WorldWideScience

Sample records for included coastal rivers

  1. Coherence between coastal and river flooding along the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Warrick, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Water levels around river mouths are intrinsically determined by sea level and river discharge. If storm-associated coastal water-level anomalies coincide with extreme river discharge, landscapes near river mouths will be flooded by the hydrodynamic interactions of these two water masses. Unfortunately, the temporal relationships between ocean and river water masses are not well understood. The coherence between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels at six California river mouths across different climatic and geographic regions was examined. Data from river gauges, wave buoys, and tide gauges from 2007 to 2014 were integrated to investigate the relationships between extreme river discharge and coastal water levels near the mouths of the Eel, Russian, San Lorenzo, Ventura, Arroyo Trabuco, and San Diego rivers. Results indicate that mean and extreme coastal water levels during extreme river discharge are significantly higher compared with background conditions. Elevated coastal water levels result from the combination of nontidal residuals (NTRs) and wave setups. Mean and extreme (>99th percentile of observations) NTRs are 3–20 cm and ∼30 cm higher during extreme river discharge conditions, respectively. Mean and extreme wave setups are up to 40 cm and ∼20–90 cm higher during extreme river discharge than typical conditions, respectively. These water-level anomalies were generally greatest for the northern rivers and least for the southern rivers. Time-series comparisons suggest that increases in NTRs are largely coherent with extreme river discharge, owing to the low atmospheric pressure systems associated with storms. The potential flooding risks of the concurrent timing of these water masses are tempered by the mixed, semidiurnal tides of the region that have amplitudes of 2–2.5 m. In summary, flooding hazard assessments for floodplains near California river mouths for current or future conditions with sea-level rise should include the temporal

  2. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.

    1998-01-01

    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  3. River, delta and coastal morphological response accounting for biological dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Goldsmith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management and construction can increase resilience in the face of climate change, and benefits can be enhanced through integration of biogenic materials including shells and vegetation. Rivers and coastal landforms are dynamic systems that respond to intentional and unintended manipulation of critical factors, often with unforeseen and/or undesirable resulting effects. River management strategies have impacts that include deltas and coastal areas which are increasingly vulnerable to climate change with reference to sea level rise and storm intensity. Whereas conventional assessment and analysis of rivers and coasts has relied on modelling of hydrology, hydraulics and sediment transport, incorporating additional biological factors can offer more comprehensive, beneficial and realistic alternatives. Suitable modelling tools can provide improved decision support. The question has been whether current models can effectively address biological responses with suitable reliability and efficiency. Since morphodynamic evolution exhibits its effects on a large timescale, the choice of mathematical model is not trivial and depends upon the availability of data, as well as the spatial extent, timelines and computation effort desired. The ultimate goal of the work is to set up a conveniently simplified river morphodynamic model, coupled with a biological dynamics plant population model able to predict the long-term evolution of large alluvial river systems managed through bioengineering. This paper presents the first step of the work related to the application of the model accounting for stationary vegetation condition. Sensitivity analysis has been performed on the main hydraulic, sedimentology, and biological parameters. The model has been applied to significant river training in Europe, Asia and North America, and comparative analysis has been used to validate analytical solutions. Data gaps and further areas for investigation are identified.

  4. River, delta and coastal morphological response accounting for biological dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, W.; Bernardi, D.; Schippa, L.

    2015-03-01

    Management and construction can increase resilience in the face of climate change, and benefits can be enhanced through integration of biogenic materials including shells and vegetation. Rivers and coastal landforms are dynamic systems that respond to intentional and unintended manipulation of critical factors, often with unforeseen and/or undesirable resulting effects. River management strategies have impacts that include deltas and coastal areas which are increasingly vulnerable to climate change with reference to sea level rise and storm intensity. Whereas conventional assessment and analysis of rivers and coasts has relied on modelling of hydrology, hydraulics and sediment transport, incorporating additional biological factors can offer more comprehensive, beneficial and realistic alternatives. Suitable modelling tools can provide improved decision support. The question has been whether current models can effectively address biological responses with suitable reliability and efficiency. Since morphodynamic evolution exhibits its effects on a large timescale, the choice of mathematical model is not trivial and depends upon the availability of data, as well as the spatial extent, timelines and computation effort desired. The ultimate goal of the work is to set up a conveniently simplified river morphodynamic model, coupled with a biological dynamics plant population model able to predict the long-term evolution of large alluvial river systems managed through bioengineering. This paper presents the first step of the work related to the application of the model accounting for stationary vegetation condition. Sensitivity analysis has been performed on the main hydraulic, sedimentology, and biological parameters. The model has been applied to significant river training in Europe, Asia and North America, and comparative analysis has been used to validate analytical solutions. Data gaps and further areas for investigation are identified.

  5. U.S. Coastal Lidar Elevation Data - Including the Great Lakes and Territories, 1996 - present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Services Center manages and distributes lidar data for the coastal United States, including territorial possessions via the Digital Coast Data...

  6. 76 FR 24914 - Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Digital River Education Services acquired Journey Education Marketing (JEM) in August 2010. Some workers... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,975] Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI...

  7. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  8. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  9. Catchment2Coast: making the link between coastal resource variability and river inputs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, P

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available groundwater quantity (flow) and quality (nutrients) on mangrove habitat. The development phase will include a literature review on current understanding of groundwater contribu- tions to tropical estuarine and mangrove ecosystems. The model will use...–estuarine hydrodynamics and physical processes in Maputo Bay A validated hydrodynamic modelling system with two-way nesting of the estu- ary, mangrove, bay and coastal system at Maputo will not only facilitate an investi- gation of the influence of river flow...

  10. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: coastal geomorphic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Eidam, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Two dams on the Elwha River, Washington State, USA trapped over 20 million m3 of mud, sand, and gravel since 1927, reducing downstream sediment fluxes and contributing to erosion of the river's coastal delta. The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams, initiated in September 2011, induced massive increases in river sediment supply and provided an unprecedented opportunity to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal delta to these increases. Detailed measurements of beach topography and nearshore bathymetry show that ~ 2.5 million m3 of sediment was deposited during the first two years of dam removal, which is ~ 100 times greater than deposition rates measured prior to dam removal. The majority of the deposit was located in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region immediately offshore of the river mouth and was composed of sand and gravel. Additional areas of deposition include a secondary sandy deposit to the east of the river mouth and a muddy deposit west of the mouth. A comparison with fluvial sediment fluxes suggests that ~ 70% of the sand and gravel and ~ 6% of the mud supplied by the river was found in the survey area (within about 2 km of the mouth). A hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, validated with in-situ measurements, shows that tidal currents interacting with the larger relict submarine delta help disperse fine sediment large distances east and west of the river mouth. The model also suggests that waves and currents erode the primary deposit located near the river mouth and transport sandy sediment eastward to form the secondary deposit. Though most of the substrate of the larger relict submarine delta was unchanged during the first two years of dam removal, portions of the seafloor close to the river mouth became finer, modifying habitats for biological communities. These results show that river restoration, like natural changes in river sediment supply, can result in rapid and substantial coastal geomorphological

  11. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the

  12. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  13. Coastal Wetlands Protection Act: Case of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River

    OpenAIRE

    Latif Gürkan KAYA

    2007-01-01

    Coastal wetlands, being important components of estuarine and coastal systems, stand for all publicly owned lands subject to the ebb and flow of the tide. They are below the watermark of ordinary high tide. The coastal wetlands contain a vital natural resource system. The coastal wetlands resource system, unless impossible, to reconstruct or rehabilitate once adversely affected by human. In the USA, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river states (i.e. Georgia, Alabama and Florida) ha...

  14. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  15. Coastal processes of the Elwha River delta: Chapter 5 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Miller, Ian M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    To understand the effects of increased sediment supply from dam removal on marine habitats around the Elwha River delta, a basic understanding of the region’s coastal processes is necessary. This chapter provides a summary of the physical setting of the coast near the Elwha River delta, for the purpose of synthesizing the processes that move and disperse sediment discharged by the river. One fundamental property of this coastal setting is the difference between currents in the surfzone with those in the coastal waters offshore of the surfzone. Surfzone currents are largely dictated by the direction and size of waves, and the waves that attack the Elwha River delta predominantly come from Pacific Ocean swell from the west. This establishes surfzone currents and littoral sediment transport that are eastward along much of the delta. Offshore of the surfzone the currents are largely influenced by tidal circulation and the physical constraint to flow provided by the delta’s headland. During both ebbing and flooding tides, the flow separates from the coast at the tip of the delta’s headland, and this produces eddies on the downstream side of the headland. Immediately offshore of the Elwha River mouth, this creates a situation in which the coastal currents are directed toward the east much more frequently than toward the west. This suggests that Elwha River sediment will be more likely to move toward the east in the coastal system.

  16. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Michael, D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography-Pearl River Delta 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Miner, Michael D.; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the University of New Orleans (UNO), Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES), New Orleans, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Pearl River Delta in Louisiana and Mississippi, acquired March 9-11, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the

  19. Hydrological Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Export in a Coastal River System in Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Osburn, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from river catchments can influence the biogeochemical processes in coastal environments with implications for water quality and carbon budget. High flow conditions are responsible for most DOM export ("pulses") from watersheds, and these events reduce DOM transformation and production by "shunting" DOM from river networks into coastal waters: the Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC). Subsequently, the source and quality of DOM is also expected to change as a function of river flow. Here, we used stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations ([DOC]) along with DOM optical properties, such as absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and fluorescence excitation and emission matrices modeled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to characterize DOM source, quality and fluxes under variable flow conditions for the Neuse River, a coastal river system in the southeastern US. Observations were made at a flow gauged station above head of tide periodically between Aug 2011 and Feb 2013, which captured low flow periods in summer and several high flow events including Hurricane Irene. [DOC] and a350 were correlated and varied positively with river flow, implying that a large portion of the DOM was colored, humic and flow-mobilized. During high flow conditions, PARAFAC results demonstrated the higher influx of terrestrial humic DOM, and lower in-stream phytoplankton production or microbial degradation. However, during low flow, DOM transformation and production increased in response to higher residence times and elevated productivity. Further, 70% of the DOC was exported by above average flows, where 3-4 fold increases in DOC fluxes were observed during episodic events, consistent with PSC. These results imply that storms dramatically affects DOM export to coastal waters, whereby high river flow caused by episodic events primarily shunt terrestrial DOM to coastal waters, whereas low flow promotes in-stream DOM transformation and amendment with microbial DOM.

  20. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  1. Spatio-temporal migration patterns of Pacific salmon smolts in rivers and coastal marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Melnychuk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations were tagged between 2004-2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  3. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  4. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  5. Responses of aquatic communities to physical and chemical parameters in agriculturally impacted coastal river systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, Chantel

    2017-04-05

    Full Text Available assemblages of macroinvertebrates and algae down a longitudinal gradient and; (ii) to determine the environmental variables that affect assemblage distribution. The study occurs in agriculturally influenced coastal rivers in the southern Cape, South Africa...

  6. Catchment2Coast: A systems approach to coupled river-coastal ecosystem science and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catchment2Coast was an interdisciplinary research and modelling project that aimed to improve understanding of the linkages between coastal ecosystems and the adjacent river catchments. The project involved nine partner organizations from three...

  7. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A

    This article demonstrates the use of Maya, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams. Maya is a mono hull structure with detachable nose and tail cones. The nose cone is mission specific...

  8. Herbicides from the Charente river and the estuarine zone (Marennes-Oleron) to the coastal seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribe, P.; Chouakri, S.; Dupas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial distribution of herbicides was investigated in the fluvial section, the estuary of the Charente river and the coastal zone (Marennes-Oleron). Monthly samplings were performed on a fluvial section from Angouleme to Saintes, at Chalonne, Nersac, Sireuil, Bourg and Brives from 1993 onwards. Estuarine and coastal sea-waters were sampled during two cruises in May 1991 and February 1992

  9. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter

    2015-02-15

    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  11. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...sampling and in- situ density testing using the sand displacement 11 or large-scale water displacement method. Dozer trenches TT82-1 and TT82-6 were excavated...underlying the valley or may, due to its pervasiveness, represent an in situ weathering product of the buried bedrock. 4.18 Because of the magnitude

  12. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  13. A Conceptual Framework and Classification for the Fluvial-Backwater-Marine Transition in Coastal Rivers Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, N. C.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Hughes, Z. J.; Wolinsky, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Channels in fluvio-deltaic and coastal plain settings undergo a progressive series of downstream transitions in hydrodynamics and sediment transport, which is consequently reflected in their morphology and stratigraphic architecture. Conditions progress from uniform fluvial flow to backwater conditions with non-uniform flow, and finally to bi-directional tidal flow or estuarine circulation at the ocean boundary. While significant attention has been given to geomorphic scaling relationships in purely fluvial settings, there have been far fewer studies on the backwater and tidal reaches, and no systematic comparisons. Our study addresses these gaps by analyzing geometric scaling relationships independently in each of the above hydrodynamic regimes and establishes a comparison. To accomplish this goal we have constructed a database of planform geometries including more than 150 channels. In terms of hydrodynamics studies, much of the work on backwater dynamics has concentrated on the Mississippi River, which has very limited tidal influence. We will extend this analysis to include systems with appreciable offshore tidal range, using a numerical hydrodynamic model to study the interaction between backwater dynamics and tides. The database is comprised of systems with a wide range of tectonic, climatic, and oceanic forcings. The scale of these systems, as measured by bankfull width, ranges over three orders of magnitude from the Amazon River in Brazil to the Palix River in Washington. Channel centerlines are extracted from processed imagery, enabling continuous planform measurements of bankfull width, meander wavelength, and sinuosity. Digital terrain and surface models are used to estimate floodplain slopes. Downstream tidal boundary conditions are obtained from the TOPEX 7.1 global tidal model, while upstream boundary conditions such as basin area, relief, and discharge are obtained by linking the databases of Milliman and Meade (2011) and Syvitski (2005). Backwater

  14. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  15. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  16. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  17. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  18. Methane emissions from a human-dominated lowland coastal river network (Shanghai, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Evasion of methane (CH4) in streams and rivers play a critical role in global carbon (C) cycle, offsetting the C uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about CH4 emissions from lowland coastal rivers profoundly modified by anthropogenic perturbations. Here, we report results from a long-term, large-scale study of CH4 partial pressures (pCH4) and evasion rates in the Shanghai river network. The spatiotemporal variability of pCH4 was examined along a land-use gradient and the annual CH4 evasion were estimated to assess its role in regional C budget. During the study period, the median pCH4 from 87 surveyed rivers was 241 μatm. CH4 was oversaturated throughout the river network, CH4 hotpots were concentrated in the small urban rivers and highly discharge-dependent. The annual median fCH4 for each site ranged from 3.1 mg C•m-2•d-1 to 296.6 mg C•m-2•d-1. The annual CH4 evasion were 105 Gg CO2-eq•yr-1 and 96 Gg CO2-eq•yr-1 for the entire river network and the mainland rivers, respectively. Given the rapid urbanization in global coastal areas, more research is needed to quantify the role of lowland coastal rivers as a major landscape C source in global C budget.

  19. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  20. Coastal Wetlands Protection Act: Case of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Gürkan KAYA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands, being important components of estuarine and coastal systems, stand for all publicly owned lands subject to the ebb and flow of the tide. They are below the watermark of ordinary high tide. The coastal wetlands contain a vital natural resource system. The coastal wetlands resource system, unless impossible, to reconstruct or rehabilitate once adversely affected by human. In the USA, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF river states (i.e. Georgia, Alabama and Florida have variation in the structure and the function of their wetland program affecting the ACF river basins' wetlands. Although some states have no special wetlands program, they have permits and water quality certification for these areas. Some state programs affect state agencies while local government implements other programs.

  1. Issues in ecology: Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Robert W.; Anderson, D. B.; Cloern, James E.; Elfring, Chris; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Lapointe, Brian; Maloney, Thomas J.; Marcus, Nancy; McGlathery, Karen; Sharpley, A.N.; Walker, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, antipollution laws have greatly reduced discharges of toxic substances into our coastal waters. This effort, however, has focused largely on point-source pollution of industrial and municipal effluent. No comparable effort has been made to restrict the input of nitrogen (N) from municipal effluent, nor to control the flows of N and phosphorus (P) that enter waterways from dispersed or nonpoint sources such as agricultural and urban runoff or as airborne pollutants. As a result, inputs of nonpoint pollutants, particularly N, have increased dramatically. Nonpoint pollution from N and P now represents the largest pollution problem facing the vital coastal waters of the United States. Nutrient pollution is the common thread that links an array of problems along the nation’s coastline, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, ”dead zones,” fish kills, some shellfish poisonings, loss of seagrass and kelp beds, some coral reef destruction, and even some marine mammal and seabird deaths. More than 60 percent of our coastal rivers and bays in every coastal state of the continental United States are moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution. This degradation is particularly severe in the mid Atlantic states, in the southeast, and in the Gulf of Mexico. A recent report from the National Research Council entitled “Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reduc- ing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution” concludes that: Nutrient over-enrichment of coastal ecosystems generally triggers ecological changes that decrease the biologi- cal diversity of bays and estuaries. While moderate N enrichment of some coastal waters may increase fish production, over-enrichment generally degrades the marine food web that supports commercially valuable fish. The marked increase in nutrient pollution of coastal waters has been accompanied by an increase in harmful algal blooms, and in at least some cases, pollution has triggered these blooms. High

  2. Geomorphology of the Elwha River and its Delta: Chapter 3 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Draut, Amy E.; McHenry, Michael L.; Miller, Ian M.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Stevens, Andrew Stevens; Logan, Joshua B.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River will introduce massive volumes of sediment to the river, and this increase in sediment supply in the river will likely modify the shapes and forms of the river and coastal landscape downstream of the dams. This chapter provides the geologic and geomorphologic background of the Olympic Peninsula and the Elwha River with emphasis on the present river and shoreline. The Elwha River watershed was formed through the uplift of the Olympic Mountains, erosion and movement of sediment throughout the watershed from glaciers, and downslope movement of sediment from gravitational and hydrologic forces. Recent alterations to the river morphology and sediment movement through the river include the two large dams slated to be removed in 2011, but also include repeated bulldozing of channel boundaries, construction and maintenance of flood plain levees, a weir and diversion channel for water supply purposes, and engineered log jams to help enhance river habitat for salmon. The shoreline of the Elwha River delta has changed in location by several kilometers during the past 14,000 years, in response to variations in the local sea-level of approximately 150 meters. Erosion of the shoreline has accelerated during the past 80 years, resulting in landward movement of the beach by more than 200 meters near the river mouth, net reduction in the area of coastal wetlands, and the development of an armored low-tide terrace of the beach consisting primarily of cobble. Changes to the river and coastal morphology during and following dam removal may be substantial, and consistent, long-term monitoring of these systems will be needed to characterize the effects of the dam removal project.

