloem will lead to a more complete understanding of plant development and plant responses to stress. In our analysis of Arabidopsis phloem exudates, we had identified several lipid-binding proteins as well as fatty acids and lipids. The latter are not typically expected in the aqueous environment of sieve elements. Hence, lipid transport in the phloem has been given little attention until now. Long-distance transport of hydrophobic compounds in an aqueous system is not without precedence in biological systems: a variety of lipids is found in human blood and are often bound to proteins. Some lipid-protein complexes are transported to other tissues for storage, use, modification, or degradation, others serve as messengers and modulate transcription factor activity. By simple analogy it raises the possibility that lipids and the respective lipid-binding proteins in the phloem serve similar functions in plants and play an important role in stress and developmental signaling. Here, we introduce the lipid-binding proteins and the lipids we found in the phloem and discuss the possibility that they may play an important role in developmental and stress signaling.

  19. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisomes catalyse a large variety of different cellular functions of which most have to do with lipid metabolism. This paper deals with the role of peroxisomes in three key pathways of lipid metabolism, including: (1) etherphospholipid biosynthesis, (2) fatty acid beta-oxidation, and (3) fatty

  20. Normal and abnormal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Lipids are defined as organic molecules that are poorly soluble in water but dissolve well in organic (non-polar) solvents such as chloroform. This broad definition includes fatty acids and their esterified forms (phospholipids, triglyceride) and sterols and their esters. There are many more complex lipids that ...

  1. Lipid nanoparticle interactions and assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiss, Matthew Ryan

    Novel liposome-nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs) provide a biologically inspired route for designing multifunctional bionanotheranostics. LNAs combine the benefits of lipids and liposomes to encapsulate, transport, and protect hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutics with functional nanoparticles. Functional nanoparticles endow LNAs with additional capabilities, including the ability to target diseases, triggered drug release, controlled therapeutic output, and diagnostic capabilities to produce a drug delivery system that can effectively and efficiently deliver therapeutics while reducing side effects. Not only could LNAs make existing drugs better, they could also provide an avenue to allow once promising non-approved drugs (rejected due to harmful side effects, inadequate pharmacokinetics, and poor efficacy) to be safely used through targeted and controlled delivery directly to the diseased site. LNAs have the potential to be stimuli responsive, delivering drugs on command by external (ultrasound, RF heating, etc.) or internal (pH, blood sugar, heart rate, etc.) stimuli. Individually, lipids and nanoparticles have been clinically approved for therapy, such as Doxil (a liposomal doxorubicin for cancer treatment), and diagnosis, such as Feridex (an iron oxide nanoparticle an MRI contrast enhancement agent for liver tumors). In order to engineer these multifunctional LNAs for theranostic applications, the interactions between nanoparticles and lipids must be better understood. This research sought to explore the formation, design, structures, characteristics, and functions of LNAs. To achieve this goal, different types of LNAs were formed, specifically magnetoliposomes, bilayer decorated LNAs (DLNAs), and lipid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (LMNPs). A fluorescent probe was embedded in the lipid bilayer of magnetoliposomes allowing the local temperature and membrane fluidity to be observed. When subjected to an electromagnetic field that heated the encapsulated iron

  2. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  3. A lipid E-MAP identifies Ubx2 as a critical regulator of lipid saturation and lipid bilayer stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Peng, Debby

    2013-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex, and the mechanisms underlying their homeostasis are incompletely understood. Here, we present a quantitative genetic interaction map (E-MAP) focused on various aspects of lipid biology, including lipid metabolism, sorting, and trafficking. This E-MAP contains ∼25...... are suppressed by the supplementation of unsaturated FAs. Our results point toward the existence of dedicated bilayer stress responses for membrane homeostasis.......Biological membranes are complex, and the mechanisms underlying their homeostasis are incompletely understood. Here, we present a quantitative genetic interaction map (E-MAP) focused on various aspects of lipid biology, including lipid metabolism, sorting, and trafficking. This E-MAP contains ∼250......) desaturase Ole1p. Loss of Ubx2p affects the transcriptional control of OLE1, resulting in impaired FA desaturation and a severe shift toward more saturated membrane lipids. Both the induction of the unfolded protein response and aberrant nuclear membrane morphologies observed in cells lacking UBX2...

  4. Lipid Bilayer Composition Affects Transmembrane Protein Orientation and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie D. Hickey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na+ K+-ATPase or -amylase. Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na+ K+-ATPase within the membranes.

  5. Successful usage of intravenous lipid emulsion in treatment of acute verapamil poisoning: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković-Ercegović Gordana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the last few years, intravenous lipid emulsions have been effectively used in treatment of acute poisonings with lipophilic substances, including verapamil. Case report. A 37-year-old women presented 1 hour after ingestion of 2.8 g verapamil with hypotension and complete heart block. Because of the applied standard therapy failure and further patients impairment, Intralipid® 20% was used. Sinus rhythm was restored, arterial blood pressure increased and verapamile concentrations, both total and free decreased. Conclusion. Intravenous lipid emulsion can be important in treatment of severe acute intoxication and cardiotoxicity caused by verapamil.

  6. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  7. Lipid Structure in Triolein Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are primary repositories of esterified fatty acids and sterols in animal cells. These organelles originate on the lumenal or cytoplasmic side of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and are released to the cytosol. In contrast to other intracellular organelles, LDs are composed...... of a mass of hydrophobic lipid esters coved by phospholipid monolayer. The small size and unique architecture of LDs makes it complicated to study LD structure by modern experimental methods. We discuss coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of LD formation in systems containing 1-palmitoyl-2...... to coarse-grained simulations, the presence of PE lipids at the interface has a little impact on distribution of components and on the overall LD structure. (4) The thickness of the lipid monolayer at the surface of the droplet is similar to the thickness of one leaflet of a bilayer. Computer simulations...

  8. Integrated omics study delineates the dynamics of lipid droplets in Rhodococcus opacus PD630

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Ding, Yunfeng; Yang, Li; Yu, Jinhai; Liu, Guiming; Wang, Xumin; Zhang, Shuyan; Yu, Dan; Song, Lai; Zhang, Hangxiao; Zhang, Congyan; Huo, Linhe; Huo, Chaoxing; Wang, Yang; Du, Yalan; Zhang, Huina; Zhang, Peng; Na, Huimin; Xu, Shimeng; Zhu, Yaxin; Xie, Zhensheng; He, Tong; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Guoliang; Fan, Zhonghua; Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Honglei; Wang, Xiaowo; Zhang, Xuegong; Zhang, Michael Q.; Li, Yanda; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Fujimoto, Toyoshi; Cichello, Simon; Yu, Jun; Liu, Pingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 (R. opacus PD630), is an oleaginous bacterium, and also is one of few prokaryotic organisms that contain lipid droplets (LDs). LD is an important organelle for lipid storage but also intercellular communication regarding energy metabolism, and yet is a poorly understood cellular organelle. To understand the dynamics of LD using a simple model organism, we conducted a series of comprehensive omics studies of R. opacus PD630 including complete genome, transcriptome and proteome analysis. The genome of R. opacus PD630 encodes 8947 genes that are significantly enriched in the lipid transport, synthesis and metabolic, indicating a super ability of carbon source biosynthesis and catabolism. The comparative transcriptome analysis from three culture conditions revealed the landscape of gene-altered expressions responsible for lipid accumulation. The LD proteomes further identified the proteins that mediate lipid synthesis, storage and other biological functions. Integrating these three omics uncovered 177 proteins that may be involved in lipid metabolism and LD dynamics. A LD structure-like protein LPD06283 was further verified to affect the LD morphology. Our omics studies provide not only a first integrated omics study of prokaryotic LD organelle, but also a systematic platform for facilitating further prokaryotic LD research and biofuel development. PMID:24150943

  9. Lipids in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Meike; Brands, Mathias; Wewer, Vera; Duan, Yanjiao; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria and fungi can undergo symbiotic or pathogenic interactions with plants. Membrane lipids and lipid-derived molecules from the plant or the microbial organism play important roles during the infection process. For example, lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids) are involved in establishing the membrane interface between the two organisms. Furthermore, lipid-derived molecules are crucial for intracellular signaling in the plant cell, and lipids serve as signals during plant-microbial communication. These signal lipids include phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, lysophospholipids, and free fatty acids derived from phospholipase activity, apocarotenoids, and sphingolipid breakdown products such as ceramide, ceramide-phosphate, long chain base, and long chain base-phosphate. Fatty acids are the precursors for oxylipins, including jasmonic acid, and for azelaic acid, which together with glycerol-3-phosphate are crucial for the regulation of systemic acquired resistance. This article is part of a Special Issue titled "Plant Lipid Biology," guest editors Kent Chapman and Ivo Feussner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different

  11. Alterations In Lipid Profile Of Patients With Advanced Cervical Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play key role in maintenance of cell integrity. Aims. The study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in patients with advanced squamous cervical cancer. Materials And Method This hospital-based study included 30 cervical ...

  12. Microemulsion extrusion technique : a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Radaic, Allan; Zuhorn, Inge S.; de Paula, Eneida

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nano-structured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization

  13. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation, and the com......Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  14. Lipid partitioning in maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm highlights relationships among starch lipids, amylose, and vitreousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Mathieu; Bakan, Bénédicte; Dalgalarrondo, Michele; Elmorjani, Khalil; Delluc, Caroline; Brunet, Sylvie; Linossier, Laurent; Morel, Marie-Hélène; Marion, Didier

    2015-04-08

    Content and composition of maize endosperm lipids and their partition in the floury and vitreous regions were determined for a set of inbred lines. Neutral lipids, i.e., triglycerides and free fatty acids, accounted for more than 80% of endosperm lipids and are almost 2 times higher in the floury than in the vitreous regions. The composition of endosperm lipids, including their fatty acid unsaturation levels, as well as their distribution may be related to metabolic specificities of the floury and vitreous regions in carbon and nitrogen storage and to the management of stress responses during endosperm cell development. Remarkably, the highest contents of starch lipids were observed systematically within the vitreous endosperm. These high amounts of starch lipids were mainly due to lysophosphatidylcholine and were tightly linked to the highest amylose content. Consequently, the formation of amylose-lysophosphatidylcholine complexes has to be considered as an outstanding mechanism affecting endosperm vitreousness.

  15. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approximate identity for B, bounded in A. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of A is ... continuous elements of a Banach algebra A and symmetric abstract Segal algebras B with respect to A, in the case ..... [13] Hewitt E and Ross K A, Abstract harmonic analysis, 2nd edn. I, II (1970) (New York,.

  16. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between Growth hormone (GH) and the metabolism of glucose and lipid is not completely understood. Objective: The present study is to obtain further information that will clarify the relationships between growth hormone and the metabolism of glucose and lipid. Methods: The subjects were ...

  17. Polyene-lipids: a new tool to image lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Ejsing, Christer S.; Ekroos, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Microscopy of lipids in living cells is currently hampered by a lack of adequate fluorescent tags. The most frequently used tags, NBD and BODIPY, strongly influence the properties of lipids, yielding analogs with quite different characteristics. Here, we introduce polyene-lipids containing five...... conjugated double bonds as a new type of lipid tag. Polyene-lipids exhibit a unique structural similarity to natural lipids, which results in minimal effects on the lipid properties. Analyzing membrane phase partitioning, an important biophysical and biological property of lipids, we demonstrated...... the superiority of polyene-lipids to both NBD- and BODIPY-tagged lipids. Cells readily take up various polyene-lipid precursors and generate the expected end products with no apparent disturbance by the tag. Applying two-photon excitation microscopy, we imaged the distribution of polyene-lipids in living...

  18. MR-Visible Lipids and the Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delikatny, E. James; Chawla, Sanjeev; Leung, Daniel-Joseph; Poptani, Harish

    2013-01-01

    MR-visible lipids or mobile lipids are defined as lipids that are observable using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cells and in tissues. These MR-visible lipids are composed of triglycerides and cholesterol esters that accumulate in intracellular neutral lipid droplets, where their MR visibility is conferred as a result of the increased molecular motion available in this unique physical environment. This review will discuss factors that lead to the biogenesis of MR-visible lipids in cancer cells and in other cell types such as immune cells and fibroblasts. We focus on the accumulations of mobile lipids that are inducible in cultured cells by a number of stresses, including culture conditions and in response to activating stimuli or apoptotic cell death induced by anticancer drugs. This is compared with animal tumor models, where increases in mobile lipids are observed in response to chemo and radiotherapy, and to human tumors where mobile lipids are observed predominantly in high-grade brain tumors and in regions of necrosis. Conducive conditions for mobile lipid formation in the tumor microenvironment will be discussed including low pH, oxygen availability and the presence of inflammatory cells. It is concluded that MR-visible lipids appear in cancer cells and human tumors as a stress response. Mobile lipids stored as neutral lipid droplets may play a role in detoxification of the cell or act as an alternate energy source, especially in cancer cells, which often grow in ischemic/hypoxic environments. The role of MR-visible lipids in cancer diagnosis and assessment of treatment response both in animal models of cancer as well as human brain tumors will also be discussed. Although technical limitations exist in the accurate detection of intratumoral mobile lipids, early increases in mobile lipids after therapeutic interventions may be used as a potential biomarker for assessing treatment response in cancer. PMID:21538631

  19. The evolution of lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y. H.; Sugai, A.; Uda, I.; Itoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    Living organisms on the Earth which are divided into three major domains - Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya, probably came from a common ancestral cell. Because there are many thermophilic microorganisms near the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, the common ancestral cell should be considered to be a thermophilic microorganism. The existence of a cell is necessary for the living organisms; the cell membrane is the essential structural component of a cell, so its amphiphilic property is vital for the molecule of lipids for cell membranes. Tetraether type glycerophospholipids with C 40 isoprenoid chains are major membrane lipids widely distributed in archaeal cells. Cyclization number of C 40 isoprenoid chains in thermophilic archaea influences the fluidity of lipids whereas the number of carbons and degree of unsaturation in fatty acids do so in bacteria and eucarya. In addition to the cyclization of the tetraether lipids, covalent bonding of two C 40 isoprenoid chains was found in hyperthermophiles. These characteristic structures of the lipids seem to contribute to their fundamental physiological roles in hyperthermophiles. Stereochemical differences between G-1-P archaeal lipids and G-3-P bacterial and eucaryal lipids might have occured by the function of some proteins long after the first cell was developed by the reactions of small organic molecules. We propose that the structure of lipids of the common ancestral cell may have been similar to those of hyperthermophilic archaea.

  20. Lysosomal lipid storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a "traffic jam." This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement.

  1. Buffalo complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo, NY formally adopted a local Complete Streets ordinance in 2008; however, implementation has yet : to become institutionalized. Buffalos Complete Streets Coalition, a multi-sector partnership was convened : to implement a Summit and Neighb...

  2. Occurrence of lipid oxidation products in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, P B

    1986-01-01

    Lipid oxidation products are ubiquitous in foods, although much variation exists in the levels present. Although these levels are generally low, the problem of lipid oxidation severely compromises the quality of some foods and limits the shelf-life of others. Lipid oxidation represents a key barrier in the development of new food products and processes, especially convenience items and processes required to manufacture them. Deleterious changes in foods caused by lipid oxidation include loss of flavour, development of off-flavours, loss of colour, nutrient value and functionally, and the accumulation of compounds which may be detrimental to the health of consumers. All foods that contain lipids are susceptible to oxidation but especially affected are foods which are dehydrated, subjected to high temperatures or cooked and subsequently stored, e.g. dehydrated eggs, cheeses and meats, foods fried in frying oils, and cooked (uncured) meats. Specific examples of compounds which are of health concern include lipid peroxides and the free radicals involved in their formation and propagation, malonaldehyde, and several cholesterol oxidation products. Coronary artery disease (CAD) may be in part caused by the consumption of lipid oxidation products.

  3. Improved characterization of EV preparations based on protein to lipid ratio and lipid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Osteikoetxea

    Full Text Available In recent years the study of extracellular vesicles has gathered much scientific and clinical interest. As the field is expanding, it is becoming clear that better methods for characterization and quantification of extracellular vesicles as well as better standards to compare studies are warranted. The goal of the present work was to find improved parameters to characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Here we introduce a simple 96 well plate-based total lipid assay for determination of lipid content and protein to lipid ratios of extracellular vesicle preparations from various myeloid and lymphoid cell lines as well as blood plasma. These preparations included apoptotic bodies, microvesicles/microparticles, and exosomes isolated by size-based fractionation. We also investigated lipid bilayer order of extracellular vesicle subpopulations using Di-4-ANEPPDHQ lipid probe, and lipid composition using affinity reagents to clustered cholesterol (monoclonal anti-cholesterol antibody and ganglioside GM1 (cholera toxin subunit B. We have consistently found different protein to lipid ratios characteristic for the investigated extracellular vesicle subpopulations which were substantially altered in the case of vesicular damage or protein contamination. Spectral ratiometric imaging and flow cytometric analysis also revealed marked differences between the various vesicle populations in their lipid order and their clustered membrane cholesterol and GM1 content. Our study introduces for the first time a simple and readily available lipid assay to complement the widely used protein assays in order to better characterize extracellular vesicle preparations. Besides differentiating extracellular vesicle subpopulations, the novel parameters introduced in this work (protein to lipid ratio, lipid bilayer order, and lipid composition, may prove useful for quality control of extracellular vesicle related basic and clinical studies.

  4. Avanti lipid tools: connecting lipids, technology, and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Kacee H; Tytler, Ewan M; Tipton, John; Hill, Kasey L; Burgess, Stephen W; Shaw, Walter A

    2014-08-01

    Lipid research is challenging owing to the complexity and diversity of the lipidome. Here we review a set of experimental tools developed for the seasoned lipid researcher, as well as, those who are new to the field of lipid research. Novel tools for probing protein-lipid interactions, applications for lipid binding antibodies, enhanced systems for the cellular delivery of lipids, improved visualization of lipid membranes using gold-labeled lipids, and advances in mass spectrometric analysis techniques will be discussed. Because lipid mediators are known to participate in a host of signal transduction and trafficking pathways within the cell, a comprehensive lipid toolbox that aids the science of lipidomics research is essential to better understand the molecular mechanisms of interactions between cellular components. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lipids on the move : Simulations of membrane pores, domains, stalks and curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, Siewert J.; de Vries, Alex H.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    In this review we describe the state-of-the-art of computer simulation studies of lipid membranes. We focus on collective lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions that trigger deformations of the natural lamellar membrane state, showing that many important biological processes including

  6. Computational Functional Analysis of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Carolina; Have, Arjen Ten; Prados, María B; Beligni, María V

    2017-01-01

    The computational analysis of enzymes that participate in lipid metabolism has both common and unique challenges when compared to the whole protein universe. Some of the hurdles that interfere with the functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes that are common to other pathways include the definition of proper starting datasets, the construction of reliable multiple sequence alignments, the definition of appropriate evolutionary models, and the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees with high statistical support, particularly for large datasets. Most enzymes that take part in lipid metabolism belong to complex superfamilies with many members that are not involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, some enzymes that do not have sequence similarity catalyze similar or even identical reactions. Some of the challenges that, albeit not unique, are more specific to lipid metabolism refer to the high compartmentalization of the routes, the catalysis in hydrophobic environments and, related to this, the function near or in biological membranes.In this work, we provide guidelines intended to assist in the proper functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes, based on previous experiences related to the phospholipase D superfamily and the annotation of the triglyceride synthesis pathway in algae. We describe a pipeline that starts with the definition of an initial set of sequences to be used in similarity-based searches and ends in the reconstruction of phylogenies. We also mention the main issues that have to be taken into consideration when using tools to analyze subcellular localization, hydrophobicity patterns, or presence of transmembrane domains in lipid metabolic enzymes.

  7. Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Nian; Chen, Tian-Peng; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-03-25

    Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed.

  8. Zigzag lipid tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Fang, Jiyu

    2008-09-04

    We report a method based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp-assisted moving contact line to bend lipid tubules into zigzags on glass substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that the zigzag lipid tubules buckle at the bent sites. The measurements of buckling heights as a function of bending angles suggest a gradual buckling mode. By imaging the zigzag tubules with AFM under different loading forces, we study the correlation between the loading force and the tubule compression. The reduced stiffness at the buckling sites of zigzag tubules suggests that lipid molecules are reorganized during the gradual buckling.

  9. A lipidologist perspective of global lipid guidelines and recommendations, part 1: Lipid treatment targets and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E

    2016-01-01

    Having knowledge of worldwide lipid guidelines and recommendations may provide clinicians a more global perspective on lipid management. This perspective reviews 8 international scientific and/or medical organizations' lipid guidelines, recommendations, and position papers: the National Lipid Association (2014), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2014), International Atherosclerosis Society (2013), American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2013), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (2013), Japan Atherosclerosis Society (2012), European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (2012), and Adult Treatment Panel III (2001/2004). Part 1 of this perspective focuses on sentinel components of these lipid guidelines and recommendations as applied to the role of atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels, primary lipid target of therapy, other primary and secondary lipid treatment targets, and assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Part 2 examines goals of lipid-altering therapy to reduce ASCVD events. Both parts 1 and 2 include the author's perspective on sentinel topics. In general, some guidelines and recommendations differ with regard to ASCVD risk assessment and lipid treatment goals. However, lipid guidelines and recommendations have significant concordance regarding the need to reduce atherogenic lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and are in general agreement on the primary lipid treatment targets. Finally, a substantial degree of agreement exists among guidelines and recommendations in their emphasis on the need for aggressive treatment of hypercholesterolemia, for which the predominance of ASCVD outcomes studies suggests statins as the first-line treatment of choice. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle biopsies of lipid storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debashree, Bandopadhyay; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Natarajan, Archana; Christopher, Rita; Nalini, Atchayaram; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2018-02-09

    Mitochondria regulate the balance between lipid metabolism and storage in the skeletal muscle. Altered lipid transport, metabolism and storage influence the bioenergetics, redox status and insulin signalling, contributing to cardiac and neurological diseases. Lipid storage disorders (LSDs) are neurological disorders which entail intramuscular lipid accumulation and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the skeletal muscle causing progressive myopathy with muscle weakness. However, the mitochondrial changes including molecular events associated with impaired lipid storage have not been completely understood in the human skeletal muscle. We carried out morphological and biochemical analysis of mitochondrial function in muscle biopsies of human subjects with LSDs (n = 7), compared to controls (n = 10). Routine histology, enzyme histochemistry and ultrastructural analysis indicated altered muscle cell morphology and mitochondrial structure. Protein profiling of the muscle mitochondria from LSD samples (n = 5) (vs. control, n = 5) by high-throughput mass spectrometric analysis revealed that impaired metabolic processes could contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing myopathy in LSDs. We propose that impaired fatty acid and respiratory metabolism along with increased membrane permeability, elevated lipolysis and altered cristae entail mitochondrial dysfunction in LSDs. Some of these mechanisms were unique to LSD apart from others that were common to dystrophic and inflammatory muscle pathologies. Many differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins in LSD are linked with other human diseases, indicating that mitochondrial protection via targeted drugs could be a treatment modality in LSD and related metabolic diseases. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. PTEN interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes containing PI(4,5)P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, R.; Shenoy, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kalinowski, A.; Gericke, A.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.

    2009-03-01

    Synthetic lipid membrane models are frequently used for the study of biophysical processes at cell membranes. We use a robust membrane model, the tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM), based on a (C14)2-(PEO)6-thiol anchor, WC14 [1]. Such membranes can be prepared to contain single phospholipids or complex lipid mixtures [2], including functional lipids involved in cell signaling, such as the highly charged phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). To study the interaction between the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and model membranes we have incorporated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in tBLMs and use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), neutron reflectometry (NR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for their characterization. NR shows that tBLMs formed with PI(4,5)P2 are complete. FCS of labeled PI(4,5)P2 shows that diffusion occurs at the time scale characteristic of membrane-incorporated lipid. Finally, SPR shows specific binding of PTEN to the model membrane thus confirming the incorporation of PI(4,5)P2 into the tBLM. [1] McGillivray et al, Biointerphases 2, 21-33 (2007) [2] Heinrich et al, Langmuir, submitted

  12. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattner, G.; Hagen, W.; Lee, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    We developed new perspectives to identify important questions and to propose approaches for future research on marine food web lipids. They were related to (i) structure and function of lipids, (ii) lipid changes during critical life phases, (iii) trophic marker lipids, and (iv) potential impact...... of climate change. The first addresses the role of lipids in membranes, storage lipids, and buoyancy with the following key question: How are the properties of membranes and deposits affected by the various types of lipids? The second deals with the importance of various types of lipids during reproduction......, development, and resting phases and addresses the role of the different storage lipids during growth and dormancy. The third relates to trophic marker lipids, which are an important tool to follow lipid and energy transfer through the food web. The central question is how can fatty acids be used to identify...

  13. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Completely random signed measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmund, Gunnar

    Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases.......Completely random signed measures are defined, characterized and related to Lévy random measures and Lévy bases....

  16. Latino College Completion: Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  18. SOURgraphs for efficient completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lynch

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a data structure called SOUR graphs and present an efficient Knuth-Bendix completion procedure based on it. SOUR graphs allow for a maximal structure sharing of terms in rewriting systems. The term representation is a dag representation, except that edges are labelled with equational constraints and variable renamings. The rewrite rules correspond to rewrite edges, the unification problems to unification edges. The Critical Pair and Simplification inferences are recognized as patterns in the graph and are performed as local graph transformations. Our algorithm avoids duplicating term structure while performing inferences, which causes exponential behavior in the standard procedure. This approach gives a basis to design other completion algorithms, such as goal-oriented completion, concurrent completion and group completion procedures.

  19. Lipids in preventive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, A; Reich, M; Kümmerer, K; Hannig, M; Hannig, C

    2013-04-01

    There is still a great demand for the improvement of oral prophylaxis methods. One repeatedly described approach is rinsing with edible oils. The aim of the present review paper was to analyze the role of lipids in bioadhesion and preventive dentistry. Despite limited sound scientific data, extensive literature search was performed to illustrate possible effects of lipids in the oral cavity. It is to be assumed that lipophilic components modulate the process of bioadhesion to the oral hard tissues as well as the composition and ultrastructure of the initial oral biofilm or the pellicle, respectively. Thereby, lipids could add hydrophobic characteristics to the tooth surface hampering bacterial colonization and eventually decreasing caries susceptibility. Also, a lipid-enriched pellicle might be more resistant in case of acid exposure and could therefore reduce the erosive mineral loss. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects on the oral soft tissues were described. However, there is only limited evidence for these beneficial impacts. Neither the lipid composition of saliva and pellicle nor the interactions of lipids with the initial oral biofilm and the pellicle layer have been investigated adequately until now. Edible oils might qualify as mild supplements to conventional strategies for the prevention of caries, erosion, and periodontal diseases but further research is necessary. Against the background of current scientific and empirical knowledge, edible oils might be used as oral hygiene supplements but a decisive benefit for the oral health status is questionable.

  20. Lipids of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Susanne E; Daum, Günther

    2013-10-01

    A unique organelle for studying membrane biochemistry is the mitochondrion whose functionality depends on a coordinated supply of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria are capable of synthesizing several lipids autonomously such as phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and in part phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and CDP-diacylglycerol. Other mitochondrial membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sterols and sphingolipids have to be imported. The mitochondrial lipid composition, the biosynthesis and the import of mitochondrial lipids as well as the regulation of these processes will be main issues of this review article. Furthermore, interactions of lipids and mitochondrial proteins which are highly important for various mitochondrial processes will be discussed. Malfunction or loss of enzymes involved in mitochondrial phospholipid biosynthesis lead to dysfunction of cell respiration, affect the assembly and stability of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology or even lethality. Molecular aspects of these processes as well as diseases related to defects in the formation of mitochondrial membranes will be described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN PREDIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lipid abnormalities are common in diabetes mellitus and play an important role in acceleration of atherosclerosis leading to increased cardiovascular diseases. Due to increasing burden of diabetes, it is becoming important to identify dyslipidaemia in high-risk state for diabetes especially prediabetes so that early intervention can reduce cardiovascular risk. AIM To study lipid profile in prediabetes individuals. METHODS This study was a cross-sectional case control study which included 107 prediabetes and 101 healthy controls. Lipid profile of prediabetes and controls were measured and statistically analysed. RESULT Total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, TG/HDL ratio, and LDL/HDL ratio were significantly high whereas HDL was significantly low in prediabetes subjects as compared to controls. CONCLUSION This study showed significant lipid abnormalities in prediabetes subjects. Because of these they are at high risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, proper screening and appropriate therapy of these conditions becomes important.

  2. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  3. Infrared spectroscopy of fluid lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Marshall C; Cambrea, Lee R; Hovis, Jennifer S

    2005-09-15

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique for examining lipid bilayers; however, it says little about the fluidity of the bilayer-a key physical aspect. It is shown here that it is possible to both acquire spectroscopic data of supported lipid bilayer samples and make measurements of the membrane fluidity. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) is used to obtain the spectroscopic information and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is used to determine the fluidity of the samples. In the infrared spectra of lipid bilayers composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, the following major peaks were observed; nu(as)(CH3) 2954 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH3) 2870 cm(-1), nu(as)(CH2) 2924 cm(-1), nu(s)(CH2) 2852 cm(-1), nu(C=O) 1734 cm(-1), delta(CH2) 1463-1473 cm(-1), nu(as)(PO2-) 1226 cm(-1), nu(s)(PO2-) 1084 cm(-1), and nu(as)(N+(CH3)3) 973 cm(-1). The diffusion coefficient of the same lipid bilayer was measured to be 3.5 +/- 0.5 micom(2)/s with visual recovery also noted through use of epifluorescence microscopy. FRAP and visual data confirm the formation of a uniform, mobile supported lipid bilayer. The combination of ATR-FT-IR and FRAP provides complementary data giving a more complete picture of fully hydrated model membrane systems.

  4. The chemical biology of branched-chain lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherji, Mridul; Schofield, Christopher J.; Wierzbicki, Anthony S.; Jansen, Gerbert A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Lloyd, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian metabolism of some lipids including 3-methyl and 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acids occurs within peroxisomes. Such lipids, including phytanic and pristanic acids, are commonly found within the human diet and may be derived from chlorophyll in plant extracts. Due to the presence of a

  5. Serum Lipid Profiles, Lipid Ratios and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the association of serum lipids, lipid ratios with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD in a Chinese population. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in China. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (ACR > 30 mg/g. Multivariable logistic regressions and multivariate regression models were used. Serum lipids and lipid ratios included total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, TG/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Results: In men, only logarithm-transformed (log TG was associated with CKD. The odds ratio (every SD increment was 1.39 (95% CI 1.03–1.87, P = 0.03. In women, none of the serum lipids and lipid ratios was associated with CKD. Using multivariate regression models, it was shown that log TG and log TG/HDL-C were negatively correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05 in men and LDL-C and log LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were correlated with ACR in men. In female subjects, serum TC, log TG, log TG/HDL-C and log TC/HDL-C were negatively correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05. All of serum lipid profiles and lipid related ratio were not correlated with ACR in women. Conclusion: Serum TG is the only suitable predictor for CKD in men. However, in women, none of serum lipids and lipid ratio can be used as a predictor for CKD. Log TG and log TG/HDL-C are negatively correlated with eGFR in both genders.

  6. Protein-induced bilayer perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Frederic N.R.; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik; Nielsen, Claus Helix

    2009-01-01

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to -6 kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid-lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid ↔ gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few A results in up to 10-fold increased exchange rates as compared to the 'optimal' match situation pointing to the regulatory role of hydrophobic coupling in lipid-protein interactions.

  7. Homeoviscous adaptation and the regulation of membrane lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Robert; Ejsing, Christer S; Antonny, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex and dynamic assemblies of lipids and proteins. Poikilothermic organisms including bacteria, fungi, reptiles, and fish do not control their body temperature and must adapt their membrane lipid composition in order to maintain membrane fluidity in the cold. This ada......Biological membranes are complex and dynamic assemblies of lipids and proteins. Poikilothermic organisms including bacteria, fungi, reptiles, and fish do not control their body temperature and must adapt their membrane lipid composition in order to maintain membrane fluidity in the cold...... such as neurons maintain unique lipid compositions with specific physicochemical properties. To date little is known about the sensory mechanisms regulating the acyl chain profile in such specialized cells or during adaptive responses. Here we summarize our current understanding of lipid metabolic networks...