  3. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lef?vre, Ir?ne; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottl?, Catherine; Bont?, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons t...

  4. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  5. Assessment of risk factors in radionuclides pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Tsitskishvili, L.; Kordzakhia, G.; Diasamidze, R.; Shaptoshvili, A.; Valiaev, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: All types of industrial activities require the norms of protection, assessment of corresponding risks to preserve the pollution and degradation of corresponding areas. To make available the sustainable development of the country the risk assessment of possible accidents on the big enterprises is foreseen that provides preparedness of the country and possibility of the prevention measures and mitigation of the accidents. While big anthropogenic accidents in mountainous countries - the main paths for transportation of the pollution are the rivers and sea basins. Due to overpopulation of these areas assessment of the pollution risks are very important. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various

  6. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  7. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  8. Flood protection structure detection with Lidar: examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trmal Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting different topographic analysis conducted with GIS software in order to detect flood protection structures, natural or artificial, in river floodplains but also in coastal zones. Those computations are relevant because of the availability of high-resolution lidar digital terrain model (DTM. An automatic detection permits to map the footprint of those structures. Then detailed mapping of structure crest is achieved by implementing a least cost path analysis on DTM but also on other terrain aspects such as the curvature. On coastal zones, the analysis is going further by identifying flood protected areas and the level of protection regarding sea level. This article is illustrated by examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas.

  9. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: New York, Hudson River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  10. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  11. Cave Buttes Dam Master Plan, Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    New River Dam (including May 1982 New River to Skunk Creek) Part 4--Skunk Creek and New and July 1984 Agua Fria Rivers below the Arizona Canal...Groundwater is a potential source, as existing wells in the area provided potable water for homes. D. WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM The type and extent of

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  13. Including granulometric sediment coastal data composition into the Black Sea GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Elena; Khaliulin, Alexey; Krylenko, Marina; Krylenko, Viacheslav; Zodiatis, George; Nikolaidis, Marios; Nikolaidis, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The module structure of the Black Sea GIS allows the increasing of its functionality, including new data types and defining new procedures accessing them, their visualization and integration with existing data by their conjoint processing and representation. The Black Sea GIS is released as free software; Mapserver is used as a mapping service; MySQL DBMS works with relational data. A new additional feature provided, is the ability of including coastal data obtained in SB SIO RAS. The data represent granulometric composition of the Anapa bay-bar sediments. The Anapa bay-bar is an accumulative sand form (about 50 km long) located on the northwest Russian Black Sea coast. The entire bay-bar and especially its southern part with sand beaches 50-200 m wide is intensively used in recreation. This work is based on the results of field studies of 2010-2014 in the southern part of the Anapa bay-bar researched by scientists of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS. Since the shore under consideration has no clearly pronounced reference points, "virtual" points located within 1 km distance from each other were selected. Transversal profiles cross these points. The granulometric composition was studied along with 45 profiles. The samples taken in every profile were from the most characteristic morphological parts of the beach. In this study we used shoreline zone samples. Twenty one granule fractions (mm) were separated in the laboratory. The module which processes coastal data allows to select coastal data based on territory/region and granulometric sediment composition. Also, it allows to visualize coastal maps with user-selected features combined with other GIS data.

  14. The Fulong coastal area in northeast Taiwan: Late Holocene sedimentary phases including destruction and aggradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Margot; Luethgens, Christopher; Bauersachs, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are often subject to rapid morphological transformations owing to varying processes such as sea level changes, tectonic uplift, and geomorphological changes by catastrophic storm events, followed by phases of resilience. The study sites in northeast Taiwan at Fulong beach and adjacent areas, situated close to a nuclear power plant construction site, give evidence of an aggradational phase, a destructive phase, and resilience by a second aggradational phase. According to OSL data, a first aeolian accumulation started on top of marine and peri-marine/fluvial sediments at about 3 ka and lasted about 1500 years, interrupted by one palaeosoil. These data refer to an outcrop at a meander bluff at the southern bank of the Shuangsi river, not far from its present-day mouth. According to the morphological situation, this sand accumulation is only the remnant of a former greater dune system that has been eroded in its northern part. The former course of the Shuangsi and the location of its mouth are not known. The top of the outcrop is represented by two sand layers which are definitely younger than the lower sands as their deposition started about max. 630 years ago. The present-day dune system to the north of the river shows at least four dune ridges and the seaward aggradation is still continuing. The oldest dune ridge was sampled close to its top and dated to about 600 years ago (Dörschner et al. 2012). About 3 km upstream, a sedimentary sequence at the river bank has been studied, comprising a lower silty deposit with organic remnants and layered tree trunks at its top. This deposit is considered to be of marine origin, probably a peri-marine situation. This fine-grained sediment is covered by coarse fluvial gravels, indicating one or several catastrophic events in this morphological environment. Above the gravels, another fine-grained sediment related to flood events with low energy has been found. Radiocarbon analyses of organic material in both fine

  15. Exposure of coastal ecosystems to river plume spreading across a near-equatorial continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarya, A.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Vegt, M. Van der; van Katwijk, M. M.; Hoeksema, B. W.; Bouma, T. J.; Lamers, L. P. M.; Christianen, M. J. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Berau Continental Shelf (BCS) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, harbours various tropical marine ecosystems, including mangroves, seagrass meadows and coral reefs. These ecosystem are located partly within reach of the Berau River plume, which may affect ecosystem health through exposure to land-derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants carried by the plume. This study aims (1) to assess the exposure risk of the BCS coastal ecosystems to river plume water, measured as exposure time to three different salinity levels, (2) to identify the relationships between these salinity levels and the abundance and diversity of coral and seagrass ecosystems, and (3) to determine a suitable indicator for the impacts of salinity on coral reef and seagrass health. We analysed hydrodynamic models, classified salinity levels, and quantified the correlations between the salinity model parameters and ecological metrics for the BCS systems. An Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) analysis revealed three modes of river plume dispersal patterns, which strongly reflect monsoon seasonality. The first mode, explaining 39% of the variability, was associated with the southward movement of the plume due to northerly winds, while the second and third modes (explaining 29% and 26% of the variability, respectively) were associated with the northeastward migration of the plume related to southwesterly and southerly winds. Exposure to low salinity showed higher correlations with biological indicators than mean salinity, indicating that low salinity is a more suitable indicator for coastal ecosystem health. Significant correlations (R2) were found between exposure time to low salinity (days with salinity values below 25 PSU) with coral cover, coral species richness, seagrass cover, the number of seagrass species, seagrass leaf phosphorus, nitrogen, C:N ratio and iron content. By comparing the correlation coefficients and the slopes of the regression lines, our study suggests that coral reefs are

  16. Dynamics and sources of pharmaceutically active compounds in a coastal Mediterranean river during heavy rains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reoyo-Prats, Brice; Aubert, Dominique; Sellier, Amélie; Roig, Benoit; Palacios, Carmen

    2018-03-01

    Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PACs) in freshwater systems depend on numerous factors such as land use and hydrometeorological conditions. In the Mediterranean, heavy rain events are of particular importance as they highly influence the concentration of micropollutants found in freshwater and are a source of recurrent first foul flushes due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). In this study, we seek to assess the dynamics of pharmaceuticals during storm events in coastal Mediterranean rivers at a fine scale and to determine their contribution to multicontamination phenomena owing to CSOs. Our results showed that, while dissolved PACs followed the same trend as other contaminants, i.e., they increased significantly during CSOs, PACs in the total fraction did not peak yet maintained their already high concentrations for slightly longer due to their release via CSOs. Pharmaceutical concentrations for both the dissolved and the total fraction were dramatically diluted during the peak river flow. A fine-scale follow-up of PACs dynamics in the total fraction, including the differentiation of sewer overflows from both the right and left river banks, as well as the analyses of a large amount of PACs molecules, allowed us to clearly identify their major sources. While domestic inputs were dominated by nicotine and caffeine, the use of gadolinium (an MRI contrast agent) as a marker, attributed the main source of medical drugs such as tramadol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac to the major public hospital of the region. Thus, identifying major sources of PACs and implementing adapted water treatments directly at those sources would be the most cost-efficient alternative to cope with pharmaceutical drugs in coastal Mediterranean aquatic environments. Moreover, PACs behavior differed depending on the molecules considered and the source of these molecules, but we could not establish a direct link between their behavior and their chemical or physical properties. Our

  17. The coastal landscape of the river of silver basis for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Cendom, A.; Vila, L.

    2013-01-01

    A complex of morphogenic, ecologic and cultural factors converge in coastal landscape modelling. The goal of this research is to identify the coastal environment as a water-land interphase in the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay. The area of work is within Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, and Maldonado River, in the Maldonado Department. An integrated landscape approach is used to interpret the complex of natural areas. The knowledge of natural complex is the goal of this research using the vegetation dynamic as an expression of site condition. Cartography at scale 1:50.000, colour composition of Landsat images at scale 1:100.000 (1994), aerial photographs at scale 1:10.000 (1994), are the source of information. A methodology of three components was organized: a typology of the coastal border, scale 1:500.000, a littoral morphology analysis using maps and aerial photographs, scale 1:10.000 and the coastal landscape, scale 1:100.000. A land cover legend was organized to integrate: geomorphology, vegetation and human intervention. It has 12 classes y 4 subclasses of land cover. This information was integrated in an analysis of an ideal coastal outline that represents the ideal disposition of the landscape elements in a cross and vertical perspective. The final goal of this research is an inventory of coastal uniform sectors. The research was performed within an approach of environmental factors equilibrium, such as geomorphology, environment, biologic and anthropogenic, and natural’s process in progress. Specific and general coastal problems are identified. A conceptual coastal landscape approach, a coastal cartography and setting of landscape units are the final products

  18. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types - Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing the shoreline and coastal habitats for the Hudson River, classified according to the Environmental...

  20. Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington- Biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    This report includes chapters that summarize the results of multidisciplinary studies to quantify and characterize the current (2011) status and baseline conditions of the lower Elwha River, its estuary, and the adjacent nearshore ecosystems prior to the historic removal of two long-standing dams that have strongly influenced river, estuary, and nearshore conditions. The studies were conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Multi-disciplinary Coastal Habitats in Puget Sound (MD-CHIPS) project. Chapter 1 is the introductory chapter that provides background and a historical context for the Elwha River dam removal and ecosystem restoration project. In chapter 2, the volume and timing of sediment delivery to the estuary and nearshore are discussed, providing an overview of the sediment stored in the two reservoirs and the expected erosion mechanics of the reservoir sediment deposits after removal of the dams. Chapter 3 describes the geological background of the Olympic Peninsula and the geomorphology of the Elwha River and nearshore. Chapter 4 details a series of hydrological data collected by the MD-CHIPS Elwha project. These include groundwater monitoring, surface water-groundwater interactions in the estuary, an estimated surface-water budget to the estuary, and a series of temperature and salinity measurements. Chapter 5 details the work that has been completed in the nearshore, including the measurement of waves, tides, and currents; the development of a numerical hydrodynamic model; and a description of the freshwater plume entering the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Chapter 6 includes a characterization of the nearshore benthic substrate developed using sonar, which formed a habitat template used to design scuba surveys of the benthic biological communities. Chapter 7 describes the ecological studies conducted in the lower river and estuary and includes characterization of juvenile salmon diets and seasonal estuary utilization patterns using otolith analysis to

  1. Dependency of high coastal water level and river discharge at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P.; Couasnon, A.; Haigh, I. D.; Muis, S.; Veldkamp, T.; Winsemius, H.; Wahl, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognized that floods cause huge socioeconomic impacts. From 1980-2013, global flood losses exceeded $1 trillion, with 220,000 fatalities. These impacts are particularly hard felt in low-lying densely populated deltas and estuaries, whose location at the coast-land interface makes them naturally prone to flooding. When river and coastal floods coincide, their impacts in these deltas and estuaries are often worse than when they occur in isolation. Such floods are examples of so-called `compound events'. In this contribution, we present the first global scale analysis of the statistical dependency of high coastal water levels (and the storm surge component alone) and river discharge. We show that there is statistical dependency between these components at more than half of the stations examined. We also show time-lags in the highest correlation between peak discharges and coastal water levels. Finally, we assess the probability of the simultaneous occurrence of design discharge and design coastal water levels, assuming both independence and statistical dependence. For those stations where we identified statistical dependency, the probability is between 1 and 5 times greater, when the dependence structure is accounted for. This information is essential for understanding the likelihood of compound flood events occurring at locations around the world as well as for accurate flood risk assessments and effective flood risk management. The research was carried out by analysing the statistical dependency between observed coastal water levels (and the storm surge component) from GESLA-2 and river discharge using gauged data from GRDC stations all around the world. The dependence structure was examined using copula functions.

  2. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  3. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  4. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  5. A new Scleromystax species (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from coastal rivers of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Britto

    Full Text Available The recently resurrected callichthyid catfish genus Scleromystax includes species occurring in several Brazilian coastal river basins from southern Bahia to southern Santa Catarina. Several character states, especially those related to sexual dimorphism, demonstrate the monophyly of Scleromystax. Examination of Scleromystax specimens sampled from streams in the Ilha de Santa Catarina and Nova Veneza, and the rio Mampituba basin, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul States, revealed that they constitute a new taxon, and thus the southernmost record for the genus. Scleromystax salmacis, new species, has coloration similar to that of S. macropterus, differing from that species mainly by the absence of a black spot on the base of the median caudal-fin rays, and transverse blotches along the body more irregular than those in S. macropterus. In addition to differences in coloration and external and osteological characters, the new species differs from S. barbatus and S. prionotos by its more rounded snout. The new taxon is also distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a single perforated dorsolateral body plate, similar to the condition found in some Aspidoras species, orientation of the ventral keel of the scapulocoracoid, and by the absence of sexually dimorphic features.

  6. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  7. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  8. A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Xia, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution at the mouth of the CFRE and adjacent coastal ocean. Prescribed with the climatological freshwater discharge rates in the rivers, the modeling system was used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution distribution in the mouth of the CFRE under the influence of climatological wind conditions and tidal effect. We analyzed the plume formation processes and the strong relationship between the various plume distributions with respect to the wind and river discharge in the region. The simulations also indicate that strong winds tend to reduce the surface CFRE plume size and distorting the bulge region near the estuary mouth due to enhanced wind induced surface mixing. Even moderate wind speeds could fully reverse the buoyancy-driven plume structure in CFRE under normal river discharge conditions. Tide and the river discharge also are important factors to influence the plume structure. The comparions between the distribution of salinity plume and trajectory also are discussed in the study.

  9. Spatial Variability of Escherichia coli in Rivers of Northern Coastal Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouthami Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of contaminated surface water continues to be a pressing issue in areas of the world where people lack improved drinking water sources. In northern coastal Ecuador, many communities rely on untreated surface water as their primary source of drinking water. We undertook a study to explore how microscale river hydrodynamics affect microbial water quality at community water collection locations at three rivers with varying stream velocity and turbidity profiles. To examine how the distance from river shore and physiochemical water quality variables affect microbial contamination levels in the rivers; we collected a total of 355 water samples within six villages on three rivers; and tested for Escherichia coli concentrations using the IDEXX Quanti-tray method. We found that log10 E. coli concentrations decreased with increasing distance from shore (β = −0.017; p = 0.003. Water in the main channel had E. coli concentrations on average 0.12 log10 lower than within eddies along the river shore and 0.27 log10 lower between the sample closest to shore and any sample >6 m from the shore. Higher E. coli concentrations were also significantly associated with increased turbidity (β = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and decreased dissolved oxygen levels (β = −0.310; p < 0.0001. The results of this study can help inform community members about the safest locations to collect drinking water and also provide information on watershed scale transport of microbial contaminants between villages.

  10. Assessment of risk factors in pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.; Kordzakhia, G.; Shaptoshvili, A.; Tsitskishvili, L.; Diasamidze, R.; Soloduchin, V.

    2005-01-01

    pollution. For this aim the special deterministic models on the basis of passive admixture's turbulence diffusion equation is used. For numerical calculations Mc Kormack's predictor-corrector two steps scheme is used. The scheme is disintegrated, second order in space and time. Such scheme is established because the turbulent velocities very differ in horizontal and vertical directions and model allows implementing singular independent steps in different directions. Grid step for the model is 26.88 km in horizontal direction and 20 m m in vertical until 200 m. Time step is equal to 4 hours and computational time period - 4 months. Number of grid points is equal to 4983 for all calculation areas. Computations are carried out separately for big rivers basins as well as for Black and Caspian Seas water areas. The model calculations are made for cases with various locations of pollutant sources including accidental throws. For different realistic scenarios are calculated the concentrations of admixtures. The directions of their propagation are also determined. The risks are calculated in comparison with the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) of the pollutants according to achieved results. That gives possibility to define the most vulnerable areas in coastal zones. Realized methodology is verified by means of various scenarios for mentioned rivers and sea basins. The maps with indication of risk zones in river basins as well as of Black and Caspian Seas water areas are created

  11. Metal discharges by Sinaloa Rivers to the coastal zone of NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Mejía-Cruz, R; Osuna López, I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Voltolina, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 10(3) m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters.

  12. Coastal change from a massive sediment input: Dam removal, Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Stevens, Andrew; Miller, Ian M.; Kaminsky, George M.; Foley, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of two large dams on the Elwha River, Washington, provides an ideal opportunity to study coastal morphodynamics during increased sediment supply. The dam removal project exposed ~21 million cubic meters (~30 million tonnes) of sediment in the former reservoirs, and this sediment was allowed to erode by natural river processes. Elevated rates of sand and gravel sediment transport in the river occurred during dam removal. Most of the sediment was transported to the coast, and this renewed sediment supply resulted in hundreds of meters of seaward expansion of the river delta since 2011. Our most recent survey in January 2015 revealed that a cumulative ~3.5 million m3 of sediment deposition occurred at the delta since the beginning of the dam removal project, and that aggradation had exceeded 8 m near the river mouth. Some of the newly deposited sediment has been shaped by waves and currents into a series of subaerial berms that appear to move shoreward with time.