  8. Fasting is not routinely required for determination of a lipid profile: clinical and laboratory implications including flagging at desirable concentration cut-points—a joint consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Langsted, Anne; Mora, Samia; Kolovou, Genovefa; Baum, Hannsjörg; Bruckert, Eric; Watts, Gerald F.; Sypniewska, Grazyna; Wiklund, Olov; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M. John; Cobbaert, Christa; Descamps, Olivier S.; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Pulkki, Kari; Kronenberg, Florian; Remaley, Alan T.; Rifai, Nader; Ros, Emilio; Langlois, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles. Methods and results Extensive observational data, in which random non-fasting lipid profiles have been compared with those determined under fasting conditions, indicate that the maximal mean changes at 1–6 h after habitual meals are not clinically significant [+0.3 mmol/L (26 mg/dL) for triglycerides; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for total cholesterol; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol; +0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated remnant cholesterol; −0.2 mmol/L (8 mg/dL) for calculated non-HDL cholesterol]; concentrations of HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein(a) are not affected by fasting/non-fasting status. In addition, non-fasting and fasting concentrations vary similarly over time and are comparable in the prediction of cardiovascular disease. To improve patient compliance with lipid testing, we therefore recommend the routine use of non-fasting lipid profiles, while fasting sampling may be considered when non-fasting triglycerides >5 mmol/L (440 mg/dL). For non-fasting samples, laboratory reports should flag abnormal concentrations as triglycerides ≥2 mmol/L (175 mg/dL), total cholesterol ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L (115 mg/dL), calculated remnant cholesterol ≥0.9 mmol/L (35 mg/dL), calculated non-HDL cholesterol ≥3.9 mmol/L (150 mg/dL), HDL cholesterol ≤1 mmol/L (40 mg/dL), apolipoprotein A1 ≤1.25 g/L (125 mg/dL), apolipoprotein B ≥1.0 g/L (100 mg/dL), and lipoprotein(a) ≥50 mg/dL (80th percentile); for fasting samples, abnormal concentrations correspond to triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Life-threatening concentrations require separate referral when triglycerides >10 mmol/L (880 mg/dL) for the risk of pancreatitis, LDL cholesterol >13 mmol/L (500 mg

  9. Lipids, lipid bilayers and vesicles as seen by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Lipid molecules self-assemble into bilayers in water with their hydrocarbon chains facing inward due to their amphiphilic nature. The structural and dynamical properties of lipids and lipid bilayers have been studied by neutron scattering intensively. In this article, 3 topics are shown as typical examples. 1) a time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering on uni-lamellar vesicles composed of deuterated and protonated lipids to determine lipid kinetics, 2) small-angle neutron scattering to investigate spontaneous formation of nanopores on uni-lamellar vesicles, and 3) neutron spin echo study to determine bending modulus of lipid bilayers. (author)

  10. Lipidomic and proteomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans lipid droplets and identification of ACS-4 as a lipid droplet-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrablik, Tracy L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Petyuk, Vladislav A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larson, Emily M. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Watts, Jennifer [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-06-27

    Lipid droplets are cytoplasmic organelles that store neutral lipids for membrane synthesis and energy reserves. In this study, we characterized the lipid and protein composition of purified C. elegans lipid droplets. These lipid droplets are composed mainly of triacylglycerols, surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer composed primarily of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols was rich in fatty acid species obtained from the dietary E. coli, including cyclopropane fatty acids and cis-vaccenic acid. Unlike other organisms, C. elegans lipid droplets contain very little cholesterol or cholesterol esters. Comparison of the lipid droplet proteomes of wild type and high-fat daf-2 mutant strains shows a relative decrease of MDT-28 abundance in lipid droplets isolated from daf-2 mutants. Functional analysis of lipid droplet proteins identified in our proteomic studies indicated an enrichment of proteins required for growth and fat homeostasis in C. elegans.

  11. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  12. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  13. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  14. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  15. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  16. How proteins move lipids and lipids move proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368

    2001-01-01

    Cells determine the bilayer characteristics of different membranes by tightly controlling their lipid composition. Local changes in the physical properties of bilayers, in turn, allow membrane deformation, and facilitate vesicle budding and fusion. Moreover, specific lipids at specific locations

  17. Function and regulation of lipid biology in Caenorhabditis elegans aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Shangming Hou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly expanding aging populations and a concomitant increase in the prevalence of age-related diseases are global health problems today. Over the past three decades, a large body of work has led to the identification of genes and regulatory networks that affect longevity and health span, often benefitting from the tremendous power of genetics in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Interestingly, many of these factors appear linked to lipids, important molecules that participate in cellular signaling, energy metabolism, and structural compartmentalization. Despite the putative link between lipids and longevity, the role of lipids in aging remains poorly understood. Emerging data from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that lipid composition may change during aging, as several pathways that influence aging also regulate lipid metabolism enzymes; moreover, some of these enzymes apparently play key roles in the pathways that affect the rate of aging. By understanding how lipid biology is regulated during C. elegans aging, and how it impacts molecular, cellular and organismal function, we may gain insight into novel ways to delay aging using genetic or pharmacological interventions. In the present review we discuss recent insights into the roles of lipids in C. elegans aging, including regulatory roles played by lipids themselves, the regulation of lipid metabolic enzymes, and the roles of lipid metabolism genes in the pathways that affect aging.

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Homomorphisms of complete distributive lattices | Pultr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of analogous results on algebraic universality of categories based on finitary distributive (0, 1)-lattices is included to motivate further questions about categories based on complete distributive lattices. Keywords: complete distributive lattice, complete lattice homomorphism, frame, Heyting algebra, continuous map, ...

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  1. Cell-based lipid flippase assay employing fluorescent lipid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Stumph; Costa, Sara; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , studies of individual P4-ATPase family members from fungi, plants, and animals show that P4-ATPases differ in their substrate specificities and mediate transport of a broader range of lipid substrates. Here, we describe an assay based on fluorescent lipid derivatives to monitor and characterize lipid...

  2. DISTURBANCES OF LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Litvitskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains modern data on etiology, pathogenesis, manifestations and mechanisms of development of the most common forms of lipid metabolism disturbances in humans, such as obesity, emaciation, lipodystrophy, lipidosis, dyslipoproteinemia and atherosclerosis. The authors give the informative materials for self-testing and correction of the knowledge level.

  3. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  4. Lipids in cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  5. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  6. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of

  7. 443 Review Lipids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid transport occurred in isolated ... be related to cardiac preference for lipid compared to the brain's preference for carbohydrates as fuel sources.32 It may also explain ... only short- and medium-chain fatty acids (length) can enter mitochondria by passive diffusion. STEP 1.

  8. The physiology of lipid storage and use in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R

    2017-08-01

    Lipid metabolism is central to understanding whole-animal energetics. Reptiles store most excess energy in lipid form, mobilise those lipids when needed to meet energetic demands, and invest lipids in eggs to provide the primary source of energy to developing embryos. Here, I review the mechanisms by which non-avian reptiles store, transport, and use lipids. Many aspects of lipid absorption, transport, and storage appear to be similar to birds, including the hepatic synthesis of lipids from glucose substrates, the transport of triglycerides in lipoproteins, and the storage of lipids in adipose tissue, although adipose tissue in non-avian reptiles is usually concentrated in abdominal fat bodies or the tail. Seasonal changes in fat stores suggest that lipid storage is primarily for reproduction in most species, rather than for maintenance during aphagic periods. The effects of fasting on plasma lipid metabolites can differ from mammals and birds due to the ability of non-avian reptiles to reduce their metabolism drastically during extended fasts. The effect of fasting on levels of plasma ketones is species specific: β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may rise or fall during fasting. I also describe the process by which the bulk of lipids are deposited into oocytes during vitellogenesis. Although this process is sometimes ascribed to vitellogenin-based transport in reptiles, the majority of lipid deposition occurs via triglycerides packaged in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), based on physiological, histological, biochemical, comparative, and genomic evidence. I also discuss the evidence for non-avian reptiles using 'yolk-targeted' VLDLs during vitellogenesis. The major physiological states - feeding, fasting, and vitellogenesis - have different effects on plasma lipid metabolites, and I discuss the possibilities and potential problems of using plasma metabolites to diagnose feeding condition in non-avian reptiles. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  9. Anionic lipids and the maintenance of membrane electrostatics in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platre, Matthieu Pierre; Jaillais, Yvon

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of signaling processes occurs at the cell surface through the reversible association of proteins from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. Some low abundant lipids are enriched at the membrane of specific compartments and thereby contribute to the identity of cell organelles by acting as biochemical landmarks. Lipids also influence membrane biophysical properties, which emerge as an important feature in specifying cellular territories. Such parameters are crucial for signal transduction and include lipid packing, membrane curvature and electrostatics. In particular, membrane electrostatics specifies the identity of the plasma membrane inner leaflet. Membrane surface charges are carried by anionic phospholipids, however the exact nature of the lipid(s) that powers the plasma membrane electrostatic field varies among eukaryotes and has been hotly debated during the last decade. Herein, we discuss the role of anionic lipids in setting up plasma membrane electrostatics and we compare similarities and differences that were found in different eukaryotic cells.

  10. Salt modulates the stability and lipid binding affinity of the adipocyte lipid-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Ruiz, Carmen R.; Joubert, Allison M.; Yang, Xuemei; LiCata, Vince J.

    2003-01-01

    Adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP or aP2) is an intracellular fatty acid-binding protein that is found in adipocytes and macrophages and binds a large variety of intracellular lipids with high affinity. Although intracellular lipids are frequently charged, biochemical studies of lipid-binding proteins and their interactions often focus most heavily on the hydrophobic aspects of these proteins and their interactions. In this study, we have characterized the effects of KCl on the stability and lipid binding properties of ALBP. We find that added salt dramatically stabilizes ALBP, increasing its Delta G of unfolding by 3-5 kcal/mol. At 37 degrees C salt can more than double the stability of the protein. At the same time, salt inhibits the binding of the fluorescent lipid 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) to the protein and induces direct displacement of the lipid from the protein. Thermodynamic linkage analysis of the salt inhibition of ANS binding shows a nearly 1:1 reciprocal linkage: i.e. one ion is released from ALBP when ANS binds, and vice versa. Kinetic experiments show that salt reduces the rate of association between ANS and ALBP while simultaneously increasing the dissociation rate of ANS from the protein. We depict and discuss the thermodynamic linkages among stability, lipid binding, and salt effects for ALBP, including the use of these linkages to calculate the affinity of ANS for the denatured state of ALBP and its dependence on salt concentration. We also discuss the potential molecular origins and potential intracellular consequences of the demonstrated salt linkages to stability and lipid binding in ALBP.

  11. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  12. Complete scanpaths analysis toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Mikrut, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a complete open software environment for control, data processing and assessment of visual experiments. Visual experiments are widely used in research on human perception physiology and the results are applicable to various visual information-based man-machine interfacing, human-emulated automatic visual systems or scanpath-based learning of perceptual habits. The toolbox is designed for Matlab platform and supports infra-red reflection-based eyetracker in calibration and scanpath analysis modes. Toolbox procedures are organized in three layers: the lower one, communicating with the eyetracker output file, the middle detecting scanpath events on a physiological background and the one upper consisting of experiment schedule scripts, statistics and summaries. Several examples of visual experiments carried out with use of the presented toolbox complete the paper.

  13. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  14. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  15. SOURgraphs for efficient completion

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Lynch; Polina Strogova

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a data structure called SOUR graphs and present an efficient Knuth-Bendix completion procedure based on it. SOUR graphs allow for a maximal structure sharing of terms in rewriting systems. The term representation is a dag representation, except that edges are labelled with equational constraints and variable renamings. The rewrite rules correspond to rewrite edges, the unification problems to unification edges. The Critical Pair and Simplification inferences are recogniz...

  16. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  17. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  18. Evaporation and Hydrocarbon Chain Conformation of Surface Lipid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, Samiyyah M.; Khimji, Hussain; Borchman, Douglas; Oliver, Alexandria; Michael, Heidi; Dennis, Emily K.; Gerlach, Dylan; Bhola, Rahul; Stephen, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. Methods Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (11–24 carbons in length) and human meibum were studied. Reflex tears were obtained from a 62-year-old male. Results The Raman scattering intensity of the lipid film deviated by about 7 % for hydroxyl lipids and varied by 21 % for meibum films across the entire film at a resolution of 5 µm2. All of the surface lipids were ordered. Revap of the shorter chain hydroxyl lipids were slightly (7%) but significantly lower compared with the longer chain hydroxyl lipids. Revap of both groups was essentially similar to that of buffer. A hydroxyl lipid film did not influence Revap over an estimated average thickness range of 0.69 to >6.9 µm. Revap of human tears and buffer with and without human meibum (34.4 µm thick) was not significantly different. Revap of human tears was not significantly different from buffer. Conclusions Human meibum and hydroxyl lipids, regardless of their fluidity, chain length, or thickness did not inhibit Revap of buffer or tears even though they completely covered the surface. It is unlikely that hydroxyl lipids can be used to inhibit Revap of reservoirs. Our data do not support the widely accepted (yet unconfirmed) idea that the tear film lipid layer inhibits Revap of tears. PMID:27395776

  19. Lipid classification, structures and tools☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastruct...

  20. Ultrastructural and flow cytometric analyses of lipid accumulation in microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, J.A.; Hand, R.E. Jr.; Mann, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    Lipid accumulation in three species of microalgae was investigated with flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous studies using batch cultures of a algae have led to the assumption that lipid accumulation in microalgae is a gradual process requiring at least several days for completion. However, FCM reveals, through changes in the chlorophyll:lipid ratio, that the time span required for individual cells to change metabolic state is short. Simultaneous FCM measurements of chlorophyll and nile red (neutral lipid) fluorescence in individual cells of nitrogen-deficient Isochrysis populations revealed a bimodal population distribution as one stage in the lipid accumulation process. The fact that two discrete populations exist, with few cells in an intermediate stage, suggests rapid response to a liqid trigger. Interpretations of light and electron microscopic observations are consistent with this hypothesis. The time required for an entire population to achieve maximum lipid content is considerably longer than that required for a single cell, due to the variation in response time among cells. In this study high lipid cultures were sometimes obtained by using FCM to separate high lipid cells from the remainder of the population. FCM holds much promise for strain enhancement but considerable developmental work, directed at providing more consistent results, remains to be done. 8 refs., 35 figs.

  1. Surfactants assist in lipid extraction from wet Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongchong; Xiao, Ye; Lin, Weiguo; Zhu, Junying; De la Hoz Siegler, Hector; Zong, Mingsheng; Rong, Junfeng

    2017-11-01

    An efficient approach involving surfactant treatment, or the modification and utilization of surfactants that naturally occur in algae (algal-based surfactants), was developed to assist in the extraction of lipids from wet algae. Surfactants were found to be able to completely replace polar organic solvents in the extraction process. The highest yield of algal lipids extracted by hexane and algal-based surfactants was 78.8%, followed by 78.2% for hexane and oligomeric surfactant extraction, whereas the lipid yield extracted by hexane and ethanol was only 60.5%. In addition, the saponifiable lipids extracted by exploiting algal-based surfactants and hexane, or adding oligomeric surfactant and hexane, accounted for 78.6% and 75.4% of total algal lipids, respectively, which was more than 10% higher than the lipids extracted by hexane and ethanol. This work presents a method to extract lipids from algae using only nonpolar organic solvents, while obtaining high lipid yields and high selectivity to saponifiables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LipidMatch: an automated workflow for rule-based lipid identification using untargeted high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmel, Jeremy P; Kroeger, Nicholas M; Ulmer, Candice Z; Bowden, John A; Patterson, Rainey E; Cochran, Jason A; Beecher, Christopher W W; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2017-07-10

    Lipids are ubiquitous and serve numerous biological functions; thus lipids have been shown to have great potential as candidates for elucidating biomarkers and pathway perturbations associated with disease. Methods expanding coverage of the lipidome increase the likelihood of biomarker discovery and could lead to more comprehensive understanding of disease etiology. We introduce LipidMatch, an R-based tool for lipid identification for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflows. LipidMatch currently has over 250,000 lipid species spanning 56 lipid types contained in in silico fragmentation libraries. Unique fragmentation libraries, compared to other open source software, include oxidized lipids, bile acids, sphingosines, and previously uncharacterized adducts, including ammoniated cardiolipins. LipidMatch uses rule-based identification. For each lipid type, the user can select which fragments must be observed for identification. Rule-based identification allows for correct annotation of lipids based on the fragments observed, unlike typical identification based solely on spectral similarity scores, where over-reporting structural details that are not conferred by fragmentation data is common. Another unique feature of LipidMatch is ranking lipid identifications for a given feature by the sum of fragment intensities. For each lipid candidate, the intensities of experimental fragments with exact mass matches to expected in silico fragments are summed. The lipid identifications with the greatest summed intensity using this ranking algorithm were comparable to other lipid identification software annotations, MS-DIAL and Greazy. For example, for features with identifications from all 3 software, 92% of LipidMatch identifications by fatty acyl constituents were corroborated by at least one other software in positive mode and 98% in negative ion mode. LipidMatch allows users to annotate lipids across a wide range of high resolution tandem mass spectrometry

  3. Effect of seminal plasma antioxidant on lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, mitochondria and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P

    1985-09-01

    Seminal plasma antioxidant inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced lipid peroxidation in spermatozoa, brain and liver mitochondria. The concentration required to produce inhibition in brain and liver mitochondria was high. Denaturation of spermatozoa resulted in complete loss of antioxidant action. Maintenance of native structure was essential for action of seminal plasma antioxidant in spermatozoal lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant inhibited NADPH, Fe3+-ADP induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and consequences of lipid peroxidation such as glucose-6-phosphatase inactivation were prevented by presence of antioxidant. It did not inhibit microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbate and iron and xanthine-xanthine oxidase.

  4. The use of alternative lipid emulsions in paediatric and neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is composed of long chain triglycerides and contains > 60% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). It also acts as ... Lipid metabolism results in lipid peroxidation and free radical formation.3 Reactive oxygen species ... seen included a decrease in LDL, VLDL, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and an upward trend in ...

  5. Discovery of Novel Lipid Profiles in PCOS: Do Insulin and Androgen Oppositely Regulate Bioactive Lipid Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengxian; Chu, Qianqian; Ma, Jing; Sun, Yun; Tao, Tao; Huang, Rong; Liao, Yu; Yue, Jiang; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Xue, Xinli; Zhu, Mingjiang; Kang, Xiaonan; Yin, Huiyong; Liu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives, both tightly linked to PCOS and obesity, play important roles in inflammation and reproduction. This study aimed to investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed patients with PCOS using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity. Thirty-two newly diagnosed women with PCOS and 34 controls were divided into obese and lean subgroups. A PCOS rat model was used to validate results of the human studies. Serum lipid profiles, including phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and bioactive lipids, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography-MS. Elevation in phosphatidylcholine and a concomitant decrease in lysophospholipid were found in obese patients with PCOS vs lean controls. Obese patients with PCOS had decreased PUFA levels and increased levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids vs lean controls. Serum bioactive lipids downstream of arachidonic acid were increased in obese controls, but reduced in both obese and lean patients with PCOS vs their respective controls. Patients with PCOS showed abnormal levels of phosphatidylcholine, FFAs, and PUFA metabolites. Circulating insulin and androgens may have opposing effects on lipid profiles in patients with PCOS, particularly on the bioactive lipid metabolites derived from PUFAs. These clinical observations warrant further studies of the molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of PCOS and obesity.

  6. Phase diagrams and lipid domains in multicomponent lipid bilayer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenson, Gerald W

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the phase behavior of biological membranes is helped by the study of more simple systems. Model membranes that have as few as 3 components exhibit complex phase behavior that can be well described, providing insight for biological membranes. A number of different studies are in agreement on general findings for some compositional phase diagrams, in particular, those that model the outer leaflet of animal cell plasma membranes. These model mixtures include cholesterol, together with one high-melting lipid and one low-melting lipid. An interesting finding is of two categories of such 3-component mixtures, leading to what we term Type I and Type II compositional phase diagrams. The latter have phase regions of macroscopic coexisting domains of [Lalpha+Lbeta+Lo] and of [Lalpha+Lo], with domains resolved under the light microscope. Type I mixtures have the same phase coexistence regions, but the domains seem to be nanoscopic. Type I mixtures are likely to be better models for biological membranes.

  7. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  8. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  9. Peroxisomes, lipid metabolism, and human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years, much has been learned about the metabolic functions of peroxisomes. These studies have shown that peroxisomes play a major role in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid beta-oxidation, etherphospholipid biosynthesis, and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation. This article describes

  10. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  11. Biosynthesis and function of plant lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, W.W.; Mudd, J.B.; Gibbs, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Sixth Annual Symposium in Botany and Plant Physiology was held January 13-15, 1983, at the University of California, Riverside. This volume comprises the papers that were presented. Subjects discussed at the symposium covered a wide range in the field of plant lipids. Biosynthesis of lipids occupied an important fraction of the presentations at the symposium. Subjects included detailed studies of the enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, several discussions of the incorporation of fatty acids into glycerolipids and the further modification of the fatty acids, and the synthesis of glycerolipids and desaturation of fatty acids in both maturing oilseeds and chloroplasts. The physicochemical studies of glycerolipids and sterols in artificial membranes have led to distinct conclusions about their behaviour which must be relevant in the biological membrane. Results on the functional consequences of modifying the galactolipid composition in the chloroplast were an encouraging sign of progress in the attempts to relate membrane lipid composition to physiological function

  12. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edward; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  13. Edible lipids modification processes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Shamma, M Najeeb

    2017-01-02

    Lipid is the general name given to fats and oils, which are the basic components of cooking oils, shortening, ghee, margarine, and other edible fats. The chosen term depends on the physical state at ambient temperature; fats are solids and oils are liquids. The chemical properties of the lipids, including degree of saturation, fatty acid chain length, and acylglycerol molecule composition are the basic determinants of physical characteristics such as melting point, cloud point, solid fat content, and thermal behavior. This review will discuss the major lipid modification strategies, hydrogenation, and chemical and enzymatic interesterification, describing the catalysts used mechanisms, kinetics, and impacts on the health-related properties of the final products. Enzymatic interesterification will be emphasized as method that produces a final product with good taste, zero trans fatty acids, and a low number of calories, requires less contact with chemicals, and is cost efficient.

  14. Human Milk Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Human milk lipids provide the infant with energy and essential vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive components. Adding complex lipids and milk fat globule membranes to vegetable oil-based infant formula has the potential to enhance infant development and reduce infections. Cholesterol provision with breastfeeding modulates infant sterol metabolism and may induce long-term benefits. Some 98-99% of milk lipids are comprised by triacylglycerols, whose properties depend on incorporated fatty acids. Attention has been devoted to the roles of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Recent studies on gene-diet interaction (Mendelian randomization) show that breastfeeding providing DHA and ARA improves cognitive development and reduces asthma risk at school age particularly in those children with a genetically determined lower activity of DHA and ARA synthesis. It appears prudent to follow the biological model of human milk in the design of infant formula as far as feasible, unless conclusive evidence for the suitability and safety of other choices is available. The recent European Union legislative stipulation of a high formula DHA content without required ARA deviates from this concept, and such a novel formula composition has not been adequately evaluated. Great future opportunities arise with significant methodological progress for example in lipidomic analyses and their bioinformatic evaluation, which should enhance understanding of the biology of human milk lipids. Such knowledge might lead to improved dietary advice to lactating mothers as well as to further opportunities to enhance infant formula composition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.

    2017-03-01

    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  16. Tear Film Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovich, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (MGS, or meibum) are formed from a complex mixture of lipids of different classes such as wax esters, cholesteryl esters, (O-acyl)-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA) and their esters, acylglycerols, diacylated diols, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and a smaller amount of other polar and nonpolar lipids, whose chemical nature and the very presence in MGS have been a matter of intense debates. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent results that were obtained using different experimental techniques, estimate limitations of their usability, and discuss their biochemical, biophysical, and physiological implications. To create a lipid map of MGS and tears, the results obtained in the author’s laboratory were integrated with available information on chemical composition of MGS and tears. The most informative approaches that are available today to researchers, such as HPLC-MS, GC-MS, and proton NMR, are discussed in details. A map of the meibomian lipidome (as it is seen in reverse phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments) is presented. Directions of future efforts in the area are outlined. PMID:23769846

  17. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss, subjective tinnitus and vertigo caused by elevated blood lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulec, J L; Pulec, M B; Mendoza, I

    1997-10-01

    The otologist frequently sees patients with progressive sensorineural hearing loss, subjective aural tinnitus and vertigo with no apparent cause. Elevated blood lipids may be a cause of inner ear malfunction on a biochemical basis. To establish the true incidence of this condition, all new patients (4,251) seen during an eight-year period were evaluated; of these, 2,332 patients had complaints of inner ear disease. All had a complete neurotologic examination, appropriate audiometric and vestibular studies and imaging, and blood tests including lipid phenotype studies. Hyperlipoproteinemia was found in 120 patients (5.1%). Most patients were found to be overweight and had additional coexisting conditions such as diabetes mellitus. Treatment with vasodilators and a 500-calorie, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet yielded improvement of symptoms in 83% of patients within five months of initiation of treatment.

  18. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, K; Hansen, B; Jacobsen, R

    2005-01-01

    in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial......: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, and Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In all, 100 hypercholesterolaemic but otherwise healthy subjects were included in the study of which 89 completed it. INTERVENTIONS......: Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF...

  19. Complete spacelike immersions with topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fairly large class of Lorentz manifolds is defined, called WH normal manifolds, which are approximately those for which timelike infinity is a single point. It is shown that, in such a space, an immersed spacelike hypersurface which is complete must, if it is self-intersecting, not achronal or proper, satisfy strong topological conditions; in particular, if the immersion is injective in the fundamental group, then the hypersurface must be closed, embedded and achronal (i.e. a partial Cauchy surface). WH normal spaces include products of any Riemannian manifold with Minkowski 1-space; in such space, a complete immersed spacelike hypersurface must be immersed as a covering space for the Riemannian factor. (author)

  20. Correntropy Based Matrix Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the matrix completion problems when the entries are contaminated by non-Gaussian noise or outliers. The proposed approach employs a nonconvex loss function induced by the maximum correntropy criterion. With the help of this loss function, we develop a rank constrained, as well as a nuclear norm regularized model, which is resistant to non-Gaussian noise and outliers. However, its non-convexity also leads to certain difficulties. To tackle this problem, we use the simple iterative soft and hard thresholding strategies. We show that when extending to the general affine rank minimization problems, under proper conditions, certain recoverability results can be obtained for the proposed algorithms. Numerical experiments indicate the improved performance of our proposed approach.

  1. Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Kulkarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications.

  2. GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fill in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

  3. Study of association between beverage consumption pattern and lipid profile in shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Saadat, Saeed; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza; Shirali, Saeed

    The circadian system influences on health and metabolic function that can cause raising some risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Few studies have examined data that incorporate the full complexity of daily beverage intake pattern on lipid profiles. The purpose of this study was to investigate relation between daily water and beverage intake of adults working in day or shift work and lipid profile. Total beverages intake was estimated in shift and administrative staff of Ahvaz International Airport, Iran. Forty five male, aged 25-55 years, attending this institute were invited to participate in this study. They completed a three-day food records and all participants were measured plasma lipid profiles. Forty one of participants completed all aspects of the study. Two clusters were emerged, labeled descriptively as Conventional including "high Sugar-sweetened drinkers" and "low sugar drinkers". The highest intake of water was in cluster 1 (1170.9ml/day) even this amount is much less than the daily recommended amounts. There were significant differences in triglyceride levels among day and night shift workers. According to the results, there is inadequacy of water and high sugar beverage intake among the shift workers which it is a potential risk of some related chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome with high triglyceride level in the future. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipid Vesicles for the Skin Delivery of Diclofenac: Cerosomes vs. Other Lipid Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Fathi-Azarbayjani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lipid suspensions as drug carriers, including conventional liposomes, ethosomes, transferosomes, proniosomes, niosomes, PEG-PPG-PEG niosomes and stratum corneum liposomes (cerosomes, were formulated and compared. Methods: Lipid vesicles were formulated and assessed with regards to enhancement of skin permeation of diclofenac and stability profiles of the formulations. Formulation-induced changes of the biophysical structure of excised human skin were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results: The stability profiles of these suspensions over 12 weeks did not show any significant drug leakage from the vesicles of interest (p > 0.05. FTIR observations indicated that the vesicles increased stratum corneum (SC lipid fluidization and altered protein conformation. Skin permeability experiments showed that the free unencapsulated drug in the cerosomal formulations caused significant increase in drug permeation across the skin (p < 0.01. Low skin permeability of drug from the other lipid suspensions could be due to the entrapment of diclofenac within these vesicles which decreased the solubility of the hydrophilic drug in the skin lipids and the partition coefficient of the drug from these vesicles into the SC. Conclusion: Optimal drug entrapment in vesicles or alteration of the skin structure may not necessarily enhance the permeation of hydrophilic drugs across the human skin. These lipid vesicles may be further developed into carriers of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs for topical and transdermal delivery, respectively.

  5. Lipid-associated oral delivery: Mechanisms and analysis of oral absorption enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca

    2016-10-28

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of permeation through the intestinal mucosa, and triggering drug precipitation upon lipid emulsion depletion (e.g., by digestion). The effect of lipids on drug absorption is currently not quantitatively predictable, in part due to the multiple complex dynamic processes that can be impacted by lipids. Quantitative mechanistic analysis of the processes significant to lipid system function and overall impact on drug absorption can aid in the understanding of drug-lipid interactions in the GI tract and exploitation of such interactions to achieve optimal lipid-based drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the impact of co-delivered lipids and lipid digestion on drug dissolution, partitioning, and absorption in the context of the experimental tools and associated kinetic expressions used to study and model these processes. The potential benefit of a systems-based consideration of the concurrent multiple dynamic processes occurring upon co-dosing lipids and drugs to predict the impact of lipids on drug absorption and enable rational design of lipid-based delivery systems is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction of lipids from linseed with on-line evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Victor; Rodriguez-Meizoso, Irene; Turner, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a green alternative method of extraction for neutral lipids in seeds compared to conventional methods utilizing organic solvents. In this work, a novel method where SFE is hyphenated with an evaporative light scattering detector is presented. The method was subsequently applied to determine lipid content in crushed linseed. The new method enables rapid quantification of extracted lipids as well as be ability to continuously monitor the extraction rate in real-time, thus being able to determine the time point of completed extraction. Both the detector and the method was validated. The results show that any of several tested oils can be used to calibrate the detection method for the determination of lipids extraction from linseed. The overall method repeatability and intermediate precision was 2.6% relative standard deviations. The extracted amount was significantly less than that obtained using the standard method of Soxhlet with petroleum ether, 26.0±0.4% (95% CI, n=9) compared to 32.3±1.3% (95% CI, n=3) of extracted amounts. It was found that channeling effects were present, and by either performing sequential repeated extractions with decompression in-between or by using a relatively large vessel a more complete extraction could be obtained. Interestingly, a substantially higher extracted amount (approximately 50%) was obtained compared to both a single extraction by SFE and the Soxhlet method. Therefore, it is recommended that an additional extraction including a rapid decompression in-between should be included in the validation of a method using supercritical fluid extraction, in order to either rule out channeling effects or to acquire a full recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M; Brown, Alex H; Milne, Stephen B; Myers, David S; Merrill, Alfred H; Bandyopadhyay, Sibali; Jones, Kristin N; Kelly, Samuel; Shaner, Rebecca L; Sullards, Cameron M; Wang, Elaine; Murphy, Robert C; Barkley, Robert M; Leiker, Thomas J; Raetz, Christian R H; Guan, Ziqiang; Laird, Gregory M; Six, David A; Russell, David W; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Subramaniam, Shankar; Fahy, Eoin; Dennis, Edward A

    2010-11-01

    The focus of the present study was to define the human plasma lipidome and to establish novel analytical methodologies to quantify the large spectrum of plasma lipids. Partial lipid analysis is now a regular part of every patient's blood test and physicians readily and regularly prescribe drugs that alter the levels of major plasma lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Plasma contains many thousands of distinct lipid molecular species that fall into six main categories including fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and prenols. The physiological contributions of these diverse lipids and how their levels change in response to therapy remain largely unknown. As a first step toward answering these questions, we provide herein an in-depth lipidomics analysis of a pooled human plasma obtained from healthy individuals after overnight fasting and with a gender balance and an ethnic distribution that is representative of the US population. In total, we quantitatively assessed the levels of over 500 distinct molecular species distributed among the main lipid categories. As more information is obtained regarding the roles of individual lipids in health and disease, it seems likely that future blood tests will include an ever increasing number of these lipid molecules.