  13. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water. - Highlights: • PFAAs were detected in rapidly urbanized regions. • PFOA was found predominant followed by short chain PFCAs. • Fluoropolymer facilities were associated with PFAAs contamination. • Higher PFAAs levels were found near the PTFE production facilities. • Diffusion of PFAAs from rivers to the sea was influenced by tide and current. - High level of PFOA was detected in the river water due to the fluoropolymer industries in South Bohai coastal region

  14. Coastal habitat and biological community response to dam removal on the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Stevens, Andrew; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Duda, Jeff; Beirne, Matthew M.; Paradis, Rebecca; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; McCoy, Randall; Cubley, Erin S.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat diversity and heterogeneity play a fundamental role in structuring ecological communities. Dam emplacement and removal can fundamentally alter habitat characteristics, which in turn can affect associated biological communities. Beginning in the early 1900s, the Elwha and Glines Canyon dams in Washington, USA, withheld an estimated 30 million tonnes of sediment from river, coastal, and nearshore habitats. During the staged removal of these dams—the largest dam removal project in history—over 14 million tonnes of sediment were released from the former reservoirs. Our interdisciplinary study in coastal habitats—the first of its kind—shows how the physical changes to the river delta and estuary habitats during dam removal were linked to responses in biological communities. Sediment released during dam removal resulted in over a meter of sedimentation in the estuary and over 400 m of expansion of the river mouth delta landform. These changes increased the amount of supratidal and intertidal habitat, but also reduced the influx of seawater into the pre-removal estuary complex. The effects of these geomorphic and hydrologic changes cascaded to biological systems, reducing the abundance of macroinvertebrates and fish in the estuary and shifting community composition from brackish to freshwater-dominated species. Vegetation did not significantly change on the delta, but pioneer vegetation increased during dam removal, coinciding with the addition of newly available habitat. Understanding how coastal habitats respond to large-scale human stressors—and in some cases the removal of those stressors—is increasingly important as human uses and restoration activities increase in these habitats.

  15. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  16. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  17. Moderate effect of damming the Romaine River (Quebec, Canada) on coastal plankton dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Simon; Schloss, Irene R.; St-Onge Drouin, Simon; Bélanger, Simon; Winkler, Gesche; Dumont, Dany; Johnston, Patricia; St-Onge, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    Rivers' damming disrupts the seasonal cycle of freshwater and nutrient inputs into the marine system, which can lead to changes in coastal plankton dynamics. Here we use a 3-D 5-km resolution coupled biophysical model and downscale it to a 400-m resolution to simulate the effect of damming the Romaine River in Québec, Canada, which discharges on average 327 m3 s-1 of freshwater into the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Model results are compared with environmental data obtained from 2 buoys and in situ sampling near the Romaine River mouth during the 2013 spring-summer period. Noteworthy improvements are made to the light attenuation parametrization and the trophic links of the biogeochemical model. The modelled variables reproduced most of the observed levels of variability. Comparisons between natural and regulated discharge simulation show differences in primary production and in the dominance of plankton groups in the Romaine River plume. The maximum increase in primary production when averaged over the inner part of Mingan Archipelago is 41%, but 7.1% when the primary production anomaly is averaged from March to September.

  18. Impact of river discharge on the coastal water pH and pCO2 levels during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Vani, D.G.; Murty, V.S.N.

    > levels in the coastal western BoB. It could be envisioned that the enhanced acidity in the coastal waters due to variations in river discharge and phases of IOD may significantly modify the coastal ecosystem that requires careful evaluation...

  19. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  20. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  1. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  2. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...

  3. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  4. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  5. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Sergi; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barcelo, Damia; Bayona, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L -1 (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 μg kg -1 (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 μg kg -1 (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments

  6. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-04-03

    Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years.

  7. Coastal erosion's influencing factors include development, dams, wells, and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The demographic flight to the coast, begun in early civilization, continues unabated worldwide according to latest studies. The percentage of population living on the coast is expected to remain relatively constant over the next few decades, but the total numbers will increase as the population increases. Recent coastal battering by hurricanes and extratropical storms poses questions about coastal habitability and the real economics of coastal development. Repair costs are borne by private individuals as well as the public in various direct and indirect ways. As these costs escalate, it is fitting to ask what the future portends for storm and coastal-flood damage. It is known that development pressures will continue to increase along the coast, but what will happen concurrently to natural-hazard threats to this infrastructure? Though much emphasis has been placed on sea-level rise, the broader issue is climate change in general. Here, the author considers climate change in both its natural and anthropogenic perspectives. Without becoming mired in the debate about the greenhouse effect and human influence on climatic shifts, some of the broad classes of natural hazards that might accompany climate change are examined. There are several categories of possible global-change effects on coastal erosion. In the early 1980's, an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report postulated increases in global sea level up to 4 meters during the next 100 years. Though balanced somewhat by other, lower estimates of sea-level rise, this higher extreme grabbed public attention. During the next decade, scientists attempted to concur on a more reasonable estimate of global sea-level rise due to climate change. Recent credible estimates suggest that approximately 10 to 20 percent of EPA's earlier maximum estimate is most reasonable

  8. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities on land such as agriculture and urbanization. However, the relative importance of these human activities for river export of nutrients to Chinese seas is not well studied. There are two important issu...

  9. Can hydrocarbons in coastal sediments be related to terrestrial flux? A case study of Godavari river discharge (Bay of Bengal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rayaprolu, K.; GopalaKrishna, V.V.J.; Naik, B.G.; Mahalakshmi, G.; Rengarajan, R.; Mazumdar, A; Sarma, N.S.

    A sediment core aged ~250 years and deposition rate of ~2.4 mm yr-1 raised from the coastal region receiving inputs from the Godavari river was examined for n-alkanes The carbon preference index (CPI) of shortchain hydrocarbons (SHC...

  10. River export of nutrients to the coastal waters of China: the MARINA model to assess sources, effects and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    Rivers export increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China. This causes eutrophication problems that can damage living organisms when oxygen levels drop and threaten human health through toxic algae. We know that these problems result from human activities

  11. Temporal patterns of migration and spawning of river herring in coastal Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Julianne; Roy, Allison; Gahagan, Benjamin I.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Armstrong, Michael P.; Sheppard, John J.; Jordaan, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Migrations of springtime Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and Blueback Herring A. aestivalis, collectively referred to as river herring, are monitored in many rivers along the Atlantic coast to estimate population sizes. While these estimates give an indication of annual differences in the number of returning adults, links to the subsequent timing and duration of spawning and freshwater juvenile productivity remain equivocal. In this study, we captured juvenile river herring at night in 20 coastal Massachusetts lakes using a purse seine and extracted otoliths to derive daily fish ages and back-calculate spawn dates. Estimates of spawning dates were compared with fishway counts of migrating adults to assess differences in migration timing and the timing and duration of spawning. We observed a distinct delay between the beginning of the adult migration run and the start of spawning, ranging from 7 to 28 d across the 20 lakes. Spawning continued 13–48 d after adults stopped migrating into freshwater, further demonstrating a pronounced delay in spawning following migration. Across the study sites the duration of spawning (43–76 d) was longer but not related to the duration of migration (29–66 d). The extended spawning period is consistent with recent studies suggesting that Alewives are indeterminate spawners. The long duration in freshwater provides the opportunity for top-down (i.e., predation on zooplankton) and bottom-up (i.e., food for avian, fish, and other predators) effects, with implications for freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling. General patterns of spawn timing and duration can be incorporated into population models and used to estimate temporal changes in productivity associated with variable timing and density of spawning river herring in lakes.

  12. Sediment fluxes from California Coastal Rivers: the influences of climate, geology, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The influences of geologic and climatic factors on erosion and sedimentation processes in rivers draining the western flank of the California Coast Range are assessed. Annual suspended, bedload, and total sediment fluxes were determined for 16 river basins that have hydrologic records covering all or most of the period from 1950 to 2006 and have been relatively unaffected by flow storage, regulation, and depletion, which alter the downstream movement of water and sediment. The occurrence of relatively large annual sediment fluxes are strongly influenced by the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The frequency of relatively large annual sediment fluxes decreases from north to south during La Nina phases and increases from north to south during El Nino phases. The influence of ENSO is modulated over a period of decades by the PDO, such that relatively large annual sediment fluxes are more frequent during a La Nina phase in conjunction with a cool PDO and during an El Nino phase in conjunction with a warm PDO. Values of mean annual sediment flux, , were regressed against basin and climatic characteristics. Basin area, bedrock erodibility, basin relief, and precipitation explain 87% of the variation in from the 16 river basins. Bedrock erodibility is the most significant characteristic influencing . Basin relief is a superior predictor of compared with basin slope. is nearly proportional to basin area and increases with increasing precipitation. For a given percentage change, basin relief has a 2.3-fold greater effect on than a similar change in precipitation. The estimated natural from all California coastal rivers for the period 1950–2006 would have been approximately 85 million tons without flow storage, regulation, and depletion; the actual has been approximately 50 million tons, because of the effects of flow storage, regulation, and depletion.

  13. Optimization and Modeling of Extreme Freshwater Discharge from Japanese First-Class River Basins to Coastal Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, R.; Yamashiki, Y. A.; Varlamov, S.; Miyazawa, Y.; Gupta, H. V.; Racault, M.; Troselj, J.

    2017-12-01

    We estimated the effects of extreme fluvial outflow events from river mouths on the salinity distribution in the Japanese coastal zones. Targeted extreme event was a typhoon from 06/09/2015 to 12/09/2015, and we generated a set of hourly simulated river outflow data of all Japanese first-class rivers from these basins to the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan during the period by using our model "Cell Distributed Runoff Model Version 3.1.1 (CDRMV3.1.1)". The model simulated fresh water discharges for the case of the typhoon passage over Japan. We used these data with a coupled hydrological-oceanographic model JCOPE-T, developed by Japan Agency for Marine-earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), for estimation of the circulation and salinity distribution in Japanese coastal zones. By using the model, the coastal oceanic circulation was reproduced adequately, which was verified by satellite remote sensing. In addition to this, we have successfully optimized 5 parameters, soil roughness coefficient, river roughness coefficient, effective porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and effective rainfall by using Shuffled Complex Evolution method developed by University of Arizona (SCE-UA method), that is one of the optimization method for hydrological model. Increasing accuracy of peak discharge prediction of extreme typhoon events on river mouths is essential for continental-oceanic mutual interaction.

  14. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  15. Validation on groundwater flow model including sea level change. Modeling on groundwater flow in coastal granite area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takuma; Miyakawa, Kimio

    2009-01-01

    It is important to verify the groundwater flow model that reproduces pressure head, water chemistry, and groundwater age. However, water chemistry and groundwater age are considered to be influenced by historical events. In this study, sea level change during glacial-interglacial cycle was taken into account for simulating salinity and groundwater age at coastal granite area. As a result of simulation, salinity movement could not catch up with sea level changes, and mixing zone was formed below the fresh-water zone. This mixing zone was observed in the field measurement, and the observed salinities were agreed with simulated results including sea level change. The simulated residence time including sea level change is one-tenth of steady state. The reason is that the saline water was washed out during regression and modern sea-water was infiltrated during transgression. As mentioned before, considering sea level change are important to reproduce salinity and helium age at coastal area. (author)

  16. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  17. Linking benthic biodiversity to the functioning of coastal ecosystems subjected to river runoff (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmelin–Vivien, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Continental particulate organic matter (POM plays a major role in the functioning of coastal marine ecosystems as a disturbance as well as an input of nutrients. Relationships linking continental inputs from the Rhone River to biodiversity of the coastal benthic ecosystem and fishery production were investigated in the Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea. Macrobenthic community diversity decreased when continen¬tal inputs of organic matter increased, whereas ecosystem production, measured by common sole (Solea solea fishery yields in the area, increased. Decreases in macrobenthic diversity were mainly related to an increasing abundance of species with specific functional traits, particularly deposit-feeding polychaetes. The decrease in macrobenthic diversity did not result in a decrease, but an increase in ecosystem production, as it enhanced the transfer of continental POM into marine food webs. The present study showed that it is necessary to consider functional traits of species, direct and indirect links between species, and feedback loops to understand the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and productivity.

  18. Including ecosystem dynamics in risk assessment of radioactive waste in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.; Kautsky, U.; Gilek, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation protection has mainly focused on assessing and minimising risks of negative effects on human health. Although some efforts have been made to estimate effects on non-human populations, modelling of radiation risks to other components of the ecosystem have often lead to more or less disappointing results. In this paper an ecosystem approach is suggested and exemplified with a preliminary 14 C model of a coastal Baltic ecosystem. Advantages with the proposed ecosystem approach are for example the possibility to detect important but previously neglected pathways to humans since the whole ecosystem is analysed. The results from the model indicate that a rather small share of hypothetical released 14 C would accumulate in biota due to large water exchange in the modelled area. However, modelled future scenarios imply opposite results, i.e. relatively high doses in biota, due to changes of the physical properties in the area that makes a larger accumulation possible. (author)

  19. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) proposed to establish a network of 5-15 hydrologic observatories (HO's) across North America is to support fundamental research for the hydrologic science community into the next century. These HO's are projected to be 10,000 to 50,000 km2 and will include a broad range of hydrologic, climatic, bio-geochemical and ecosystem processes, including the critical linkages and couplings. This network is envisioned as the natural laboratory for experimental hydrology in support of scientific investigations focused on predictive understanding at a scale that will include both atmospheric- and ecosystem-hydrologic interaction, as well as the hydrologic response to larger-scale climate variation and change. A group of researchers from Florida and Georgia plan to propose the Suwannee River watershed as a Hydrologic Observatory. The Suwannee River flows through a diverse watershed relatively unimpacted by urbanization but in transition to more intense land-use practices. It thus provides excellent opportunities to study the effects of ongoing changes in land use and water supply on varied hydrological processes. Much background information is available on the hydrology, hydrogeology, geology, chemistry, and biology of the watershed. Several major on-going monitoring programs are supported by state and federal agencies. Four characteristics, discussed in greater detail below, make the Suwannee River watershed ideal for a Hydrologic Observatory: Unregulated and rural - The Suwannee River is one of few major rivers in the United States with largely unregulated flow through rural areas and is relatively unimpaired with regard to water quality, leading to its designation as one of twelve National Showcase Watersheds. At Risk and in Transition - Land use is trending toward increased urbanization and intensive agriculture with an apparent coupled increase in nutrient loads and decline in water quality

  20. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Chen, H.-Y.; Hsieh, H.-L.; Santschi, Peter H.; Wade, Terry L.; Sericano, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the fate of pesticides in marine environments, concentrations of pesticides and different carbonaceous fractions were determined for surface sediments in the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas of Taiwan. The major compounds detected were tetrachlorobenzene, HCHs, chlordane, aldrin, DDDs, DDEs and DDTs. Total concentrations of pesticides in the sediments ranged from not detectable to 23 ng g -1 , with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali sewage treatment plant. These results confirm that pesticides persist in estuarine and nearby coastal environments of the Danshui River well after their ban. Concentrations of total pesticides significantly correlate with concentrations of total organic carbon and black carbon in these sediments, suggesting that total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in fluvial and coastal marine sediments. - Total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

  1. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shichun; Xu Weihai; Zhang Ruijie; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. - Highlights: → Some antibiotics were ubiquitous with high concentration in the Bohai bay, North China. → The antibiotics were mainly from the six rivers discharge around the Bay. → Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture activities around the Bay. → Aquaculture was suggested to be an important antibiotics source in the Bay. - River discharge and aquaculture were suggested to be important sources for antibiotics occurred in the coastal water of the Bohai Bay, North China.

  2. Economic Feasibility of Underwater Adduction of Rivers for Metropolises in Semiarid Coastal Environments: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Albiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The supply of raw water to the inhabitants of metropolises is not a trivial problem, and involves many challenges, both in terms of the quantity and quality of this water. When these metropolises are located in semiarid regions, this challenge takes on enormous proportions, and in many situations, there are no sustainable solutions, especially in times of global climate change. One hypothesis to try to mitigate this problem in coastal cities is the underwater adduction of rivers. The objective of this paper was to make the abstraction of drinking water in the mouths of great rivers near semi-arid regions. This water would be led by a pipeline below the water level and would follow the route of the seacoast, where the energy to move the water would be supplied by an axial hydraulic pump embedded in the pipeline by water-cooled electric motors driven by the energy generated from offshore wind turbines. Estimates have been made for the four metropolises in semi-arid regions: Fortaleza-Brazil, Dalian-China, Tel Aviv-Israel, and Gaza-Palestine, where it was possible to calculate economic viability through the Present Worth Value, the internal rate of return, and payback. The results indicated that Fortaleza had economic viability under restrictions. Dalian proved the ideal result. Tel Aviv and Gaza both had great economic viability, but only if Egypt agreed to supply water from the Nile. This paper proved that the management of the water supply for human consumption through the underwater adduction of rivers could be achieved with real clearance for any deficits in the volume of water that due to global climate change are becoming more frequent.

  3. Nitrogen Source Apportionment for the Catchment, Estuary, and Adjacent Coastal Waters of the River Scheldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. Vermaat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the systems approach framework (SAF, a coupled model suite was developed for simulating land-use decision making in response to nutrient abatement costs and water and nutrient fluxes in the hydrological network of the Scheldt River, and nutrient fluxes in the estuary and adjacent coastal sea. The purpose was to assess the efficiency of different long-term water quality improvement measures in current and future climate and societal settings, targeting nitrogen (N load reduction. The spatial-dynamic model suite consists of two dynamically linked modules: PCRaster is used for the drainage network and is combined with ExtendSim modules for farming decision making and estuarine N dispersal. Model predictions of annual mean flow and total N concentrations compared well with data available for river and estuary (r² ≥ 0.83. Source apportionment was carried out to societal sectors and administrative regions; both households and agriculture are the major sources of N, with the regions of Flanders and Wallonia contributing most. Load reductions by different measures implemented in the model were comparable (~75% remaining after 30 yr, but costs differed greatly. Increasing domestic sewage connectivity was more effective, at comparatively low cost (47% remaining. The two climate scenarios did not lead to major differences in load compared with the business-as-usual scenario (~88% remaining. Thus, this spatially explicit model of water flow and N fluxes in the Scheldt catchment can be used to compare different long-term policy options for N load reduction to river, estuary, and receiving sea in terms of their effectiveness, cost, and optimal location of implementation.