  8. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Murphy, Robert C; Nishijima, Masahiro; Raetz, Christian R H; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; Wakelam, Michael J O; Dennis, Edward A

    2009-04-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a "Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids" based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is extensible, flexible, and scalable. This classification system, which is compatible with contemporary databasing and informatics needs, has now been accepted internationally and widely adopted. In response to considerable attention and requests from lipid researchers from around the globe and in a variety of fields, the comprehensive classification system has undergone significant revisions over the last few years to more fully represent lipid structures from a wider variety of sources and to provide additional levels of detail as necessary. The details of this classification system are reviewed and updated and are presented here, along with revisions to its suggested nomenclature and structure-drawing recommendations for lipids.

  9. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults...

  10. Danish Guidelines for Lipid-lowering Treatment in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  11. Danish guidelines for lipid-lowering treatment in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, Hans; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lipid profile in adults with CKD 1-5: We recommend measuring the lipid profile (T cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) in all adults with newly diagnosed CKD 1-5 (including patients in renal replacement therapy). Monitoring of lipid profile in adults wit...

  12. The Complete Playground Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Arlene; And Others

    This book examines the history and purpose of outdoor play areas. Chapter 1 of the book discusses the importance of play in children's lives and the role of playgrounds in the play process. The historical development and evolution of playgrounds is recounted in chapter 2, while chapter 3 reviews research on playgrounds, including research…

  13. IJAAAR 2012 COMPLETE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011

    exogenous structural break is included. Perron (1989) allows for a one time structural change occurring at a ... permits an exogenous change in the rate of growth, and one that allows both changes. These hypotheses are ..... Hendry, D. F. and N. R. Ericsson (1991). “Modeling the Demand for. Narrow Money in the United.

  14. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  15. Lipid simulations: a perspective on lipids in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of lipid simulations, describing how a computer can be used as a laboratory for lipid research. We briefly discuss the methodology of lipid simulations followed by a number of topical applications that show the benefit of computer modeling for complementing experiments. In particular, we show examples of cases in which simulations have made predictions of novel phenomena that have later been confirmed by experimental studies. Overall, the applications discussed in this article focus on the most recent state of the art and aim to provide a perspective of where the field of lipid simulations stands at the moment.

  16. cAMP does not inhibit convulxin-induced tyrosyl-phosphorylation of human platelet proteins, including PLCgamma2, but completely blocks the integrin alphaIIb beta3-dependent dephosphorylation step: comparisons with RGDS peptide, cytochalasin D, and phenylarsine oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischetti, I M; Carlini, C R; Guimarães, J A

    1998-06-15

    Convulxin (Cvx) isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, induces platelet aggregation, phospholipase C (PLC) activation, and tyrosyl-phosphorylation (PTP) of multiple proteins, including PLCgamma2 by a mechanism independent of integrin alphaIIb beta3. However, PTP induced by Cvx is followed by a dephosphorylation step in a platelet aggregation-dependent manner. Here we show that increasing intraplatelet content of cAMP with forskolin is associated with the inhibition of Cvx-induced platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and inositol-phosphates production. However, the early onset of Cvx-induced PTP is not sensitive to cAMP (including PLCgamma2), and it also occurs in the presence of integrin alphaIIb beta3-antagonist (RGDS peptide, RGDS) or inhibitors of actin polymerization (cytochalasin D, CD) and tyrosine-phosphatases (phenylarsine oxide, PAO). However, forskolin, RGDS, and CD prevented the dephosphorylation step together with inhibition of platelet aggregation, whereas in the presence of phenylarsine oxide (PAO) the dephosphorylation step was replaced by an increase in the number and intensity of tyrosyl-phosphorylated proteins. Our data provide evidence to conclude that (i) cAMP inhibits platelet aggregation at a downstream site to PLCgamma2 tyrosyl-phosphorylation; (ii) Cvx-induced PTP is independent on integrin alphaIIb beta3 engagement, actin polymerization, and tyrosine-phosphatases activation; (iii) integrin alphaIIb beta3 mediates the dephosphorylation step in a platelet aggregation-dependent manner; and (iv) Cvx and collagen stimulate platelets by a similar signal transduction pathway. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Carbon nanotubes for stabilization of nanostructured lipid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Patil-Sen, Yogita; Baker, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development of combination therapies employing both CNTs and nanostructured lipid self-assembly together as carriers of different drugs.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are increasingly studied for innovative biotechnological applications particularly where they are combined with essential biological materials like lipids. Lipids have been used earlier for enhancing the dispersibility of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Here we report a novel application of CNTs for stabilization of internally self-assembled nanostructured lipid particles of 2-5 μm size. Single-walled (pristine) as well as -OH and -COOH functionalized multi-walled CNTs were employed to produce nanostructured emulsions which stayed stable for months and could be re-dispersed after complete dehydration. Concentrations of CNTs employed for stabilization were very low; moreover CNTs were well-decorated with lipid molecules. These features contribute towards reducing their toxicity and improving biocompatibility for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Our approach paves the way for future development

  18. An Onion Byproduct Affects Plasma Lipids in Healthy Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Marin, E.; Jensen, R. I.; Krath, Britta

    2010-01-01

    lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing...... that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals...... and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels....

  19. Mannosylerythritol lipids: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutchelvi, Joseph Irudayaraj; Bhaduri, Sumit; Uppara, Parasu Veera; Doble, Mukesh

    2008-12-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants (BSs). MELs are produced by Pseudozyma sp. as a major component while Ustilago sp. produces them as a minor component. Although MELs have been known for over five decades, they recently regained attention due to their environmental compatibility, mild production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions. In this review, the MEL producing microorganisms, the production conditions, their applications, their diverse structures and self-assembling properties are discussed. The biosynthetic pathways and the regulatory mechanisms involved in the production of MEL are also explained here.

  20. Chlorosome lipids from Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Grove; Cox, Raymond Pickett; Miller, Mette

    2008-01-01

    We have extracted polar lipids and waxes from isolated chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum and determined the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. Polar lipids amounted to 4.8 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll in the chlorosomes, while non-polar lipids (waxes......) were present at a ratio of 5.9 mol per 100 mol bacteriochlorophyll. Glycolipids constitute 60 % of the polar lipids while phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an aminoglycosphingolipid make up respectively 15, 3, 8 and 12 %. A novel glycolipid was identified...... as a rhamnose derivative of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, while the other major glycolipid was monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. Tetradecanoic acid was the major fatty acid in the aminoglycosphingolipid, while the other polar lipids contained predominantly hexandecanoic acid. The chlorosome waxes are esters...

  1. Lipid classification, structures and tools☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Lipodomics and Imaging Mass Spectrometry. PMID:21704189

  2. Lipid classification, structures and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Cotter, Dawn; Sud, Manish; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-11-01

    The study of lipids has developed into a research field of increasing importance as their multiple biological roles in cell biology, physiology and pathology are becoming better understood. The Lipid Metabolites and Pathways Strategy (LIPID MAPS) consortium is actively involved in an integrated approach for the detection, quantitation and pathway reconstruction of lipids and related genes and proteins at a systems-biology level. A key component of this approach is a bioinformatics infrastructure involving a clearly defined classification of lipids, a state-of-the-art database system for molecular species and experimental data and a suite of user-friendly tools to assist lipidomics researchers. Herein, we discuss a number of recent developments by the LIPID MAPS bioinformatics core in pursuit of these objectives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Heritabilities of Apolipoprotein and Lipid Levels in Three Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, A.J.; Heijmans, B.T.; Martin, N.G.; Pedersen, N.L.; Whitfield, J.B.; DeFaire, U.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Snieder, H.; Vogler, G.P.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of genes and environment on the variation of apolipoprotein and lipid levels, which are important intermediate phenotypes in the pathways toward cardiovascular disease. Heritability estimates are presented, including those for apolipoprotein E and All levels

  4. Modification of the CHARMM force field for DMPC lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Carl-Johan; Nikitin, Alexei M; Lyubartsev, Alexander P

    2008-11-15

    The CHARMM force field for DMPC lipids was modified in order to improve agreement with experiment for a number of important properties of hydrated lipid bilayer. The modification consists in introduction of a scaling factor 0.83 for 1-4 electrostatic interactions (between atoms separated by three covalent bonds), which provides correct transgauche ratio in the alkane tails, and recalculation of the headgroup charges on the basis of HF/6-311(d,p) ab-initio computations. Both rigid TIP3P and flexible SPC water models were used with the new lipid model, showing similar results. The new model in a 75 ns simulation has shown a correct value of the area per lipid at zero surface tension, as well as good agreement with the experiment for the electron density, structure factor, and order parameters, including those in the headgroup part of lipids. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Nakamura, Yuki; Harwood, John

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are one of the major subcellular components, and play numerous essential functions. As well as their physiological roles, oils stored in biomass are useful commodities for a variety of biotechnological applications including food, chemical feedstocks, and fuel. Due to their agronomic as well as economic and societal importance, lipids have historically been subjected to intensive studies. Major current efforts are to increase the energy density of cell biomass, and/or create designer oils suitable for specific applications. This chapter covers some basic aspects of what one needs to know about lipids: definition, structure, function, metabolism and focus is also given on the development of modern lipid analytical tools and major current engineering approaches for biotechnological applications. This introductory chapter is intended to serve as a primer for all subsequent chapters in this book outlining current development in specific areas of lipids and their metabolism.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Lipid Flux Influences Enterocyte Nuclear Morphology and Lipid-dependent Transcriptional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeituni, Erin M; Wilson, Meredith H; Zheng, Xiaobin; Iglesias, Pablo A; Sepanski, Michael A; Siddiqi, Mahmud A; Anderson, Jennifer L; Zheng, Yixian; Farber, Steven A

    2016-11-04

    Responding to a high-fat meal requires an interplay between multiple digestive tissues, sympathetic response pathways, and the gut microbiome. The epithelial enterocytes of the intestine are responsible for absorbing dietary nutrients and preparing them for circulation to distal tissues, which requires significant changes in cellular activity, including both morphological and transcriptional responses. Following a high-fat meal, we observe morphological changes in the enterocytes of larval zebrafish, including elongation of mitochondria, formation and expansion of lipid droplets, and the rapid and transient ruffling of the nuclear periphery. Dietary and pharmacological manipulation of zebrafish larvae demonstrated that these subcellular changes are specific to triglyceride absorption. The transcriptional changes that occur simultaneously with these morphological changes were determined using RNA sequencing, revealing a cohort of up-regulated genes associated with lipid droplet formation and lipid transport via lipoprotein particles. Using a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor to block β-lipoprotein particle formation, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response to a high-fat meal is associated with the transfer of ER triglyceride to nascent β-lipoproteins, possibly through the activation of Creb3l3/cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein. These data suggest that a transient increase in ER lipids is the likely mediator of the initial physiological response of intestinal enterocytes to dietary lipid. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Lipid Flux Influences Enterocyte Nuclear Morphology and Lipid-dependent Transcriptional Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeituni, Erin M.; Wilson, Meredith H.; Zheng, Xiaobin; Iglesias, Pablo A.; Sepanski, Michael A.; Siddiqi, Mahmud A.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Zheng, Yixian; Farber, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Responding to a high-fat meal requires an interplay between multiple digestive tissues, sympathetic response pathways, and the gut microbiome. The epithelial enterocytes of the intestine are responsible for absorbing dietary nutrients and preparing them for circulation to distal tissues, which requires significant changes in cellular activity, including both morphological and transcriptional responses. Following a high-fat meal, we observe morphological changes in the enterocytes of larval zebrafish, including elongation of mitochondria, formation and expansion of lipid droplets, and the rapid and transient ruffling of the nuclear periphery. Dietary and pharmacological manipulation of zebrafish larvae demonstrated that these subcellular changes are specific to triglyceride absorption. The transcriptional changes that occur simultaneously with these morphological changes were determined using RNA sequencing, revealing a cohort of up-regulated genes associated with lipid droplet formation and lipid transport via lipoprotein particles. Using a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor to block β-lipoprotein particle formation, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response to a high-fat meal is associated with the transfer of ER triglyceride to nascent β-lipoproteins, possibly through the activation of Creb3l3/cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein. These data suggest that a transient increase in ER lipids is the likely mediator of the initial physiological response of intestinal enterocytes to dietary lipid. PMID:27655916

  8. Self-assembly between biomacromolecules and lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongjun

    Anionic DNA and cationic lipsomes can self-assemble into a multi-lamellar structure where two-dimensional (2-D) lipid sheets confine a periodic one-dimensional (1-D) lattice of parallel DNA chains, between which Cd2+ ions can condense, and be subsequently reacted with H 2S to template CdS nanorods with crystallographic control analogous to biomineralization. The strong electrostatic interactions align the templated CdS (002) polar planes parallel to the negatively charged sugar-phosphate DNA backbone, which indicates that molecular details of the DNA molecule are imprinted onto the inorganic crystal structure. The resultant nanorods have (002) planes tilted by ˜60° with respect to the rod axis, in contrast to all known II-VI semiconductor nanorods. Rational design of the biopolymer-membrane templates is possible, as demonstrated by the self-assembly between anionic M13 virus and cationic membrane. The filamentous virus has diameter ˜3x larger but similar surface charge density as DNA, the self-assembled complexes maintain the multi-lamellar structure, but pore sizes are ˜10x larger in area, which can be used to package and organize large functional molecules. Not only the counter-charged objects can self-assemble, the like-charged biopolymer and membrane can also self-assemble with the help of multivalent ions. We have investigated anionic lipid-DNA complexes induced by a range of divalent ions to show how different ion-mediated interactions are expressed in the self-assembled structures, which include two distinct lamellar phases and an inverted hexagonal phase. DNA can be selectively organized into or expelled out of the lamellar phases depending on membrane charge density and counterion concentration. For a subset of ion (Zn2+ etc.) at high enough concentration, 2-D inverted hexagonal phase can be formed where DNA strands are coated with anionic lipid tubes via interaction with Zn2+ ions. We suggest that the effect of ion binding on lipid's spontaneous

  9. Factors influencing particulate lipid production in the East Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, B.; Frka, S.; Koch, B. P.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Bracher, A.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Neogi, S. B.; Lara, R. J.; Kattner, G.

    2014-07-01

    Extensive analyses of particulate lipids and lipid classes were conducted to gain insight into lipid production and related factors along the biogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Data are supported by particulate organic carbon (POC), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phaeopigments, Chl a concentrations and carbon content of eukaryotic micro-, nano- and picophytoplankton, including cell abundances for the latter two and for cyanobacteria and prokaryotic heterotrophs. We focused on the productive ocean surface (2 m depth and deep Chl a maximum (DCM). Samples from the deep ocean provided information about the relative reactivity and preservation potential of particular lipid classes. Surface and DCM particulate lipid concentrations (3.5-29.4 μg L-1) were higher than in samples from deep waters (3.2-9.3 μg L-1) where an increased contribution to the POC pool was observed. The highest lipid concentrations were measured in high latitude temperate waters and in the North Atlantic Tropical Gyral Province (13-25°N). Factors responsible for the enhanced lipid synthesis in the eastern Atlantic appeared to be phytoplankton size (micro, nano, pico) and the low nutrient status with microphytoplankton having the most expressed influence in the surface and eukaryotic nano- and picophytoplankton in the DCM layer. Higher lipid to Chl a ratios suggest enhanced lipid biosynthesis in the nutrient poorer regions. The various lipid classes pointed to possible mechanisms of phytoplankton adaptation to the nutritional conditions. Thus, it is likely that adaptation comprises the replacement of membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorus containing glycolipids under low phosphorus conditions. The qualitative and quantitative lipid compositions revealed that phospholipids were the most degradable lipids, and their occurrence decreased with increasing depth. In contrast, wax esters, possibly originating from zooplankton, survived downward transport probably due to the fast sinking

  10. Rab32 is important for autophagy and lipid storage in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Lipids are essential components of all organisms. Within cells, lipids are mainly stored in a specific type of organelle, called the lipid droplet. The molecular mechanisms governing the dynamics of lipid droplets have been little explored. The protein composition of lipid droplets has been analyzed in numerous proteomic studies, and a large number of lipid droplet-associated proteins have been identified, including Rab small GTPases. Rab proteins are known to participate in many intracellular membranous events; however, their exact role in lipid droplets is largely unexplored. Here we systematically investigate the roles of Drosophila Rab family proteins in lipid storage in the larval adipose tissue, fat body. Rab32 and several other Rabs were found to affect the size of lipid droplets as well as lipid levels. Further studies showed that Rab32 and Rab32 GEF/Claret may be involved in autophagy, consequently affecting lipid storage. Loss-of-function mutants of several components in the autophagy pathway result in similar effects on lipid storage. These results highlight the potential functions of Rabs in regulating lipid metabolism.

  11. Impact of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass versus sleeve gastrectomy on postoperative lipid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Osdol, Andrew D; Grover, Brandon T; Borgert, Andrew J; Kallies, Kara J; Kothari, Shanu N

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic surgery has been shown to significantly improve many obesity-related co-morbidities, including dyslipidemia. The literature has produced mixed results comparing postoperative lipid values after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) compared to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG); with some indicating significantly greater reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in LRYGB versus LSG, and others reporting no significant differences. To evaluate the postoperative lipid values after LRYGB versus LSG at a community hospital. Integrated multispecialty health system with a community teaching hospital. A retrospective review of our prospective database was completed to identify patients who underwent either LRYGB or LSG at our institution from 2001 through 2013. Lipid values available at 6-18 months postoperative were evaluated. Statistical analysis included χ 2 and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A P value130 mg/dL (P = .68), respectively. HDL values were within the recommended range in 52% and 57% of LRYGB and LSG patients, respectively (P = .64). Patients who underwent LRYGB had a greater postoperative reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides. LRYGB may be the more appropriate bariatric procedure for patients with significant preoperative hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Unraveling lipid metabolism in lipid-dependent pathogenic Malassezia yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis Ramirez, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Malassezia yeasts are lipid-dependent fungal species that are common members of the human and animal skin microbiota. The lipid-dependency is a crucial trait in the adaptation process to grow on the skin but also plays a role in their pathogenic life style. Malassezia species can cause several skin

  13. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid. Carriers of Loratadine for Topical Application: Physicochemical Stability and Drug Penetration through. Rat Skin. Melike Üner1*, Ecem Fatma Karaman1 and Zeynep Aydoğmuş2. Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, ...

  14. Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Murphy, R.C.; Nishijima, M.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Wakelam, M.J.O.; Dennis, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the International Lipid Classification and Nomenclature Committee under the sponsorship of the LIPID MAPS Consortium developed and established a “Comprehensive Classification System for Lipids” based on well-defined chemical and biochemical principles and using an ontology that is

  15. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) of loratadine (LRT) for the treatment of allergic skin reactions. Methods: SLN and NLC were prepared by high pressure homogenization method. Their entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading capacity (LC) were determined.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Complete Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Simon

    2000-03-01

    This book contains all the essential concepts for GCSE (or equivalent) physics courses or for general science courses at Key Stage 4. It claims to be ideal for use as a bridging resource for those intending to take physics beyond GCSE: it is no surprise, then, that the book is written at a level above that of the average Key Stage 4 student. It includes material not included in many GCSE syllabuses; this is clearly identified in the contents pages. It would be a useful resource for more able students at GCSE or for beginning A-level students. The layout of the book is attractive. It is well illustrated and colourful. Some of the illustrations are striking: each of the 12 main sections of the book begins with a title page that includes some unusual photographs illustrating physical ideas. Section 2, Forces and Motion, has a photograph of a bungee jumper leaping from the Sky Tower in New Zealand, taken at night looking along the length of the tower from its foot. Section 9, Magnets and Currents, has a computer-generated picture of the magnetic field in a fusion generator. These pictures, as well as contributing to the attractiveness of the book, could be used to initiate discussions of some of the physics. However, there are pictures that serve little useful purpose: a photograph of a recording station for seismic waves looks like any other building lit up at night. A photograph of a rock band in the middle of a section on sound carries no explanatory caption at all and is purely decorative. Other illustrations - in a variety of styles - do illustrate some physical ideas very well: the diagrams of motors and generators, for instance, are far clearer than my efforts on the blackboard! The book is divided into 14 sections with titles reflecting the traditional divisions of physics syllabuses, together with a beginning section on measurement and units and two final sections, `History of Key Ideas' and `Experimental Physics'. The first section, `Measurement and Units

  17. Solid lipid nanoparticles for parenteral drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissing, S.A.; Kayser, Oliver; Muller, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    This review describes the use of nanoparticles based on solid lipids for the parenteral application of drugs. Firstly, different types of nanoparticles based on solid lipids such as "solid lipid nanoparticles" (SLN), "nanostructured lipid carriers" (NLC) and "lipid drug conjugate" (LDC)

  18. Magnetic lipid nanoparticles loading doxorubicin for intracellular delivery: Preparation and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Xiaoying; Du Yongzhong; Hong Linghong; Yuan Hong; Hu Fuqiang

    2011-01-01

    Tumor intracellular delivery is an effective route for targeting chemotherapy to enhance the curative effect and minimize the side effect of a drug. In this study, the magnetic lipid nanoparticles with an uptake ability by tumor cells were prepared dispersing ferroso-ferric oxide nanoparticles in aqueous phase using oleic acid (OA) as a dispersant, and following the solvent dispersion of lipid organic solution. The obtained nanoparticles with 200 nm volume average diameter and -30 mV surface zeta potential could be completely removed by external magnetic field from aqueous solution. Using doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug, the drug-loaded magnetic lipid nanoparticles were investigated in detail, such as the effects of OA, drug and lipid content on volume average diameter, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, and in vitro drug release. The drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency were enhanced with increasing drug or lipid content, reduced with increasing OA content. The in vitro drug release could be controlled by changing drug or lipid content. Cellular uptake by MCF-7 cells experiment presented the excellent internalization ability of the prepared magnetic lipid nanoparticles. These results evidenced that the present magnetic lipid nanoparticles have potential for targeting therapy of antitumor drugs. - Research highlights: → A simple solvent diffusion method was developed to prepare magnetic lipid nanoparticles. → The doxorubicin-loaded magnetic lipid nanoparticles could be controlled by preparation recipe. → Magnetic lipid nanoparticles had internalization ability into tumor cells.

  19. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  20. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.

  2. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  3. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a better understanding of these dynamics in human cells. Lipid Mechanics Omega-3 fatty acids-like those found in fish oil caplets-may control inflammation associated with diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Credit: Wikimedia Commons. Another important question about lipids ...

  4. Lipid and bile acid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argmann, Carmen A.; Houten, Sander M.; Champy, Marie-France; Auwerx, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Lipids are important body constituents that are vital for cellular, tissue, and whole-body homeostasis. Lipids serve as crucial membrane components, constitute the body's main energy reservoir, and are important signaling molecules. As a consequence of these pleiotropic functions, many common

  5. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loher, Hannah; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris; Christ, Emanuel

    2016-09-14

    In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. ¹H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass), insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term) appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  6. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  7. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...

  8. Lipides polaires marins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanni Jacques

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides polaires marins, notamment les phospholipides (PL, retiennent depuis quelques années l’attention des chercheurs et des industriels en raison de leur composition, particulièrement riche en acides gras polyinsaturés à longue chaîne (AGPI-LC. Ils combinent ainsi les propriétés reconnues des AGPI-LC à l’intérêt métabolique et structural des phospholipides. Les sources sont nombreuses et d’accès très diversifié. Le défi industriel provient de leurs caractéristiques amphiphiles et aromatiques particulièrement marquées qui rend leur extraction très difficile.

  9. Plasma and oscillations with contributions in memoriam including a complete bibliography of his works

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir, Volume 5: Plasma and Oscillations is an 11-chapter text covers the extensive research study of Langmuir in the field of gas discharges. This book specifically tackles oscillations in ionized gases. The opening chapters describe the plasma-boundary phenomena and the use of a probe to separate the primary electron beam from the scattered electrons. The succeeding chapters deal with the collisions between electrons and gas molecules, oscillations in ionized gases, and the interaction of electron and positive ion space charges in cathode sheaths. These t

  10. Case Studies in Systems Chemistry. Final Report. [Includes Complete Case Study, Carboxylic Acid Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, George

    This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry. The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC computer systems, and with a programmable electronic calculator, in a variety of educational settings. The text attempts to present computer…

  11. A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year.

  12. Maternal lipid profile 6 years after a gestational hypertensive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Laura; Bergen, Nienke E; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mulder, Monique T; Steegers, Eric A P; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E

    2017-12-28

    Gestational hypertensive disorders (GHDs), including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life, possibly through an atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study is to assess if women with a previous GHD have a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study, we included 4933 women during pregnancy, including 302 women with a GHD. Six years after pregnancy, we determined maternal lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein[a], and apolipoprotein B) and glucose levels. Women with a previous GHD had a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy compared to women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. These atherogenic lipid profiles were a result of higher levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Differences in lipid profile between women with a previous GHD and women with a previous normotensive pregnancy were attenuated after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index. Between women from both groups, no differences were observed in total cholesterol, lipoprotein[a], and glucose levels. Women with a previous GHD show a more atherogenic lipid profile 6 years after pregnancy than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. The increased risk of cardiovascular disease after a GHD might result from an atherogenic lipid profile after pregnancy, primarily driven by prepregnancy body mass index. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein/lipid coaggregates are formed during α-synuclein-induced disruption of lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Maarschalkerweerd, Andreas; Vetri, Valeria; Langkilde, Annette Eva

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid formation is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Significant α-synuclein (αSN) deposition in lipid-rich Lewy bodies is a hallmark of PD. Nonetheless, an unraveling of the connection between neurodegeneration and amyloid fibrils, including...... the molecular mechanisms behind potential amyloid-mediated toxic effects, is still missing. Interaction between amyloid aggregates and the lipid cell membrane is expected to play a key role in the disease progress. Here, we present experimental data based on hybrid analysis of two-photon-microscopy, solution...... secondary structure. As a result of membrane fragmentation, soluble αSN:-lipid coaggregates are formed, hence, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism behind PD amyloid cytotoxicity....

  14. Lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Andersen, Ulf

    An increasing body of evidence supports the health beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, incorporation of marine oils into foods has also gained an increasing interest. However, the highly unsaturated lipids present in marine oils are prone to lipid oxidation....... The properties of the emulsifier used and the structure at the interface are therefore expected to be of great importance for oxidation in emulsions. This presentation will include results from mainly three different studies of lipid oxidation in omega-3 emulsions prepared with milk proteins and protein...

  15. [Review: plant polyphenols modulate lipid metabolism and related molecular mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-li; Zou, Yu-xiao; Liu, Fan; Li, Hong-zhi

    2015-11-01

    Lipid metabolism disorder is an important risk factor to obesity, hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes as well as other chronic metabolic disease. It is also a key target in preventing metabolic syndrome, chronic disease prevention. Plant polyphenol plays an important role in maintaining or improving lipid profile in a variety of ways. including regulating cholesterol absorption, inhibiting synthesis and secretion of triglyceride, and lowering plasma low density lipoprotein oxidation, etc. The purpose of this article is to review the lipid regulation effects of plant polyphenols and its related mechanisms.

  16. Perillyl alcohol: Dynamic interactions with the lipid bilayer and implications for long‐term inhalational chemotherapy for gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando da Fonseca, Clovis; Khandelia, Himanshu; D’Alincourt Salazar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gliomas display a high degree of intratumor heterogeneity, including changes in physiological parameters and lipid composition of the plasma membrane, which may contribute to the development of drug resistance. Biophysical interactions between therapeutic agents and the lipid componen...

  17. Microporous device for local electric recordings on model lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufeld, Theresa; Schmidt, Christoph F; Steinem, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    A powerful approach for characterizing lipid membranes and embedded proteins is the reconstitution of model lipid bilayers. The extreme fragility of 5 nm thick bilayers is a challenge for device design and requires a trade off of stability against accessibility. We here present a microporous lab-on-chip device that allows us to form stable, solvent-free lipid bilayers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a geometry that provides a unique set of access possibilities. The device is constructed around a micro-fabricated silicon chip with clusters of 1 µm-diameter pores and provides optical access to the lipid bilayers for high-NA epifluorescence imaging. At the same time, solvent exchange is possible on both sides of the lipid bilayer. Complete coverage can be achieved with GUVs, so that voltages can be applied across the lipid bilayer and single-channel currents can be measured using external or integrated silver/silver chloride electrodes. We describe the micro-fabrication by standard cleanroom techniques and the characterization of the device by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In proof-of-concept experiments we demonstrate that the device is capable of low-noise, single-ion-channel recordings. (paper)

  18. Proving lipid rafts exist: membrane domains in the prokaryote Borrelia burgdorferi have the same properties as eukaryotic lipid rafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J LaRocca

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts in eukaryotic cells are sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich, ordered membrane regions that have been postulated to play roles in many membrane functions, including infection. We previously demonstrated the existence of cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in membranes of the prokaryote, B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease [LaRocca et al. (2010 Cell Host & Microbe 8, 331-342]. Here, we show that these prokaryote membrane domains have the hallmarks of eukaryotic lipid rafts, despite lacking sphingolipids. Substitution experiments replacing cholesterol lipids with a set of sterols, ranging from strongly raft-promoting to raft-inhibiting when mixed with eukaryotic sphingolipids, showed that sterols that can support ordered domain formation are both necessary and sufficient for formation of B. burgdorferi membrane domains that can be detected by transmission electron microscopy or in living organisms by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET. Raft-supporting sterols were also necessary and sufficient for formation of high amounts of detergent resistant membranes from B. burgdorferi. Furthermore, having saturated acyl chains was required for a biotinylated lipid to associate with the cholesterol-lipid-rich domains in B. burgdorferi, another characteristic identical to that of eukaryotic lipid rafts. Sterols supporting ordered domain formation were also necessary and sufficient to maintain B. burgdorferi membrane integrity, and thus critical to the life of the organism. These findings provide compelling evidence for the existence of lipid rafts and show that the same principles of lipid raft formation apply to prokaryotes and eukaryotes despite marked differences in their lipid compositions.

  19. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  20. MALDI imaging of lipids after matrix sublimation/deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert C; Hankin, Joseph A; Barkley, Robert M; Zemski Berry, Karin A

    2011-11-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques have been developed to record mass spectra of biomolecules including lipids as they naturally exist within tissues and thereby permit the generation of images displaying the distribution of specific lipids in tissues, organs, and intact animals. These techniques are based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) that requires matrix application onto the tissue surface prior to analysis. One technique of application that has recently shown significant advantages for lipid analysis is sublimation of matrix followed by vapor deposition directly onto the tissue. Explanations for enhanced sensitivity realized by sublimation/deposition related to sample temperature after a laser pulse and matrix crystal size are presented. Specific examples of sublimation/deposition in lipid imaging of various organs including brain, ocular tissue, and kidney are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 2009 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function Gordon Research Conference - February 1- 6 ,2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent D. Chapman

    2009-02-06

    The Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism and Function' has been instituted to accelerate research productivity in the field of plant lipids. This conference will facilitate wide dissemination of research breakthroughs, support recruitment of young scientists to the field of plant lipid metabolism and encourage broad participation of the plant lipid community in guiding future directions for research in plant lipids. This conference will build upon the strengths of the successful, previous biannual meetings of the National Plant Lipid Cooperative (www.plantlipids.org) that began in 1993, but will reflect a broader scope of topics to include the biochemistry, cell biology, metabolic regulation, and signaling functions of plant acyl lipids. Most importantly, this conference also will serve as a physical focal point for the interaction of the plant lipid research community. Applications to attend this conference will be open to all researchers interested in plant lipids and will provide a venue for the presentation of the latest research results, networking opportunities for young scientists, and a forum for the development and exchange of useful lipid resources and new ideas. By bringing together senior- and junior-level scientists involved in plant lipid metabolism, a broad range of insights will be shared and the community of plant lipid researchers will function more as a network of vested partners. This is important for the vitality of the research community and for the perceived value that will encourage conference attendance into the future.

  2. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high...... amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine...... in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking....

  3. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldberg, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington ... Cholesterol and triglycerides are important fats (lipids) in the blood. Cholesterol ...

  4. GPCR-styrene maleic acid lipid particles (GPCR-SMALPs): their nature and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Mark; Charlton, Jack; Jamshad, Mohammed; Routledge, Sarah J; Bailey, Sian; La-Borde, Penelope J; Azam, Maria T; Logan, Richard T; Bill, Roslyn M; Dafforn, Tim R; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest class of membrane proteins and are an important target for therapeutic drugs. These receptors are highly dynamic proteins sampling a range of conformational states in order to fulfil their complex signalling roles. In order to fully understand GPCR signalling mechanisms it is necessary to extract the receptor protein out of the plasma membrane. Historically this has universally required detergents which inadvertently strip away the annulus of lipid in close association with the receptor and disrupt lateral pressure exerted by the bilayer. Detergent-solubilized GPCRs are very unstable which presents a serious hurdle to characterization by biophysical methods. A range of strategies have been developed to ameliorate the detrimental effect of removing the receptor from the membrane including amphipols and reconstitution into nanodics stabilized by membrane scaffolding proteins (MSPs) but they all require exposure to detergent. Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) incorporates into membranes and spontaneously forms nanoscale poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) lipid particles (SMALPs), effectively acting like a 'molecular pastry cutter' to 'solubilize' GPCRs in the complete absence of detergent at any stage and with preservation of the native annular lipid throughout the process. GPCR-SMALPs have similar pharmacological properties to membrane-bound receptor, exhibit enhanced stability compared with detergent-solubilized receptors and being non-proteinaceous in nature, are fully compatible with downstream biophysical analysis of the encapsulated GPCR. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. Application of metabolic controls for the maximization of lipid production in semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Liu, Nian; Qiao, Kangjian; Vogg, Sebastian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-03

    Acetic acid can be generated through syngas fermentation, lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and organic waste anaerobic digestion. Microbial conversion of acetate into triacylglycerols for biofuel production has many advantages, including low-cost or even negative-cost feedstock and environmental benefits. The main issue stems from the dilute nature of acetate produced in such systems, which is costly to be processed on an industrial scale. To tackle this problem, we established an efficient bioprocess for converting dilute acetate into lipids, using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in a semicontinuous system. The implemented design used low-strength acetic acid in both salt and acid forms as carbon substrate and a cross-filtration module for cell recycling. Feed controls for acetic acid and nitrogen based on metabolic models and online measurement of the respiratory quotient were used. The optimized process was able to sustain high-density cell culture using acetic acid of only 3% and achieved a lipid titer, yield, and productivity of 115 g/L, 0.16 g/g, and 0.8 g⋅L -1 ⋅h -1 , respectively. No carbon substrate was detected in the effluent stream, indicating complete utilization of acetate. These results represent a more than twofold increase in lipid production metrics compared with the current best-performing results using concentrated acetic acid as carbon feed.

  6. Lipid composition of human meibum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnetler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of meibomian gland lipids in the tear film are highly complex. Evidence shows that the precorneal tear film consists of discrete layers: the inner mucin layer, the middle aqueous layer and the outer lipid layer. In this review we focus on the outer, biphasic lipid layer of the tear film which consists of a ‘thick’ outer, non-polar layer  and a ‘thin’ inner, polar layer. We discuss the main composition of the polar and non-polar lipids within meibum (wax esters, cholesteryl esters, mono-, di- and tri-acylglycerols, ceramides, phospholipids  et cetera. We address the composition of meibomian lipids in subjects suffering from various ocular diseases in comparison with the composition in healthy individuals. Further analysis is needed to determine whether a correlation exists between the etiology of various ocular diseases and the fluctuation on the lipids as well as to establish whether or not tear lipid analysis can be used as a diagnostic tool.

  7. Recent advances in the field of omega-3-lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    During the last 15-20 years the use of fish and algae oils for human applications has received increasing attention from academia, industry and consumers. This is due to the fact that a growing body of evidence supports that marine omega-3 lipids have a wide range of health beneficial effects, an...... to prevent oxidation include antioxidant addition, optimisation of food processing conditions and the use of delivery systems for omega-3 lipids (e.g. emulsions and microencapsulated omega-3 powders)....

  8. Lipid peroxidation and water penetration in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elena; Megli, Francesco Maria; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a key role in the alteration of cell membrane's properties. Here we used as model systems multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) made of the first two products in the oxidative cascade of linoleoyl lecithin, namely 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecanedienoyl)-lecithin (Hp......PLPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecanedienoyl)-lecithin (OHPLPC), exhibiting a hydroperoxide or a hydroxy group at position 13, respectively. The two oxidized lipids were used either pure or in a 1:1 molar ratio mixture with untreated 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-lecithin (PLPC). The model membranes...... were doped with spin-labeled lipids to study bilayer alterations by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Two different spin-labeled lipids were used, bearing the doxyl ring at position (n) 5 or 16: γ-palmitoyl-β-(n-doxylstearoyl)-lecithin (n-DSPPC) and n-doxylstearic acid (n-DSA). Small...

  9. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  10. Lipid metabolism in cancer cachexia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulligan, H. D.; Beck, S. A.; Tisdale, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of cancer cachexia on the oxidative metabolism of lipids has been studied in mice transplanted either with the MAC16 adenocarcinoma, which induces profound loss of body weight and depletion of lipid stores, or the MAC13 adenocarcinoma, which is the same histological type, but which grows without an effect on host body weight or lipid stores. While oxidation of D-[U-14C]glucose did not differ between animals bearing tumours of either type and non-tumour bearing controls, oxidation o...

  11. The SwissLipids knowledgebase for lipid biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Aimo, L.; Liechti, R.; Hyka-Nouspikel, N.; Niknejad, A.; Gleizes, A.; Götz, L.; Kuznetsov, D.; David, F.P.; van der Goot, F.G.; Riezman, H.; Bougueleret, L.; Xenarios, I.; Bridge, A.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Lipids are a large and diverse group of biological molecules with roles in membrane formation, energy storage and signaling. Cellular lipidomes may contain tens of thousands of structures, a staggering degree of complexity whose significance is not yet fully understood. High-throughput mass spectrometry-based platforms provide a means to study this complexity, but the interpretation of lipidomic data and its integration with prior knowledge of lipid biology suffers from a lack of ...

  12. Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Esteban Morales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR. In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.

  13. Applications of lipid nanoparticles in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Rodríguez, Ana; Solinís, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been recognized, among the large number of non-viral vectors for gene transfection, as an effective and safety alternative to potentially treat both genetic and not genetic diseases. A key feature is the possibility to be designed to overcome the numerous challenges for successful gene delivery. Lipid nanoparticles (LNs) are able to overcome the main biological barriers for cell transfection, including degradation by nucleases, cell internalization intracellular trafficking, and selectively targeting to a specific cell type. Additionally, they present important advantages: from a safety point of view LNs are prepared with well tolerated components, and from a technological point of view, they can be easily produced at large-scale, can be subjected to sterilization and lyophilization, and have shown good storage stability. This review focuses on the potential of SLNs and NLCs for gene therapy, including the main advances in their application for the treatment of ocular diseases, infectious diseases, lysosomal storage disorders and cancer, and current research for their future clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Steiner, Jörg M

    2010-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in dogs can be divided into exogenous and endogenous pathways and exhibits some unique characteristics compared to other species. Hyperlipidemia is common in dogs, and can be either primary or secondary to other diseases. Secondary hyperlipidemia is the most common form and can be a result of endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, cholestasis, protein-losing nephropathy, obesity, and high fat diets. Primary hyperlipidemia is less common and usually associated with certain breeds. Hypertriglyceridemia of Miniature Schnauzers is the most common type of primary hyperlipidemia in dogs in the United States, and appears to have a genetic basis although its etiology remains unknown. Possible complications of canine hyperlipidemia include pancreatitis, liver disease, atherosclerosis, ocular disease, and seizures. Management is achieved by administration of low fat diets with or without the administration of lipid-lowering agents such as omega-3 fatty acids, gemfibrozil, and niacin. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lipid rafts and B cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neetu; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2007-10-01

    B cells comprise an essential component of the humoral immune system. They are equipped with the unique ability to synthesize and secrete pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and share with professional antigen presenting cells the ability to internalize foreign antigens, and process them for presentation to helper T cells. Recent evidence indicates that specialized cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich microdomains in the plasma membrane commonly referred to as lipid rafts, serve to compartmentalize key signaling molecules during the different stages of B cell activation including B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-initiated signal transduction, endocytosis of BCR-antigen complexes, loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC class II molecules, MHC-II associated antigen presentation to helper T cells, and receipt of helper signals via the CD40 receptor. Here we review the recent literature arguing for a role of lipid rafts in the spatial organization of B cell function.

  16. The role of lipids in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis, affecting 2–4% of the world’s population, is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Its multifactorial aetiopathogenesis consists of, for example, abnormal epidermal proliferation, immune disturbances, and genetic, psychosomatic, environmental and hormonal factors. Psoriasis is also considered to be a systemic disorder closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity or metabolic syndrome. Lipids have a variety of biological functions. They participate not only in energy storage and expenditure or the formation of cell membranes, but also in inflammatory and metabolic signalling pathways. Disturbances in their homeostasis lead to the development of immunometabolic disorders, including psoriasis. Based on the available literature, this article presents selected molecular and clinical aspects involved in the multidirectional effect of lipids on psoriasis.

  17. Pathophysiology of mitochondrial lipid oxidation: Role of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and other bioactive lipids in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mengqing; Zhong, Huiqin; Xia, Lin; Tao, Yongzhen; Yin, Huiyong

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondrial lipids are essential for maintaining the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and the proper functions of mitochondria. As the "powerhouse" of a cell, mitochondria are also the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress occurs when the antioxidant system is overwhelmed by overproduction of ROS. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes are primary targets for ROS attack, which may lead to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and generation of reactive lipids, such as 4-hydroxynonenal. When mitochondrial lipids are oxidized, the integrity and function of mitochondria may be compromised and this may eventually lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which has been associated with many human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. How mitochondrial lipids are oxidized and the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences associated with mitochondrial LPO remain poorly defined. Oxidation of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin and generation of bioactive lipids through mitochondrial LPO has been increasingly recognized as an important event orchestrating apoptosis, metabolic reprogramming of energy production, mitophagy, and immune responses. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of how mitochondrial LPO and generation of bioactive lipid mediators in mitochondria are involved in the modulation of mitochondrial functions in the context of relevant human diseases associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic architecture of lipid traits changes over time and differs by race: Princeton Lipid Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G.; Morrison, John A.; Stroop, Davis M.; Aronson Friedman, Lisa; Martin, Lisa J.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for CVD. Previous studies on lipid heritability have largely focused on white populations assessed after the obesity epidemic. Given secular trends and racial differences in lipid levels, this study explored whether lipid heritability is consistent across time and between races. African American and white nuclear families had fasting lipids measured in the 1970s and 22–30 years later. Heritability was estimated, and bivariate analyses between visits were conducted by race using variance components analysis. A total of 1,454 individuals (age 14.1/40.6 for offspring/parents at baseline; 39.6/66.5 at follow-up) in 373 families (286 white, 87 African American) were included. Lipid trait heritabilities were typically stronger during the 1970s than the 2000s. At baseline, additive genetic variation for LDL was significantly lower in African Americans than whites (P = 0.015). Shared genetic contribution to lipid variability over time was significant in both whites (all P specific approaches are needed to clarify the genetic etiology of lipids. PMID:24859784

  19. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, N; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rajesh, Amudala; Babu, P Ravisekhar; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is associated initially by the presence of pre-malignant lesions or pre-malignant conditions. Oral Leukoplakia is one of the best-known pre-malignant lesions in the oral cavity that have the highest rate of malignant transformation. Numerous studies have shown an altered lipid profile in various cancers including head and neck cancers. An inverse relationship between plasma lipid profiles has been seen in oral cancer and pre-cancerous subjects. The present study evaluated the plasma lipid profiles in oral leukoplakia and controls. Materials & Methods: This study was done in department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sibar dental College and Konacc diagnostics. 30 patients were included in the study (15 patients with oral leukoplakia (histo-pathologically proven) and 15 patients for comparison of results as controls). Patients with cardiovascular diseases, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, acute hepatitis and nephrosis were excluded from the sample and lipid profile assay was done by fully automated biochemistry analyser (EM–360). Paired-t and Scheffe tests were used to find statistical significance between two groups. Results: The plasma lipid levels were estimated in between the two groups by arithmetic mean along with standard deviation. The lipid parameters included were Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides. The lipid parameters of the patients in between the two groups were compared and analysed. Conclusion: In this study TC, HDL, LDL, Triglyceride level analysis showed slightly lower levels in oral leukoplakia patients than that of the controls. Higher VLDL levels were observed in leukoplakia than the control group. How to cite the article: Mahesh N, Rahamthullah SA, Naidu GM, Rajesh A, Babu PR, Reddy JM. Alterations of Plasma lipid profile patterns in oral leukoplakia. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):78-84. PMID:24653608

  20. Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2014-08-01

    A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ψ 1 and ψ 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(ψ 1 - ψ 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to κ 0 + κ 1(ψ 1 + ψ 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ψ 1 - ψ 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ψ 1 + ψ 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force κ 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

  1. GDSL lipases modulate immunity through lipid homeostasis in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA treatment. OsGLIP1 was mainly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, while OsGLIP2 showed high expression in elongating internodes. Biochemical assay demonstrated that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 are functional lipases that could hydrolyze lipid substrates. Simultaneous down-regulation of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 increased plant resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas disease resistance in OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 overexpression plants was significantly compromised, suggesting that both genes act as negative regulators of disease resistance. OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 proteins mainly localize to lipid droplets and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane. The proper cellular localization of OsGLIP proteins is indispensable for their functions in immunity. Comprehensive lipid profiling analysis indicated that the alteration of OsGLIP gene expression was associated with substantial changes of the levels of lipid species including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG. We show that MGDG and DGDG feeding could attenuate disease resistance. Taken together, our study indicates that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 negatively regulate rice defense by modulating lipid metabolism, thus providing new insights into the function of lipids in plant immunity.

  2. Microemulsion extrusion technique: a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de, E-mail: dejesusmb@gmail.com; Radaic, Allan [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil); Zuhorn, Inge S. [University of Groningen, Department of Membrane Cell Biology, University Medical Center (Netherlands); Paula, Eneida de [University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization is the standard technique that is adopted nowadays. Although this method has a high efficiency, does not require the use of organic solvents, and allows large-scale production, some limitations impede its application at laboratory scale: the equipment is expensive, there is a need of huge amounts of surfactants and co-surfactants during the preparation, and the operating conditions are energy intensive. Here, we present the microemulsion extrusion technique as an alternative method to prepare lipid nanoparticles. The parameters to produce lipid nanoparticles using microemulsion extrusion were established, and the lipid particles produced (SLN, NLC, and liposomes) were characterized with regard to size (from 130 to 190 nm), zeta potential, and drug (mitoxantrone) and gene (pDNA) delivery properties. In addition, the particles' in vitro co-delivery capacity (to carry mitoxantrone plus pDNA encoding the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN) was tested in normal (BALB 3T3 fibroblast) and cancer (PC3 prostate and MCF-7 breast) cell lines. The results show that the microemulsion extrusion technique is fast, inexpensive, reproducible, free of organic solvents, and suitable for small volume preparations of lipid nanoparticles. Its application is particularly interesting when using rare and/or costly drugs or ingredients (e.g., cationic lipids for gene delivery or labeled lipids for nanoparticle tracking/diagnosis)

  3. GDSL lipases modulate immunity through lipid homeostasis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingjun; Yin, Xin; Yang, Weibing; Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Xiaohong; Liu, Jiyun; Wang, Xin; Li, Qun; Shui, Guanghou; He, Zuhua

    2017-11-01

    Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment. OsGLIP1 was mainly expressed in leaf and leaf sheath, while OsGLIP2 showed high expression in elongating internodes. Biochemical assay demonstrated that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 are functional lipases that could hydrolyze lipid substrates. Simultaneous down-regulation of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 increased plant resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens, whereas disease resistance in OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 overexpression plants was significantly compromised, suggesting that both genes act as negative regulators of disease resistance. OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 proteins mainly localize to lipid droplets and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. The proper cellular localization of OsGLIP proteins is indispensable for their functions in immunity. Comprehensive lipid profiling analysis indicated that the alteration of OsGLIP gene expression was associated with substantial changes of the levels of lipid species including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). We show that MGDG and DGDG feeding could attenuate disease resistance. Taken together, our study indicates that OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 negatively regulate rice defense by modulating lipid metabolism, thus providing new insights into the function of lipids in plant immunity.

  4. Microemulsion extrusion technique: a new method to produce lipid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Marcelo Bispo de; Radaic, Allan; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Paula, Eneida de

    2013-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been intensively investigated for different applications, including their use as drug and gene delivery systems. Different techniques have been employed to produce lipid nanoparticles, of which high pressure homogenization is the standard technique that is adopted nowadays. Although this method has a high efficiency, does not require the use of organic solvents, and allows large-scale production, some limitations impede its application at laboratory scale: the equipment is expensive, there is a need of huge amounts of surfactants and co-surfactants during the preparation, and the operating conditions are energy intensive. Here, we present the microemulsion extrusion technique as an alternative method to prepare lipid nanoparticles. The parameters to produce lipid nanoparticles using microemulsion extrusion were established, and the lipid particles produced (SLN, NLC, and liposomes) were characterized with regard to size (from 130 to 190 nm), zeta potential, and drug (mitoxantrone) and gene (pDNA) delivery properties. In addition, the particles’ in vitro co-delivery capacity (to carry mitoxantrone plus pDNA encoding the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN) was tested in normal (BALB 3T3 fibroblast) and cancer (PC3 prostate and MCF-7 breast) cell lines. The results show that the microemulsion extrusion technique is fast, inexpensive, reproducible, free of organic solvents, and suitable for small volume preparations of lipid nanoparticles. Its application is particularly interesting when using rare and/or costly drugs or ingredients (e.g., cationic lipids for gene delivery or labeled lipids for nanoparticle tracking/diagnosis)

  5. Blood lipids and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Caroline J; Bonilla, Carolina; Holly, Jeff M P

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL...... into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL.......95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk...

  6. Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teslovich, Tanya M; Musunuru, Kiran; Smith, Albert V

    2010-01-01

    polymorphisms (SNPs) near known lipid regulators (for example, CYP7A1, NPC1L1 and SCARB1) as well as in scores of loci not previously implicated in lipoprotein metabolism. The 95 loci contribute not only to normal variation in lipid traits but also to extreme lipid phenotypes and have an impact on lipid traits...... variants associated with plasma lipids in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Here we report 95 significantly associated loci (P lipid traits for the first time. The newly reported associations include single nucleotide...... in three non-European populations (East Asians, South Asians and African Americans). Our results identify several novel loci associated with plasma lipids that are also associated with CAD. Finally, we validated three of the novel genes-GALNT2, PPP1R3B and TTC39B-with experiments in mouse models. Taken...

  7. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  8. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  9. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  10. [Lipids of Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinov, N P; Iurlova, N A; Efimova, T P

    1975-01-01

    Fractional composition of free and bound lipids was studied in Aureobasidium (Pullularia) pullulans 8 by preparative TLC on Silufol. Bound lipids contained a fraction (27.76 +/- 0.5%) of dark brown colour, similar to melanin. The composition of fatty acids was studied by GLC. The following fatty acids were identified and determined quantitatively: C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1+C15:2. The following fatty acids predominated in free and bound lipids: C16:0, C18:1+C18:2. The ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in all fractions of free and bound lipids was more than unity. The following parameters were determined for lipids; ester number (173.89 and 178.53); iodine number (44.1 and 33.10), and saponification number (181.17 and 206.03) (the values are given for free and bound lipids, respectively).

  11. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Burgos-Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp.

  12. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The rate of lipid oxidation during exercise is controlled at several sites, and there is a reciprocal dependency between oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates (CHO). It is well known that the proportion of the 2 fuels oxidized is influenced by substrate availability and exercise intensity......, but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial...... matrix, beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC). CHO catabolism may impair lipid oxidation by interfering with the transfer of LCFAs into mitochondria and by competing for mutual cofactors (i.e., nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and (or) coenzyme A (Co...

  13. N-matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    An n x n matrix is called an N-matrix if all principal minors are negative. In this paper, we are interested in N-matrix completion problems, that is, when a partial N-matrix hás an N-matrix completion. In general, a combinatorially or non-combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix does not have an N-matrix completion. Here we prove that a combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix has an N-matrix completion if the graph of its specified entries is a 1-chordal graph. We also prove that there ...

  14. Completeness theorems in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since K. M.; Case's famous 1960 paper, transport theorists have been studying the questions of full- and half-range completeness for various transport type equations. The purpose of this note is to try to define exactly what is meant by completeness as it is needed, and used, in solving transport equations and to discuss some of the various techniques which have been, or might be, used to verify completeness. Attention is restricted to the question of full-range completeness. As a paradigm the generalized form of the transport equation first introduced by Beals is adopted

  15. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  16. Global adaptation to a lipid environment triggers the dormancy-related phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan G; Hernández, Adriana C; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Aguilar Ayala, Diana; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M; Bustos, Jose R; Zambrano, María M; González-Y-Merchand, Jorge; García, María J; Del Portillo, Patricia

    2014-05-20

    Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium's metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcriptome revealed a shift toward the glyoxylate cycle, the overexpression of main regulators whiB3, dosR, and Rv0081, and the increased expression of several genes related to reductive stress. Our evidence showed that lipid storage seems to be the selected mechanism used by M. tuberculosis to ameliorate the assumed damage of reductive stress and that concomitantly the bacilli acquired a slowed-growth and drug-tolerant phenotype, all characteristics previously associated with the dormant stage. Additionally, intergenic regions were also detected, including the unexpected upregulation of tRNAs that suggest a new role for these molecules in the acquisition of a drug-tolerant phenotype by dormant bacilli. Finally, a set of lipid signature genes for the adaptation process was also identified. This in vitro model represents a suitable condition to illustrate the participation of reductive stress in drugs' activity against dormant bacilli, an aspect scarcely investigated to date. This approach provides a new perspective to the understanding of latent infection and suggests the participation of previously undetected molecules. Mycobacterium tuberculosis establishes long-lasting highly prevalent infection inside the human body, called latent tuberculosis. The known involvement of fatty acids is changing our understanding of that silent infection; however, question of how tubercle bacilli globally adapt to a lipid-enriched environment is still an unanswered. With the single change of providing fatty

  17. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  18. Proposal for a common nomenclature for fragment ions in mass spectra of lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josch K Pauling

    Full Text Available Advances in mass spectrometry-based lipidomics have in recent years prompted efforts to standardize the annotation of the vast number of lipid molecules that can be detected in biological systems. These efforts have focused on cataloguing, naming and drawing chemical structures of intact lipid molecules, but have provided no guidelines for annotation of lipid fragment ions detected using tandem and multi-stage mass spectrometry, albeit these fragment ions are mandatory for structural elucidation and high confidence lipid identification, especially in high throughput lipidomics workflows. Here we propose a nomenclature for the annotation of lipid fragment ions, describe its implementation and present a freely available web application, termed ALEX123 lipid calculator, that can be used to query a comprehensive database featuring curated lipid fragmentation information for more than 430,000 potential lipid molecules from 47 lipid classes covering five lipid categories. We note that the nomenclature is generic, extendable to stable isotope-labeled lipid molecules and applicable to automated annotation of fragment ions detected by most contemporary lipidomics platforms, including LC-MS/MS-based routines.

  19. Lipid Fingerprinting in Mild versus Severe Forms of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Yasmin Gueuvoghlanian-Silva

    Full Text Available The blood serum lipid profile of women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM is still under study. There are no data on the serum lipid profile of GDM patients with more severe (insulin treated compared to milder forms (diet treated GDM. The aim of our study was to analyze the blood serum lipid profile of patients with milder versus more severe forms of GDM and to compare these findings with those of healthy pregnant women. This cross-sectional analytical study included 30 insulin-treated GDM, 30 diet-only GDM and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum lipid was extracted from the 90 participants and their lipid profiles were analyzed by lipid fingerprinting using liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 143 parent ions were differentially represented in each of the three groups, belonging to the following classes: Glycerophospholipids, Sterol Lipids, Sphingolipids, Prenol Lipids, Fatty Acyls and Glycerolipids. There were significant differences in the lipid profiles of healthy pregnant women compared to GDM patients and also between milder versus more severe forms of GDM. There are marked differences in lipid fingerprinting between healthy pregnant women compared to those with GDM in the third trimester. Moreover, the lipid profile of women with more severe forms of GDM differs considerably from that of women with milder forms of GDM. These findings may be useful to help clarify the pathogenesis of milder and more severe forms of GDM.

  20. Interaction pathways between soft lipid nanodiscs and plasma membranes: A molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shixin; Luo, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Ren, Hao; Deng, Li; Zhang, Xianren; Huang, Fang; Yue, Tongtao

    2017-10-01

    Lipid nanodisc, a model membrane platform originally synthesized for study of membrane proteins, has recently been used as the carrier to deliver amphiphilic drugs into target tumor cells. However, the central question of how cells interact with such emerging nanomaterials remains unclear and deserves our research for both improving the delivery efficiency and reducing the side effect. In this work, a binary lipid nanodisc is designed as the minimum model to investigate its interactions with plasma membranes by using the dissipative particle dynamics method. Three typical interaction pathways, including the membrane attachment with lipid domain exchange of nanodiscs, the partial membrane wrapping with nanodisc vesiculation, and the receptor-mediated endocytosis, are discovered. For the first pathway, the boundary normal lipids acting as ligands diffuse along the nanodisc rim to gather at the membrane interface, repelling the central bola lipids to reach a stable membrane attachment. If bola lipids are positioned at the periphery and act as ligands, they diffuse to form a large aggregate being wrapped by the membrane, leaving the normal lipids exposed on the membrane exterior by assembling into a vesicle. Finally, by setting both central normal lipids and boundary bola lipids as ligands, the receptor-mediated endocytosis occurs via both deformation and self-rotation of the nanodiscs. All above pathways for soft lipid nanodiscs are quite different from those for rigid nanoparticles, which may provide useful guidelines for design of soft lipid nanodiscs in widespread biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Steric confinement of proteins on lipid membranes can drive curvature and tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2010-04-27

    Deformation of lipid membranes into curved structures such as buds and tubules is essential to many cellular structures including endocytic pits and filopodia. Binding of specific proteins to lipid membranes has been shown to promote membrane bending during endocytosis and transport vesicle formation. Additionally, specific lipid species are found to colocalize with many curved membrane structures, inspiring ongoing exploration of a variety of roles for lipid domains in membrane bending. However, the specific mechanisms by which lipids and proteins collaborate to induce curvature remain unknown. Here we demonstrate a new mechanism for induction and amplification of lipid membrane curvature that relies on steric confinement of protein binding on membrane surfaces. Using giant lipid vesicles that contain domains with high affinity for his-tagged proteins, we show that protein crowding on lipid domain surfaces creates a protein layer that buckles outward, spontaneously bending the domain into stable buds and tubules. In contrast to previously described bending mechanisms relying on local steric interactions between proteins and lipids (i.e. helix insertion into membranes), this mechanism produces tubules whose dimensions are defined by global parameters: domain size and membrane tension. Our results suggest the intriguing possibility that confining structures, such as lipid domains and protein lattices, can amplify membrane bending by concentrating the steric interactions between bound proteins. This observation highlights a fundamental physical mechanism for initiation and control of membrane bending that may help explain how lipids and proteins collaborate to create the highly curved structures observed in vivo.

  2. Mechanisms of formation and function of eosinophil lipid bodies: inducible intracellular sites involved in arachidonic acid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozza Patricia T

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies, inducible lipid-rich cytoplasmic inclusions, are characteristically abundant in cells associated with inflammation, including eosinophils. Here we reviewed the formation and function of lipid bodies in human eosinophils. We now have evidence that the formation of lipid bodies is not attributable to adverse mechanisms, but is centrally mediated by specific signal transduction pathways. Arachidonic acid and other cis fatty acids by an NSAID-inhibitable process, diglycerides, and PAF by a 5-lipoxygenase dependent pathway are potent stimulators of lipid body induction. Lipid body formation develops rapidly by processes that involve PKC, PLC, and de novo mRNA and protein synthesis. These structures clearly serve as repositoires of arachidonyl-phospholipids and are more than inert depots. Specific enzymes, including cytosolic phospholipase A2, MAP kinases, lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, associate with lipid bodies. Lipid bodies appear to be dynamic, organelle-like structures involved in intracellular pathways of lipid mobilization and metabolism. Indeed, increases in lipid body numbers correlated with enhanced production of both lipoxygenase- and cyclooxygenase-derived eicosanoids. We hypothesize that lipid bodies are distinct inducible sites for generating eicosanoids as paracrine mediators with varied activities in inflammation. The capacity of lipid body formation to be specifically and rapidly induced in leukocytes enhances eicosanoid mediator formation, and conversely pharmacologic inhibition of lipid body induction represents a potential novel and specific target for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  3. Lipid Bilayer Formation on Organic Electronic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-23

    The lipid bilayer is the elemental structure of cell membrane, forming a stable barrier between the interior and exterior of the cell while hosting membrane proteins that enable selective transport of biologically important compounds and cellular recognition. Monitoring the quality and function of lipid bilayers is thus essential and can be performed using electrically active substrates that allow for transduction of signals. Such a promising electronic transducer material is the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) which has provided a plethora of novel bio transducing architectures. The challenge is however in assembling a bilayer on the conducting polymer surface, which is defect-free and has high mobility. Herein, we investigate the fusion of zwitterionic vesicles on a variety of PEDOT:PSS films, but also on an electron transporting, negatively charged organic semiconductor, in order to understand the surface properties that trigger vesicle fusion. The PEDOT:PSS films are prepared from dispersions containing different concentrations of ethylene glycol included as a formulation additive, which gives a handle to modulate surface physicochemical properties without a compromise on the chemical composition. The strong correlation between the polarity of the surface, the fusion of vesicles and the mobility of the resulting bilayer aides extracting design principles for the development of future conducting polymers that will enable the formation of lipid bilayers.

  4. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  5. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  6. Latino College Completion: West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  7. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  8. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  9. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  10. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  11. Phloem proteomics reveals new lipid-binding proteins with a putative role in lipid-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marie Barbaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes inversely affect our ability to grow the food required for an increasing world population. To combat future crop loss due to abiotic stress, we need to understand the signals responsible for changes in plant development and the resulting adaptations, especially the signaling molecules traveling long-distance through the plant phloem. Using a proteomics approach, we had identified several putative lipid-binding proteins in the phloem exudates. Simultaneously, we identified several complex lipids as well as jasmonates. These findings prompted us to propose that phloem (phospho- lipids could act as long-distance developmental signals in response to abiotic stress, and that they are released, sensed, and moved by phloem lipid-binding proteins (Benning et al., 2012. Indeed, the proteins we identified include lipases that could release a signaling lipid into the phloem, putative receptor components, and proteins that could mediate lipid-movement. To test this possible protein-based lipid-signaling pathway, three of the proteins, which could potentially act in a relay, are characterized here: (I a putative GDSL-motif lipase (II a PIG-P-like protein, with a possible receptor-like function; (III and PLAFP (phloem lipid-associated family protein, a predicted lipid-binding protein of unknown function. Here we show that all three proteins bind lipids, in particular phosphatidic acid (PtdOH, which is known to participate in intracellular stress signaling. Genes encoding these proteins are expressed in the vasculature, a prerequisite for phloem transport. Cellular localization studies show that the proteins are not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum but surround the cell in a spotted pattern that has been previously observed with receptors and plasmodesmatal proteins. Abiotic signals that induce the production of PtdOH also regulate the expression of GDSL-lipase and PLAFP, albeit in opposite patterns. Our findings suggest that while

  12. Aluminum induces lipid peroxidation and aggregation of human blood platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.C. Neiva

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ intoxication is thought to play a major role in the development of Alzheimer's disease and in certain pathologic manifestations arising from long-term hemodialysis. Although the metal does not present redox capacity, it can stimulate tissue lipid peroxidation in animal models. Furthermore, in vitro studies have revealed that the fluoroaluminate complex induces diacylglycerol formation, 43-kDa protein phosphorylation and aggregation. Based on these observations, we postulated that Al3+-induced blood platelet aggregation was mediated by lipid peroxidation. Using chemiluminescence (CL of luminol as an index of total lipid peroxidation capacity, we established a correlation between lipid peroxidation capacity and platelet aggregation. Al3+ (20-100 µM stimulated CL production by human blood platelets as well as their aggregation. Incubation of the platelets with the antioxidants nor-dihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA (100 µM and n-propyl gallate (NPG (100 µM, inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway, completely prevented CL and platelet aggregation. Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA (100 µM, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, was a weaker inhibitor of both events. These findings suggest that Al3+ stimulates lipid peroxidation and the lipoxygenase pathway in human blood platelets thereby causing their aggregation

  13. Vesicle fusion with bilayer lipid membrane controlled by electrostatic interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Oshima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The fusion of proteoliposomes is a promising approach for incorporating membrane proteins in artificial lipid membranes. In this study, we employed an electrostatic interaction between vesicles and supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs to control the fusion process. We combined large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs containing anionic lipids, which we used instead of proteoliposomes, and s-BLMs containing cationic lipids to control electrostatic interaction. Anionic LUVs were never adsorbed or ruptured on the SiO2 substrate with a slight negative charge, and selectively fused with cationic s-BLMs. The LUVs can be fused effectively to the target position. Furthermore, as the vesicle fusion proceeds and some of the positive charges are neutralized, the attractive interaction weakens and finally the vesicle fusion saturates. In other words, we can control the number of LUVs fused with s-BLMs by controlling the concentration of the cationic lipids in the s-BLMs. The fluidity of the s-BLMs after vesicle fusion was confirmed to be sufficiently high. This indicates that the LUVs attached to the s-BLMs were almost completely fused, and there were few intermediate state vesicles in the fusion process. We could control the position and amount of vesicle fusion with the s-BLMs by employing an electrostatic interaction.