  4. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  5. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  6. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  7. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  8. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  9. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  10. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and... Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and...: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  11. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  12. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  13. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Melbourne (FL) WFO - Indian River, St. Lucie, and Martin Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River, whereas upriver-derived terrestrial humic-like components were mostly distributed conservatively, some of these components were also derived from mangrove inputs in the oligo/meso-haline zone. Interestingly, fluorescence intensities of some terrestrial humic-like components increased with salinity for the Judan River possibly due to changes in the dissociation state of acidic functional groups and/or increase in the fluorescence quantum yield along the salinity gradient. The protein-like and microbial humic-like components were distributed differently between three wetland rivers, implying that interplay between loss to microbial degradation and inputs from diverse sources are different for the three wetland-influenced rivers. The results presented here

  17. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  18. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  19. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  20. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  1. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  2. 76 FR 35106 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent safety zone from Brandon... Safety Zones; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary...

  3. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  4. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and [[Page 25596

  5. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  6. Why the coastal plain of Paraiba do Sul river not be denominated the classical model of wave dominated delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.

    1987-01-01

    Existing coastal sedimentation models have not properly incorporated the fundamental role of Holocene sea-level history in the development of modern coastal regions. For example the classical work by COLEMAN and WRIGHT (1975), although analyzing the influence of as many as 400 parameters on the geometry of deltaic sand bodies, did not address the effects of Holocene sea-level oscillations. Previous work on the central portion of the Brazilian coastline indicated that the relative construction of the coastal plains. Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating have allowed us to establish the different phases involved in the depositional history of the plain situated at the Paraiba do Sul river mouth. This history is not in keeping with the classical model of wave dominated delta. (author)

  7. Landward Perspective of Coastal Eutrophication Potential Under Future Climate Change: The Seine River Case (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Raimonet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies quantifying the impact of climate change have so far mostly examined atmospheric variables, and few are evaluating the cascade of aquatic impacts that will occur along the land–ocean continuum until the ultimate impacts on coastal eutrophication potential. In this study, a new hydro-biogeochemical modeling chain has been developed, based on the coupling of the generic pyNuts-Riverstrahler biogeochemical model and the GR4J-CEMANEIGE hydrological model, and applied to the Seine River basin (France. Averaged responses of biogeochemical variables to climate-induced hydrological changes were assessed using climate forcing based on 12 projections of precipitation and temperature (BC-CORDEX for the stabilization (RCP 4.5 and the increasing (RCP 8.5 CO2 emission scenarios. Beyond the amount of nutrients delivered to the sea, we calculated the indicator of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP. The models run with the RCP4.5 stabilization scenario show low variations in hydrological regimes and water quality, while five of the six models run with the increasing CO2 emissions scenario (RCP8.5 leads to more intense extreme streamflow (i.e., higher maximum flows, lower and longer minimum flows, resulting in the degradation of water quality. For the driest RCP 8.5 projection, median biogeochemical impacts induced by decreasing discharge (until −270 m3 s−1 in average are mostly located downstream of major wastewater treatment plants. During spring bloom, e.g., in May, the associated higher residence time leads to an increase of phytoplankton biomass (+31% in average, with a simultaneous −23% decrease of silicic acid, followed downstream by a −9% decrease of oxygen. Later during low flow, major increases in nitrate and phosphate concentrations (until +19% and +32% in average are expected. For all considered scenarios, high ICEP values (above zero lasted, indicating that coastal eutrophication is not expected to decrease with changing

  8. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  9. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard’s coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion.

  10. Joint effect of freshwater plume and coastal upwelling on phytoplankton growth off the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y.-F.; Lin, J.; Dai, M.; Kao, S.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharges vast amount of unbalanced nutrients (dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus with N / P ratio > 80 in general) into the East China Sea in summer. To study nutrient dynamics and P-stress potential for phytoplankton, a cruise was conducted in the Changjiang plume during summer 2011. With 3-D observations of nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and bulk alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), we concluded that the Changjiang Diluted Water and coastal upwelling significantly influenced the horizontal and vertical heterogeneities of phytoplankton P deficiency in the Changjiang plume. Allochthonous APA was detected at nutrient-enriched freshwater end. Excessive N (~ 10 to 112 μM) was observed throughout the entire plume surface. In the plume fringe featuring stratification and excess N, diapycnal phosphate supply was blocked and phytoplankton APA was stimulated for growth. We observed an upwelling just attaching to the turbidity front at seaward side where Chl a peaked yet much less APA was detected. An external phosphate supply from subsurface, which promoted phytoplankton growth but inhibited APA, was suggested to be sourced from the Nearshore Kuroshio Branch Current. In the so hydrographically complicated Changjiang plume, phosphate supply instead of its concentration may be more important in determining the expression of APA. Meanwhile, allochthonous APA may also alter the usefulness of APA as a P-stress indicator.

  11. Induction of lipids and resultant FAME profiles of microalgae from coastal waters of Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Shao, Congcong; Liu, Ying; Geng, Shu; Cheng, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a study on identification, cultivation and characterisation of microalgal strains from the coastal waters of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong, China. Thirty-seven identified strains belong to the families: Chlorellaceae, Scotiellocystoidaceae, Scenedesmaceae,Selenastraceae,Micractiniaceae, Coccomyxaceae, Trebouxiaceae and Chlorococcaceae. Of isolated strains, Hindakia PKUAC 169 was selected for lipid induction using two methods: nitrogen starvation and salt stress. After derivatisation of algal lipids through in situ transesterification, lipid profiles of the alga under the two methods were analysed. The results have shown that both lipid yield and fatty acid profiles vary with the methods. Of the two tested methods of inducing lipid production, salt stress yielded three-fold higher lipid productivity than nitrogen starvation. The lipids are predominantly composed of C14-C18 fatty acids, which are favourable for biodiesel production. Moreover, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was below the limit of 12% set by EN14214 biodiesel standard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of β T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

  13. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. The Fall River Long-Term Site Productivity study in coastal Washington: site characteristics, methods, and biomass and carbon and nitrogen stores before and after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Kathryn B. Piatek; Robert B. Harrison; Richard E. Miller; Barry L. Flaming; ChristopherW Licata; Brian D. Strahm; Constance A. Harrington; Rodney Meade; Harry W. Anderson; Leslie C. Brodie; Joseph M. Kraft

    2007-01-01

    The Fall River research site in coastal Washington is an affiliate installation of the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) network, which constitutes one of the world’s largest coordinated research programs addressing forest management impacts on sustained productivity. Overall goals of the Fall River study are to assess effects of biomass removals, soil...

  15. Effect of water quality on the composition of fish communities in three coastal rivers of Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Shetty

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fish assemblage and diversity in relation to water quality of three coastal rivers Sita, Swarna and Varahi of Udupi district, Karnataka, India was studied. 71 species representing 7 orders, 20 families and 41 genera were recorded from 21 sites along the three rivers. Species composition varied longitudinally in relation to the environmental factors of the habitat. The downstream change in the three rivers indicates that fish assemblage changed with increasing loss of riparian canopy cover and increasing agricultural land-use. The richness and abundance of fishes were correlated with land-use type, canopy cover, pH and turbidity. Diversion of water, discharge of domestic sewage and agricultural runoff were prominent among the disturbances that alter the habitat quality.

  16. Tracking historical lead pollution in the coastal area adjacent to the Yangtze River Estuary using lead isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yunchao; Guo Zhigang; Yang Zuosheng; Fan, Dejiang; Fang Ming; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    The rapid economic development in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China in the last three decades has had a significant impact on the environment of the East China Sea (ECS). Lead isotopic compositions of a 210 Pb dated sediment core collected from the coastal ECS adjacent to the Yangtze River Estuary were analyzed to track the Pb pollution in the region. The baseline Pb concentration in the coastal ECS sediments before the industrialization in China was 32 μg g -1 , and the corresponding 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was 1.195. The high-resolution profiles of Pb flux and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios had close relationships with the economic development and the history of the use of leaded gasoline in China, and they were clearly different from those of most European countries and United States. - The combination of Pb concentration, sedimentary flux, Pb isotopic composition and 210 Pb dating in the coastal ECS sediments revealed the historical Pb pollution in China

  17. Agrochemical loading in drains and rivers and its connection with pollution in coastal lagoons of the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Aguilar, Omar; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Ponce de Leon-Hill, Claudia

    2017-06-01

    The state of Sinaloa in Mexico is an industrialized agricultural region with a documented pesticide usage of 700 t year -1 ; which at least 17 of the pesticides are classified as moderately to highly toxic. Pollutants in the water column of rivers and drains are of great concern because the water flows into coastal lagoons and nearshore waters and thereby affects aquatic organisms. This study was done in four municipalities in the state of Sinaloa that produce food intensively. To investigate the link between pollution in the lagoons and their proximity to agricultural sites, water was sampled in three coastal lagoons and in the rivers and drains that flow into them. Seawater from the Gulf of California, 10 km from the coast, was also analyzed. Concentrations of nutrients, organochlorines, and organophosphorus pesticides were determined. Nutrient determination showed an unhealthy environment with N/P ratios of pollution of the coastal lagoon of Pabellones could be traced mainly to the drains from the agricultural sites. Accumulation of OC pesticides was also observed in the Gulf of California. Tests for 22 organophosphates revealed only five (diazinon, disulfoton, methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, and mevinphos); diazinon was detected at all the sites, although methyl parathion was present at some sites at concentrations one order of magnitude higher than diazinon.

  18. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This temporary safety...

  19. Compound specific radiocarbon content of lignin oxidation products from the Altamaha river and Coastal Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Randy, E-mail: rculp@uga.edu [Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool in organic geochemistry by providing detailed information about an individual organic compound's history with regard to its source and process of formation. Most CSIA involves measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and hydrogen (D/H) following separation by gas or liquid chromatography. New applications are being developed using compound-specific radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) content for delineating age of materials, rates of decomposition and residence time in various environments. This paper details the isotopic work on specific lignin monomers derived from terrestrial plants transported and deposited within the Altamaha River, estuary and off-shore Georgia in the Atlantic Ocean. By using gas chromatographic separation and identification of selected lignin oxidation products (LOP), the harvesting of these compounds using preparative fraction collection, and measurement of their {sup 14}C content using accelerator mass spectrometry, details of the age and presence of specific biomarkers unique to a given terrestrial source are revealed. Radiocarbon ages determined from water-column particulate organic carbon and sediment LOPs indicate a range of ages from modern to well over 5,000 years for the former and latter respectively. Transport mechanisms and particle size associations on mineral grains may play a significant role in {sup 14}C distribution in estuary and near-shore coastal environments. This data indicates higher than modern {sup 14}C activities in large particle-size sediment fractions in contrast to older LOP {sup 14}C ages found associated with the same coarse grain sediments. Individual LOP ages substantiate older terrestrial materials persist in the off-shore environment even though in the presence of modern marine {sup 14}C sources.

  20. Compound specific radiocarbon content of lignin oxidation products from the Altamaha river and Coastal Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool in organic geochemistry by providing detailed information about an individual organic compound’s history with regard to its source and process of formation. Most CSIA involves measurement of the stable isotope ratio of carbon ( 13 C/ 12 C) and hydrogen (D/H) following separation by gas or liquid chromatography. New applications are being developed using compound-specific radiocarbon ( 14 C) content for delineating age of materials, rates of decomposition and residence time in various environments. This paper details the isotopic work on specific lignin monomers derived from terrestrial plants transported and deposited within the Altamaha River, estuary and off-shore Georgia in the Atlantic Ocean. By using gas chromatographic separation and identification of selected lignin oxidation products (LOP), the harvesting of these compounds using preparative fraction collection, and measurement of their 14 C content using accelerator mass spectrometry, details of the age and presence of specific biomarkers unique to a given terrestrial source are revealed. Radiocarbon ages determined from water-column particulate organic carbon and sediment LOPs indicate a range of ages from modern to well over 5,000 years for the former and latter respectively. Transport mechanisms and particle size associations on mineral grains may play a significant role in 14 C distribution in estuary and near-shore coastal environments. This data indicates higher than modern 14 C activities in large particle-size sediment fractions in contrast to older LOP 14 C ages found associated with the same coarse grain sediments. Individual LOP ages substantiate older terrestrial materials persist in the off-shore environment even though in the presence of modern marine 14 C sources.

  1. Distribution of rare earth elements in the estuarine and coastal sediments of the Daliao River System, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunye Lin; Shaoqing Liu; Mengchang He; Ruiping Li

    2013-01-01

    The Daliao River System (DRS) estuary in Liaodong Bay features a highly industrial, urbanized, and agricultural catchment. The objective of this study was to determine the content, behavior, and distribution of the rare earth elements (REEs) in the estuarine and coastal sediments. To this end, 35 sediment samples were collected from the estuarine and coastal area and analyzed for REEs, Fe, Al, and Mn. The mean concentrations in mg kg -1 of the sediments were 33.4 (La), 64.1 (Ce), 7.9 (Pr), 29.0 (Nd), 5.4 (Sm), 1.2 (Eu), 4.2 (Gd), 0.78 (Tb), 4.0 (Dy), 0.84 (Ho), 2.3 (Er), 0.40 (Tm), 2.3 (Yb), and 0.37 (Lu). The REE concentrations in the sediments were significantly correlated with one another (r 2 = 0.959-0.988) and the concentrations of Fe, Al, and Mn (r 2 = 0.768-0.870). The total concentration ΣREE ranged from 73.5 to 203.5 mg kg -1 , with an average of 156.0 mg kg -1 being observed, and generally higher in the estuarine sediments than in the coastal sediments, most likely due to the salt-induced coagulation of river colloids and subsequently their accumulation at the estuarine bottom. The ratio of light REEs (ΣLREE) to heavy REEs (ΣHREE) was 9.4. Chondrite-normalized REE distributions were observed to be similar for the estuarine and coastal sediments, riverine suspended particles, and watershed soils of the DRS with higher LRRE enrichment than HREE and greater Eu depletion than Ce depletion. These results demonstrate that neither geochemical processes that carry soils to estuarine sediments nor long-term industrial and agricultural activities alter the distribution or fractionation of the REEs in the study area. (author)

  2. Genetic investigation of natural hybridization between rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout in the copper River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Reeves, G.H.; Graziano, S.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods were used to quantify natural hybridization between rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or steelhead (anadromous rainbow trout) and coastal cutthroat trout O. clarkii clarkii collected in the Copper River delta, Southeast Alaska. Eleven locations were sampled to determine the extent of hybridization and the distribution of hybrids. Four diagnostic nuclear microsatellite loci and four species-specific simple sequence repeat markers were used in combination with restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of NADH dehydrogenase 5/6 (ND5/6) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the genetic structure of trout from both species and identify putative interspecific hybrids. Hybrids were found in 7 of the 11 streams sampled in the Copper River delta, the extent of hybridization across all streams varying from 0% to 58%. Hybrid trout distribution appeared to be nonrandom, most individuals of mixed taxonomic ancestry being detected in streams containing rainbow trout rather than in streams containing coastal cutthroat trout. Genotypic disequilibrium was observed among microsatellite loci in populations with high levels of hybridization. We found no significant correlation between unique stream channel process groups and the number of hybrid fish sampled. Eighty-eight percent of fish identified as first-generation hybrids (F1) in two populations contained coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA, suggesting directionality in hybridization. However, dominance of coastal cutthroat trout mtDNA was not observed at a third location containing F1 hybrids, indicating that interspecific mating behavior varied among locations. Backcrossed individuals were found in drainages lacking F1 hybrids and in populations previously thought to contain a single species. The extent and distribution of backcrossed individuals suggested that at least some hybrids are reproductively viable and backcrossed hybrid offspring move throughout the system.