  14. The Making and Taking of Lipids: The Role of Bacterial Lipid Synthesis and the Harnessing of Host Lipids in Bacterial Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozo, E M; Rucks, E A

    2016-01-01

    In order to survive environmental stressors, including those induced by growth in the human host, bacterial pathogens will adjust their membrane physiology accordingly. These physiological changes also include the use of host-derived lipids to alter their own membranes and feed central metabolic pathways. Within the host, the pathogen is exposed to many stressful stimuli. A resulting adaptation is for pathogens to scavenge the host environment for readily available lipid sources. The pathogen takes advantage of these host-derived lipids to increase or decrease the rigidity of their own membranes, to provide themselves with valuable precursors to feed central metabolic pathways, or to impact host signalling and processes. Within, we review the diverse mechanisms that both extracellular and intracellular pathogens employ to alter their own membranes as well as their use of host-derived lipids in membrane synthesis and modification, in order to increase survival and perpetuate disease within the human host. Furthermore, we discuss how pathogen employed mechanistic utilization of host-derived lipids allows for their persistence, survival and potentiation of disease. A more thorough understanding of all of these mechanisms will have direct consequences for the development of new therapeutics, and specifically, therapeutics that target pathogens, while preserving normal flora. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  15. A comprehensive classification system for lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Eoin; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H Alex; Glass, Christopher K; Merrill, Alfred H; Murphy, Robert C; Raetz, Christian R H; Russell, David W; Seyama, Yousuke; Shaw, Walter; Shimizu, Takao; Spener, Friedrich; van Meer, Gerrit; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; White, Stephen H; Witztum, Joseph L; Dennis, Edward A

    2005-05-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, "lipidomics," in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of lipids with a common platform that is compatible with informatics requirements has been developed to deal with the massive amounts of data that will be generated by our lipid community. As an initial step in this development, we divide lipids into eight categories (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterol lipids, prenol lipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides) containing distinct classes and subclasses of molecules, devise a common manner of representing the chemical structures of individual lipids and their derivatives, and provide a 12 digit identifier for each unique lipid molecule. The lipid classification scheme is chemically based and driven by the distinct hydrophobic and hydrophilic elements that compose the lipid. This structured vocabulary will facilitate the systematization of lipid biology and enable the cataloging of lipids and their properties in a way that is compatible with other macromolecular databases.

  16. Complexity of Products of Some Complete and Complete Bipartite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of spanning trees in graphs (networks is an important invariant; it is also an important measure of reliability of a network. In this paper, we derive simple formulas of the complexity, number of spanning trees, of products of some complete and complete bipartite graphs such as cartesian product, normal product, composition product, tensor product, and symmetric product, using linear algebra and matrix analysis techniques.

  17. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  18. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  19. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  20. An Enhanced Platform for Bioelectrochemical Systems: A Novel Approach to Characterize Lipid Structure on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Megan; Wetherington, Maxwell; Robinson, Joshua; Kumar, Manish

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material composed of a single carbon layer that offers several appealing properties including high conductivity, large surface area, and flexibility. Its unique properties make graphene an ideal substrate for several applications, including energy storage, optical electronics, and medical devices. Functionalizing graphene with a lipid bilayer both increases its biocompatibility and provides a platform for diverse bioelectrochemical systems. However, characterization of lipids on graphene is challenging since traditional fluorescent methods for characterization of supported lipid structures are ineffective on graphene due to its highly quenching nature. Furthermore, there are multiple conflicting models published for the structure of lipids on graphene. We demonstrate that a novel technique using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) allows for characterization of lipids on graphene while providing additional benefits over conventional setups. We use Raman-PL in conjunction with liquid-AFM and QCM-D to determine the structure, fluidity, and homogeneity of lipids on graphene. MRI-PSIEE Grant.

  1. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  2. Cubic Phase Formation in Phospholipid and PEG-Lipid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, Kimberly; Cunningham, Beth; Wolfe, David; Williams, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Lipid systems modeling cell membranes are capable of self-assembling into various liquid crystal mesophases with varying geometry and dimensions. We have suggested that it is possible to engineer the lipid systems through the incorporation of covalently attached polymer lipids to produce unique effects. The results of this engineering process include both the stabilization of lipid phases that normally exist over very limited temperature ranges and the induction of novel phases that are not normally present in the parent lipid. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and NMR to investigate the phase behavior of the DOPE:PEG:MO and MO:PEG:D2O systems with varying molar ratios and PEG sizes. The phase diagram which we have generated indicates the conditions necessary to induce specific phase structures and sizes into three-dimensional cubic lipid systems. This information may be useful to create nanostructures which will be valuable in applications such as protein crystallization and protein biochip development.

  3. Enhancing intestinal drug solubilisation using lipid-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Cuine, Jean F; Charman, William N

    2008-03-17

    Lipid-based delivery systems are finding increasing application in the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble, lipophilic drugs. Whilst lipidic dose forms may improve oral bioavailability via several mechanisms, enhancement of gastrointestinal solubilisation remains argueably the most important method of absorption enhancement. This review firstly describes the mechanistic rationale which underpins the use of lipid-based delivery systems to enhance drug solubilisation and briefly reviews the available literature describing increases in oral bioavailability after the administration of lipid solution, suspension and self-emulsifying formulations. The use of in vitro methods including dispersion tests and more complex models of in vitro lipolysis as indicators of potential in vivo performance are subsequently described, with particular focus on recent data which suggests that the digestion of surfactants present in lipid-based formulations may impact on formulation performance. Finally, a series of seven guiding principles for formulation design of lipid-based delivery systems are suggested based on an analysis of recent data generated in our laboratories and elsewhere.

  4. Lipidated Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7–10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology has very recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for Dioscorea villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analogue long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were demonstrated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1–5), while series B (6–10) proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It also may inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

  5. Lipids, lipid droplets and lipoproteins in their cellular context; an ultrastructural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Lipids are essential for cellular life, functioning either organized as bilayer membranes to compartmentalize cellular processes, as signaling molecules or as metabolic energy storage. Our current knowledge on lipid organization and cellular lipid homeostasis is mainly based on biochemical data.

  6. Engineering lipid overproduction in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Kangjian; Imam Abidi, Syed Hussain; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Haoran; Chakraborty, Sagar; Watson, Nicki; Kumaran Ajikumar, Parayil; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    Conversion of carbohydrates to lipids at high yield and productivity is essential for cost-effective production of renewable biodiesel. Although some microorganisms can convert sugars to oils, conversion yields and rates are typically low due primarily to allosteric inhibition of the lipid biosynthetic pathway by saturated fatty acids. By reverse engineering the mammalian cellular obese phenotypes, we identified the delta-9 stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) as a rate limiting step and target for the metabolic engineering of the lipid synthesis pathway in Yarrowia lipolytica. Simultaneous overexpression of SCD, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), and Diacylglyceride acyl-transferase (DGA1) in Y. lipolytica yielded an engineered strain exhibiting highly desirable phenotypes of fast cell growth and lipid overproduction including high carbon to lipid conversion yield (84.7% of theoretical maximal yield), high lipid titers (~55g/L), enhanced tolerance to glucose and cellulose-derived sugars. Moreover, the engineered strain featured a three-fold growth advantage over the wild type strain. As a result, a maximal lipid productivity of ~1g/L/h is obtained during the stationary phase. Furthermore, we showed that the engineered yeast required cytoskeleton remodeling in eliciting the obesity phenotype. Altogether, our work describes the development of a microbial catalyst with the highest reported lipid yield, titer and productivity to date. This is an important step towards the development of an efficient and cost-effective process for biodiesel production from renewable resources. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of topically applied lipids on surfactant-irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, M; Andersson, A C

    1996-02-01

    Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of dry skin. All of them contain lipids. It has been suggested that topically applied lipids may interfere with the structure and function of the permeability barrier. The influence of a single application of nine different lipids on normal skin and skin irritated by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was studied in 21 healthy subjects. Parameters assessed were visible signs of irritation, and objectively measured cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The substances tested were hydrocortisone, petrolatum, fish oil, borage oil, sunflower seed oil, canola oil, shea butter, and fractions of unsaponifiable lipids from canola oil and shea butter. Water was included as a control. On normal skin, no significant differences in the effects of the test substances were found, whereas significant differences were observed when they were applied to SLS-irritated skin. The visible signs of SLS-induced irritation were significantly less pronounced after treatment with the sterol-enriched fraction from canola oil than after treatment with water. This fraction, and hydrocortisone, reduced cutaneous blood flow. Furthermore, application of hydrocortisone, canola oil, and its sterol-enriched fraction, resulted in significantly lower TEWL than with water. The other lipids had no effect on the degree of irritation. In conclusion, lipids commonly used in moisturizers may reduce skin reactions to irritants. Previous studies have shown that, in barrier perturbed skin, the synthesis of sterols is increased. The observed effects of canola oil and its fraction of unsaponifiable lipids on SLS-induced irritation suggest the possibility that they assisted the skin in supplying the damaged barrier with adequate lipids.

  8. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2014-05-20

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment, including receiving, in an active messaging interface (`AMI`) data communications instructions, at least one instruction specifying a callback function; injecting into an injection FIFO buffer of a data communication adapter, an injection descriptor, each slot in the injection FIFO buffer having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list any callback function specified by an instruction, incrementing a pending callback counter for each listed callback function; transferring payload data as per each injection descriptor, incrementing a transfer counter upon completion of each transfer; determining from counter values whether the pending callback list presently includes callback functions whose data transfers have been completed; calling by the AMI any such callback functions from the pending callback list, decrementing the pending callback counter for each callback function called.

  9. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  10. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  11. Identification of Lipid Binding Modulators Using the Protein-Lipid Overlay Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tuo-Xian; Xiong, Wen; Finkielstein, Carla V; Capelluto, Daniel G S

    2017-01-01

    The protein-lipid overlay assay is an inexpensive, easy-to-implement, and high-throughput methodology that employs nitrocellulose membranes to immobilize lipids in order to rapid screen and identify protein-lipid interactions. In this chapter, we show how this methodology can identify potential modulators of protein-lipid interactions by screening water-soluble lipid competitors or even the introduction of pH changes during the binding assay to identify pH-dependent lipid binding events.

  12. Panorama completion for street views

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhe; Martin, Ralph Robert; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers panorama images used for street views. Their viewing angle of 360° causes pixels at the top and bottom to appear stretched and warped. Although current image completion algorithms work well, they cannot be directly used in the presence of such distortions found in panoramas of street views. We thus propose a novel approach to complete such 360° panoramas using optimization-based projection to deal with distortions. Experimental results show that our approach is efficient ...

  13. Yeast lipid metabolism at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Lisa; Daum, Günther

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, lipids have gained much attention due to their involvement in health and disease. Lipids are required for the formation of membranes and contribute to many different processes such as cell signaling, energy supply, and cell death. Various organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lipid droplets are involved in lipid metabolism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a reliable model organism to study biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology of lipids. The availability of mutants bearing defects in lipid metabolic pathways and the ease of manipulation by culture conditions facilitated these investigations. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about lipid metabolism in yeast. We grouped this large topic into three sections dealing with (1) fatty acids; (2) membrane lipids; and (3) storage lipids. Fatty acids serve as building blocks for the synthesis of membrane lipids (phospholipids, sphingolipids) and storage lipids (triacylglycerols, steryl esters). Phospholipids, sterols, and sphingolipids are essential components of cellular membranes. Recent investigations addressing lipid synthesis, degradation, and storage as well as regulatory aspects are presented. The role of enzymes governing important steps of the different lipid metabolic pathways is described. Finally, the link between lipid metabolic and dynamic processes is discussed. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary lipid emulsions and endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Marie-Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance. Among factors triggering such inflammation, recent works revealed the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, so-called endotoxins. LPS are naturally present in the gut via the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies show that they can induce in plasma a metabolic endotoxemia after the consumption of unbalanced hyperlipidic meals. This article reviews recent knowledge gained on the role of intestinal lipid absorption and the composition of dietary lipids on: (i the induction of metabolic endotoxemia, (ii the types of plasma transporters of LPS and (iii associated low-grade inflammation. Notably, lipids are present in foods under various physicochemical structures and notably in emulsified form. Our recent works reveal that such structure and the type of emulsifier can modulate postprandial lipemia; recent results on the possible consequences on metabolic endotoxemia will be discussed.

  15. Alcohol Interactions with Lipid Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kondela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural changes to lipid membrane that ensue from the addition of aliphatic alcohols with various alkyl tail lengths. Small angle neutron diffraction from flat lipid bilayers that are hydrated through water vapor has been employed to eliminate possible artefacts of the membrane curvature and the alcohol’s membrane-water partitioning. We have observed clear changes to membrane structure in both transversal and lateral directions. Most importantly, our results suggest the alteration of the membrane-water interface. The water encroachment has shifted in the way that alcohol loaded bilayers absorbed more water molecules when compared to the neat lipid bilayers. The experimental results have been corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations to reveal further details. Namely, the order parameter profiles have been fruitful in correlating the mechanical model of structural changes to the effect of anesthesia.

  16. Lipid-associated Oral Delivery: Mechanisms and Analysis of Oral Absorption Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Rezhdo, Oljora; Speciner, Lauren; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of newly discovered oral drugs are poorly water soluble, and co-administration with lipids has proven effective in significantly enhancing bioavailability of some compounds with low aqueous solubility. Yet, lipid-based delivery technologies have not been widely employed in commercial oral products. Lipids can impact drug transport and fate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through multiple mechanisms including enhancement of solubility and dissolution kinetics, enhancement of pe...

  17. Approaches toward functional fluid supported lipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kevin Chun-I.

    Planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs) have attracted immense interest for their properties as model cell membranes and for potential applications in biosensors and lab-on-a-chip devices. Our study covers three aspects of the construction, characterization, and application of functional PSLBs. First, a combination of micro-fabrication, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, and fusion of extruded small unilamellar vesicle (E-SUVs) in sequence was used to create polymer-cushioned PSLBs in a microarray format. Random lipo-glycocopolymer mixed with L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) was compressed at the air-water interface and transferred onto the photoresist-patterned substrate by the LB technique to achieve spatially directed deposition. Construction of planar bilayers in an aqueous environment was subsequently completed by vesicle fusion. Epifluorescence microscopy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and electrophoresis-relaxation were employed to examine the resulting patterns as well as to verify the two-dimensional mobility of the supported membrane systems. This approach could possibly provide a useful route to create functional arrays of polymer-supported lipid bilayers. Second, we report the formation of fluid planar biomembranes on hydrophilic silica aerogels and xerogels. When the aerogel/xerogel was pre-hydrated and then allowed to incubate in egg PC E-SUV solution, lipid bilayers were formed due to the favorable interaction of vesicles with the hydroxyl-abundant silica surface. FRAP was used to determine the lateral diffusivity of membranes on aerogels. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to monitor the kinetics of the irreversible adsorption and fusion of vesicles into bilayers on xerogel thin films. Finally, we compared the formation of PSLBs with and without incorporation of monosialoganglioside GM1 (GM1) as the antigen for in situ antibody binding. Quantifiable differences were observed in the

  18. Effects of kiwi consumption on plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance in the context of a normal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Mendizabal-Gallastegui, Nere; de la Fuente, Aventina de la Cal; Otegui-Ilarduya, Luis; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A; de Cabo Laso, Angela; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Among fruits, kiwi is one of the richest in vitamins and polyphenols and has strong anti-oxidant effects. We aimed to analyze the relationship between the consumption of kiwi and plasma lipid values, fibrinogen, and insulin resistance in adults within the context of a normal diet and physical-activity. Cross-sectional study. Participants (N = 1469), who were free of cardiovascular diseases, completed a visit, which included the collection of information concerning the participant's usual diet and kiwi consumption using a previously validated, semi-quantitative, 137-item food-frequency-questionnaire. Fasting laboratory determinations included plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance. Regular physical-activity was determined using accelerometry. Consumers of at least 1 kiwi/week presented higher plasma values of HDL-cholesterol (mean difference 4.50 [95% CI: 2.63 to 6.36]) and lower triglyceride values (mean difference -20.03 [95% CI: -6.77 to -33.29]), fibrinogen values (mean difference -13.22 [95% CI: -2.18 to -24.26]) and HOMAir values (mean difference -0.30 [95% CI: -0.09 to -0.50]) (p Consumption of at least one kiwi/week is associated with lower plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and improved plasma lipid profile in the context of a normal diet and regular exercise.

  19. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Chen, Chun-Han; Lin, Zih-Chan; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-04-01

    Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Recent advances in oral delivery of drugs and bioactive natural products using solid lipid nanoparticles as the carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and enzymatic barriers in the gastrointestinal (GI tract hamper the oral delivery of many labile drugs. The GI epithelium also contributes to poor permeability for numerous drugs. Drugs with poor aqueous solubility have difficulty dissolving in the GI tract, resulting in low bioavailability. Nanomedicine provides an opportunity to improve the delivery efficiency of orally administered drugs. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are categorized as a new generation of lipid nanoparticles consisting of a complete solid lipid matrix. SLNs used for oral administration offer several benefits over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced stability, improved epithelium permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects. The nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of SLNs tailor the controllable physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles for GI penetration via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight the recent progress in the development of SLNs for disease treatment. Recent application of oral SLNs includes therapies for cancers, central nervous system-related disorders, cardiovascular-related diseases, infection, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In addition to drugs that may be active cargos in SLNs, some natural compounds with pharmacological activity are also suitable for SLN encapsulation to enhance oral bioavailability. In this article, we systematically introduce the concepts and amelioration mechanisms of the nanomedical techniques for drug- and natural compound-loaded SLNs.

  1. An $ omega $-complete equational specification of interleaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Fokkink (Wan); S.P. Luttik (Bas)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the process theory $PA$ that includes an operation for parallel composition, based on the interleaving paradigm. We prove that the standard set of axioms of $PA$ is not $omega$-complete by providing a set of axioms that are valid in $PA$, but not derivable from the

  2. Doctoral Dissertations Recently Completed or in Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Reviews six doctoral dissertations currently in progress or completed during 1993 that may be of interest to those in the school library media field. Topics include technology; information seeking; literacy; the portrayal of African American males in realistic fiction picture books; and the role of youth services librarians. (KRN)

  3. A more complete library on your desktop

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN library announces two new services: a complete database on standards containing the description of 400,000 standards, and a collection of scientific journals with more than three million articles. These include historical papers, some of them dating from the end of the 19th century.

  4. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) for pulmonary application: a review of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Zimmer, A; Pardeike, J

    2014-01-01

    Drug delivery by inhalation is a noninvasive means of administration that has following advantages for local treatment for airway diseases: reaching the epithelium directly, circumventing first pass metabolism and avoiding systemic toxicity. Moreover, from the physiological point of view, the lung provides advantages for systemic delivery of drugs including its large surface area, a thin alveolar epithelium and extensive vasculature which allow rapid and effective drug absorption. Therefore, pulmonary application is considered frequently for both, the local and the systemic delivery of drugs. Lipid nanoparticles - Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers - are nanosized carrier systems in which solid particles consisting of a lipid matrix are stabilized by surfactants in an aqueous phase. Advantages of lipid nanoparticles for the pulmonary application are the possibility of a deep lung deposition as they can be incorporated into respirables carriers due to their small size, prolonged release and low toxicity. This paper will give an overview of the existing literature about lipid nanoparticles for pulmonary application. Moreover, it will provide the reader with some background information for pulmonary drug delivery, i.e., anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system, formulation requirements, application forms, clearance from the lung, pharmacological benefits and nanotoxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of superior lipid producing Lipomyces and Myxozyma yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S Dien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous yeasts are of interest for production of single cell oils from sugars. Eighteen members of the Lipomyces and Myxozyma clade were screened for lipid production when cultured on 10%w/v glucose. The highest ranking yeasts included L. tetrasporus (21 g/L, L. spencer-martinsiae (19.6 g/L, and L. lipofer (16.7 g/L. By contrast, Rhodosporidium toruloides, which was included as a positive control, produced 16.7 g/L. The L. tetrasporus and L. lipofer were further characterized for growth and lipid production on sugars present in biomass hydrolysates. These included L-arabinose, xylose, and an equal glucose and xylose mixture. L. tetrasporus had lipid titers of 16.3–20.8 g/L and L. lipofer 12.5–17.0 g/L. When both strains were grown on an equal mixture of glucose and xylose, xylose was consumed immediately following glucose. Lipid contents for the yeasts consisted primarily of C18:1 and C16:0, which makes them a promising source of lipids for fuel applications.

  6. Next generation macrocyclic and acyclic cationic lipids for gene transfer: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeli, Emile; Maginty, Amanda B; Abdul Khalique, Nada; Raju, Liji; Abdulhai, Mohamad; Nicholson, David G; Larsen, Helge; Pungente, Michael D; Goldring, William P D

    2015-10-01

    Previously we reported the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of four novel, short-chain cationic lipid gene delivery vectors, characterized by acyclic or macrocyclic hydrophobic regions composed of, or derived from, two 7-carbon chains. Herein we describe a revised synthesis of an expanded library of related cationic lipids to include extended chain analogues, their formulation with plasmid DNA (pDNA) and in vitro delivery into Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO-K1) cells. The formulations were evaluated against each other based on structural differences in the hydrophobic domain and headgroup. Structurally the library is divided into four sets based on lipids derived from two 7- or two 11-carbon hydrophobic chains, C7 and C11 respectively, which possess either a dimethylamine or a trimethylamine derived headgroup. Each set includes four cationic lipids based on an acyclic or macrocyclic, saturated or unsaturated hydrophobic domain. All lipids were co-formulated with the commercial cationic lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC) in a 1:1 molar ratio, along with one of two distinct neutral co-lipids, cholesterol or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) in an overall cationic-to-neutral lipid molar ratio of 3:2. Binding of lipid formulations with DNA, and packing morphology associated with the individual lipid-DNA complexes were characterized by gel electrophoresis and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), respectively. As a general trend, lipoplex formulations based on mismatched binary cationic lipids, composed of a shorter C7 lipid and the longer lipid EPC (C14), were generally associated with higher transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity than their more closely matched C11/EPC binary lipid formulation counterparts. Furthermore, the cyclic lipids gave transfection levels as high as or greater than their acyclic counterparts, and formulations with cholesterol exhibited higher transfection and lower cytotoxicity than those

  7. Lipids in citrus sinensis seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, S.; Liaquat, L.; Khalid, B.; Khan, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    The seed oil of citrus sinensis when subjected to different physicochemical tests showed moisture 13.2%, ash 7.5%, ester value 1.29%, free fatty acid 0.4%. iodine value 65.0% and protein value 6.0%. According to lipid analysis. the oil was classified into hydrocarbons. wax esters, sterol esters, triglycerides. free fatty acids, 1,3 and 1,2 diglycerides, alcohols, sterols, monoglycerides, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. The fatty acid (C/sub 12.0/ - C/sub 21.0/) composition of all lipid classes was determined with the help of thin layer and gas liquid chromatography. (author)

  8. Completion thyroidectomy: Results of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadullah Girgin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Completion thyroidectomy is required at situations such as recurrent nodular goiter and malignant findings at histopathology after primary operation for noduler goiter. The aim of this study was to investigate the indications for the completion thyroidectomy and the effect of the operation timing on morbidity.Materials and Methods: Thirty-one consecutive patients (26 females and 5 males with a mean age of 36.5±7.7 years (range, 23-55 yrs that underwent completion thyroidectomy were investigated. The patients, who needed re-operation for recurrence with diagnosis of histopathologically proven malignancy or re-operated for recurrence, were included. Results: Seventeen patients had the second operation performed within 10 days or more than 90 days after initial operation (group 1. Fourteen patients had re-operation between 10 and 90 days after the first procedure (group 2. Histopathological examination after the completion thyroidectomy revealed remnant tumour in 7 patients (23%, two of them in the contralateral lobe. One patient suffered from a permanent hypoparathyroidism in group 1 and a permanent vocal cord paralysis in group 2.Conclusion: Our results suggest that other treatment modalities except total thyroidectomy are insufficient, since remnant tumour was seen over 20% of the histopathological specimens of the completion thyroidectomy. Timing of completion thyroidectomy had no effect on the thyroid cancer development. Total thyroidectomy can be preferred in the surgical management of tiroid cancers or benign nodular goiter.

  9. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  10. Distribution of neutral lipids in the lipid droplet core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CEs) are a form of cholesterol (CHOL) storage in the living cells, as opposed to free CHOL. CEs are major constituents of low density lipoprotein particles. Therefore, CEs are implicated in provoking atherosclerosis. Arranged into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs), CEs are stored...

  11. Lipid Peroxidation and lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and dyslipidaemia are associated with oxidative stress and are major causes of cardiovascular disease amounting to 30% of global death rate. In the current work, malondialdehyde and lipid profile were estimated in sixty hypertensive patients attending outpatient clinic of the Usmanu. Danfodiyo ...

  12. Lipid Peroxidation and lipid Profile in Hypertensive Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension and dyslipidaemia are associated with oxidative stress and are major causes of cardiovascular disease amounting to 30% of global death rate. In the current work, malondialdehyde and lipid profile were estimated in sixty hypertensive patients attending outpatient clinic of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University ...

  13. Study of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, age, sex, obesity, cigarette smoking and positive family history.[2]. Oxidative stress and inflammation are now being considered as significant and novel risk factors.[3-5]. According to Kutuk et al., lipid peroxidation and inflammation are cooperative events involved in atherosclerosis.

  14. Blood lipid metabolites and meat lipid peroxidation responses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from broilers to evaluate serum biochemical metabolites on day 41. Thigh meat samples were provided and analysed after 1, 5 and 10 days' storage to evaluate lipid peroxidation at the end of the experiment. Fat and protein contents of thigh muscle and abdominal fat weight were measured ...

  15. Biocatalytic Route to Surface Active Lipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Xu, Xuebing

    Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving ...... distinct self assembling property and find useful application in surfactant industry.......Lipid can be structurally modified in order to attain improved functional properties. This work look into the possibilities of developing surface active lipids with improved functional properties through biocatalytic route. Biocatalytic route to surface active lipid are usually complex involving...

  16. Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasdóttir, Sigrún Huld; Visser, André W; Richardson, Katherine; Heath, Michael R

    2015-09-29

    Estimates of carbon flux to the deep oceans are essential for our understanding of global carbon budgets. Sinking of detrital material ("biological pump") is usually thought to be the main biological component of this flux. Here, we identify an additional biological mechanism, the seasonal "lipid pump," which is highly efficient at sequestering carbon into the deep ocean. It involves the vertical transport and metabolism of carbon rich lipids by overwintering zooplankton. We show that one species, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus overwintering in the North Atlantic, sequesters an amount of carbon equivalent to the sinking flux of detrital material. The efficiency of the lipid pump derives from a near-complete decoupling between nutrient and carbon cycling—a "lipid shunt," and its direct transport of carbon through the mesopelagic zone to below the permanent thermocline with very little attenuation. Inclusion of the lipid pump almost doubles the previous estimates of deep-ocean carbon sequestration by biological processes in the North Atlantic.

  17. Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huld Jónasdóttir, Sigrún; Visser, André W.; Richardson, Katherine; Heath, Michael R.

    2015-09-01

    Estimates of carbon flux to the deep oceans are essential for our understanding of global carbon budgets. Sinking of detrital material ("biological pump") is usually thought to be the main biological component of this flux. Here, we identify an additional biological mechanism, the seasonal "lipid pump," which is highly efficient at sequestering carbon into the deep ocean. It involves the vertical transport and metabolism of carbon rich lipids by overwintering zooplankton. We show that one species, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus overwintering in the North Atlantic, sequesters an amount of carbon equivalent to the sinking flux of detrital material. The efficiency of the lipid pump derives from a near-complete decoupling between nutrient and carbon cycling-a "lipid shunt," and its direct transport of carbon through the mesopelagic zone to below the permanent thermocline with very little attenuation. Inclusion of the lipid pump almost doubles the previous estimates of deep-ocean carbon sequestration by biological processes in the North Atlantic.

  18. Chemical and structural investigation of lipid nanoparticles: drug-lipid interaction and molecular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantachaisilp, Suranan; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo; Treetong, Alongkot; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong; Pratontep, Sirapat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2010-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles are a promising alternative to existing carriers in chemical or drug delivery systems. A key challenge is to determine how chemicals are incorporated and distributed inside nanoparticles, which assists in controlling chemical retention and release characteristics. This study reports the chemical and structural investigation of γ-oryzanol loading inside a model lipid nanoparticle drug delivery system composed of cetyl palmitate as solid lipid and Miglyol 812 as liquid lipid. The lipid nanoparticles were prepared by high pressure homogenization at varying liquid lipid content, in comparison with the γ-oryzanol free systems. The size of the lipid nanoparticles, as measured by the photon correlation spectroscopy, was found to decrease with increased liquid lipid content from 200 to 160 nm. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) measurements of the medium chain triglyceride of the liquid lipid has confirmed successful incorporation of the liquid lipid in the lipid nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetric and powder x-ray diffraction measurements provide complementary results to the 1 H-NMR, whereby the crystallinity of the lipid nanoparticles diminishes with an increase in the liquid lipid content. For the distribution of γ-oryzanol inside the lipid nanoparticles, the 1 H-NMR revealed that the chemical shifts of the liquid lipid in γ-oryzanol loaded systems were found at rather higher field than those in γ-oryzanol free systems, suggesting incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid lipid. In addition, the phase-separated structure was observed by atomic force microscopy for lipid nanoparticles with 0% liquid lipid, but not for lipid nanoparticles with 5 and 10% liquid lipid. Raman spectroscopic and mapping measurements further revealed preferential incorporation of γ-oryzanol in the liquid part rather than the solid part of in the lipid nanoparticles. Simple models representing the distribution of γ-oryzanol and

  19. The Spectrophotometric Sulfo-Phospho-Vanillin Assessment of Total Lipids in Human Meibomian Gland Secretions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen. PMID:23345137

  20. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  1. The spectrophotometric sulfo-phospho-vanillin assessment of total lipids in human meibomian gland secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Anne; Lu, Hua; Butovich, Igor A

    2013-05-01

    Human meibomian gland secretions (meibum) are the major lipid component of the human preocular tear film. The predominant lipid classes found in meibum include waxes (WE), cholesteryl esters (CE), and varying amounts of cholesterol (Chl). The classical sulfo-phospho-vanillin assay (SPVA), adapted for a microplate reader, was used to quantitate lipids in meibum. To account for varying reactivities of different lipids in SPVA, a model meibomian lipid mixture (MMx) that approximated the WE/CE/Chl composition of meibum was developed and used to quantitate meibomian lipids. The overall SPV responses of MMx and meibum were found to be close, with similar intermediate and final reaction products for both. Saturated WE that had not been expected to be reactive were found to be SPV-positive. A reaction mechanism for these compounds in SPVA which involves the formation of alkenyl ethers is proposed and discussed. Tested proteins were non-reactive in SPVA. Thus, by comparing the results of gravimetric analyses of meibum samples with the results of a properly calibrated SPVA, it was estimated that the SPV-reactive lipid content of dry meibum in tested samples was about 78 % (w/w). The SPV method can also be adopted for analyzing other types of complex lipids secretions, such as sebum, as well as whole lipid extracts from other lipid-enriched organs and tissues, if proper standards are chosen.