  3. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ampuero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nmol l−1 h−1 followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu (0.08–61 nmol l−1 h−1 and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel (0.15–7 nmol l−1 h−1, with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l−1 h−1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l−1 h−1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g−1 dw h−1 was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g−1 dw h−1 and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g−1 dw h−1. Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  4. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, James; Ludwig, Lindsay; Verly, Caroleen; Emanuel, Kerry Andrew; Ravela, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam an area already known to be highly vulnerable to coastal risks. By combining a range of sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with the simulated storm surge level for the 100-year storm surge, we analyze permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones. As is well-established in the literature, sea level rise will increase the risk of storms by raising the base sea level from which surg...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaojun; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Qingshu; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution, composition, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas were examined. Total PAH concentrations varied from 189 to 637 ng/g in sediments and 422 to 1850 ng/g in SPM. PAHs were dominated by 5,6-ring compounds in sediments and by 2,3-ring compounds in SPM samples. Assessment of PAH sources suggested that biomass and coal combustion is the major PAH source to the outer part of the estuary sediments and that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source to the inner part of estuary sediments. As for SPM samples, PAH isomer pair ratios indicated multiple (petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass and coal combustion) PAH sources, and significant temporal variations could exist for the sources of water column PAHs in the study area. The distribution of perylene in SPM samples indicated that the river was the dominant source of perylene in SPM and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of river inflow to the total PAHs in SPM samples. The high concentration of perylene in the sediment was indicative of an in situ biogenic origin. - PAH were determined in suspended particulate matter and sediments from Pearl River Estuary

  6. Uranium isotopes in rivers, estuaries and adjacent coastal sediments of western India: their weathering, transport and oceanic budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borole, D.V.; Krishnaswami, S.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    1982-01-01

    The two major river systems on the west coast of India, Narbada and Tapti, their estuaries and the coastal Arabian sea sediments have been extensively studied for their uranium concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios. The 238 U concentrations in the aqueous phase of these river systems exhibit a strong positive correlation with the sum of the major cations, and with the HCO 3 - ion contents. The abundance ratio of dissolved U to the sum of the major cations in these waters is similar to their ratio in typical crustal rocks. In the estuaries, both 238 U and its great-grand daughter 234 U behave conservatively beyond chlorosities 0.14 g/l. A review of the uranium isotope measurements in river waters yield a discharge weighted-average 238 U concentration of 0.22 μg/l with a 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio of 1.20 +-0.06. The residence time of uranium isotopes in the oceans estimated from the 238 U concentration and the 234 U/ 238 U A.R. of the rivers yield conflicting results; the material balance of uranium isotopes in the marine environment still remains a paradox. If the disparity between the results is real, then an additional 234 U flux of about 0.25 dpm/cm 2 .10 3 yr into the oceans is necessitated. (author)

  7. UV filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA from untreated wastewater in sediment from eastern Mediterranean river transition and coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Helmieh; Gomez, Elena; Halwani, Jalal; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    UVF may occur in the aquatic environment through two principal sources: direct inputs from recreational activities and indirect wastewater- and river-borne inputs. The aim of this study was to obtain a first overview of levels of three UVF (EHMC, OC and OD-PABA) in coastal areas subjected to river inputs, untreated wastewater discharges and dumpsite leachates. We selected three eastern Mediterranean rivers that have been impacted for decades by untreated wastewater release and collected sediment in the coastal zone during the hot and humid seasons. Western Mediterranean sites receiving treated wastewaters were analyzed for comparison. The results gave an overview of sediment contamination under these two contrasted situations representative of Mediterranean coastal areas without bathing activities. The analysis of the three UVF revealed the ubiquity and high point source contamination by EHMC and OC in transition and coastal zones, with levels as high as 128 ng g(-1)d.w. OD-PABA was also frequently detected, but at lower concentrations (river input that could be exacerbated by the direct contribution in coastal bathing zones. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A Flood Risk Assessment of the LaHave River Watershed, Canada Using GIS Techniques and an Unstructured Grid Combined River-Coastal Hydrodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McGuigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A flexible mesh hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate flooding of the LaHave River watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, from the combined effects of fluvial discharge and ocean tide and surge conditions. The analysis incorporated high-resolution lidar elevation data, bathymetric river and coastal chart data, and river cross-section information. These data were merged to generate a seamless digital elevation model which was used, along with river discharge and tidal elevation data, to run a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to produce flood risk predictions for the watershed. Fine resolution topography data were integrated seamlessly with coarse resolution bathymetry using a series of GIS tools. Model simulations were carried out using DHI Mike 21 Flexible Mesh under a variety of combinations of discharge events and storm surge levels. Discharge events were simulated for events that represent a typical annual maximum runoff and extreme events, while tide and storm surge events were simulated by using the predicted tidal time series and adding 2 and 3 m storm surge events to the ocean level seaward of the mouth of the river. Model output was examined and the maximum water level for the duration of each simulation was extracted and merged into one file that was used in a GIS to map the maximum flood extent and water depth. Upstream areas were most vulnerable to fluvial discharge events, the lower estuary was most vulnerable to the effect of storm surge and sea-level rise, and the Town of Bridgewater was influenced by the combined effects of discharge and storm surge. To facilitate the use of the results for planning officials, GIS flood risk layers were intersected with critical infrastructure, identifying the roads, buildings, and municipal sewage infrastructure at risk under each flood scenario. Roads were converted to points at 10 m spacing for inundated areas and appended with the flood depth calculated from the maximum water level

  9. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianbo; Ip, Carman C.M.; Zhang Gan; Jiang Guibin; Li Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210 Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  10. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1415: APALACHICOLA RIVER (MOUTH) TO SAUL CREEK, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  11. Coastal Mapping Program Project TX1403: RIO GRANDE RIVER TO PORT MANSFIELD, TX.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  12. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project FL1421: ST JOHNS RIVER, FL.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), floating aquatic vegetation (FAV), and rare/sensitive coastal...

  14. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chester E.; Cervione, Michael A.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  15. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  16. Sex biased survival and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  17. Sex-biased survivorship and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  18. Taxonomic and functional diversity of a coastal planktonic bacterial community in a river-influenced marine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Stefan; Richter, Michael; Balestra, Cecilia; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-04-01

    The Gulf of Naples is a dynamical area with intense exchanges between offshore oligotrophic and coastal eutrophic waters with frequent freshwater inputs. The Sarno River, one of the most polluted rivers in Europe, strongly contributes to the pollution of the area, discharging high amounts of heavy metals and organic wastes from heavily cultivated and industrial areas. This paper reports on the diversity and community structure of the marine residential Bacteria and Archaea of the Gulf of Naples in an area close to the river Sarno plume and investigates their small-scale taxonomic diversity and expression patterns as a proxy of potential metabolic activity using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. Bacteria and Archaea were mainly represented by marine clades, with only minor contributors from freshwater ones. The community was dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, of which Rhodospirillales, Pelagibacteriales, and Oceanospirilalles were most represented. However, Alteromonadales and Rhodobacterales were the most active, despite their relative lower abundance, suggesting that they are important for overall ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling. Nitrification and a reversed form of dissimilatory sulfate reduction were the major metabolic processes found in the metatrascriptomes and were mainly associated to Nitrosopumilales and Pelagibacter, respectively. No clear indication of transcripts related to stress induced by heavy metals or organic pollutants was found. In general, despite the high loads of pollutants discharged continuously by the Sarno River, the microbial community did not show marks of stress-induced changes neither structural nor functional, thus suggesting that this river has little or no effect on the planktonic bacterial community of the Gulf of Naples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  20. Declining sediment loads from Redwood Creek and the Klamath River, north coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy D. Klein; Jeffrey K. Anderson

    2012-01-01

    River basin sediment loads are affected by several factors, with flood magnitude and watershed erosional stability playing dominant and dynamic roles. Long-term average sediment loads for northern California river basins have been computed by several researchers by several methods. However, characterizing the dynamic nature of climate and watershed stability requires...

  1. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burd, B.; Macdonald, T.; Bertold, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High river particulate flux results in low sediment P/B due to large burrowers. • Sewage deposition results in high P/B from biomass depletion and bacterial increase. • Heterotrophic production was 56% of oxidized OC flux with 35% growth efficiency. • Production was correlated with organic/inorganic flux – biomass was not. • δ 15 N patterns illustrate feeding strategies of key taxa near the outfall. -- Abstract: We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r 2 = 0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production “saturated”. The δ 15 N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast

  2. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This proposed safety zone will cover 77.... This TIR established a 77 mile long safety zone from Brandon Road Lock to Lake Michigan in Chicago, IL...

  3. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  4. Tracing Mississippi River influences in estuarine food webs of coastal Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissel, Björn; Fry, Brian

    2005-08-01

    The Breton Sound estuary in southern Louisiana receives large amounts of Mississippi River water via a controlled diversion structure at the upstream end of the estuary. We used stable isotopes to trace spatial and seasonal responses of the downstream food web to winter and spring introductions of river water. Analysis of delta13C, delta15N, and delta34S in the common local consumers such as grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.), barnacles (Balanus sp.), and small plankton-feeding fish (bay anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli) showed that the diversion was associated with two of the five major source regimes that were supporting food webs: a river regime near the diversion and a river-influenced productive marsh regime farther away from the diversion. Mixing models identified a third river-influenced source regime at the marine end of the estuary where major natural discharge from the Bird's Foot Delta wraps around into estuarine waters. The remaining two source regimes represented typical estuarine conditions: local freshwater sources especially from precipitation and a brackish source regime representing higher salinity marine influences. Overall, the Mississippi River diversion accounted for 75% of food web support in the upper estuary and 25% in the middle estuary, with influence strongest along known flow pathways and closest to the diversion. Isotopes also traced seasonal changes in river contributions, and indicated increased plant community productivity along the major flow path of diversion water. In the Breton Sound estuary, bottom-up forcing of food webs is strongly linked to river introductions and discharge, occurring in spatial and temporal patterns predictable from known river input regimes and known hydrologic circulation patterns.

  5. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  6. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  7. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this...

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for estuarine reptiles (turtles, terrapins) and amphibians (salamanders, frogs) for the Hudson River....

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: STAGING (Staging Site Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for staging sites along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent locations of possible staging areas...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  15. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Neumann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam. Permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones are analyzed by combining sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with simulated storm surge levels for the 100-year event. Our analysis finds that sea level rise through 2050 could increase the effective frequency of the current 100-year storm surge, which is associated with a storm surge of roughly five meters, to once every 49 years. Approximately 10% of the Hanoi region’s GDP is vulnerable to permanent inundation due to sea level rise, and more than 40% is vulnerable to periodic storm surge damage consistent with the current 100-year storm. We conclude that coastal adaptation measures, such as a planned retreat from the sea, and construction of a more substantial seawall and dike system, are needed to respond to these threats.

  16. Integration into JRODOS the models of radionuclide transport in rivers, reservoirs and coastal waters to support the emergency response in early accidental stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Bezhenar, R.; Boyko, O.; Ievdin, I.; Koshebutsky, V.; Maderich, V. [Institute of Mathematical Machines and Systems, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Ukraine); Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The decision support system for offsite nuclear emergency management RODOS (Real-time on-line decision support), developed under several EC RTD Framework Programs, contains many models related to support decision making in case of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Based on the request of the end users, it was re-engineered based on the JAVA technology and further named JRODOS. The consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident clearly demonstrated the importance of modeling tools predicting the radionuclide transport in marine and freshwater environment and assessing the doses to the public via the aquatic food chain to improve decision making in general. As a consequence, such an activity was launched as part of the European project PREPARE aiming to integrate the 3-dimensional model THREETOX for the radionuclide transport in coastal waters, estuaries, deep lakes, and reservoirs into hydrological model chain of JRODOS - JHDM (JRODOS Hydrological Dispersion Module). So far JHDM contains several aquatic radionuclide transport models describing the sequence of the processes 'atmospheric fallout to watershed' - 'radionuclide inflow to a river net' - 'radionuclide transport in river' - 'doses via aquatic pathways'. The implementation of the THREETOX model into this chain by developing also a user friendly interface will extend the applicability of JRODOS to deep fresh water bodies and marine coastal waters. This paper describes the assessment capabilities of this advanced model chain for two examples of the JRODOS implementation in Ukraine. JRODOS is installed in the emergency centers for two Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) - Zaporizzhya NPP (ZNPP) and Rivne NPP (RNPP). The different models of the JHDM were customized for these NPPs taking into account the characteristics of the water bodies in the surroundings of the NPPs. For the RNPP, located at the bank of the Sozh River which is a tributary of the

  17. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River.

  18. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  19. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  20. Communicating Coastal Risk Analysis in an Age of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    extratropical storm systems); the geometry and geomorphology of the area (regional and local bathymetry and topography, including rivers, marshes, and...at risk from coastal hazards including storm surge inundation, precipitation driven flooding, waves, and coastal erosion. This population segment...will likely be exposed to increased risk as impacts of a changing climate are felt through elevated sea levels and potentially increased storm

  1. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

    2013-09-15

    We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The δ(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The sedimentological changes caused by human impact at the artificial channel of Medjerda-River (Coastal zone of Medjerda, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, Thouraya; Amrouni, Oula; Dezileau, Laurent; Mahé, Gil; Abdeljaouad, Saâdi

    2018-04-01

    Recent sedimentary and morphological changes at the new mouth of Medjerda-River (Gulf of Tunis) are investigated using a multiproxy approach of sediment cores complited by 210Pbex and 137Cs method dating. The subject of the study is to focus on surveying the sedimentary evolution of Medjerda-Raoued Delta caused by the human intervention in the management of the main tributaries of the Medjerda-River (artificial channel of Henchir Tobias). Sediment cores (CEM-1 and CEM-3) were subjected to both multiproxy approaches (Grain size, geochemical analysis and dating radiometric 210Pbex and 137Cs). The sedimentological analysis of the new deltaic deposits shows a progradation sequence with the silt and clay deposits on the historic sandy substratum. The mean grain size evolution on the old beach profile shows a decreasing trend from backshore (CEM-3) to nearshore (CEM-1). The geochemical results show varying concentrations of chemical elements such as Fe, K, Rb, Nb, Cr, Ti, Ba, Ca, Sr, Zr, V, and potentially toxic metal trace elements such as Pb, Zn and the As. The Principal component Analysis (PCA) applied in the geochemical elements evolution confirms the marine origin of the sand deposits in the basic layers of the two cores. The chronological method (210Pbex and 137Cs) affirms that the first fluvial deposits were set up only after 1950. The sedimentological and geochemical result confirm the actual unless of coarser fluvial supplies under the human activities leading the negative coastal sediment balance and the shoreline retreat as well.

  3. Constructing development and integrated coastal zone management in the conditions of the landslide slopes of Cheboksary water reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonorova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled construction and insufficient accounting of engineering-geological and hydro-geological conditions of the coastal zone, intensified technogenic impact on sloping surfaces and active urbanization led to the emergence of serious problems and emergency situations on the coasts of many Volga reservoirs, including the Cheboksary reservoir, within Cheboksary urban district and adjacent territories of Chuvashia. This article is devoted to substantiation of the possibility of rational construction development of landslide slopes of the Cheboksary water reservoir.

  4. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Balsinha, M.; Dorhout, D.; Fernandes, C.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are thought to be transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study, we trace the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed, indicating that marine in situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in situ production.

  5. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of SPM that originates the river plume settles in the coastal zone; only the coarser material settles at the mouth of the river while the finer one is deposited further

  6. Assessment Of Physico-Chemical Property Of Water Samples From Port Harcourt Bonny And Opobo Coastal Areas For Sustainable Coastal Tourism Development In Rivers State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study evaluated some physico-chemical properties of water samples from Port Harcourt Bonny and Opobo to determine the safety of water from the areas for sustainable coastal tourism development in Rivers State Nigeria. Three water samples were collected with three sterilized plastic containers with a capacity of 25cl which were subjected to laboratory tests to know their constituents. The parameters tested were appearance temperature colour turbidity conductivity PH alkalinity lead Pb Chromium Cr Cadmium Cd Ammonia BODs and Dissolved Oxygen. The results of the water samples were compared with World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard to determine the safety of the water for human consumption and tourism development. The study revealed that Port Harcourt site has more prospects for tourism development more than Opobo study site because the Ph alkalinity and BODs levels were lower than that of Opobo making the water safer except that the amount of dissolved oxygen was a little high in Opobo and turbidity was not detected in Opobo. The study revealed that Bonny water was very dense in appearance dark brown in colour highly turbid basic and with mean concentration of the heavy metals Lead chromium and cadmium higher than the recommended World Health Organization WHO water quality standard and the Nigeria National Water Quality standard and therefore not safe for drinking and swimming. Treated portable water should be provided for the people of Port Harcourt Opobo and Bonny especially people from Bonny area and development of tourism in the state to save the people and tourists from imminent danger of fecal contaminants and toxic substances.

  7. Coastal circulations driven by river outflow in a variable-density 1.5-layer model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Zhang, S.; Shetye, S.R.

    A variable-density, 1.5-layer model is used to investigate the dynamics of the fresher-water plumes generated by river outflow. Solutions are found in a north-south channel, and the transport M sub(tau) and salinity S sub(tau) of the outflow...

  8. Coastal changes along the coast of Tadri River, Karnataka West coast of India and its implication

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tirodkar, G.M.; Pathak, K.C; Vaz, S.C

    embankments results in breaching and due to this flood are occurring in the adjacent area, and an accretion is noticed at the mouth result in narrowing the shape, due to sediments brought from upper reaches of Tadri river The present studies give a scenario...

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING PHOTOREACTIONS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN A COASTAL RIVER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photoreactions of dissolved organic matter can affect the oxidizing capacity, nutrient dynamics, trace gas exchange, and color of surface waters. This study focuses on factors that affect the photoreactions of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Satilla River, a co...

  10. Variability of environmental factors of an eastern Mediterranean Sea river influenced coastal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.AR. KORMAS

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Spercheios River discharge rates of nutrients, suspended particulate matter (SPM and particulate organic carbon (POC and seawater concentrations of these parameters as well as chlorophyll a(chl a were measured in the Maliakos Gulf, Greece, on a monthly basis between 1992-1993. From all the nutrients measured, silicate showed the highest discharge rates followed by nitrate, phosphate and nitrite. The river introduced significant amounts of SPM (8.5 – 35.5 Kg d -1 with very low POC content (<3%. Most of the variables measured showed no gradient from the river to the outer gulf, which could be attributed to fast mixing of the incoming water. However, chl a had higher concentrations in the inner (0.3 – 4.9 Μg l -1 and lower in the outer gulf (0.05 – 2.5 Μg l -1 . It is suggested that the nutrients introduced by the river are consumed faster in the inner gulf and that a number of temporal streams and non-point sources at the periphery of the gulf prevent the formation of a gradient.

  11. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  12. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  13. Development of a global river-coastal coupling model and its application to flood simulation in Asian mega-delta regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The world's mega-delta regions and estuaries are susceptible to various water-related disasters, such as river flooding and storm surge. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of them would be more devastating than a situation where they occur in isolation. Therefore, it is important to provide information about compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, both their statistical dependency as well as their combined resulting flooding in delta regions. Here we report on a first attempt to address this issue globally by developing a method to couple a global river model (CaMa-Flood) and a global tide and surge reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. A state-of-the-art global river routing model, CaMa-Flood, was modified to represent varying sea levels due to tides and storm surges as downstream boundary condition, and the GTSR dataset was post-processed to serve as inputs to the CaMa-Flood river routing simulation and a long-term simulation was performed to incorporate the temporal dependency between coastal tide and surge on the one hand, and discharge on the other. The coupled model was validated against observations, showing better simulation results of water levels in deltaic regions than simulation without GTSR. For example in the Ganges Delta, correlation coefficients were increased by 0.06, and root mean square errors were reduced by 0.22 m. Global coupling simulations revealed that storm surges affected river water levels in coastal regions worldwide, especially in low-lying flat areas with increases in water level larger than 0.5 m. By employing enhanced storm surge simulation with tropical storm tracks, we also applied the model to examine impacts of past hurricane and cyclone storm events on river flood inundation.