  2. Solid-state fermentation of Mortierella isabellina for lipid production from soybean hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Soybean hull, generated from soybean processing, is a lignocellulosic material with limited industrial applications and little market value. This research is exploring a new application of soybean hull to be converted to fungal lipids for biodiesel production through solid-state fermentation. Mortierella isabellina was selected as the oil producer because of its high lipid content at low C/N ratio. Several cultivation factors were investigated, including moisture content, inoculums size, fungal spore age, and nutrient supplements, in an attempt to enhance the lipid production of the solid-state fermentation process. The results showed that lipid production with the increase of the moisture content and the spore age, while decreased as the size of inoculums increased. Nutrients addition (KH₂PO₄ 1.2 mg and MgSO₄ 0.6 mg/g soybean hull) improved the lipid production. The total final lipid reached 47.9 mg lipid from 1 g soybean hull after the conversion, 3.3-fold higher than initial lipid reserve in the soybean hull. The fatty acid profile analysis indicated that fatty acid content consisted of 30.0% of total lipid, and 80.4% of total fatty acid was C16 and C18. Therefore, lipid production from soybean hull is a possible option to enable soybean hull as a new resource for biodiesel production and to enhance the overall oil production from soybeans.

  3. Colloquial French the complete course for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Demouy, Valérie

    2014-01-01

     COLLOQUIAL FRENCH is easy to use and completely up to date!Specially written by experienced teachers for self-study or class use, the course offers a step-by-step approach to written and spoken French. No prior knowledge of the language is required.What makes COLLOQUIAL FRENCH your best choice in personal language learning?Interactive - lots of exercises for regular practiceClear - concise grammar notesPractical - useful vocabulary and pronunciation guideComplete - including answer key and reference sectionWhether you''re a business traveller, or about to take up a daring challenge in adventu

  4. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  5. Protein-Lipid Interactions New Approaches and Emerging Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, C. Reyes; Villalaín, José; González-Ros, José M

    2006-01-01

    Biological membranes have long been identified as key elements in a wide variety of cellular processes including cell defense communication, photosynthesis, signal transduction, and motility; thus they emerge as primary targets in both basic and applied research. This book brings together in a single volume the most recent views of experts in the area of protein–lipid interactions, providing an overview of the advances that have been achieved in the field in recent years, from very basic aspects to specialized technological applications. Topics include the application of X-ray and neutron diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy, and high-resolution NMR to the understanding of the specific interactions between lipids and proteins within biological membranes, their structural relationships, and the implications for the biological functions that they mediate. Also covered in this volume are the insertion of proteins and peptides into the membrane and the concomitant formation of definite lipid doma...

  6. Analysis of Lipid Experiments (ALEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter; Tarasov, Kirill; Katafiasz, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    for rapid lipidome navigation using selected features within the dataset. To demonstrate the efficacy of the platform, we present a comparative neurolipidomics study of cerebellum, hippocampus and somatosensory barrel cortex (S1BF) from wild-type and knockout mice devoid of the putative lipid phosphate...

  7. Improving Universal Pediatric Lipid Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantes, Kathleen; Dodge, Ann; Eickhoff, Jens; Peterson, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether the release of national guidelines, electronic health record (EHR) modifications, and educational initiatives correlated with changes in pediatricians' universal lipid screening practices. Retrospective review of EHRs in an academic general pediatric practice was performed to measure the prevalence of order placement. A child was "screened" if an order was placed during a well-visit between 9 and 21 years of age. The prevalence of order placement for lipid screens on 22 374 patients from January 2010 to December 2015 was analyzed for date of order and patient age, then compared with timing of guidelines, local educational initiatives, and EHR modifications. Primary study outcome was lipid screening order placement over time. Order placement increased from 8.9% (95% CI 8.3%-9.5%) before any intervention to 50.0% (95% CI 48.8%-51.2%) over the last 12 months of the study period (P universal lipid screening is possible through educational initiatives and EHR modifications. Inclusion of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents/teenagers as a targeted group for universal screening in addition to recommended age groups improved screening prevalence. Similar efforts could be applicable for implementation of other guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer Simulations of Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier F. Fernandez-Luengo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNP are promising soft matter nanomaterials for drug delivery applications. In spite of their interest, little is known about the supramolecular organization of the components of these self-assembled nanoparticles. Here, we present a molecular dynamics simulation study, employing the Martini coarse-grain forcefield, of self-assembled LNPs made by tripalmitin lipid in water. We also study the adsorption of Tween 20 surfactant as a protective layer on top of the LNP. We show that, at 310 K (the temperature of interest in biological applications, the structure of the lipid nanoparticles is similar to that of a liquid droplet, in which the lipids show no nanostructuration and have high mobility. We show that, for large enough nanoparticles, the hydrophilic headgroups develop an interior surface in the NP core that stores liquid water. The surfactant is shown to organize in an inhomogeneous way at the LNP surface, with patches with high surfactant concentrations and surface patches not covered by surfactant.

  9. Lipid resuscitation in acute poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte C G; Gosselin, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The decision to provide intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as a treatment modality for the reversal of various drug toxicity was discovered in the last decade. Numerous publications, in both humans and animals attest to its clinical use, but current supporting evidence...

  10. Lipids and essential oils as antimicrobial agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thormar, Halldor

    2011-01-01

    ... of Antimicrobial Lipids on Cell Membranes 20 1.7 Conclusions 21 Acknowledgements 21 References 22 2 Antibacterial Effects of Lipids: Historical Review (1881 to 1960) Halldor Thormar 2.1 Introduction 2....

  11. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldberg, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University ... Cholesterol and triglycerides are important fats (lipids) in the blood. Cholesterol is an essential ...

  12. Global adaptation to a lipid environment triggers the dormancy- related phenotype of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Juan G.; Hernández, Adriana C.; Helguera-Repetto, Cecilia; Ayala, Diana Aguilar; Guadarrama-Medina, Rosalina; Anzóla, Juan M.; Bustos, Jose R.; Zambrano, María M.; González-y-Merchand, Jorge; García, María J.; Portillo, Patricia Del

    2014-01-01

    Strong evidence supports the idea that fatty acids rather than carbohydrates are the main energy source of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during infection and latency. Despite that important role, a complete scenario of the bacterium’s metabolism when lipids are the main energy source is still lacking. Here we report the development of an in vitro model to analyze adaptation of M. tuberculosis during assimilation of long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon sources. The global lipid transcri...

  13. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  14. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetic...

  15. The Completeness Theorem of Godel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Completeness Theorem of Godel. 2. Henkin's Proof for First Order Logic. S M Srivastava is with the. Indian Statistical,. Institute, Calcutta. He received his PhD from the Indian Statistical. Institute in 1980. His research interests are in descriptive set theory. I Part 1. An Introduction to Math- ematical ...

  16. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Document Server

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  17. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  18. Completely integrable operator evolutionary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present natural generalizations of classical completely integrable equations where the functions are replaced by arbitrary operators. Among these equations are the non-linear Schroedinger, the Korteweg-de Vries, and the modified KdV equations. The Lax representation and the Baecklund transformations are presented. (Auth.)

  19. Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th...

  1. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  2. A comprehensive classification system for lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, E.; Subramaniam, S.; Brown, H.A.; Glass, C.K.; Merrill, A.H.; Murphy, R.C.; Raetz, C.R.H.; Russell, D.W.; Seyama, Y.; Shaw, W.; Shimizu, T.; Spener, F.; van Meer, G.; VanNieuwenhze, M.S.; White, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Lipids are produced, transported, and recognized by the concerted actions of numerous enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors. A comprehensive analysis of lipid molecules, “lipidomics,” in the context of genomics and proteomics is crucial to understanding cellular physiology and pathology; consequently, lipid biology has become a major research target of the postgenomic revolution and systems biology. To facilitate international communication about lipids, a comprehensive classification of l...

  3. Polymorphism of lipid self-assembly systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    When lipid molecules are dispersed into an aqueous medium, various self-organized structures are formed, depending on conditions (temperature, concentration, etc), in consequence of the amphipathic nature of the molecules. In addition, lipid self-assembly systems exhibit polymorphic phase transition behavior. Since lipids are one of main components of biomembranes, studies on the structure and thermodynamic properties of lipid self-assembly systems are fundamentally important for the consideration of the stability of biomembranes. (author)

  4. Formation of milk lipids: a molecular perspective

    OpenAIRE

    McManaman, James L

    2009-01-01

    Lipids, primarily triglycerides, are major milk constituents of most mammals, providing a large percentage of calories, essential fatty acids and bioactive lipids required for neonatal growth and development. To meet the caloric and nutritional demands of newborns, the mammary glands of most species have evolved an enormous capacity to synthesize and secrete large quantities of lipids during lactation. Significant information exists regarding the physiological regulation of lipid metabolism i...

  5. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Gooley, Joshua J

    2015-11-01

    The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21-28 y (n = 20). Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juárez M Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Aggregation behavior plays an important role in their survival by facilitating the location of refuges and cohesion of aggregates, helping to keep them safely assembled into shelters during daylight time, when they are vulnerable to predators. There are evidences that aggregation is mediated by thigmotaxis, by volatile cues from their faeces, and by hexane-extractable contact chemoreceptive signals from their cuticle surface. The epicuticular lipids of Triatoma infestans include a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols. Results We analyzed the response of T. infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual lipid fractions. Assays were performed in a circular arena, employing a binary choice test with filter papers acting as aggregation attractive sites; papers were either impregnated with a hexane-extract of the total lipids, or lipid fraction; or with the solvent. Insects were significantly aggregated around papers impregnated with the epicuticular lipid extracts. Among the lipid fractions separately tested, only the free fatty acid fraction promoted significant bug aggregation. We also investigated the response to different amounts of selected fatty acid components of this fraction; receptiveness varied with the fatty acid chain length. No response was elicited by hexadecanoic acid (C16:0, the major fatty acid component. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0 showed a significant assembling effect in the concentration range tested (0.1 to 2 insect equivalents. The very long chain hexacosanoic acid (C26:0 was significantly attractant at low doses (≤ 1 equivalent, although a repellent effect was observed at higher doses. Conclusion The detection of contact aggregation pheromones has practical

  7. Prevalence of Gallstones Compared in Children With Different Intravenous Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Judith; Watson, Tom; McHugh, Kieran; Hill, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The aetiology of biliary liver disease in children with intestinal failure treated with long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) is multifactorial. Risks include the lipid component of PN. The aim of the study was to compare prevalence and outcome of gallstones with different types of intravenous lipids. Liver and biliary tract imaging and relevant clinical details were reviewed in 71 patients (37, 52% boys) treated with PN for >3 months. Types of lipid infused were compared with regard to hepatobiliary abnormalities. In total 369 abdominal ultrasounds were performed in 71 patients of age between 3 months and 17 years. Underlying diagnoses were short bowel syndrome in 20 (28%), small intestinal enteropathy in 34 (48%), and motility disorder in 17 (24%). A total of 67 (94%) children had 362/369 scans on lipid-containing PN. Of the total, 15 (21%) patients had gallstones, 8 (11%) had sludge, and both were detected in 7 (10%) children. The gallstones/sludge resolved in 7 patients (10%) and persisted in 10 (13%). In 6 patients, sludge progressed to form discrete gallstones, and in 9 children, gallstones led to biliary duct dilatation. Four (6%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Fewer children had abnormalities with the newer mixed lipid emulsion (P = 0.005). There was a higher prevalence of sludge (P = 0.01) on pure soya lipid. Predictors for sludge were young age at PN (P = 0.001), lack of enteral feed (P children on PN. The use of mixed lipid was associated with less biliary complications and should be the first choice of treatment in children.

  8. How Do Lipids Localize in Lewy Bodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Himanshu; Subramaniam, Vinod; Claessens, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Lewy bodies are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). While fibrillar α-synuclein (αS) is the main protein component of Lewy bodies, these structures also contain lipids. To elucidate the presence of lipids in Lewy bodies, we investigated the interaction of lipids with monomeric and

  9. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  10. Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, S.

    2008-01-01

    Proteins mediating intra- and intercellular transport of lipids and lipid-modified proteins In this thesis, I studied the intra- and intercellular transport of lipidic molecules, in particular glycosphingolipids and lipid-modified proteins. The first part focuses on the intracellular transport of

  11. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  12. Lipid profile improvement after four group psychological interventions in combination to nutritional and physical activity instructing among overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah Heris, Mojgan; Alipour, Ahmad; Janbozorgi, Masoud; Hajihosseini, Reza; Shaghaghi, Farhad; Golchin, Neda; Nouhi, Shahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Research background approved weight loss would result in improvement of lipid profile. Nowadays, weight management is attained by modifying psychological mediators, as well as dieting and making individuals do more physical activity. Hence, This research was performed to compare effectiveness of different psychological interventions on lipid profile improvement among individuals with overweight and obesity. Using quasi-experimental design, 68 participants with mean age 26 years and 9 months (ranged from 20 to 43) were randomly assigned into 4 groups (including LEARN, CBT, CT, and MCT), and eventually 61 participants completed the treatment protocols. BMI was calculated by Omron digital body composition instrument, and blood lipids and glucose concentrations were measured prior to and after all interventions. Data analysis by using t-test for dependent groups analysis revealed lipid profile, FBS, and BMI were significantly modified after applying 4 interventions comparing baseline and post treatment mean differences(Ppsychological interventions to dietary plans and regular physical activities in overweight management would consider as a valuable step in optimizing physiological outcomes and that's because of correcting mind-body interactional pathways among obese and overweight individuals.

  13. 47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32.6621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... completion services. This account shall include costs incurred in helping customers place and complete calls...

  14. Lipid Profile levels on the second day of Acute Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study is to note the changes that occur in the lipid profile levels following an acute myocardial ischemic attack and also correlate the changes in the lipid profile levels to the ischemic markers (Cardiac troponin-I and AST). The study included two groups; the first group consisted of 50 patients who ...

  15. Lipids in herbage : their fate in the rumen of dairy cows and implications for milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgersma, A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the fatty-acid profile of lipids in milk and herbage normally included in dairy diets. The next section deals with the possible effects of forage management on lipid intake in dairy cows. Then a detailed account is given of the fate of fatty acids in the rumen, showing that

  16. Lipid-lowering therapy: who can benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra J LewisNorthwest Cardiovascular Institute, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the US. Despite the decline in CVD-associated mortality rates in recent years, coronary heart disease (CHD still causes one in every six deaths in this country. Because most CHD risk factors are modifiable (eg, smoking, hypertension, obesity, onset of type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, cardiovascular risk can be reduced by timely and appropriate interventions, such as smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle changes, and lipid-modifying therapy. Dyslipidemia, manifested by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, is central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which can be silent for decades before triggering a first major cardiovascular event. Consequently, dyslipidemia has become a primary target of intervention in strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular events. The guidelines of the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III, updated in 2004, recommend therapeutic lifestyle changes and the use of lipid-lowering medications, such as statins, to achieve specific LDL-C goals based on a person’s global cardiovascular risk. For high-risk individuals, such as patients with CHD and diabetic patients without CHD, an LDL-C target of < 100 mg/dL is recommended, and statin therapy should be considered to help patients achieve this goal. If correctly dosed in appropriate patients, currently approved statins are generally safe and provide significant cardiovascular benefits in diverse populations, including women, the elderly, and patients with diabetes. A recent primary prevention trial also showed that statins benefit individuals traditionally not considered at high risk of CHD, such as those with no hyperlipidemia but elevated C-reactive protein. Additional evidence suggests that statins may halt or slow atherosclerotic disease progression. Recent evidence confirms the pivotal role of

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  18. Genomic organization and reproductive regulation of a large lipid transfer protein in the varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A R; Shirk, P D; Duehl, A J; Donohue, K V; Grozinger, C M; Evans, J D; Teal, P E A

    2013-10-01

    The complete genomic region and corresponding transcript of the most abundant protein in phoretic varroa mites, Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman), were sequenced and have homology with acarine hemelipoglycoproteins and the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) super family. The genomic sequence of VdLLTP included 14 introns and the mature transcript coded for a predicted polypeptide of 1575 amino acid residues. VdLLTP shared a minimum of 25% sequence identity with acarine LLTPs. Phylogenetic assessment showed VdLLTP was most closely related to Metaseiulus occidentalis vitellogenin and LLTP proteins of ticks; however, no heme binding by VdLLTP was detected. Analysis of lipids associated with VdLLTP showed that it was a carrier for free and esterified C12 -C22 fatty acids from triglycerides, diacylglycerides and monoacylglycerides. Additionally, cholesterol and β-sitosterol were found as cholesterol esters linked to common fatty acids. Transcript levels of VdLLTP were 42 and 310 times higher in phoretic female mites when compared with males and quiescent deutonymphs, respectively. Coincident with initiation of the reproductive phase, VdLLTP transcript levels declined to a third of those in phoretic female mites. VdLLTP functions as an important lipid transporter and should provide a significant RNA interference target for assessing the control of varroa mites. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Lipid metabolism in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Muñiz, Francisco J.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Publications are scarce in the way in chich metabolic processes are affected by the ingestion of heated fats used to prepare food. Similarly studies measuring metabolic effects of the consumption on fried food are poorly known. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize information on frying fats and frying foods upon lipid metabolism in experimental animals. Food consumption is equivalent or even higher when oils or the fat content of frying foods are poorly alterated decreasing their acceptability when their alteration degree increase. After 4hr. experiment the digestibility and absorption coefficients of a single dosis of thermooxidized oils were significantly decreased in rats, however the digestive utilization of frying thermooxidized oils included in diets showed very little change in comparison with unused oils by feeding trials on rats. Feeding rats different frying fats induced a slight hypercholesterolemic effect being the magnitude of this effect related to the linoleic decrease in diet produced by frying. However HDL, the main rat-cholesterol carrier, also increased, thus the serum cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio did not change. Results suggest that rats fed frying fats adapt their lipoprotein metabolism increasing the number of HDL particles. Deep fat frying deeply changed the fatty acid composition of foods, being possible to increase their n-9 or n-6 fatty acid and to decrease the saturated fatty acid contents by frying. When olive oil-and sunflower oil-fried sardines were used as the only protein and fat sources of rats-diets in order to prevent the dietary hypercholesterolemia it was provided that both fried-sardine diets showed a powerful check effect on the cholesterol raising effect induced by dietary cholesterol. The negative effect of feeding rats cholesterol plus bovine bile to induce hypercholesterolemia on some cell-damage markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, was

  20. Wheat leaf lipids during heat stress: II. Lipids experiencing coordinated metabolism are detected by analysis of lipid co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sruthi; Prasad, P V Vara; Welti, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    Identifying lipids that experience coordinated metabolism during heat stress would provide information regarding lipid dynamics under stress conditions and assist in developing heat-tolerant wheat varieties. We hypothesized that co-occurring lipids, which are up-regulated or down-regulated together through time during heat stress, represent groups that can be explained by coordinated metabolism. Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) were subjected to 12 days of high day and/or night temperature stress, followed by a 4-day recovery period. Leaves were sampled at four time points, and 165 lipids were measured by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Correlation analysis of lipid levels in 160 leaf samples from each of two wheat genotypes revealed 13 groups of lipids. Lipids within each group co-occurred through the high day and night temperature stress treatments. The lipid groups can be broadly classified as groups containing extraplastidic phospholipids, plastidic glycerolipids, oxidized glycerolipids, triacylglycerols, acylated sterol glycosides and sterol glycosides. Current knowledge of lipid metabolism suggests that the lipids in each group co-occur because they are regulated by the same enzyme(s). The results suggest that increases in activities of desaturating, oxidizing, glycosylating and acylating enzymes lead to simultaneous changes in levels of multiple lipid species during high day and night temperature stress in wheat. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fasting in the holy month of Ramadan and Lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alireza Mirsane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is a fasting month .Fasting is one of the islamic obligations. This annual ritual is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam according to hadith of fifth Shia imam.In the other hand, Lipid profile is a type of blood tests and this's very important for body health, Specialy individuals with abnormal range of it. A complete lipid profile involves routine tests such as Total Cholesterol(TC, Triglycerides (TG,high-density lipoprotein (HDL,good cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL,bad cholesterol.Our goal is determination of Ramadan fasting efficacy on the Lipid profile. With regards to the present study, it can be concluded that fasting have a good effects on the Lipid profile , according to the above fields. But this subject needs to have multiple studies, so it was advised to conduct more study, in order to obtain the comprehensive and exact results. Finally, Holy month of Ramadan and fasting have a lot miracles in different fields of health ,So fasting is a godliness way that it have multiple remedial effects.

  2. UV-Completion by Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a novel approach to UV-completion of a class of non-renormalizable theories, according to which the high-energy scattering amplitudes get unitarized by production of extended classical objects (classicalons), playing a role analogous to black holes, in the case of non-gravitational theories. The key property of classicalization is the existence of a classicalizer field that couples to energy-momentum sources. Such localized sources are excited in high-energy scattering processes and lead to the formation of classicalons. Two kinds of natural classicalizers are Nambu-Goldstone bosons (or, equivalently, longitudinal polarizations of massive gauge fields) and scalars coupled to energy-momentum type sources. Classicalization has interesting phenomenological applications for the UV-completion of the Standard Model both with or without the Higgs. In the Higgless Standard Model the high-energy scattering amplitudes of longitudinal $W$-bosons self-unitarize via classicalization, without the help of any new...

  3. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  4. SOUR graphs for efficient completion

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Christopher; Strogova, Polina

    1998-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a data structure called \\emphSOUR graphs and present an efficient Knuth-Bendix completion procedure based on it. \\emphSOUR graphs allow for a maximal structure sharing of terms in rewriting systems. The term representation is a dag representation, except that edges are labelled with equational constraints and variable renamings. The rewrite rules correspond to rewrite edges, the unification problems to unification edges. The Critical Pair and Simplificatio...

  5. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  6. Phase behavior of pure lipid bilayers with mismatch interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Laradji, Mohamed; Guo, Hong

    1992-01-01

    but could instead be described in terms of short-range fluctuations close to a critical point. We have extended the Pink-Green-Chapman model by including hydrophobic mismatch interactions between the lipid acyl-chain conformational states. We used Monte Carlo techniques to examine the phase behavior...... of the extended model and found that it exhibits first-order phase transitions above a critical value of the mismatch parameter. The results are discussed in relation to previous theoretical work as well as experimental measurements on lipid bilayers....

  7. Variance decomposition of apolipoproteins and lipids in Danish twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Schousboe, Karoline; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    been used in bivariate or multivariate analysis to elucidate common genetic factors to two or more traits. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study the variances of traits related to lipid metabolism is decomposed in a relatively large Danish twin population, including bivariate analysis to detect...

  8. Phytosterols and blood lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle improvements including dietary changes are important for CVD prevention. This thesis aimed to advance insights in the role of phytosterols, lipid-like compounds present in foods or plant origin, in

  9. Alterations in serum lipid, lipoprotein and visceral abdominal fat pad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially available garlic preparation in the form of garlic oil, garlic powder and pills are widely used for certain therapeutic purposes, including lowering blood pressure and improving lipid profile. The aim of the present study was to determine short term effects of dietary consumption of garlic on the serum levels of ...

  10. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.; Sengupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    , we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value...

  11. Inclusion of photosensitive molecules into host lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Zargarani, Dordaneh; Elsen, Annika

    Phosphocholine (PC) lipid membranes exhibit polymorphic variances including the biologically relevant disordered fluid phase. The incorporation of cholesterol into such a fluid host membrane may readily induce a local ordered, named fluid-ordered, phase. Here, results are reported on the impact...

  12. Supported lipid bilayers as templates to design manganese oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functions.1 Template directed assemblies of organic– inorganic structures include model bilayer membranes, vesicles and liposomes that have been used extensively to direct organization of the 2D structures.2–12 Among these soft templates, supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have been gaining importance in recent times.

  13. Impact Of Administration Mulberry Juice On Blood Glucose, Lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was designed to study the effects of black and white mulberry juice on blood glucose, lipid profile and oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats. Sprague Dawley male rats weighing (125 ± 12.2 g) were divided into eight groups (each of 12 rats). Four healthy control group include normal ...

  14. Skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in exercise and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Lipids as fuel for energy provision originate from different sources: albumin-bound long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) in the blood plasma, circulating very-low-density lipoproteins-triacylglycerols (VLDL-TG), fatty acids from triacylglycerol located in the muscle cell (IMTG), and possibly fatty acids...... of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, including possible molecular mechanisms involved, is discussed....

  15. Lipid Profile of Children with Malaria by Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Dias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Changes in lipid profile are commonly reported in adult patients with malaria. However, a few studies evaluated lipid abnormalities in children continuously exposed to P. vivax. Objective. To evaluate lipid abnormalities in children with P. vivax infection and to assess if parasite count or the history of malaria correlates with lipid levels at admission. Methods. A total of 75 children were included in the study, from which 43 were slide confirmed infection by P. vivax. Serial blood samples were collected at admission and, on days 7 and 14, evaluated for the colorimetric measurements of triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL. Results. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were significantly lower in malaria cases. The levels of VLDL and triglycerides were significantly higher in children with malaria. Such changes were transient and were not associated with parasite counting as well as with the history of malaria of patients. Conclusion. There are significant lipid abnormalities in children with low level of P. vivax infection and mild signs and symptoms of the disease, which are not associated with parasitaemia and previous episodes of disease.

  16. Atherogenic dyslipidemia: prevalence and management in lipid clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, J; Flores-Le Roux, J A; Mostaza, J M; Pintó, X; de la Cruz, J J; Banegas, J R

    2014-12-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, which is characterized by increased triglyceride levels and reduced HDL cholesterol levels, is underestimated and undertreated in clinical practice. We assessed its prevalence and the achievement of therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients treated at lipid and vascular risk units in Spain. This was an observational, longitudinal, retrospective, multicenter study performed in 14 autonomous Spanish communities that consecutively included 1828 patients aged ≥18 years who were referred for dyslipidemia and vascular risk to 43 lipid clinics accredited by the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis. We collected information from the medical records corresponding to 2 visits conducted during 2010 and 2011-12, respectively. Of the 1649 patients who had a lipid profile in the first visit (90.2%), 295 (17.9%) had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The factors associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia were excess weight/obesity, not taking hypolipidemic drugs (statins and/or fibrates), diabetes, myocardial infarction and previous heart failure. Of the 273 (92.5%) patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia that had a lipid profile in the last visit, 44 (16.1%) achieved the therapeutic objectives for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The predictors of therapeutic success were normal weight and normoglycemia. One of every 6 patients treated in lipid and vascular risk units had atherogenic dyslipidemia. The degree to which the therapeutic goals for HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were achieved in these patients was very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Chickpea chelating peptides inhibit copper-mediated lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Vioque, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Transition metals produce radical oxygen species promoting lipid peroxidation processes that favor the development of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, the oxidation of lipids present in food may affect the quality of food products. Therefore antioxidants counteracting these metal pro-oxidant effects may have high potential for the pharmacology and food industries. This study investigated the capability of peptide fractions purified from chickpea protein hydrolysate to inhibit copper-mediated lipid peroxidation in three different lipid substrates: β-carotene, unsaturated fatty acid mixture and low-density lipoprotein. Peptide fractions with the highest histidine content were the most antioxidant. This antioxidant effect is mainly due to the capability of histidine to bind copper and act as a hydrogen donor through its imidazole ring. The results suggest that chickpea proteins are a potential source of antioxidant peptides that may be included as ingredients in functional foods with beneficial health effects. In addition, these antioxidant peptides may be useful to protect food products from lipid peroxidation processes and thus increase their quality and shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Microbial lipid production from corn stover via Mortierella isabellina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Microbial lipid is a promising source of oil to produce biofuel if it can be generated from lignocellulosic materials. Mortierella isabellina is a filamentous fungal species featuring high content of oil in its cell biomass. In this work, M. isabellina was studied for lipid production from corn stover. The experimental results showed that M. isabellina could grow on different kinds of carbon sources including xylose and acetate, and the lipid content reached to 35 % at C/N ratio of 20. With dilution, M. isabellina could endure inhibition effects by dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover (0.3 g/L furfural, 1.2 g/L HMF, and 1 g/L 4-hydroxybenozic acid) and the strain formed pellets in the cell cultivations. An integrated process was developed combining the dilute acid pretreatment, cellulase hydrolysis, and cell cultivation for M. isabellina to convert corn stover to oil containing fungal biomass. With 7.5 % pretreated biomass solid loading ratio, the final lipid yield from sugar in pretreated biomass was 40 % and the final lipid concentration of the culture reached to 6.46 g/L.

  19. Lipid Uptake, Metabolism, and Transport in the Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa H. Quinlivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish is a well-established model system for studies of energy metabolism, and is amenable to genetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches. For the first 5 days of life, nutrients are absorbed from its endogenous maternally deposited yolk. At 5 days post-fertilization, the yolk is exhausted and the larva has a functional digestive system including intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestinal microbiota. The transparency of the larval zebrafish, and the genetic and physiological similarity of its digestive system to that of mammals make it a promising system in which to address questions of energy homeostasis relevant to human health. For example, apolipoprotein expression and function is similar in zebrafish and mammals, and transgenic animals may be used to examine both the transport of lipid from yolk to body in the embryo, and the trafficking of dietary lipids in the larva. Additionally, despite the identification of many fatty acid and lipid transport proteins expressed by vertebrates, the cell biological processes that mediate the transport of dietary lipids from the intestinal lumen to the interior of enterocytes remain to be elucidated. Genetic tractability and amenability to live imaging and a range of biochemical methods make the larval zebrafish an ideal model in which to address open questions in the field of lipid transport, energy homeostasis, and nutrient metabolism.

  20. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  1. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  2. Lipid metabolism-related gene expression pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed on live prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Ortega, Aurelio; de la Gándara, Fernando; Tocher, Douglas R; Mourente, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    The present study is the first to evaluate lipid metabolism in first-feeding Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed different live prey including enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Acartia sp. copepod nauplii from 2 days after hatch. Understanding the molecular basis of lipid metabolism and regulation in ABT will provide insights to optimize diet formulations for this high-value species new to aquaculture. To this end, we investigated the effect of dietary lipid on whole larvae lipid class and fatty acid compositions and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in first feeding ABT larvae fed different live prey. Additionally, the expression of lipid metabolism genes in tissues of adult broodstock ABT was evaluated. Growth and survival data indicated that copepods were the best live prey for first feeding ABT and that differences in growth performance and lipid metabolism observed between larvae from different year classes could be a consequence of broodstock nutrition. In addition, expression patterns of lipid metabolic genes observed in ABT larvae in the trials could reflect differences in lipid class and fatty acid compositions of the live prey. The lipid nutritional requirements, including essential fatty acid requirements of larval ABT during the early feeding stages, are unknown, and the present study represents a first step in addressing these highly relevant issues. However, further studies are required to determine nutritional requirements and understand lipid metabolism during development of ABT larvae and to apply the knowledge to the commercial culture of this iconic species.

  3. Complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the complete utilization of spent coffee grounds to produce biodiesel, bio-oil and biochar. Lipids extracted from spent grounds were converted to biodiesel to evaluate neat and blended (B5 and B20) fuel properties against ASTM and EN standards. Although neat biodiesel displayed h...

  4. Nano- and Microdelivery Systems for Marine Bioactive Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing body of evidence of the positive impact of several marine lipids on human health. These compounds, which include ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to improve blood lipid profiles and exert anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects. The high instability of these compounds to oxidative deterioration and their hydrophobicity have a drastic impact in their pharmacokinetics. Thus, the bioavailability of these compounds may be affected, resulting in their inability to reach the target sites at effective concentrations. In this regard, micro/nanoparticles can offer a wide range of solutions that can prevent the degradation of targeted molecules, increase their absorption, uptake and bioavailability. In this work we will present the options currently available concerning micro- and nanodelivery systems for marine lipids; with emphasis on micro/nanoparticles; such as micro/nanocapsules and emulsions. A wide range of bottom-up approaches using casein, chitosan, cyclodextrins, among others; will be discussed.

  5. Carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism: from mouse to human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Lian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mammalian carboxylesterases hydrolyze a wide range of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, including lipid esters. Physiological functions of carboxylesterases in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in vivo have been demonstrated by genetic manipulations and chemical inhibition in mice, and in vitro through (overexpression, knockdown of expression, and chemical inhibition in a variety of cells. Recent research advances have revealed the relevance of carboxylesterases to metabolic diseases such as obesity and fatty liver disease, suggesting these enzymes might be potential targets for treatment of metabolic disorders. In order to translate pre-clinical studies in cellular and mouse models to humans, differences and similarities of carboxylesterases between mice and human need to be elucidated. This review presents and discusses the research progress in structure and function of mouse and human carboxylesterases, and the role of these enzymes in lipid metabolism and metabolic disorders.

  6. Lipid-based nanocarriers for the oral administration of biopharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Theodora; Bourganis, Vassilis; Kammona, Olga; Kiparissides, Costas

    2016-11-01

    Biopharmaceutics have been recognized as the drugs of choice for the treatment of several diseases, mainly due to their high selectivity and potent action. Nonetheless, their oral administration is a rather challenging problem, since their bioavailability is significantly hindered by various physiological barriers along the GI tract, including their acid-induced hydrolysis in the stomach, their enzymatic degradation throughout the GI tract and their poor mucosa permeability. Lipid-based nanocarriers represent a viable means for enhancing the oral bioavailability of biomolecules while diminishing toxicity-related issues. The present review describes the main physiological barriers limiting the oral bioavailability of macromolecules and highlights recent advances in the field of lipid-based carriers as well as the respective lipid intestinal absorption mechanisms.

  7. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  8. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power...... and the ability to tailor properties of individual ILs to meet specific requirements. This article highlights current research as well as the vast potential of ILs for use as media for reactions, separation and processing in the lipid area....

  9. Anesthetics interacting with lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeiras, Cátia; Serro, Ana Paula; Luzyanin, Konstantin; Fernandes, Anabela; Saramago, Benilde

    2013-01-23

    The exact mechanism by which anesthetics induce cell membrane-mediated modifications is still an open question. Although the fluidization effect of the anesthetic molecules on the cellular membrane is widely recognized, it is not known if anesthetics show any preference for specific membrane domains, namely the lipid rafts. The importance of these membrane micro-domains derives from the fact that they have been associated with cell signaling pathways, as well as with specific drug interactions. The objective of this work is to contribute for the elucidation of this question through the comparison of the anesthetic interactions with membranes of various lipid compositions. Liposomes prepared with an equimolar mixture of POPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, were chosen as models for lipid rafts. The interactions of these liposomes with two local anesthetics, tetracaine and lidocaine, and one general anesthetic, propofol, were studied. The effect of cholesterol was investigated by comparing anesthetic interactions with POPC/SM liposomes and POPC/SM/CHOL liposomes. The following experimental techniques were used: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, differential scanning calorimetry and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance. Although the liposomes investigated by the different techniques are not in the same conditions, it is possible to assemble the information obtained from all experimental techniques employed to reach a general conclusion. Tetracaine interacts more with raftlike domains, lidocaine induces stronger modifications on POPC/SM liposomes and the results for propofol are not fully conclusive but it seems to be the least prone to lipid interactions. The results were compared with those obtained with DMPC-containing liposomes, reported in a previous work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Organization of lipids in the tear film: a molecular-level view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wizert

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film.

  11. Development, in vitro and in vivo evaluations of novel lipid drug delivery system of (P. Beauv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuebuka Umeyor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv. is a tropical rainforest plant used in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of malaria, cough, joint pains, stomach ache, oedema and inflammation. The main thrust of this research work was to study the analgesic/anti-nociceptive properties of N. laevis -loaded solid lipid microdispersions. N. laevis leaves were extracted using ethanol, and the extract was formulated into solid lipid microdispersions using lipid matrix comprising a rational blend of Precirol ® ATO 5 and Softisan ® 154. Characterization of the solid lipid microdispersions include determination of morphology, particle size, pH, thermal property, encapsulation efficiency percentage and analgesic/anti-nociceptive property. The results obtained showed that the particles were spherical with sizes ranging from 40 µm to 125 µm. The solid lipid microdispersions maintained a stable pH within the acidic region of 5–6 with insignificant variations ( p > 0.05 over a period of 90 days. Thermal analysis showed that N. laevis was entrapped in the lipid matrix used for the formulations. Solid lipid microdispersions recorded a maximum encapsulation efficiency up to 88.1%. N. laevis -loaded solid lipid microdispersions also produced good analgesic/anti-nociceptive property comparable with the standard diclofenac potassium. N. laevis -loaded solid lipid microdispersions showed good analgesic/anti-nociceptive effect and could be used in the treatment and management of pain.

  12. Lipids in the Stomach - Implications for the Evaluation of Food Effects on Oral Drug Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, Mirko; Carrière, Frédéric; Porter, Christopher J H

    2018-02-08

    Food effects on oral drug bioavailability can have significant impact on the provision of safe and reliable oral pharmacotherapy. A mechanistic understanding of the events that contribute to the occurrence of food effects is therefore critical. An increased oral bioavailability is often seen for poorly water-soluble drugs after co-administration with lipids, including lipids in food, and is commonly explained by the ability of lipids to enhance drug solubility in intestinal luminal fluids. In contrast, the impact of lipids on drug solubilisation in the stomach has received less attention. This is in spite of the fact that lipid digestion is initiated in the stomach by human gastric lipase and that gastric events also initiate emulsification of lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach therefore acts to 'pre-process' lipids for subsequent events in the intestine and may significantly affect downstream events at intestinal drug absorption sites. In this article, the mechanisms by which lipids are processed in the stomach are reviewed and the potential impact of these processes on drug absorption discussed. Attention is also focused on in vitro methods that are used to assess gastric processing of lipids and their application to better understand food effects on drug release and absorption.

  13. Organization of Lipids in the Tear Film: A Molecular-Level View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizert, Alicja; Iskander, D. Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film. PMID:24651175

  14. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  15. Treatment of Rats with a Self-Selected Hyperlipidic Diet, Increases the Lipid Content of the Main Adipose Tissue Sites in a Proportion Similar to That of the Lipids in the Rest of Organs and Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Roy, Stéphanie; Pouillot, Karl; Feito, Marisol; Esteve, Montserrat; Grasa, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal) and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents). Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1–1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28–63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle) 38–44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in “other organs” was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle), as well as in the ”rest” of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose) or not-specialized (liver, muscle) tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed. PMID:24603584

  16. Treatment of rats with a self-selected hyperlipidic diet, increases the lipid content of the main adipose tissue sites in a proportion similar to that of the lipids in the rest of organs and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT is distributed as large differentiated masses, and smaller depots covering vessels, and organs, as well as interspersed within them. The differences between types and size of cells makes AT one of the most disperse and complex organs. Lipid storage is partly shared by other tissues such as muscle and liver. We intended to obtain an approximate estimation of the size of lipid reserves stored outside the main fat depots. Both male and female rats were made overweight by 4-weeks feeding of a cafeteria diet. Total lipid content was analyzed in brain, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, four white AT sites: subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric, two brown AT sites (interscapular and perirenal and in a pool of the rest of organs and tissues (after discarding gut contents. Organ lipid content was estimated and tabulated for each individual rat. Food intake was measured daily. There was a surprisingly high proportion of lipid not accounted for by the main macroscopic AT sites, even when brain, liver and BAT main sites were discounted. Muscle contained about 8% of body lipids, liver 1-1.4%, four white AT sites lipid 28-63% of body lipid, and the rest of the body (including muscle 38-44%. There was a good correlation between AT lipid and body lipid, but lipid in "other organs" was highly correlated too with body lipid. Brain lipid was not. Irrespective of dietary intake, accumulation of body fat was uniform both for the main lipid storage and handling organs: large masses of AT (but also liver, muscle, as well as in the "rest" of tissues. These storage sites, in specialized (adipose or not-specialized (liver, muscle tissues reacted in parallel against a hyperlipidic diet challenge. We postulate that body lipid stores are handled and regulated coordinately, with a more centralized and overall mechanisms than usually assumed.

  17. Stratum Corneum Barrier Lipids in Cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, V; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Rasmussen, G

    2000-01-01

    Specimens from primary cholesteatomas were examined under the electron microscope using a lipid-retaining method that is best suited for intracellular lipids and a method that is best for intercellular lipids. In the stratum granulosum of the squamous epithelium, a large number of Odland bodies...... emerged. When the corneocyte reaches the transitional stage to the stratum corneum, the Odland bodies accumulate near the cell membrane and discharge their contents of lipid and enzymes. The lipids are reorganized into multiple long sheets of lamellar structures that embrace the keratinized corneocytes......, as seen in the formation and maintenance of the cutaneous permeability barrier. In this study we draw the attention to the facts that the cholesteatoma epithelium is capable of producing not only cholesterol, but also several lipids, and that the lipid molecules are organized in multilamellar structures...

  18. Fat & fabulous: bifunctional lipids in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberkant, Per; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2014-08-01

    Understanding biological processes at the mechanistic level requires a systematic charting of the physical and functional links between all cellular components. While protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid networks have been subject to many global surveys, other critical cellular components such as membrane lipids have rarely been studied in large-scale interaction screens. Here, we review the development of photoactivatable and clickable lipid analogues-so-called bifunctional lipids-as novel chemical tools that enable a global profiling of lipid-protein interactions in biological membranes. Recent studies indicate that bifunctional lipids hold great promise in systematic efforts to dissect the elaborate crosstalk between proteins and lipids in live cells and organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Bauerly

    Full Text Available We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ- or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+. Measurements included: 1 serum glucose and insulin, 2 total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4, 3 respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states, 4 changes in plasma lipids, 5 the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6 indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+ were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

  20. Lipid Lowering with Soluble Dietary Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Prasanth; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Berglund, Lars

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5-10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels. Hypocholesterolemic benefits were also observed with some fiber-rich foods, such as whole oats, whole barley, legumes, peas, beans, flax seeds, apples, and citrus foods.

  1. Alterations in lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni H Panchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus (LP, a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and catalase (CAT activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96 was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76 was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in

  2. Calculus a complete introduction : teach yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Calculus: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using calculus. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all areas of calculus, including functions, gradients, rates of change, differentiation, exponential and logarithmic functions and integration. Everything you will need to know is here in one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.

  3. Deciphering the mechanisms for targeting and interaction of Arabidopsis Lipid Droplet Associated Protein (LDAP) to the lipid droplet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently identified a new class of lipid-droplet associated proteins (LDAPs) in plants that share extensive sequence similarity with abundant structural proteins that coat rubber particles in rubber-producing plants. A majority of higher plants, however, including those that do not produce rubber...

  4. On convergence completeness in symmetric spaces | Moshokoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convergence complete symmetric space. As applications of convergence completeness, we present some fixed point results for self-maps defined on a symmetric space. Keywords: completeness; convergence completeness; fixed points; metric ...

  5. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  6. Comparative time-courses of copper-ion-mediated protein and lipid oxidation in low-density lipoprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Heather M; Baoutina, Anna; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    -courses of lipid and protein oxidation during copper-ion-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. We show that there is an early, lipid-mediated loss of 40-50% of the Trp residues of the apoB100 protein. There is no comparable loss over an identical period during the copper-ion-mediated oxidation of lipid......Free radicals damage both lipids and proteins and evidence has accumulated for the presence of both oxidised lipids and proteins in aged tissue samples as well as those from a variety of pathologies including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Oxidation of the protein and lipid...... moieties of low-density lipoprotein is of particular interest due to its potential role in the unregulated uptake of lipids and cholesterol by macrophages; this may contribute to the initial stage of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. In the study reported here, we examined the comparative time...

  7. Role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Frøsig, Christian; Jeppesen, Jacob Fuglsbjerg

    2016-01-01

    During induction of the autophagosomal degradation process, LC3-I is lipidated to LC3-II and associates to the cargo isolation membrane allowing for autophagosome formation. Lipidation of LC3 results in an increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and this ratio is an often used marker for autophagy in various...... tissues, including skeletal muscle. From cell studies AMPK has been proposed to be necessary and sufficient for LC3 lipidation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of AMPK in regulation of LC3 lipidation as a marker of autophagy in skeletal muscle. We observed an increase in the LC3...... lipidation with either in vivo treadmill exercise or in situ contractions. Collectively, these findings suggest that AMPKα2 is not necessary for induction of LC3 lipidation with fasting and aging. Furthermore, LC3 lipidation is increased in muscle lacking functional AMPKα2 during fasting and aging. Moreover...

  8. Robert Zajonc: The Complete Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2010-01-01

    This article joins with others in the same issue to celebrate the career of Robert B. Zajonc who was a broad, as well as deeply talented, psychologist. Beyond his well-known focus in social psychology, the work of Zajonc also involved, at one time or another, forays into nearly every other subfield of psychology. This article focuses specifically on his studies that extended into biopsychology, which deserve special highlighting in order to be recognized alongside his many major achievements in emotion and related social topics. The biopsychological focus is offered here in the hope that all his diverse contributions be savored together when celebrating the complete psychology of Robert Zajonc. PMID:22473376

  9. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  10. Complete tooth loss as status passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barry John; Sussex, Philip V; Fitzgerald, Ruth P; Thomson, William Murray

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to add to the literature on the sociology of oral health and dentistry by presenting the relevance of status passage to the study of complete tooth loss. The article reports on an analysis of data taken from participants residing in the Nelson region of New Zealand. In total the data include interviews from 20 participants, all of whom had their remaining natural teeth removed before 1960. In total, 12 women and eight men were interviewed. All were from a European background with an age range of 71 to 101 years. Following a narrative approach, participants were interviewed on the nature of the social factors that resulted in complete tooth loss by starting with their family history and then focusing on the factors and events leading up to their total tooth loss. Data were analysed using the methods and techniques of grounded theory. This article provides an outline of the importance of scheduling, prescribing, social factors, 'compound awareness contexts' and reversibility to the status passage into complete tooth loss. We conclude by arguing that the theory of status passage may enable a detailed analysis of the 'time-space extensionality' of trajectories into complete tooth loss. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  11. Differential effects of Mycobacterium bovis - derived polar and apolar lipid fractions on bovine innate immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirson Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM and trehalose monomycolate (TMM, the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs, triacyl glycerol (TAG, pentacyl trehalose (PAT, phenolic glycolipid (PGL, and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG. Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM, diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG, phenylethanolamine (PE and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs. These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen presenting cells to the polar lipid fraction. Phenotypic characterisation of the cells was performed by flow cytometry and significant decreases in the expression of MHCII, CD86 and CD1b were found after exposure to the polar lipid fraction. Polar lipids also significantly increased the levels of CD40 expressed by monocytes and cultured monocytes but no effect was seen on the constitutively high expression of CD40 on MDDC or on the levels of CD80 expressed by any of the cells. Finally, the capacity of polar fraction treated cells to stimulate alloreactive lymphocytes was assessed. Significant reduction in proliferative activity was seen after stimulation of PBMC by polar fraction treated cultured monocytes whilst no effect was seen after lipid treatment of MDDC. These data demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacterial polar lipids may significantly hamper the ability of the host APCs to induce an appropriate immune response to an invading pathogen.

  12. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  13. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  14. AEgIS installation completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gravity. Despite first being described over three centuries ago, it remains one of the least understood of the fundamental forces explored by physicists. At CERN’s recently completed AEgIS experiment, a team has set out to examine the effect of gravity on an as-yet-uncharted realm: antimatter.   The complete AEgIS set-up. Located in the AD hall, the AEgIS experiment plans to  make the first direct measurement of Earth’s gravitation effect on antimatter. By sending a beam of antihydrogen atoms through very thin gratings, the experiment will be able to measure how far the antihydrogen atoms fall and in how much time – giving the AEgIS team a measurement of the gravitational coupling. “By the end of 2012, we had finished by putting all the elements of the experiment together,” explains Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. “Now we have to show that they can all work together and, unfortunately, we will have no antiproton beams fo...

  15. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  16. Association of Variants in Candidate Genes with Lipid Profiles in Women with Early Breast Cancer on Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Blackford, Amanda; Nguyen, Anne T; Skaar, Todd C; Philips, Santosh; Oesterreich, Steffi; Rae, James M; Desta, Zeruesenay; Robarge, Jason; Henry, Norah Lynn; Storniolo, Anna M; Hayes, Daniel F; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ouyang, Pamela; Post, Wendy S; Flockhart, David A; Stearns, Vered

    2016-03-15

    Aromatase inhibitors can exert unfavorable effects on lipid profiles; however, previous studies have reported inconsistent results. We describe the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes with lipid profiles in women treated with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. We conducted a prospective observational study to test the associations between SNPs in candidate genes in estrogen signaling and aromatase inhibitor metabolism pathways with fasting lipid profiles during the first 3 months of aromatase inhibitor therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer randomized to adjuvant letrozole or exemestane. We performed genetic association analysis and multivariable linear regressions using dominant, recessive, and additive models. A total of 303 women had complete genetic and lipid data and were evaluable for analysis. In letrozole-treated patients, SNPs in CYP19A1, including rs4646, rs10046, rs700518, rs749292, rs2289106, rs3759811, and rs4775936 were significantly associated with decreases in triglycerides by 20.2 mg/dL and 39.3 mg/dL (P < 0.00053), respectively, and with variable changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) from decreases by 4.2 mg/dL to increases by 9.8 mg/dL (P < 0.00053). Variants in CYP19A1 are associated with decreases in triglycerides and variable changes in HDL-C in postmenopausal women on adjuvant aromatase inhibitors. Future studies are needed to validate these findings, and to identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease with aromatase inhibitor therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Comprehensive lipid tetrad index, atherogenic index and lipid peroxidation: Surrogate markers for increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Recently, the concept of "psoriatic march" has come to the fore, in which chronic cutaneous inflammation in psoriasis leads to systemic inflammation which, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress, triggers a cascade of events resulting in increased cardiovascular risk in patients with severe psoriasis. We, therefore, decided to study the levels of some biochemical cardiovascular risk markers: lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a, lipid indices and atherogenic index, in patients with psoriasis and their association with disease severity. Methods: Fortyfive patients with psoriasis and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Disease severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI. Serum malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a and fasting lipid profile were estimated in all study subjects. Lipoprotein ratios were computed using standard formulae. Atherogenic index was calculated as ratio of lipoprotein (a/high-density lipoprotein. Results: In psoriasis, we observed significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a, lipid ratios, atherogenic index and comprehensive lipid tetrad index, compared to controls. These levels were directly proportional to disease severity. Serum levels of malondialdehyde correlated positively with serum lipoprotein (a, comprehensive lipid tetrad index and atherogenic index. Limitations: Different morphological types of psoriasis were not included and follow-up post-therapy was not done. A larger sample size would have validated the results further. Conclusion: Our results indicate that psoriasis, especially the severe variants, are associated with increased oxidative stress and dyslipidemia, which correlate positively with atherogenic index and hence, an increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Comprehensive lipid tetrad index, atherogenic index and lipid peroxidation: Surrogate markers for increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, S; Rajappa, Medha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Munisamy, Malathi; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the concept of "psoriatic march" has come to the fore, in which chronic cutaneous inflammation in psoriasis leads to systemic inflammation which, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress, triggers a cascade of events resulting in increased cardiovascular risk in patients with severe psoriasis. We, therefore, decided to study the levels of some biochemical cardiovascular risk markers: lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), lipoprotein (a), lipid indices and atherogenic index, in patients with psoriasis and their association with disease severity. Forty five patients with psoriasis and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Disease severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Serum malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a) and fasting lipid profile were estimated in all study subjects. Lipoprotein ratios were computed using standard formulae. Atherogenic index was calculated as ratio of lipoprotein (a)/high-density lipoprotein. In psoriasis, we observed significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), lipid ratios, atherogenic index and comprehensive lipid tetrad index, compared to controls. These levels were directly proportional to disease severity. Serum levels of malondialdehyde correlated positively with serum lipoprotein (a), comprehensive lipid tetrad index and atherogenic index. Different morphological types of psoriasis were not included and follow-up post-therapy was not done. A larger sample size would have validated the results further. Our results indicate that psoriasis, especially the severe variants, are associated with increased oxidative stress and dyslipidemia, which correlate positively with atherogenic index and hence, an increased cardiovascular risk.

  19. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  20. Triacylglycerol Storage in Lipid Droplets in Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Allmann

    Full Text Available Carbon storage is likely to enable adaptation of trypanosomes to nutritional challenges or bottlenecks during their stage development and migration in the tsetse. Lipid droplets are candidates for this function. This report shows that feeding of T. brucei with oleate results in a 4-5 fold increase in the number of lipid droplets, as quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy and by flow cytometry of BODIPY 493/503-stained cells. The triacylglycerol (TAG content also increased 4-5 fold, and labeled oleate is incorporated into TAG. Fatty acid carbon can thus be stored as TAG in lipid droplets under physiological growth conditions in procyclic T. brucei. β-oxidation has been suggested as a possible catabolic pathway for lipids in T. brucei. A single candidate gene, TFEα1 with coding capacity for a subunit of the trifunctional enzyme complex was identified. TFEα1 is expressed in procyclic T. brucei and present in glycosomal proteomes, Unexpectedly, a TFEα1 gene knock-out mutant still expressed wild-type levels of previously reported NADP-dependent 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity, and therefore, another gene encodes this enzymatic activity. Homozygous Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 null mutant cells show a normal growth rate and an unchanged glycosomal proteome in procyclic T. brucei. The decay kinetics of accumulated lipid droplets upon oleate withdrawal can be fully accounted for by the dilution effect of cell division in wild-type and Δtfeα1/Δtfeα1 cells. The absence of net catabolism of stored TAG in procyclic T. brucei, even under strictly glucose-free conditions, does not formally exclude a flux through TAG, in which biosynthesis equals catabolism. Also, the possibility remains that TAG catabolism is completely repressed by other carbon sources in culture media or developmentally activated in post-procyclic stages in the tsetse.

  1. A mouse model of harlequin ichthyosis delineates a key role for Abca12 in lipid homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Smyth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI is a severe and often lethal hyperkeratotic skin disease caused by mutations in the ABCA12 transport protein. In keratinocytes, ABCA12 is thought to regulate the transfer of lipids into small intracellular trafficking vesicles known as lamellar bodies. However, the nature and scope of this regulation remains unclear. As part of an original recessive mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, we have identified and characterised an animal model of HI and showed that it displays many of the hallmarks of the disease including hyperkeratosis, loss of barrier function, and defects in lipid homeostasis. We have used this model to follow disease progression in utero and present evidence that loss of Abca12 function leads to premature differentiation of basal keratinocytes. A comprehensive analysis of lipid levels in mutant epidermis demonstrated profound defects in lipid homeostasis, illustrating for the first time the extent to which Abca12 plays a pivotal role in maintaining lipid balance in the skin. To further investigate the scope of Abca12's activity, we have utilised cells from the mutant mouse to ascribe direct transport functions to the protein and, in doing so, we demonstrate activities independent of its role in lamellar body function. These cells have severely impaired lipid efflux leading to intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Furthermore, we identify Abca12 as a mediator of Abca1-regulated cellular cholesterol efflux, a finding that may have significant implications for other diseases of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, including atherosclerosis.

  2. Exogenous and endogenous lipids of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, L; Oliver, M A; Martínez, V; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Martí, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the external and internal lipids of Caucasian hair and their influence in different hair properties such as moisture content, hydrophobic character, and mechanical properties. Lipid extraction and their analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detector were carried out. Lipid rearrangement and water sorption and desorption evaluation of these fibers with and without lipids will also be determined using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic vapor sorption, mainly to evaluate permeation changes of these hair fibers possibly related to the fluidity of the lipids extracted. Caucasian fibers were found to be well hydrated, and moisture diminution was observed mainly for the external lipid extracted fibers. Unexpectedly, the lipid extraction promoted an increase in the break tenacity of the Caucasian fibers. The hydrophobic character of the fiber surfaces indicates the marked hydrophobicity of all fibers. Delipidization promotes only a slight diminution of their hydrophobic properties. Water uptake and desorption studies indicate an important water regain for Caucasian fibers. The external extracted hair fibers presented a diminution of maximum water regain, which surprisingly increases with the following internal lipid extraction. This can be due to a higher water desorption found only for external extracted fibers. The relationship between fluidity of lipids extracted and hair fiber water diffusion were established. Extraction of internal lipids of Caucasian fibers, which have a higher unsaturated lipid content than external lipids of the same hair fiber, leads to a lower water permeability of the fiber. On the capillar formulations should be considered the importance of lipid fluidity to modify the permeability of the fiber. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. EIA completes corrections to drilling estimates series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapmann, W.; Shambaugh, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of US oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status. They are assessed directly for trends, as well as in combination with other measures to assess the productivity and profitability of upstream industry operations. They are major reference points for federal and state policymakers. EIA does not itself collect drilling activity data. Instead, it relies on an external source for data on oil, bas, and dry well completions. These data are provided to EIA monthly on an as reported basis. During a recent effort to enhance EIA's well completion data system, the detection of unusual patterns in the well completion data as received led to an expanded examination of these data. Substantial discrepancies between the data as received by EIA and correct record counts since 1987 were identified. For total wells by year, the errors ranged up to more than 2,300 wells, 11% of the 1995 total, and the impact of these errors extended backward in time to at least the early 1980s. When the magnitude and extent of the as reported well completion data problem were confirmed, EIA suspended its publication and distribution of updated drilling data. EIA staff proceeded to acquire replacement files with the as reported records and then revise the statistical portion of its drilling data system to reflect the new information. The replacement files unfortunately also included erroneous data based on the improper allocation of wells between exploration and development. EIA has now resolved the two data problems and generated revised time series estimates for well completions and footage drilled. The paper describes the problems in the data, differences between the series, and maintaining future data quality

  4. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  5. The Completion of SPEAR 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettel, R.

    2005-04-11

    On December 15, 2003, 8 1/2 months after the last electrons circulated in the old SPEAR2 storage ring and 5 days after the beginning of commissioning, the first electrons were accumulated in the completely new SPEAR 3 ring. By January 22, the first 100-mA beam was stored, preparing the path for delivering beam to users in early March of this year. The rapid installation and commissioning are a testimony to the SPEAR 3 project staff and collaborators who have built an excellent machine and equipped it with powerful and accessible machine modeling and control programs. The final year of component fabrication, the 7-month installation period, and present-day SPEAR 3 operation are described.

  6. Completeness of algebraic CPS simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The algebraic lambda calculus and the linear algebraic lambda calculus are two extensions of the classical lambda calculus with linear combinations of terms. They arise independently in distinct contexts: the former is a fragment of the differential lambda calculus, the latter is a candidate lambda calculus for quantum computation. They differ in the handling of application arguments and algebraic rules. The two languages can simulate each other using an algebraic extension of the well-known call-by-value and call-by-name CPS translations. These simulations are sound, in that they preserve reductions. In this paper, we prove that the simulations are actually complete, strengthening the connection between the two languages.

  7. Summary of the evidence file demonstrating completion of the NIF Project Completion Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynam, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-04

    This document summarizes the results of performance verification tests on NIF that demonstrate it has met its performance-related Project Completion Criteria (PCC). It includes measurements made on NIF with the NIF diagnostics, the calibration of these diagnostics and the supporting analyses that verify the NIF performance criteria have been met.

  8. Hydration dynamics of a lipid membrane: Hydrogen bond networks and lipid-lipid associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhinav; Debnath, Ananya

    2018-03-01

    Dynamics of hydration layers of a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer are investigated using an all atom molecular dynamics simulation. Based upon the geometric criteria, continuously residing interface water molecules which form hydrogen bonds solely among themselves and then concertedly hydrogen bonded to carbonyl, phosphate, and glycerol head groups of DMPC are identified. The interface water hydrogen bonded to lipids shows slower relaxation rates for translational and rotational dynamics compared to that of the bulk water and is found to follow sub-diffusive and non-diffusive behaviors, respectively. The mean square displacements and the reorientational auto-correlation functions are slowest for the interfacial waters hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl oxygen since these are buried deep in the hydrophobic core among all interfacial water studied. The intermittent hydrogen bond auto-correlation functions are calculated, which allows breaking and reformations of the hydrogen bonds. The auto-correlation functions for interfacial hydrogen bonded networks develop humps during a transition from cage-like motion to eventual power law behavior of t-3/2. The asymptotic t-3/2 behavior indicates translational diffusion dictated dynamics during hydrogen bond breaking and formation irrespective of the nature of the chemical confinement. Employing reactive flux correlation analysis, the forward rate constant of hydrogen bond breaking and formation is calculated which is used to obtain Gibbs energy of activation of the hydrogen bond breaking. The relaxation rates of the networks buried in the hydrophobic core are slower than the networks near the lipid-water interface which is again slower than bulk due to the higher Gibbs energy of activation. Since hydrogen bond breakage follows a translational diffusion dictated mechanism, chemically confined hydrogen bond networks need an activation energy to diffuse through water depleted hydrophobic environments. Our calculations

  9. Synthesis of eukaryotic lipid biomarkers in the bacterial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, P. V.; Banta, A. B.; Lee, A. K.; Wei, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are organic molecules preserved in sediments and sedimentary rocks that can function as geological proxies for certain microbial taxa or for specific environmental conditions. These molecular fossils provide a link between organisms and their environments in both modern and ancient settings and have afforded significant insight into ancient climatic events, mass extinctions, and various evolutionary transitions throughout Earth's history. However, the proper interpretation of lipid biomarkers is dependent on a broad understanding of their diagenetic precursors in modern systems. This includes understanding the taphonomic transformations that these molecules undergo, their biosynthetic pathways, and the ecological conditions that affect their cellular production. In this study, we focus on one group of lipid biomarkers - the sterols. These are polycyclic isoprenoidal lipids that have a high preservation potential and play a critical role in the physiology of most eukaryotes. However, the synthesis and function of these lipids in the bacterial domain has not been fully explored. Here we utilize a combination of bioinformatics, microbial genetics, and biochemistry to demonstrate that bacterial sterol producers are more prevalent in environmental metagenomic samples than in the genomic databases of cultured organisms and to identify novel proteins required to synthesize and modify sterols in bacteria. These proteins represent a distinct pathway for sterol synthesis exclusive to bacteria and indicate that sterol synthesis in bacteria may have evolved independently of eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate how studies in extant bacteria can provide insight into the biological sources and the biosynthetic pathways of specific lipid biomarkers and in turn may allow for more robust interpretation of biomarker signatures.

  10. Influence of blood lipids on global coagulation test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II). The procoagulant factors II, VII, IX, X, and XI and anticoagulant factors protein C and protein S showed significant correlations with triglyceride, and the procoagulant factors II, V, VII, IX, X, XI, and XII and anticoagulant factors antithrombin and protein C correlated with total cholesterol. There were no correlations of blood lipid levels with PIVKA-II levels. Subjects with high triglyceride levels (≥200 mg/dL) showed shorter PT values than those with lower triglyceride levels. However, aPTT value was not changed in terms of blood lipid levels. In both 1 and 5 pM tissue factor-induced TGAs, subjects in the high-triglyceride or high-cholesterol groups (≥240 mg/dL) had high levels of lag time, time-to-peak, and endogenous thrombin potential. Total cholesterol was a significant determinant of PT and TGA values. High blood lipids were related with increased coagulation activity in a normal population. Our findings are expected to help interpret the global coagulation test results in individuals with high lipid levels.