  14. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Maron, Philippe; Amouroux, David

    2014-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day −1 ) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day −1 ), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day −1 ) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d −1 , in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d −1 ). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d −1 ) may also limit Hg T inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d −1 ). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone. - Highlights:

  15. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  16. Occurrence and geochemical behavior of arsenic in a coastal aquifer–aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ya; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Cherry, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161 μg/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from the confined basal aquifer underlying the aquitard of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Both aquatic arsenic in pore water and solid arsenic in the sediments in the basal aquifer and aquitard were identified. Arsenic speciation of groundwater in the basal aquifer was elucidated on a pH-Eh diagram. In the PRD, arsenic is enriched in groundwater having both low and high salinity, and arsenic enriched groundwater is devoid of dissolved oxygen, has negative Eh values, is slightly alkaline, and has abnormally high concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon, but low concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Results of geochemical and hydrochemical analyses and sequential extraction analysis suggest that reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide could be one of the important processes that mobilized solid arsenic. We speculate that mineralization of sedimentary organic matter could also contribute to aquatic arsenic. Scanning electron microscope analysis confirms that abundant authigenic pyrite is present in the sediments. Sulphate derived from paleo-seawater served as the important sulfur source for authigenic pyrite formation. Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite significantly controlled concentrations of aquatic arsenic in the coastal aquifer–aquitard system. - Highlights: ► Coastal aquifer and aquitard are treated as an integrate system. ► Both aquatic arsenic and solid arsenic are observed. ► Aquatic arsenic is derived from reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. ► Aquatic arsenic can also derived from mineralization of sedimentary organic matter. ► Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite is significant in such a system.

  17. Occurrence and geochemical behavior of arsenic in a coastal aquifer-aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ya [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Jiao, Jiu Jimmy, E-mail: jjiao@hku.hk [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Cherry, John A. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161 {mu}g/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from the confined basal aquifer underlying the aquitard of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Both aquatic arsenic in pore water and solid arsenic in the sediments in the basal aquifer and aquitard were identified. Arsenic speciation of groundwater in the basal aquifer was elucidated on a pH-Eh diagram. In the PRD, arsenic is enriched in groundwater having both low and high salinity, and arsenic enriched groundwater is devoid of dissolved oxygen, has negative Eh values, is slightly alkaline, and has abnormally high concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon, but low concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Results of geochemical and hydrochemical analyses and sequential extraction analysis suggest that reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide could be one of the important processes that mobilized solid arsenic. We speculate that mineralization of sedimentary organic matter could also contribute to aquatic arsenic. Scanning electron microscope analysis confirms that abundant authigenic pyrite is present in the sediments. Sulphate derived from paleo-seawater served as the important sulfur source for authigenic pyrite formation. Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite significantly controlled concentrations of aquatic arsenic in the coastal aquifer-aquitard system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coastal aquifer and aquitard are treated as an integrate system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aquatic arsenic and solid arsenic are observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic is derived from reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic can also derived from mineralization of sedimentary organic matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite is significant in such a system.

  18. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M; Bay, Robin F; Bean, Daniel W; Bissonnete, Gabriel J; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L; Makarick, Lori J; Ostoja, Steven M; Reynolds, Lindsay V; Robinson, W Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B

    2017-09-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species. © 2017 by the

  19. Drastic changes in the distribution of branched tetraether lipids in suspended matter and sediments from the Yenisei River and Kara Sea (Siberia): Implications for the use of brGDGT-based proxies in coastal marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Fedotov, Andrey; Streletskaya, Irina D.; Vasiliev, Alexander A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in soils has been shown to correlate with pH and mean annual air temperature. Because of this dependence brGDGTs have found an application as palaeoclimate proxies in coastal marine sediments, based on the assumption that their distribution is not altered during the transport from soils to marine systems by rivers. To study the processes acting on the brGDGT distributions, we analysed the full suite of brGDGTs, including the recently described 6-Me brGDGTs, in both the suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Siberian Yenisei River and the SPM and sediments of its outflow in the Kara Sea. The brGDGT distribution in the SPM of the Yenisei River was fairly constant and characterized by high abundances of the 6-Me brGDGTs, reflecting their production at the neutral pH of the river water. However, the brGDGT distribution showed marked shifts in the marine system. Firstly, in the Yenisei River Mouth, the fractional abundance of the 6-Me brGDGTs decreases sharply. The brGDGT signature in the Yenisei River Mouth possibly reflects brGDGTs delivered during the spring floods that may carry a different distribution. Also, coastal cliffs were shown to contain brGDGTs and to influence especially those sites without major river inputs (e.g. Khalmyer Bay). Further removed from the river mouth, in-situ production of brGDGTs in the marine system influences the distribution. However, also the fractional abundance of the tetramethylated brGDGT Ia increases, resulting in a distribution that is distinct from in-situ produced signals at similar latitudes (Svalbard). We suggest that this shift may be caused by preferential degradation of labile (riverine in-situ produced) brGDGTs and the subsequent enrichment in less labile (soil) material. The offshore distribution indeed agrees with the brGDGT distribution encountered in a lowland peat. This implies that the offshore Kara Sea sediments possibly carry a soil

  20. Characteristics of fine particulate matter and its sources in an industrialized coastal city, Ningbo, Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Yu, Jie; Cui, Yang; He, Jun; Xue, Peng; Cao, Wan; Ying, Hongmei; Gao, Wenkang; Yan, Yingchao; Hu, Bo; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Lili; Liu, Zirui; Sun, Yang; Ji, Dongsheng; Wang, Yuesi

    2018-05-01

    Chemical information is essential in understanding the characteristics of airborne particles, and effectively controlling airborne particulate matter pollution, but it remains unclear in some regions due to the scarcity of measurement data. In the present study, 92 daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) samples as well as historical observation data of air pollutants were collected in urban Ningbo, one of important industrial cities in the coastal area of the Yangtze River Delta, China in autumn and winter (from Nov. 2014 to Feb. 2015). Various chemical species in PM2.5 were determined including water soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon and elements. Positive matrix factorization model, cluster analysis of back trajectories, potential source contribution function (PSCF) model and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) model were used for identifying sources, apportioning contributions from each source and tracking potential areas of sources. The results showed the PM2.5 concentration has been reducing; nonetheless, the concentrations of PM2.5 are still much higher than the World Health Organization guideline with high PM2.5 concentrations observed in autumn and winter for the past few years. During the sampling period, the average PM2.5 mass concentration was 77 μg/m3 with the major components of OC, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+ and EC, accounting for 24.7, 18.8, 14.5, 11.8 and 6.4% in the total mass concentration, respectively. When the aerosol pollution got worse during the sampling period, the NO3-, SO42 - and NH4+ concentrations increased accordingly and NO3- appeared to increase at fastest rate. SO42 - transported from industrial areas led to slight difference in spatial distribution of SO42 - in Ningbo. More secondary organic carbon was formed and the enrichment factor values of Cu, Ag, Cd, Sn and Pb increased with the degradation of air quality. Ten types of sources were identified for PM2.5 in the autumn and winter of

  1. An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Saxena, Anju; Singh, Kamal Jeet; Chandra, Shaila; Cleal, Christopher J.

    2018-05-01

    The Ib-River Basin situated in the east coastal area of India, in Odisha State is a south-eastern part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. A large number of plant macrofossils belonging to the Glossopteris flora were described and documented between 2006 and 2010 from various localities of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations of this basin. The floral components representing leaves, roots and fructifications in these assemblages belong to the Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Glossopteridales. In the present study, all the available data pertaining to the biological remains, petrological analyses as well as the geology of this basin are reviewed and analyzed to deduce and reconstruct the biostratigraphy, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment and the landscape of this basin during Permian time in general and during the deposition of Barakar (Artinskian - Kungurian) and Lower Kamthi (Lopingian) formations in particular. The floral composition suggests the prevalence of a temperate climate with a slight change from warm moist to warm dry conditions during the deposition of the Barakar Formation and warm and humid during the deposition of Lower Kamthi sediments. Distribution of various plant groups in the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations have been shown to depict the biodiversity trends. Vegetational reconstructions during the deposition of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations around the Ib-River Basin have also been attempted based on all the fossil records from this area. The status of unclassified Barakar and Kamthi formations has been redefined. Apart from megafloristics, the palynology of the basin is also discussed. Possible marine incursions and marine marginal environment in the Ib-Basin during Permian are overtly summarized on the basis of records of acritarchs, typical marine ichnofossils and evidences of wave activity in Lower Gondwana sediments of this Basin.

  2. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento-Soares,Luisa M.; Martins-Pinheiro,Ronaldo F.; Aranda,Arion T.; Chamon,Carine C.

    2006-01-01

    A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head wi...

  4. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  5. Channel-Island Connectivity Affects Water Exposure Time Distributions in a Coastal River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Matthew; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Twilley, Robert; Hodges, Ben R.; Passalacqua, Paola

    2018-03-01

    The exposure time is a water transport time scale defined as the cumulative amount of time a water parcel spends in the domain of interest regardless of the number of excursions from the domain. Transport time scales are often used to characterize the nutrient removal potential of aquatic systems, but exposure time distribution estimates are scarce for deltaic systems. Here we analyze the controls on exposure time distributions using a hydrodynamic model in two domains: the Wax Lake delta in Louisiana, USA, and an idealized channel-island complex. In particular, we study the effects of river discharge, vegetation, network geometry, and tides and use a simple model for the fractional removal of nitrate. In both domains, we find that channel-island hydrological connectivity significantly affects exposure time distributions and nitrate removal. The relative contributions of the island and channel portions of the delta to the overall exposure time distribution are controlled by island vegetation roughness and network geometry. Tides have a limited effect on the system's exposure time distribution but can introduce significant spatial variability in local exposure times. The median exposure time for the WLD model is 10 h under the conditions tested and water transport within the islands contributes to 37-50% of the network-scale exposure time distribution and 52-73% of the modeled nitrate removal, indicating that islands may account for the majority of nitrate removal in river deltas.

  6. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edia E.O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM, an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method. This method was applied to pattern the samples based on the richness of five major orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata. This permitted to identify three clusters that were mainly related to the local environmental status of sampling sites. Then, we used the environmental characteristics of the sites to predict, using a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP, trained by BackPropagation algorithm (BP, a supervised ANN, the richness of the five insect orders. The BP showed high predictability (0.90 for both Diptera and Trichoptera, 0.84 for both Coleoptera and Odonata, 0.69 for Ephemeroptera. The most contributing variables in predicting the five insect order richness were pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, water temperature, percentage of rock and the canopy. This underlines the crucial influence of both instream characteristics and riparian context.

  7. Occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Tuan Fauzan Tuan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2018-06-01

    This baseline assessment reports on the occurrence, distribution, and sources of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in tropical coastal sediments of anthropogenically impacted Klang River estuary, Malaysia. Bisphenol A was the highest concentration detected at 16.84 ng g -1 dry weight, followed by diclofenac (13.88 ng g -1 dry weight) and E1 (12.47 ng g -1 dry weight). Five compounds, namely, amoxicillin, progesterone, diazinon, bisphenol A, and E1, were found in all sampling stations assessed, and other compounds such as primidone, diclofenac, testosterone, E2, and EE2 were ubiquitously present in sediment samples, with percentage of detection range from 89.04% to 98.38%. Organic carbon content and pH were the important factors controlling the fate of targeted compounds in the tropical estuarine sediment. On the basis of the literature from other studies, the sources of EOCs are thought to be from wastewater treatment plants, domestic/medical waste discharge, livestock activities, industrial waste discharge, and agricultural activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitigation of eutrophication in river basins, lakes, and coastal waters requires and integrated and adaptive approach; experiences from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; Villars, N.; Grift, B. V. D.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a guideline for mitigation of eutrophication in river basins, lakes, and coastal waters. The proposed strategy is based on our experiences with implementation of manure legislation and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe. These regulations led to reduced nutrient losses from highly productive agricultural areas. For example in The Netherlands, the worldwide second largest exporter of agricultural products, nutrient concentrations in agricultural headwaters reduced since the early 1990's. Our guideline builds on three basic principles: (1) a conceptual framework integrating water quality, water quantity, soil, groundwater, and surface water, (2) the `from catchment to coast' approach for up-scaling field-scale pilot results to downstream ecological effects, and (3) a mitigation order of preference from (a) optimizing nutrient uptake efficiency to (b) enhancing nutrient retention and recirculation to (c) nutrient discharge and applying effect oriented measures. The tools needed to mitigate eutrophication are system understanding, smart monitoring, smart modelling, smart measures, and smart governance. Following these principles and using these tools enables an integrated, adaptive approach for selecting, implementing, and evaluating the most cost-effective and sustainable set of mitigation actions.

  9. Coastal and river flood risk analyses for guiding economically optimal flood adaptation policies: a country-scale study for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haer, Toon; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; van Roomen, Vincent; Connor, Harry; Zavala-Hidalgo, Jorge; Eilander, Dirk M.; Ward, Philip J.

    2018-06-01

    Many countries around the world face increasing impacts from flooding due to socio-economic development in flood-prone areas, which may be enhanced in intensity and frequency as a result of climate change. With increasing flood risk, it is becoming more important to be able to assess the costs and benefits of adaptation strategies. To guide the design of such strategies, policy makers need tools to prioritize where adaptation is needed and how much adaptation funds are required. In this country-scale study, we show how flood risk analyses can be used in cost-benefit analyses to prioritize investments in flood adaptation strategies in Mexico under future climate scenarios. Moreover, given the often limited availability of detailed local data for such analyses, we show how state-of-the-art global data and flood risk assessment models can be applied for a detailed assessment of optimal flood-protection strategies. Our results show that especially states along the Gulf of Mexico have considerable economic benefits from investments in adaptation that limit risks from both river and coastal floods, and that increased flood-protection standards are economically beneficial for many Mexican states. We discuss the sensitivity of our results to modelling uncertainties, the transferability of our modelling approach and policy implications. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  10. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  11. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, E.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study

  12. Low Frequencies of Interference to EPA Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) Methods for Microbial Water Quality Monitoring in U.S. Rivers and Streams and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    In collaboration with U.S States and Tribes, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts periodic and rotating, statistically based surveys of U.S. rivers and streams (National Rivers and Streams Assessment, NRSA), estuarine and Great Lakes nearshore coastal ...

  13. Activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb, its contribution to the radiation dose and distribution coefficient in aquatic ecosystem of major rivers of coastal Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajashekara, K.M.; Prakash, V.; Narayana, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers are the major pathways for the transport of weathered materials from the land to the oceans. The geochemical studies on river waters provide an insight into the weathering process that control the distribution of elements in dissolved and particulate phases and their fluxes to the estuaries. Concentrations of natural series radionuclide in fresh water bodies are liable to be much more variable than those in the marine environment since they are heavily influenced by the local geochemistry of the watershed. The concentrations of radioactive materials vary from region to region and this variation is found to be significantly high in some areas. Some of the regions are rich with the flow of major rivers and estuaries of these rivers, and investigations of these riverine and estuarine aquatic environments would throw light on the transportation, distribution and enrichment mechanism of radionuclides. In this context, the activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb were measured in different matrices of aquatic ecosystem of the major rivers namely, Kali, Sharavathi and Netravathi river of Coastal Karnataka

  14. Riverine inputs of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from the Pearl River Delta (China) to the coastal ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yu-Feng; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Ni, Hong-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-09-01

    Riverine runoff is an important mode to transport anthropogenic pollutants from terrestrial sources to oceans. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in riverine runoff samples from the eight major outlets within the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China, an economically fast developing region housing a vast number of electronics manufacturing and assembling plants. The sigma 17PBDEs (sum of 17 BDE congeners, i.e., BDE-28, -47, -66, -85, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154, -183, -196, -197, -203, -206, -207, -208, and -209) concentrations varied from 344 to 68,000 pg/L, with those of BDE-209, BDE-47, and BDE-99 being 335-65200, 3-143, and production of brominated fire retardants (approximately 10000 metric tons/year) and the annual riverine input of total PBDEs from the PRD, suggesting that the majority of PBDEs inventory has been accumulated from importation of e-wastes. Because of the continuous importation of e-wastes and strong demand for brominated fire retardants, the impact of PBDEs on China's and the world's environments is expected to persist for many years to come.

  15. Long-term water chemistry database, Little River Experimental Watershed, southeast Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, G. W.; Lowrance, R.; Strickland, T. C.; Sheridan, J. M.; Hubbard, R. K.; Bosch, D. D.

    2007-09-01

    A water quality sampling program was initiated in 1974 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on the 334 km2 Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) near Tifton in south Georgia to monitor the effects of changing land use and agricultural practices over time and to support development of simulation models capable of predicting future impacts of agricultural land use and management changes. Stream samples were taken on a weekly or more frequent basis and were analyzed for chloride, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus. Monitoring began in 1974 on the entire watershed and four nested subwatersheds, ranging in size from 16.7 to 114.9 km2, and continues until present. Partial records of 7, 10, and 19 years exist for three additional subwatersheds. Suspended solids data are available for all eight subwatersheds for 1974-1978 and 1979-1981, three subwatersheds for 1982-1986, and all eight subwatersheds again beginning in the year 2000. The concentration and associated load data are being published on the LREW database anonymous ftp site (ftp://www.tiftonars.org/).