  11. Changes in lipid metabolism and extension of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaj, Klara; Hackl, Gerald; Rief, Peter; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are common diseases with a vast number of acquired and congenital risk factors. Disorders of the lipid metabolism are not established risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) so far. However, in recent literature, associations between VTE and the metabolic syndrome, especially with elevated lipid parameters, have been described. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the extension of VTE and changes in the lipid profile. We included 178 VTE patients in our study; 59 patients had isolated PE, 39 patients had isolated DVT of the leg and 80 patients had both (DVT and PE). Concerning PE, we distinguished between massive and submassive PE. We evaluated plasma lipids and lipoproteins in PE and DVT patients as well as in massive and submassive PE patients. PE patients had higher levels of plasma triglycerides [median (interquartile range): 162 (109-254) vs. 136.5 (96.5-162) mg/dl, p = 0.047] and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 52.1 ± 17.2 vs. 63.9 ± 22.7 mg/dl, p = 0.004) than DVT patients. Furthermore, PE patients were significantly older than DVT patients (59.6 ± 16.9 vs. 52.2 ± 15.5 years, p = 0.02). We were not able to find differences in lipid parameters in patients with massive PE compared to those with submassive PE. However, patients with massive PE were more obese than patients with submassive PE (body mass index 29.1 ± 4.6 vs. 26.9 ± 4.9, p = 0.012). Lipid parameters and lipoproteins differ between DVT and PE patients. PE patients had higher triglyceride and lower HDL-C levels compared with DVT patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Internal lipid architecture of the hetero-oligomeric cytochrome b6f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S Saif; Cramer, William A

    2014-07-08

    The role of lipids in the assembly, structure, and function of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes is poorly understood. The dimeric photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex, a 16-mer of eight distinct subunits and 26 transmembrane helices, catalyzes transmembrane proton-coupled electron transfer for energy storage. Using a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the dimeric complex, we identified 23 distinct lipid-binding sites per monomer. Annular lipids are proposed to provide a connection for super-complex formation with the photosystem-I reaction center and the LHCII kinase enzyme for transmembrane signaling. Internal lipids mediate crosslinking to stabilize the domain-swapped iron-sulfur protein subunit, dielectric heterogeneity within intermonomer and intramonomer electron transfer pathways, and dimer stabilization through lipid-mediated intermonomer interactions. This study provides a complete structure analysis of lipid-mediated functions in a multi-subunit membrane protein complex and reveals lipid sites at positions essential for assembly and function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Archaeal Lipid Genes: Clues to Life in Acid and the Evolution of Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, J. L.; Croft, L.; Vestling, M. M.; Harms, A. C.; Zheng, L.; Baumler, D. J.; Kaspar, C. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms living in acid mine drainage environments face extraordinary challenges. Acid-loving archaea such as Ferroplasma acidarmanus maintain pH gradients of 4 to 5 pH units across their membranes and thrive in hot, extremely low pH (0-1), metal-rich, solutions. New lipid analyses for two extremely acidophilic archaea, F. acidarmanus and F. acidiphilum, reveal that all known archaeal acidophiles have cell membranes composed primarily of tetraether-linked lipids. Because tetraether lipids assemble in rigid monolayers that exclude protons and metals, we suggest that tetraether synthesis genes are essential for archaeal survival in acid. Fusion of two diether-linked lipids to form a tetraether-linked lipid is a distinctive biochemical reaction with no analogy in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition to archaeal acidophiles, tetraethers are present in members of every archaeal lineage except halophiles. Genes responsible for tetraether synthesis and subsequent biochemical steps which "tune" membrane lipid properties in response to environmental changes have not been identified to date. Comparative genomic analyses using the newly completed genome of F. acidarmanus and available genomes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya have generated candidate tetraether synthase genes found only in archaea. Because tetraether-linked lipids are advantageous for acid-loving and possibly also for heat-loving archaea, the phylogeny of these genes has the potential to shed new light on role of hot, acid environments in early evolution.

  14. Complete 2010 Greenhouse Gas Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These files contain the publicly available data from the GHG Reporting Program for 2010. This data includes non-confidential data reported by facilities that...

  15. Camelina, a Swiss knife for plant lipid biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Jean-Denis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Camelina has emerged in the last decade as a multipurpose crop plant particularly suitable for engineering new lipids for diverse uses, including feed, biofuel and green chemistry. The rebirth of this ancient crop was based on several intrinsic favorable characteristics: robust agronomic qualities, attractive oil profile, genetic proximity with the model plant arabidopsis, ease of genetic transformation by floral dip. The need to increase both the production and diversity of plant oils, while improving the sustainability of agricultural systems, has been the driving forces behind the ever-increasing investment in camelina research. Worldwide interest in engineering camelina has led to the development of a remarkable pipeline that allows the rapid production and phenotyping of new lines; it includes specific tools, such as databases, collections of natural accessions, methods of genetic transformation and lipid analysis. Implementation of numerous metabolic pathways in camelina for the production of novel lipids has highlighted the potential as well as the versatility of this new "old" oilseed crop that is well on the way to becoming an ideal plant chassis for lipid synthetic biology.

  16. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  17. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  18. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K C , the thickness D HH , and the orientational order parameter S xray of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K C when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains

  19. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, María J; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming.

  20. Lipid discordance and carotid plaque in obese patients in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Siniawski, Daniel; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients with lipid discordance (non-HDL cholesterol levels 30mg/dL above the LDL-c value) may have a greater prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Our study objectives were: 1) To assess the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population of obese patients; 2) To investigate the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. Obese subjects aged >18 years (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) with no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or lipid-lowering treatment from six cardiology centers were included. Lipid discordance was defined when, regardless of the LDL-c level, the non-HDL cholesterol value exceeded the LDL-c value by 30mg/dL. Presence of CAP was identified by ultrasonography. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the association between lipid discordance and presence of CAP. The study simple consisted of 325 obese patients (57.2% men; mean age, 52.3 years). Prevalence of lipid discordance was 57.9%. CAP was found in 38.6% of patients, but the proportion was higher in subjects with lipid discordance as compared to those without this lipid pattern (44.4% vs. 30.7%, P=.01). In both the univariate (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.87; P=.01) and the multivariate analysis (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.22-3.54; P=.007), presence of lipid discordance was associated to an increased probability of CAP. In these obese patients, lipid discordance was associated to greater prevalence of CAP. Evaluation of obese patients with this strategy could help identify subjects with higher residual cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative prognostic utility of conventional and novel lipid parameters for cardiovascular disease risk prediction: do novel lipid parameters offer an advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Palaniappan; Rathod, Ankit; Panaich, Sidakpal; Hari, Pawan; Veeranna, Vikas; Badheka, Apurva; Jacob, Sony; Afonso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Comparative data on the prognostic utility of novel lipid parameters vs. conventional lipid parameters in predicting coronary events are scant. We sought to compare the predictive value of various lipid measures for coronary events and to further examine the incremental value of novel lipid parameters over traditional cardiovascular risk factors in estimating cardiac risk. We performed a post-hoc analysis of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute limited access dataset of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis subjects (n = 6693). The lipid measures considered in the estimation of coronary risk were conventional and novel lipid parameters, the latter included total low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-particle concentrations (LDL-p, HDL-p and VLDL-p), LDL-p/HDL-p ratio, and LDL-p subfractions. The outcome measured was occurrence of any coronary event (CE) that included myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, cardiac death, and angina. During an average follow up of 4.5 years, 228 patients developed coronary events. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, TC/HDL-c (HR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.95 to 5.47, P ratio 2.84; 95% confidence interval 1.89 to 4.26; P ratios (0.60). The addition of LDL-p/HDL-p ratio to the Framingham risk score components resulted in a very small increase in the overall C statistic. In our large study cohort, a predictive model for future coronary events incorporating the best-available novel lipid parameter (LDL-p/HDL-p ratio) was comparable with the same model that incorporated conventional lipid ratios such as the TC/HDL-c ratio . The use of LDL-p/HDL-p ratio did not appear to offer incremental value over more traditional risk prediction models. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of fish-oil lipid emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beken, Serdar; Dilli, Dilek; Fettah, Nurdan Dinlen; Kabataş, Emrah Utku; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of two lipid emulsions on the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. Randomized controlled study. Eighty very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition from the first day of life were evaluated. One of the two lipid emulsions were used in the study infants: Group 1 (n=40) received fish-oil based lipid emulsion (SmofLipid®) and Group 2 (n=40) soybean oil based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®). The development of retinopathy of prematurity and the need for laser photocoagulation were assessed. The maternal and perinatal characteristics were similar in both groups. The median (range) duration of parenteral nutrition [14days (10-28) vs 14 (10-21)] and hospitalization [34days (20-64) vs 34 (21-53)] did not differ between the groups. Laboratory data including complete blood count, triglyceride level, liver and kidney function tests recorded before and after parenteral nutrition also did not differ between the two groups. In Group 1, two patients (5.0%) and in Group 2, 13 patients (32.5%) were diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity (OR: 9.1, 95% CI 1.9-43.8, p=0.004). One patient in each group needed laser photocoagulation, without significant difference. Multivariate analysis showed that only receiving fish-oil emulsion in parenteral nutrition decreased the risk of development of retinopathy of prematurity [OR: 0.76, 95% CI (0.06-0.911), p=0.04]. Premature infants with very low birth weight receiving an intravenous fat emulsion containing fish oil developed less retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  4. Association of Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism with Blood Pressure and Lipid Values in Mexican Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Ríos-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP. We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism (APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591 with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC −514T, and MTTP −493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17–2.93; P=0.001 under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients.

  5. Diacylglycerol Enrichment of Endoplasmic Reticulum or Lipid Droplets Recruits Perilipin 3/TIP47 during Lipid Storage and Mobilization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, James R.; Shew, Trevor M.; Schwartz, Danielle M.; Tzekov, Anatoly; Lepus, Christin M.; Abumrad, Nada A.; Wolins, Nathan E.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid-induced triacylglycerol synthesis produces triacylglycerol droplets with a protein coat that includes perilipin 3/TIP47 and perilipin 4/S3-12. This study addresses the following two questions. Where do lipid droplets emerge, and how are their coat proteins recruited? We show that perilipin 3- and perilipin 4-coated lipid droplets emerge along the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Blocking membrane trafficking with AlF4− during fatty acid-induced triacylglycerol synthesis drove perilipin 3 to the tubular ER. Forskolin, which like AlF4− activates adenylate cyclase, did not redistribute perilipin 3, but when added together with AlF4− perilipin 3 was recruited to lipid droplets rather than the ER. Thus inhibiting trafficking with AlF4− redistributed perilipin 3 differently under conditions of triacylglycerol synthesis (fatty acid addition) versus hydrolysis (forskolin) suggesting a shared acylglycerol-mediated mechanism. We tested whether diacylglycerol (DG), the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol and its first hydrolytic product, affects the distribution of perilipin 3. Stabilizing DG with the DG lipase inhibitor RHC80267 enhanced the perilipin 3 recruited to lipid droplets and raised DG levels in this fraction. Treating cells with a membrane-permeable DG recruited perilipin 3 to the ER. Stabilizing DG, by blocking its hydrolysis with RHC80267 or its acylation with triacsin C, enhanced recruitment of perilipin 3 to the ER. Expressing the ER enzyme DGAT1, which removes DG by converting it to triacylglycerol, attenuated perilipin 3 DG-induced ER recruitment. Membrane-permeable DG also drove perilipin 4 and 5 onto the ER. Together the data suggest that these lipid droplet proteins are recruited to DG-enriched membranes thereby linking lipid coat proteins to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:19748893

  6. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  7. Gene delivery by cationic lipids : in and out of an endosome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D.; Rejman, J.; Wasungu, L.; Shi, F.; Zuhorn, I.

    Cationic lipids are exploited as vectors ('lipoplexes') for delivering nucleic acids, including genes, into cells for both therapeutic and cell biological purposes. However, to meet therapeutic requirements, their efficacy needs major improvement, and better defining the mechanism of entry in

  8. Microorganism lipid droplets and biofuel development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingmei; Zhang, Congyan; Shen, Xipeng; Zhang, Xuelin; Cichello, Simon; Guan, Hongbin; Liu, Pingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids as a source of energy and carbon. However, recent research has emerged that the organelle is involved in lipid synthesis, transportation, and metabolism, as well as mediating cellular protein storage and degradation. With the exception of multi-cellular organisms, some unicellular microorganisms have been observed to contain LDs. The organelle has been isolated and characterized from numerous organisms. Triacylglycerol (TAG...

  9. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howton, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on effects of atmospheric pollutants on lipids emphasized effects of nitrogen dioxide on olefinic centers of alveolar fluid surfactant lipids. The finding that NO 2 attacks α-tocopherol much more avidly than olefinic fatty esters indicates that the autoxidation enhancing effects of this atmospheric pollutant may be greatly magnified by destruction of native antioxidants that normally suppress the extensiveness of such lipid oxidation

  10. Lipid biosynthesis in Paramphistomum microbothrium (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awharitoma, A O; Opute, F I; Ali, S N; Obiamiwe, B A

    1990-02-01

    In vitro studies with Paramphistomum microbothrium indicated that the trematode is capable of synthesizing its complex lipids using exogenous substrates. U-14C glucose and 2-14C acetate were predominantly incorporated into phospholipids while 1-14C oleic acid and U-14C palmitic acid appeared more in the neutral lipids. A large proportion of the labelled acetic acid incorporated into neutral lipids appeared in the triglycerides. P. microbothrium is capable of synthesizing its cholesterol de novo.

  11. [Formation of stabile cupola-like lipid bilayer membranes with a mobile plateau Gibbs boundary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, E V; Smirnova, E Iu; Frolov, A V; Iakovenko, E V; Antonov, V F

    1993-01-01

    Stable bilayer lipid membrane with mobile Platear-Gibbs border have been formed. The predominant condition of the formation is the presence of lipid coverage on the teflon surface near the hole. The formation process includes transformation of the initial planar lipid bilayer into cupola-shaped one by bowing of the lipid bilayer due to hydrostatic pressure, movement of the PGb along the teflon surface. The bilayer area estimated by electric capacitance increases from 0.1 x 10(-8) F to 21 x 10(-8) F. Electric conductance of the lipid bilayer has not changed except for the phase transition and membrane collapse. The electric capacitance of the BLM formed from hydrogenated egg lecithin was changed by cooling between 60 degrees and 40 degrees C with the maximum at about phase transition range. The individual membrane sustains several scannings of the temperature without disruption which is an evidence of the stability of the cupola-shaped membranes.

  12. Discordant Lipid Pattern and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque. Importance of Remnant Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Lobo, Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Siniawski, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Subjects with levels of non-HDL-C 30 mg/dL above those of LDL-C (lipid discordance) or with high remnant cholesterol levels could have a greater residual cardiovascular risk. To determine the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population and analyze the clinical variables associated with it; To investigate the association between lipid discordance and remnant cholesterol with the presence of carotid plaque. Primary prevention patients without diabetes or lipid-lowering therapy were included. Regardless of the LDL-C level, we define "lipid discordance" if the non-HDL-C value exceeded 30 mg/dL that of LDL-C. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C minus LDL-C when triglycerides were aterosclerose subclínica. Nossos achados podem ser usados para aprimorar a avaliação de risco cardiovascular residual.

  13. Pretreated high lipid serum method and its significance before determine INS C-P by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Guangxia; Zhu Liqiang; Wu Yufang

    2004-01-01

    The method of predigest high lipid serum before determine INS and C-P for elimination of the high lipid in serum was studied. The specimen was divided into two groups, one was directly tested, the other was pretreated, then determined(including INS and QC of serum, normal and high lipid serum, pretreating serum). The results were compared by examine and analysed correlatively. Results show that INS and C-P of the specimens pretreated by PEG, were no statistic difference in relation to direct tested (P>0.05) and those were close correlatively (P<0.001) in normal. The results of high lipid serum after the specimens were predigest by PEG were marked by decrease in relation to direct tested (P<0.001). High lipid and INS antibody were eliminated by PEG so that was increased the results nicety. (authors)

  14. Sphingolipids and epoxidized lipid metabolites in the control of gut immunosurveillance and allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eKunisawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal immune system ingeniously balances the distinct responses of elimination and tolerance of non-self-substances for the creation and maintenance of homeostatic environments. Accumulating evidence has recently shown that various lipids, including dietary one, are involved in the regulation of intestinal immunity and are associated with biophylaxis and immune disorders. Recent advances in the lipidomics allow the identification of novel pathways of lipid metabolism and lipid metabolites for the control of intestinal immunity. In this paper, we describe the effects and functions of lipids, especially sphingolipids and new lipid metabolites originated from dietary oil on the immunomodulation and on the development and pathogenesis of allergic diseases in the intestine.

  15. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  16. Ear recognition: a complete system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  17. Mathematics a complete introduction : teach yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Neill, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Maths does not have to be difficult. This book, complete with exercises and answers, forms a course which will take you from beginner or intermediate level to being a confident mathematician. This book includes simple step-by-step explanations, to help you grasp new topics or those that have previously confused you; practice questions throughout, to help you embed your learning and improve your confidence; End of chapter summaries, to help you remember the key points you''ve learned; All in one great-value book, so you don''t need any separate workbooks or coursebooks.

  18. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat A. Siddiqui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction.

  19. Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2012-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

  20. Relation between plasma and brain lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellington, Cheryl L; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates recent experimental and human evidence regarding the involvement of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in neurodegenerative diseases, and reviews the current literature of the effects of cholesterol-lowering treatment on cognition. RECENT FINDINGS...... for dementia together with genetic risk variants and cardiovascular risk factors remains to be determined. SUMMARY: Apolipoproteins with well established functions in peripheral lipid metabolism may play important roles for brain vascular health and Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Experimental work...... on lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in the central nervous system together with robust prospective human studies will help to substantiate the drug target potential of these lipid components....

  1. Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid profile, hyperglycaemia, systemic inflammation and anthropometry as cardiovascular risk factors and their association with dietary intakes in children from rural Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  2. Structural Dynamics Of The S4 Voltage-Sensor Helix In Lipid Bilayers Lacking Lipid Phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Freites, J. Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J.; White, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels require lipid phosphates for functioning. The S4 helix, which carries the gating charges in the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), inserts into membranes while being stabilized by a protein-lipid interface in which lipid phosphates play an essential role. To examine the physical basis of the protein-lipid interface in the absence of lipid phosphates, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a KvAP S4 variant (S4mut) in bilayers with and without lipid phosphates. We find that in dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) bilayers lacking lipid phosphates, the gating charges are solvated by anionic counterions and, hence, lack the bilayer support provided by phosphate-containing palmitoyloleoylglycerophosphocholine (POPC) bilayers. The result is a water-permeable bilayer with a significantly smaller deformations around the peptide. Together, these results provide an explanation for the non-functionality of VSDs in terms of a destabilizing protein-lipid interface. PMID:21692541

  3. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  4. A first experience with digital complete overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Omar Bajunaid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems for dentistry in the 1980s resulted in the successful fabrication of crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and superstructures for both natural teeth and dental implants. Today, this technology is available for constructing digitally designed and milled, completely removable dental prostheses. The procedure uses clinical and laboratory protocols that allow fabrication of completely removable prostheses within two clinical appointments. The aim of this clinical report is to present the author’s first experience with digital complete overdentures, the practicality of this technology, and patient feedback. Compared with conventional overdentures, the fit of the digital prostheses was improved because the cameo and flanges of the prostheses were nicely shaped and rolled, and this enhanced their stability and retention. Occlusion was also excellent. However, aesthetics in terms of the alignment, shape, and size of the maxillary overdenture teeth were inacceptable. Despite some of the drawbacks identified in our study, the use of removable digital dentures does provide excellent adaptation of the denture base and requires fewer clinic visits. We anticipate that the unsatisfactory aesthetic outcomes presented in this report can be corrected with more experience. We also believe that acquiring an in-house scanning machine would be beneficial. We highly recommend including this technique in dental school curriculums at both the undergraduate and graduate levels in order to keep students and residents up to date on the latest technology available.

  5. Solid-Supported Lipid Membranes: Formation, Stability and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Haw Zan

    This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of the formation of supported lipid membranes with vesicle hemifusion, their stability under detergents and organic solvents and their applications in molecular biology. In Chapter 3, we describe how isolated patches of DOPC bilayers supported on glass surfaces are dissolved by various detergents (decyl maltoside, dodecyl maltoside, CHAPS, CTAB, SDS, TritonX-100 and Tween20) at their CMC, as investigated by fluorescence video microscopy. In general, detergents partition into distal leaflets of bilayers and lead to the expansion of the bilayers through a rolling motion of the distal over the proximal leaflets, in agreement with the first stage of the established 3-stage model of lipid vesicle solubilization by detergents. Subsequently, we study the partitioning of organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propanol, acetone and chloroform) into isolated bilayer patches on glass in Chapter 4 with fluorescence microscopy. The area expansion of bilayers due to the partitioning of organic solvents is measured. From the titration of organic solvents, we measured the rate of area expansion as a function of the volume fraction of organic solvents, which is proposed to be a measure of strength of interactions between solvents and membranes. From the same experiments, we also measure the maximum expansion of bilayers (or the maximum binding stoichiometry between organic solvents and lipids) before structural breakdown, which depends on the depth of penetration of solvents to the membranes. In Chapter 5, we investigate the formation of sparsely-tethered bilayer lipid membranes (stBLMs) with vesicle hemifusion. In vesicle hemifusion, lipid vesicles in contact with a hydrophobic alkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) deposit a lipid monolayer to the SAM surface, thus completing the bilayer. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Neutron Reflectivity are used to probe the integrity of stBLMs in terms of their

  6. Overprescribing of lipid lowering agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Cox, E D; Bartell, J M

    2006-08-01

    Undertreatment of hyperlipidemia has received considerable attention. However, little is known about trends in overprescribing of lipid lowering agents. We examined these trends and their associations with physician, practice, and organisational factors. 2034 physicians were surveyed twice: baseline (1996-7) and follow up (1998-9). On each occasion they were asked: "For what percentage of 50 year old men without other cardiac risk factors would you recommend an oral agent for total cholesterol of 240, LDL 150, and HDL 50 after 6 months on a low cholesterol diet?" During the survey period the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines did not recommend prescribing for these patients. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions assessed baseline overprescribing and longitudinal changes in overprescribing, accounting for complex sampling. 39% of physicians recommended prescribing at baseline (round 1), increasing at follow up (round 2) to 51% (p overprescribe at baseline were less likely to be board certified (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.63; p overprescribing to be international medical graduates (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.64; p = 0.011) and to spend more hours in patient care (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26; p = 0.016). Overprescribing of lipid lowering agents is commonplace and increased. At baseline and longitudinally, overprescribing was primarily associated with physician and practice characteristics and not with organisational factors.

  7. Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying detergent-lipid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo A; Asseo-García, Aloysha M; Quesada, Orestes; Hanson, Michael A; Cheng, Anchi; Nogueras, Carlos; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-05-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. However, high-resolution structural studies have been hampered by the lack of mechanistic molecular models that describe how detergents influence membrane protein stability and function. Furthermore, elucidation of the dynamic detergent-lipid-protein interactions of solubilized membrane proteins is a largely unexplored research field. This study examines the effects of nine detergents on: (1) nAChR-lipid composition (gas chromatography with flame ionization; GC-FID and/or mass selective detectors; GC-MSD), (2) stability and aggregation state (analytical size exclusion chromatography; A-SEC and electron microscopy; EM) and (3) ion channel function (planar lipid bilayers). Detergent solubilization of nAChR-enriched membranes did not result in significant native lipid depletion or destabilization. Upon purification, native lipid depletion occurred in all detergents, with lipid-analogue detergents CHAPS {(3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate}, FC-12 (n-dodecylphosphocholine) and sodium cholate (3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid) maintaining stability and supporting ion channel function, and non-lipid-analogue detergents Cymal-6 (6-cyclohexyl-1-hexyl-beta-D-maltoside), DDM (n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside), LDAO (lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide) and OG (n-octyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside) decreasing stability and significantly reducing or completely suppressing ion channel function. Anapoe-C(12)E(9 )(polyoxyethylene-[9]-dodecyl ether) and BigCHAP (N,N'-bis-[3-d-gluconamidopropyl] cholamide) retained residual amounts of native lipid, maintaining moderate stability and ion channel function compared to lipid-analogue detergents. Therefore, the nAChR can be stable and functional in lipid-analogue detergents or in detergents that retain moderate amounts of residual native lipids, but not in non-lipid

  8. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Kurisaki, Tomohiro; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kondoh, Gen; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, β-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  11. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Atsushi [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Kurisaki, Tomohiro [Department of Growth Regulation, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi B. [Research Center for Low Temperature and Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide [Lipid Biology Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kondoh, Gen [Laboratory of Animal Experiments for Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, {beta}-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  12. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  13. Discordant Lipid Pattern and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque. Importance of Remnant Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Masson

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Subjects with levels of non-HDL-C 30 mg/dL above those of LDL-C (lipid discordance or with high remnant cholesterol levels could have a greater residual cardiovascular risk. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lipid discordance in a primary prevention population and analyze the clinical variables associated with it; To investigate the association between lipid discordance and remnant cholesterol with the presence of carotid plaque. Methods: Primary prevention patients without diabetes or lipid-lowering therapy were included. Regardless of the LDL-C level, we define “lipid discordance” if the non-HDL-C value exceeded 30 mg/dL that of LDL-C. Remnant cholesterol was calculated as total cholesterol minus HDL-C minus LDL-C when triglycerides were < 4.0 mmol/L. Ultrasound was used to assess carotid plaque occurrence. Multiple regression logistic models were performed. Results: The study included 772 patients (mean age 52 ± 11 years, 66% women. The prevalence of lipid discordance was 34%. Male sex and body mass index were independently associated with discordant lipid pattern. The prevalence of carotid plaque was higher in subjects with lipid discordance (40.2% vs. 29.2, p = 0.002. The multivariate analysis showed that the discordant lipid pattern was associated with the greater probability of carotid plaque (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.34, p = 0.02. Similarly, a significant association between calculated remnant cholesterol and carotid plaque was found. Conclusion: Lipid discordance and presence of a higher level of calculated remnant cholesterol are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Our findings could be used to improve the residual cardiovascular risk evaluation.

  14. Multifunctional pH-Sensitive Amino Lipids for siRNA Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujrati, Maneesh; Vaidya, Amita; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-01-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful modality for human disease therapy that can regulate gene expression signature using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Successful delivery of siRNA into the cytoplasm of target cells is imperative for efficient RNAi and also constitutes the primary stumbling block in the clinical applicability of RNAi. Significant progress has been made in the development of lipid-based siRNA delivery systems, which have practical advantages like simple chemistry and easy formulation of nanoparticles with siRNA. This review discusses the recent development of pH-sensitive amino lipids, with particular focus on multifunctional pH-sensitive amino lipids for siRNA delivery. The key components of these multifunctional lipids include a protonatable amino head group, distal lipid tails, and two cross-linkable thiol groups, which together facilitate the facile formation of stable siRNA-nanoparticles, easy surface modification for target-specific delivery, endosomal escape in response to the pH decrease during subcellular trafficking, and reductive dissociation of the siRNA-nanoparticles for cytoplasmic release of free siRNA. By virtue of these properties, multifunctional pH-sensitive lipids can mediate efficient cytosolic siRNA delivery and gene silencing. Targeted siRNA nanoparticles can be readily formulated with these lipids, without the need for other helper lipids, to promote systemic delivery of therapeutic siRNAs. Such targeted siRNA nanoparticles have been shown to effectively regulate the expression of cancer-related genes, resulting in significant efficacy in the treatment of aggressive tumors, including metastatic triple negative breast cancer. These multifunctional pH-sensitive lipids constitute a promising platform for the systemic and targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA for the treatment of human diseases. This review summarizes the structure-property relationship of the multifunctional pH-sensitive lipids and their efficacy in

  15. Lipid profile in patients with newly diagnosed coronary heart disease: 2012 and 2013 cross-sectional study in Luis Vernaza Hospital, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Antonio Vásquez-Cedeño

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in the progression of atherosclerosis, and it appears in pathologies such as dyslipidemias. Certain pro-inflammatory enzymes are associated negatively with high-density lipoproteins (HDL and positively with low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Calculating the atherogenic index greatly complements the study of these diseases. Lipid alterations have a high prevalence in Ecuadorian and Latin American populations. Better knowledge of which lipid alteration is the most prevalent would bring more attention to the subject, leading to early treatment. The goal of this study is to describe the complete lipid profile alterations in patients recently diagnosed with ischemic heart disease and find which of these is the most prevalent. Methods We designed a cross-sectional, descriptive study that included patients from the Cardiology Service of the “Hospital Luis Vernaza” who presented with the first episode of ischemic heart disease between January 2012 and 2013. There were 220 patients with that diagnosis. One-hundred and thirty-one (131 were excluded because they did not meet inclusion criteria. The final sample comprised 89 patients. Results We found 41 (46.06% patients with low HDL levels, 49 (55.05% with high LDL levels, 28 (31.46% with high triglycerides, 24 (26.96% with high cholesterol levels, 25 (28.08% with high VLDL levels, 26 (29.21% had values over 5 in the Castelli index, and 32 (35.95% had LDL/HDL values higher than 3. Discussion It is of great importance to have a complete lipid profile from patients recently diagnosed with ischemic heart disease in order to work on secondary prevention. The most prevalent alteration found in our study was high LDL levels. The percentage of patients with low HDL was similar to other Latin American populations. More studies are needed to gain a more accurate idea of the status of the general population in this regard.

  16. Completeness of non-normalizable modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Philip D; Simbotin, Ionel

    2006-01-01

    We establish the completeness of some characteristic sets of non-normalizable modes by constructing fully localized square steps out of them, with each such construction expressly displaying the Gibbs phenomenon associated with trying to use a complete basis of modes to fit functions with discontinuous edges. As well as being of interest in and of itself, our study is also of interest to the recently introduced large extra dimension brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, since the particular non-normalizable mode bases that we consider (specifically the irregular Bessel functions and the associated Legendre functions of the second kind) are associated with the tensor gravitational fluctuations which occur in those specific brane worlds in which the embedding of a maximally four-symmetric brane in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk leads to a warp factor which is divergent. Since the brane-world massless four-dimensional graviton has a divergent wavefunction in these particular cases, its resulting lack of normalizability is thus not seen to be any impediment to its belonging to a complete basis of modes, and consequently its lack of normalizability should not be seen as a criterion for not including it in the spectrum of observable modes. Moreover, because the divergent modes we consider form complete bases, we can even construct propagators out of them in which these modes appear as poles with residues which are expressly finite. Thus, even though normalizable modes appear in propagators with residues which are given as their finite normalization constants, non-normalizable modes can just as equally appear in propagators with finite residues too-it is just that such residues will not be associated with bilinear integrals of the modes

  17. Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass Improves Lipid Profile and Decreases Cardiovascular Risk: a 5-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study of 1048 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, Daniel; Favre, Lucie; Allemann, Pierre; Fournier, Pierre; Demartines, Nicolas; Suter, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the study was to assess lipid profiles and their impact on CV risk changes in a large patient cohort 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All patients who underwent primary RYGB for severe obesity in our two hospitals between January 1999 and December 2009 were included. The Framingham risk score was used. One thousand and forty-eight patients were included, 791 women and 257 men. Five-year complete lipid profile was available for 77% of patients. At 5 years, mean body mass index (BMI) decreased from 45.7 ± 6 to 31 ± 5.8 kg/m 2 (p profile improved more in patients with greater weight loss (%EBMIL ≥ 50 or %TWL ≥ 25%). Assuming that all patients were non-smokers and other baseline risk factors (hypertension, diabetes) remained unchanged at 5 years, the amelioration of the lipid profile itself yielded to a 27% reduction of CV risk (p profile from the first to fifth postoperative year. This improvement translates into significantly lower CV risk from the first year after surgery.

  18. Natural lipids in nanostructured lipid carriers and its cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paula A.; Rampazo, Caroline A. D.; Costa, Amanda F.; Rodrigues, Tiago; Watashi, Carolina M.; Durán, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are active carrier systems which modulate the sustained release of actives and protect unstable compounds against degradation. NLCs can also protect skin from sun light, due to its particulates nature, which gives them intrinsic scattering properties. In this work, we present the preparation of NLCs using natural lipids and its cytotoxicity profile. It was used a vegetal butter with melting point (m.p.) ~32-40°C, an animal wax (m.p. 35-40°C) and a vegetal oil (boiling point ~120-150°C). NLCs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method and particles were characterized by average size (Zave), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (PZ) (Fig.1). The thermal behavior of the NLCs was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). All the formulations were followed up for 60 days in order to evaluate their stability. NLCs exhibited a Zave around 150-200 nm, PDI less than 0.2 and PZ varying from -25 to -40 mV. The m.p. for the lyophilized NLCs was about 40-56°C. Cytotoxicity of the formulations were evaluated for human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and melanocytes (Melan-A) in the exponential growth phase. Cell viability was used as indicator of cytotoxicity and determined after 4 days of culture by MTT assay. It was found that the NLC formulations were not toxic against HaCaT and Melan-A cells. Results showed that the NLCs produced are potential carriers for nanocosmetics and sunscreen products.

  19. Lipid polymorphism and the functional roles of lipids in biological membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullis, P.R.; Kruijff, B. de

    1979-01-01

    The reasons for the great variety of lipids found in biological membranes, and the relations between lipid composition and membrane function pose major unsolved problems in membrane biology. Perhaps the only major functional role of lipids which may be regarded as firmly established involves the

  20. Inclusion of the helper lipid dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine in solid lipid nanoparticles inhibits their transfection efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Radaic, Allan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Ferreira, Carmen V; de Paula, Eneida; Hoekstra, Dirk; Zuhorn, Inge S

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are a promising system for the delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. They consist of a solid lipid core that is stabilized by a layer of surfactants. By the incorporation of cationic lipids in the formulation, positively charged SLNs can be generated, that