  16. Dynamics of submarine groundwater discharge and associated fluxes of dissolved nutrients, carbon, and trace gases to the coastal zone (Okatee River estuary, South Carolina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porubsky, W.P.; Weston, N.B.; Moore, W.S.; Ruppel, C.; Joye, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple techniques, including thermal infrared aerial remote sensing, geophysical and geological data, geochemical characterization and radium isotopes, were used to evaluate the role of groundwater as a source of dissolved nutrients, carbon, and trace gases to the Okatee River estuary, South Carolina. Thermal infrared aerial remote sensing surveys illustrated the presence of multiple submarine groundwater discharge sites in Okatee headwaters. Significant relationships were observed between groundwater geochemical constituents and 226Ra activity in groundwater with higher 226Ra activity correlated to higher concentrations of organics, dissolved inorganic carbon, nutrients, and trace gases to the Okatee system. A system-level radium mass balance confirmed a substantial submarine groundwater discharge contribution of these constituents to the Okatee River. Diffusive benthic flux measurements and potential denitrification rate assays tracked the fate of constituents in creek bank sediments. Diffusive benthic fluxes were substantially lower than calculated radium-based submarine groundwater discharge inputs, showing that advection of groundwater-derived nutrients dominated fluxes in the system. While a considerable potential for denitrification in tidal creek bank sediments was noted, in situ denitrification rates were nitrate-limited, making intertidal sediments an inefficient nitrogen sink in this system. Groundwater geochemical data indicated significant differences in groundwater chemical composition and radium activity ratios between the eastern and western sides of the river; these likely arose from the distinct hydrological regimes observed in each area. Groundwater from the western side of the Okatee headwaters was characterized by higher concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, inorganic nutrients and reduced metabolites and trace gases, i.e. methane and nitrous oxide, than groundwater from the eastern side

  17. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    A hydrogeochemical study has been undertaken on the phreatic system of the coastal area included between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers (in the southern part of the Po plain, near the city of Ravenna) within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. It is one of the first attempt in the area to characterize the shallow groundwater water system and to investigate if the arsenic anomaly, known in deeper groundwater (about 100 µg/l according to recent Annual Groundwater Quality Reports of Emilia-Romagna Region), occurs also in the phreatic system. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The study area is recognized as a protected area at european (ZPS and SIC, site code number: IT 14070009), national and regional level (Po delta Park area). As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters (drainage ditches and ponds) have been contaminated by seawater and by deeper groundwater. Samples representative of the top of the water table were collected in Summer 2008 in 22 auger-holes and in 3 shallow piezometers (6 m deep) documenting the deeper layers of the phreatic groundwater system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and Eh of the groundwater and of the surface water were measured on site using portable instruments. Samples were filtered directly in the field, an aliquot was acidified with diluted HCl for metal analysis. Cations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption (thermo S-series spectrometer), anions by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-90), Fe, As, Si, B by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP6000). The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present at the top of the phreatic aquifer in the backshore area and that the

  19. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bifeng Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI were calculated for every surface sample (0–20 cm to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK. The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution.

  20. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Songchao; Zhou, Yue; Jin, Bin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0–20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK) was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK). The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution. PMID:29642623

  1. Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Zhao, Ruiying; Chen, Songchao; Zhou, Yue; Jin, Bin; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2018-04-10

    Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0-20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK) was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK). The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution.

  2. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei

    2017-09-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental evolution records reflected by radionuclides in the sediment of coastal wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River Estuary wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qidong; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Cao, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Vertical profiles of environmental radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 4 0 K) in a sediment core (Y1) of the Yellow River Estuary wetland were investigated to assess whether environmental evolutions in the coastal wetland could be recorded by the distributions of radionuclides. Based on 210 Pb and 137 Cs dating, the average sedimentation rate of core Y1 was estimated to be 1.0 cm y -1 . Vertical distributions of natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K) changed dramatically, reflecting great changes in sediment input. Concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K all had significant positive relationships with organic matter and clay content, but their distributions were determined by different factors. Factor analysis showed that 238 U was determined by the river sediment input while 226 Ra was mainly affected by the seawater erosion. Environmental changes such as river channel migrations and sediment discharge variations could always cause changes in the concentrations of radionuclides. High concentrations of 238 U and 226 Ra were consistent with high accretion rate. Frequent seawater intrusion decreased the concentration of 226 Ra significantly. The value of 238 U/ 226 Ra tended to be higher when the sedimentation rate was low and tide intrusion was frequent. In summary, environmental evolutions in the estuary coastal wetland could be recorded by the vertical profiles of natural radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  6. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  7. Export of materials along a tidal river channel that links a coastal lagoon to the adjacent sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aldeco Ramírez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intratidal variability and flux of salt, chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were evaluated in a shallow tropical tidal channel linking a coastal lagoon to the western Gulf of Mexico. Velocity, temperature and conductivity were used to calculate the fluxes. Data were recorded during three tidal velocity cycles (tvc under extreme river discharge conditions. Chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were determined below the surface. In both seasons (dry and rainy, the flow was ebb-dominated and with longer duration than when in flood. Maximum current velocities were 0.30 m s-1 in May (dry season and 0.60 m s-1 in September (rainy season. In the dry season the mean chlorophyll-a export was of 7.56 Kg over tvc while the import was of 3.32 Kg. In the rainy season mean export (47.3 Kg was 6 times greater than the import (7.93 Kg over tvc. Phytoplankton was dominated by organisms of marine origin. The mean of exported, suspended materials in the rainy season (111.3 Kg was 4.6 times greater (859 Kg than that in the dry season (184.7 Kg over tvc. Tidal velocity asymmetry is an effective mechanism of exportation, introducing relatively warm and saltier water into the river through the tidal channel.A variabilidade intramaré, o fluxo de salinidade, a clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram avaliados em um canal superficial de maré tropical em uma lagoa costeira ao oeste do Golfo do México. Os dados de velocidade, temperatura e condutividade foram usados para cálculo dos fluxos durante três ciclos de velocidades das marés (tvc sob condições extremas de descarga. A Clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram determinados abaixo em subsuperfície. Em ambas as estações (seca e chuvosa, o fluxo dominante foi durante o refluxo e com duração maior durante o fluxo de entrada. A máxima velocidade encontrada foi 0.30 m s-1 em maio (estação seca e 0.60 m s-1 em setembro (estação chuvosa. Durante a época seca foram exportadas 7.56 Kg de clorofila

  8. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  9. Radioactivity and Natural Radio nuclides Distribution in River Water, Coastal Water, Sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) Sloms and Their Accumulation Factor at Surabaya Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of radioactivity and natural radionuclide in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms from Surabaya river and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh and coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radioecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) sloms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radionuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclides can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K-40 and TI-208. Generally the distribution factor F D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F B . (author)

  10. Radioactivity and natural radionuclides distribution in river water, coastal water, sediment and Eichornia Crassipes (Mart) solms and their accumulation factor at Surabaya area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Taftazani; Sumining; Muzakky

    2002-01-01

    Distributions of radioactivity and natural radionuclides in water, sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms from Surabaya River and coastal area have been evaluated. Five sampling locations were selected to represent fresh water and coastal water environment. The samples consist of water (fresh & coastal), bottom surface sediment and eichornia crassipes (mart) solms. The result showed that the gross-β activity from water environment were lower than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (1000 mBq/L) and indicated that β-radio ecological quality of water were still good. But the activity of the gross-α of water environment were higher than the threshold value of Environmental Minister Act. Kep.02/MENKLH/I/1988 (100 mBq/L). The eichornia crassipes (mart) solms (gross) activity were higher than water and sediment activities and indicated that transfer of radio nuclides from water to sediment and organism can be detected in water environment. Two natural radionuclide can be identified by γ-Spectrometric technique, they were K"4"0 and Tl"2"0"8. Generally the distribution factors F_D were smaller than bioaccumulation factor F_B. (author)

  11. Sources and compositional distribution of organic carbon in surface sediments from the lower Pearl River to the coastal South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Z.; Wade, T.; Knap, A. H.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River plays an important role in transporting terrestrial organic carbon (OC) to the South China Sea (SCS). However, the sources and compositional distribution of OC in the system are poorly understood. This study focused on delineating the sources and determining the fate of surface sedimentary OC from the Feilaixia Hydro-power Station to the coastal SCS. Elemental, stable carbon/nitrogen isotope (δ13C, δ15N) and lignin-phenol analyses have been conducted. The total OC (TOC) from the up-stream sites were generally derived from vascular plants (higher C/N, and depleted δ13C) and soils. Additional input was attributed to riverine primary production (lower C/N and enriched δ13C), which was enhanced near the dam-created reservoir. The C/N and δ13C values were not significantly different among sites in the mid-stream. The estuary/coastal sites witnessed hydrodynamically sorted riverine OC, which was diluted by marine primary production (lower C/N and more enriched δ13C). The lignin concentration was the highest in the up-stream sites, remained relatively unchanged in the mid-stream sites and decreased significantly along the estuary/coastal sites, which was corroborated by variation in TOC. A comprehensive five-endmember Monte Carlo simulation suggested that previous studies had underestimated the C4 plant input by 14 ± 11% and overestimated the riverbank soil input by 21 ± 17%. Thus, our study provided valuable information for more accurate source and mass balance studies of terrestrial OC transported to the SCS, which helped to further understand the carbon cycling in the large river-ocean continuum.

  12. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falls, F.W.; Baum, J.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed

  13. Traveltime and dispersion data, including associated discharge and water-surface elevation data, Kanawha River West Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Environmental Endowment, Marshall University Research Corporation, and the West Virginia Depart- ment of Environmental Protection, to evaluate traveltime of a soluble dye on the Kanawha River. The Kanawha River originates in south-central West Virginia and flows northwestward to the Ohio River. Knowledge of traveltime and dispersion of a soluble dye could help river managers mitigate effects of an accidental spill. Traveltime and dispersion data were collected from June 20 through July 4, 1991, when river discharges decreased from June 24 through July 3, 1991. Daily mean discharges decreased from 5,540 ft 3/s on June 24 to 2,790 ft3/s on July 2 at Kanawha Falls and from 5,680 ft3/s on June 24 to 3,000 ft3/s on July 2 at Charleston. Water-surface elevations in regulated pools indicated a loss of water storage during the period. A spill at Gauley Bridge under similar streamflow conditions of this study is estimated to take 15 days to move beyond Winfield Dam. Estimated time of passage (elapsed time at a particular location) at Marmet Dam and Winfield Dam is approximately 2.5 days and 5.5 days, respectively. The spill is estimated to spend 12 days in the Winfield pool.

  14. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  15. Combining L- and X-Band SAR Interferometry to Assess Ground Displacements in Heterogeneous Coastal Environments: The Po River Delta and Venice Lagoon, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From leveling to SAR-based interferometry, the monitoring of land subsidence in coastal transitional environments significantly improved. However, the simultaneous assessment of the ground movements in these peculiar environments is still challenging. This is due to the presence of relatively small built-up zones and infrastructures, e.g., coastal infrastructures, bridges, and river embankments, within large natural or rural lands, e.g., river deltas, lagoons, and farmland. In this paper we present a multi-band SAR methodology to integrate COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-PALSAR images. The method consists of a proper combination of the very high-resolution X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI, which achieves high-density and precise measurements on single structures and constructed areas, with L-band Short-Baseline SAR Interferometry (SBAS, properly implemented to raise its effectiveness in retrieving information in vegetated and wet zones. The combined methodology is applied on the Po River Delta and Venice coastland, Northern Italy, using 16 ALOS-PALSAR and 31 COSMO-SkyMed images covering the period between 2007 and 2011. After a proper calibration of the single PSI and SBAS solution using available GPS records, the datasets have been combined at both the regional and local scales. The measured displacements range from ~0 mm/yr down to −35 mm/yr. The results reveal the variable pattern of the subsidence characterizing the more natural and rural environments without losing the accuracy in quantifying the sinking of urban areas and infrastructures. Moreover, they allow improving the interpretation of the natural and anthropogenic processes responsible for the ongoing subsidence.

  16. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study of Fuzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under multivariable conditions, such as heavy precipitation, high sea levels, and storms. The combined effect of multiple sources and the joint probability of extremes should be considered to assess and manage flood risk better. This paper aims to study the combined effect of rainfall and the tidal level of the receiving water body on flood probability and severity in Fuzhou City, which has a complex river network. Flood severity under a range of precipitation intensities, with return periods (RPs of 5 yr to 100 yr, and tidal levels was assessed through a hydrodynamic model verified by data observed during Typhoon Longwang in 2005. According to the percentages of the river network where flooding occurred, the threshold conditions for flood severity were estimated in two scenarios: with and without working pumps. In Fuzhou City, working pumps efficiently reduce flood risk from precipitation within a 20-yr RP. However, the pumps may not work efficiently when rainfall exceeds a 100-yr RP because of the limited conveyance capacity of the river network. Joint risk probability was estimated through the optimal copula. The joint probability of rainfall and tidal level both exceeding their threshold values is very low, and the greatest threat in Fuzhou comes from heavy rainfall. However, the tidal level poses an extra risk of flood. Given that this extra risk is ignored in the design of flood defense in Fuzhou, flood frequency and severity may be higher than understood during design.

  17. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  18. Evaluating Production of Cyclopentyl Tetraethers by Marine Group II Euryarchaeota in the Pearl River Estuary and Coastal South China Sea: Potential Impact on the TEX86 Paleothermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TEX86 [TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs with 86 carbon atoms] has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo- sea surface temperature. Marine Group I (MG-I Thaumarchaeota were thought to be the primary source of GDGTs constituting the TEX86 formula; however, recent research has suggested that Marine Group II (MG-II Euryarchaeota may also contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. Little is known regarding the potential impact of MG-II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs on TEX86 values recorded in marine sediments. In this study, we assessed the relationship between distributions of GDGTs and MG-II Euryarchaeota and evaluated its potential effect on the TEX86 proxy. Lipid and DNA analyses were performed on suspended particulate matter and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water and its estuary (mixing water to the coastal South China Sea (SCS, seawater. TEX86-derived temperatures from the water column and surface sediments were significantly correlated and both were lower than satellite-based temperatures. The ring index (RI values in these environments were higher than predicted from the calculated TEX86-RI correlation, indicating that the GDGT pool in the water column of the PR estuary and coastal SCS comprises relatively more cyclopentane rings, which thereby altered TEX86 values. Furthermore, the abundance of MG-II Euryarchaeota 16S rRNA gene in the mixing water was two to three orders of magnitude higher than those observed in the river or seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG-II Euryarchaeota to total archaea and the fractional abundance of GDGTs with cyclopentane rings. Collectively, these results suggest that MG-II Euryarchaeota likely produce a large proportion of GDGTs with 1–4 cyclopentane moieties, which may bias TEX86 values in the water column and sediments. As such, valid

  19. STREAM II-V7: Revision for STREAM II-V6 to include outflow from all Savannah River Site tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maze, Grace M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    STREAM II is the aqueous transport model of the Weather Information Display (WIND) emergency response system at Savannah River Site. It is used to calculate transport in the event of a chemical or radiological spill into the waterways on the Savannah River Site. Improvements were made to the code (STREAM II V7) to include flow from all site tributaries to the Savannah River total flow and utilize a 4 digit year input. The predicted downstream concentrations using V7 were generally on the same order of magnitude as V6 with slightly lower concentrations and quicker arrival times when all onsite stream flows are contributing to the Savannah River flow. The downstream arrival time at the Savannah River Water Plant ranges from no change to an increase of 8.77%, with minimum changes typically in March/April and maximum changes typically in October/November. The downstream concentrations are generally no more than 15% lower using V7 with the maximum percent change in January through April and minimum changes in June/July.

  20. Acidic gases, ammonia and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 at a coastal site in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Slanina, J.; Lin, Peng; Liu, Shang; Zeng, Limin

    Real-time measurements of acidic trace gases (HCl, HNO 3, HONO, and SO 2), ammonia, and water-soluble ions in PM 2.5 were conducted at Xinken, a coastal site downwind of Guangzhou, from 4 October to 4 November 2004, as part of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) intensive field campaign. The average concentrations of HCl, HONO, HNO 3, SO 2, and NH 3 are 2.8, 2.9, 6.3, 55.4, and 7.3 μg m -3, respectively, and 2.4, 7.2, 24.1, and 9.2 μg m -3 for Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, and NH 4+ in PM 2.5. The diurnal variations of both HCl and HNO 3 showed higher concentrations during daytime and lower concentrations at night, and aerosol Cl - and NO 3- showed an opposite diurnal patterns to HCl and HNO 3. The diurnal variation of NH 3 showed the similar pattern to that of aerosol NH 4+ with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The average concentration of SO 2 during daytime was higher than that at night. The transportation of urban plumes to the sampling site could explain the higher concentration of SO 2 during daytime. HONO showed a clear diurnal variation with lower concentration during daytime and higher concentration at night. The HONO concentrations were positively correlated with the particle surface area concentrations, suggesting the formation of HONO through the heterogeneous conversion on particle surfaces could be significant. The ionic charge balance analysis included the cations derived from filter measurements indicates that the contribution of the cations in fine particle (PM 1.8) to the charge balance is not pronounced. The theoretical equilibrium constant ( Ke) of NH 4NO 3 is higher than the observed concentration product ( Km=[NH 3]×[HNO 3]) during daytime, and lower than Km at night. This indicates that the atmospheric conditions during the sampling period did not favor the formation of NH 4NO 3 during daytime.

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small terrestrial mammals (woodrats, myotis, muskrat, mink) for the Hudson River. Vector polygons in...

  3. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  4. Evaluation of long-term trends in hydrographic and nutrient parameters in a southeast US coastal river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Asher A; Kimball, Matthew E

    2013-12-01

    The Nassau River estuary is located in northeast Florida adjacent to the eutrophic St. Johns River. Historically, development has been sparse in the Nassau River's catchment; thus, the system may provide a relatively undisturbed aquatic environment. To monitor the condition of the Nassau River estuary and to discern spatial and temporal trends in water quality, nutrients and hydrographic variables were assessed throughout the estuary from 1997 to 2011. Hydrographic (temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, and turbidity) and nutrient parameters (total phosphorus, ortho-PO₄(3-), total nitrogen, NH₄(+), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and NO₃(-)) were monitored bimonthly at 12 sites in the mesohaline and polyhaline zones of the river. Nonparametric Kendall's Tau was implemented to analyze long-term water quality patterns. Salinity was found to increase with time, particularly in the mesohaline sampling sites. Dissolved oxygen decreased over time in the estuary and hypoxic conditions became increasingly frequent in the final years of the study. Nutrients increased in the estuary, ranging from 149 to 401%. Rainfall data collected in adjacent conservation areas did not correlate well with nutrients as compared with stream discharge data collected in the basin headwaters, outside of the conservation lands, attributed here to expanding urbanization. During the study period, the Nassau basin underwent rapid human population growth and land development resulting in commensurate impacts to water quality. Nutrient and physical data collected during this study indicate that the Nassau River estuary is becoming more eutrophic with time.

  5. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, X H; Wang, Y D; Hou, X Y

    2014-01-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  6. Occurrence and seasonal variations of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including fluorinated alternatives in rivers, drain outlets and the receiving Bohai Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Han, Jianbo; Zhang, Can; Cheng, Jiayi; Sun, Ruijun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Han, Gengchen; Yang, Wenchao; He, Xin

    2017-12-01

    A simultaneous sampling campaign was undertaken to study the pollution by 21 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in rivers, drain outlets and their receiving Bohai Sea of China. Chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) are being used as fluorinated alternatives and they were included in this study. In comparison with other regions and countries, high concentrations of ∑ 21 PFASs in seawater samples from the Bohai Sea, ranging from 5.03 to 41 700 ng/L (median: 64.8 ng/L), were observed. The spatial distribution of PFAS levels in this sea area was in the ranking of Laizhou Bay > Liaodong Bay > Bohai Bay > other sea areas. By comparing the levels and composition profiles of PFASs in the seawater and their sources (rivers and drain outlets), it was concluded that rivers and drain outlets are the primary sources of PFAS contamination to the Bohai Sea. These PFAS levels varied seasonally among the rivers and drain outlets, but statistically significant changes were not observed. Levels of 6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs in rivers, drain outlets and receiving sea were firstly reported in the present study. Relatively high concentrations of 6:2 Cl-PFESA were found in drain outlets, ranging from below method limits of quantification (MLQ) to 7600 ng/L, but 8:2 Cl-PFAES detection was infrequent and all median concentration below MLQ. Mass discharges to the sea of 6:2 Cl-PFESA from rivers and drain outlets to the sea were estimated to be 37 and 17 kg/y, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Soil organic carbon storage changes in coastal wetlands of the modern Yellow River Delta from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. The storages and dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC of 0–30 cm soil depth in different landscape types including beaches, reservoir and pond, reed wetland, forest wetland, bush wetland, farmland, building land, bare land (severe saline land and salt field in the modern Yellow River Delta (YRD were studied based on the data of the regional survey and laboratory analysis. The landscape types were classified by the interpretation of remote sensing images of 2000 and 2009, which were calibrated by field survey results. The results revealed an increase of 10.59 km2 in the modem YRD area from 2000 to 2009. The SOC density varied ranging from 0.73 kg m−2 to 4.25 kg m−2 at depth of 0–30 cm. There were approx. 3.559 × 106 t and 3.545 × 106 t SOC stored in the YRD in 2000 and 2009, respectively. The SOC storages changed greatly in beaches, bush wetland, farm land and salt field which were affected dominantly by anthropogenic activities. The area of the YRD increased greatly within 10 years, however, the small increase of SOC storage in the region was observed due to landscape changes, indicating that the modern YRD was a potential carbon sink and anthropogenic activity was a key factor for SOC change.

  8. Linear alkylbenzenes in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) and their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Honggang; Lu Fenghui; Wang Jizhong; Guan Yufeng; Luo Xianlin; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2008-01-01

    The average concentrations of ΣLABs (sum of C 10 -C 13 -LABs) in runoff samples collected from the eight major riverine outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China ranged from 1.4 to 6124 ng/L in the dissolved phase and from 0.01 to 11.4 μg/g dry weight in the particulate phase during March 2005-February 2006. The annual riverine flux of ΣLABs from the PRD to the coastal ocean was estimated at approximately 14 tons/yr. The inventories of ΣLABs in agricultural lands of Guangdong Province ranged from 313 to 1825 kg/yr. The early and late rice fields were the major sink of LABs, accounting for approximately 68% of total LABs inventory in agricultural lands. The social-economically estimated annual discharge of LABs from household detergents in the PRD was ∼696 tons/yr, more than an order of magnitude higher than that estimated from field measurements (about 14 tons/yr), which was attributed to several factors. - Occurrence of LABs in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta (China) was examined

  9. Dactylogyrids (Platyhelminthes, Monogenoidea) from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) from coastal rivers of the Oriental Amazon Basin: species of Urocleidoides and Constrictoanchoratus n. gen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, K D C; Rodrigues, A R O; Cunha, J-M; Domingues, M V

    2018-05-01

    Five species of Urocleidoides (one new) and two new species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. are described in this study. All were collected from the gills of Hoplias malabaricus (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) captured in six localities of coastal rivers of the north-eastern sector the State of Pará (Oriental Amazon): Urocleidoides brasiliensis Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides bulbophallus n. sp.; Urocleidoides cuiabai Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Urocleidoides eremitus Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986; Urocleidoides malabaricusi Rosim, Mendoza-Franco & Luque, 2011; Constrictoanchoratus lemmyi n. gen. n. sp.; and Constrictoanchoratus ptilonophallus n. gen. n. sp. This is the first reported occurrence of the four previously described species of Urocleidoides parasitizing H. malabaricus from streams in the Oriental Amazon Basin. The analysis of voucher specimens of U. eremitus parasitizing the gills of H. malabaricus from the Upper Paraná River floodplain in the limits of States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, indicates that these specimens are members of a new species of Urocleidoides, described here as Urocleidoides paranae n. sp. Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. is proposed for the species with a male copulatory organ sclerotized, coiled, clockwise; ventral anchor with elongate superficial root, inconspicuous deep root; dorsal anchor with inconspicuous roots, and a constriction at the intersection between the shaft and the point. The host-parasite diversity scenario and host specificity of the species of Constrictoanchoratus n. gen. and Urocleidoides from the gills of H. malabaricus are also discussed in this study.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation of nutrients in groundwater and associated processes in the coastal zone of the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urbanization has occurred in the Pearl River Delta since 1980s, resulting in tremendous accumulation of population and material in an area of around 1.1x104 km2. Massive nutrients were released to the coastal zone either via the Pearl River or the aquifer, and effects of these nutrients on ecosystem and drinking water supply are a big public concern. Field campaigns to collect groundwater samples were implemented in rainy (April- September) and dry seasons (October - March) during the period of 2005-2016, and samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, multiple isotopes, N2O and microbiological DNA. Seasonal and spatial pattern of nutrients from the recharge to the discharge zone in two case study areas were identified and compared regarding relevant N transformation processes. Main sources of nutrients in groundwater and major mechanisms, e.g. denitrification, nitrification and etc., involved in these processes were raised by integrating microbiological, isotopic and geochemical evidences. Driven forces of the change in nutrients in the past 10 years were investigated based on statistical data, and total nutrient load in groundwater in the delta was estimated.

  11. The effects of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee on the bed sediment geochemistry of U.S. Atlantic coastal rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee, both of which made landfall in the U.S. between late August and early September 2011, generated record or near record water discharges in 41 coastal rivers between the North Carolina/South Carolina border and the U.S./Canadian border. Despite the discharge of substantial amounts of suspended sediment from many of these rivers, as well as the probable influx of substantial amounts of eroded material from the surrounding basins, the geochemical effects on the TOC), total nitrogen (TN), Zn, Se, Co, Cu, Pb, As, Cr, and total carbon (TC). As a group, these constituents tend to be associated either with urbanization/elevated population densities and/or wastewater/solid sludge. The limited number of significant sediment-associated chemical changes that were detected probably resulted from two potential processes: (1) the flushing of in-stream land-use affected sediments that were replaced by baseline material more representative of local geology and/or soils (declining concentrations), and/or (2) the inclusion of more heavily affected material as a result of urban nonpoint-source runoff and/or releases from flooded treatment facilities (increasing concentrations). Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from coastal rivers of mid-northern New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien; Rourke, Meaghan L.

    2017-01-01

    Tandanus bellingerensis, new species, is described based on specimens from four river drainages (Bellinger, Macleay, Hastings, and Manning rivers) of the mid-northern coast of New South Wales, Australia. Previously, three species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tropicanus of the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland, T. tandanus of the Murray-Darling drainage and coastal streams of central-southern Queensland and New South Wales, and T. bostocki of southwestern Western Australia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following morphologic characters: a high count of rays in the continuous caudodorsal and anal fins (range 153–169, mode 159), a high count of gill rakers on the first arch (range 35–39, mode 36), and strongly recurved posterior serrae of the pectoral-fin spine. Additionally, results from previously conducted genetic studies corroborate morphologic and taxonomic distinctness of the new species.

  13. Fluorescence and absorption properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM in coastal surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, influence of the Rhône River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Para

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seawater samples were collected monthly in surface waters (2 and 5 m depths of the Bay of Marseilles (northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 5°17'30" E, 43°14'30" N during one year from November 2007 to December 2008 and studied for total organic carbon (TOC as well as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence. The annual mean value of surface CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm [aCDOM(350] was very low (0.10 ± 0.02 m−1 in comparison to values usually found in coastal waters, and no significant seasonal trend in aCDOM(350 could be determined. By contrast, the spectral slope of CDOM absorption (SCDOM was significantly higher (0.023 ± 0.003 nm−1 in summer than in fall and winter periods (0.017 ± 0.002 nm−1, reflecting either CDOM photobleaching or production in surface waters during stratified sunny periods. The CDOM fluorescence, assessed through excitation emission matrices (EEMs, was dominated by protein-like component (peak T; 1.30–21.94 QSU and marine humic-like component (peak M; 0.55–5.82 QSU, while terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (peak C; 0.34–2.99 QSU remained very low. This reflected a dominance of relatively fresh material from biological origin within the CDOM fluorescent pool. At the end of summer, surface CDOM fluorescence was very low and strongly blue shifted, reinforcing the hypothesis of CDOM photobleaching. Our results suggested that unusual Rhône River plume eastward intrusion events might reach Marseilles Bay within 2–3 days and induce local phytoplankton blooms and subsequent fluorescent CDOM production (peaks M and T without adding terrestrial fluorescence signatures (peaks C and A. Besides Rhône River plumes, mixing events of the entire water column injected relative aged (peaks C and M CDOM from the bottom into the surface and thus appeared also as an important source

  14. Fluorescence and absorption properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in coastal surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, influence of the Rhône River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Para, J.; Coble, P. G.; Charrière, B.; Tedetti, M.; Fontana, C.; Sempéré, R.

    2010-12-01

    Seawater samples were collected monthly in surface waters (2 and 5 m depths) of the Bay of Marseilles (northwestern Mediterranean Sea; 5°17'30" E, 43°14'30" N) during one year from November 2007 to December 2008 and studied for total organic carbon (TOC) as well as chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence). The annual mean value of surface CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm [aCDOM(350)] was very low (0.10 ± 0.02 m-1) in comparison to values usually found in coastal waters, and no significant seasonal trend in aCDOM(350) could be determined. By contrast, the spectral slope of CDOM absorption (SCDOM) was significantly higher (0.023 ± 0.003 nm-1) in summer than in fall and winter periods (0.017 ± 0.002 nm-1), reflecting either CDOM photobleaching or production in surface waters during stratified sunny periods. The CDOM fluorescence, assessed through excitation emission matrices (EEMs), was dominated by protein-like component (peak T; 1.30-21.94 QSU) and marine humic-like component (peak M; 0.55-5.82 QSU), while terrestrial humic-like fluorescence (peak C; 0.34-2.99 QSU) remained very low. This reflected a dominance of relatively fresh material from biological origin within the CDOM fluorescent pool. At the end of summer, surface CDOM fluorescence was very low and strongly blue shifted, reinforcing the hypothesis of CDOM photobleaching. Our results suggested that unusual Rhône River plume eastward intrusion events might reach Marseilles Bay within 2-3 days and induce local phytoplankton blooms and subsequent fluorescent CDOM production (peaks M and T) without adding terrestrial fluorescence signatures (peaks C and A). Besides Rhône River plumes, mixing events of the entire water column injected relative aged (peaks C and M) CDOM from the bottom into the surface and thus appeared also as an important source of CDOM in surface waters of the Marseilles Bay. Therefore, the assessment of CDOM optical properties

  15. Salinity Changes in a Tidal River. A Learning Experience for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, No. 308. [Project COAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    The materials in this packet are designed to aid teachers in the implementation of a science field studies unit concerning tidal rivers. The packet consists of the following: (1) background material for the teacher; (2) lab exercises; (3) field activities; and (4) classroom activities. The overall purpose of this packet is to provide information…

  16. Habitat relationships and larval drift of native and nonindigenous fishes in neighboring tributaries of a coastal California river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Motivated by a particular interest in the distribution of the nonindigenous, piscivorous Sacramento pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus grandis, we examined fish-habitat relationships in small tributaries (draining 20-200 km 2 )in the Eel River drainage of northwestern California.We sampled juvenile and adult fish in 15 tributaries in both the summer and...

  17. CTD Niskin bottle data from the R/V WECOMA in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the National Science Foundation Coastal Ocean Processes program River Influences on Shelf Ecosystems (NSF CoOP RISE), cruise RISE05W3, from 20040708 to 20060613 (NODC Accession 0051411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CoOP RISE program was designed to determine the impact of large river discharge on coastal shelf ecosystems. Macronutrient and chlorophyll data were collected as...

  18. Dissolved carbon dynamics in the freshwater-saltwater mixing zone of a coastal river entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estuaries play an important role in the dynamics of dissolved carbon from freshwater to marine systems. This study aims to determine how dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations change along an 88-km long estuarine river with salinity ranging from 0.02 to 29.50. The study is expected to elucidate which processes most likely control carbon dynamics in a freshwater-saltwater mixing system, and to evaluate the net metabolism of this estuary using mixing curves and stable isotope analyses. From November 2014 to February 2016, water samples were collected and in-situ measurements on ambient water conditions were performed during eighteen field trips at six sites from upstream to downstream of the Calcasieu River, which enters the Northern Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States. δ13CDIC and δ13CDOC were measured from May 2015 to February 2017 during five of the field trips. The DIC concentration and δ13CDIC increased rapidly with increasing salinity in the mixing zone. The DIC concentrations appeared to be largely influenced by conservative mixing. The δ13CDIC values were close to those suggested by the conservative mixing model for May 2015, June 2015 and November 2015, but lower than those for July 2015 and February 2016, suggesting that an estuarine river can fluctuate from a balanced to a heterotrophic system (i.e., production/respiration aquatic photosynthesis from carbon produced by terrestrial photosynthesis in a river-ocean continuum. These findings suggest that riverine dissolved carbon undergoes a rapid change in freshwater-saltwater mixing, and that these dynamics should be taken into account in carbon processing and budgeting in the world's estuarine systems.

  19. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  20. Application of MODIS Products to Infer Possible Relationships Between Basin Land Cover and Coastal Waters Turbidity Using the Magdalena River, Colombia, as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrinan, Max Jacobo Moreno; Cordova, Africa Flores; Olivares, Francisco Delgado; Irwin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Basin development and consequent change in basin land cover have been often associated with an increased turbidity in coastal waters because of sediment yield and nutrients loading. The later leads to phytoplankton abundance further exacerbating water turbidity. This subsequently affects biological and physical processes in coastal estuaries by interfering with sun light penetration to coral reefs and sea grass, and even affecting public health. Therefore, consistent estimation of land cover changes and turbidity trend lines is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Ground solely methods to estimate land cover change would be unpractical and traditional methods of monitoring in situ water turbidity can be very expensive and time consuming. Accurate monitoring on the status and trends of basin land cover as well as the water quality of the receiving water bodies are required for analysis of relationships between the two variables. Use of remote sensing (RS) technology provides a great benefit for both fields of study, facilitating monitoring of changes in a timely and cost effective manner and covering wide areas with long term measurements. In this study, the Magdalena River basin and fixed geographical locations in the estuarine waters of its delta are used as a case to study the temporal trend lines of both, land cover change and the reflectance of the water turbidity using satellite technology. Land cover data from a combined product between sensors Terra and Aqua (MCD12Q1) from MODIS will be adapted to the conditions in the Magdalena basin to estimate changes in land cover since year 2000 to 2009. Surface reflectance data from a MODIS, Terra (MOD09GQ), band 1, will be used in lieu of in situ water turbidity for the time period between 2000 and present. Results will be compared with available existing data.

  1. Organic-Carbon Sequestration in Soil/Sediment of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain - Data; Landscape Distribution, Storage, and Inventory; Accumulation Rates; and Recent Loss, Including a Post-Katrina Preliminary Analysis (Chapter B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Buell, Gary R.; Britsch, Louis D.; McGeehin, John P.; Robbins, John A.; Wrenn, John H.; Dillon, Douglas L.; Fries, Terry L.; Morehead, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil/sediment of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) in southeastern Louisiana is rich in organic carbon (OC). The MRDP contains about 2 percent of all OC in the surface meter of soil/sediment in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Environments within the MRDP differ in soil/sediment organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rate, storage, and inventory. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) develop a database for OC and bulk density for MRDP soil/sediment; and (2) estimate SOC storage, inventory, and accumulation rates for the dominant environments (brackish, intermediate, and fresh marsh; natural levee; distributary; backswamp; and swamp) in the MRDP. Comparative studies were conducted to determine which field and laboratory methods result in the most accurate and reproducible bulk-density values for each marsh environment. Sampling methods included push-core, vibracore, peat borer, and Hargis1 sampler. Bulk-density data for cores taken by the 'short push-core method' proved to be more internally consistent than data for samples collected by other methods. Laboratory methods to estimate OC concentration and inorganic-constituent concentration included mass spectrometry, coulometry, and loss-on-ignition. For the sampled MRDP environments, these methods were comparable. SOC storage was calculated for each core with adequate OC and bulk-density data. SOC inventory was calculated using core-specific data from this study and available published and unpublished pedon data linked to SSURGO2 map units. Sample age was estimated using isotopic cesium (137Cs), lead (210Pb), and carbon (14C), elemental Pb, palynomorphs, other stratigraphic markers, and written history. SOC accumulation rates were estimated for each core with adequate age data. Cesium-137 profiles for marsh soil/sediment are the least ambiguous. Levee and distributary 137Cs profiles show the effects of intermittent allochthonous input and/or sediment resuspension. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data gave the most

  2. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  3. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  4. Vertical Record of Ecological Change and Carbon Storage in a Young Emergent Mississippi River Coastal Deltaic Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, A.; Twilley, R.; Bentley, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal deltaic floodplains are responsible for 40-50% of global coastal and marine carbon (C) burial and yet are often excluded from blue carbon literature. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is an unplanned Atchafalaya bayhead delta formation resulting from the dredging of the Wax Lake Outlet in 1942 to reduce downstream flooding of Morgan City. Twelve 4-5 m Vibracores were taken throughout the delta chronosequence to investigate ecological succession and C storage during the entirety of WLD's development. An oyster shell bed that can be found throughout the delta delineates the beginning of the WLD facies in 1952. As a young active delta its sediments are dominated by fine sand. However, the upper 0.4-0.7 m demonstrate a distinct transition to increased organic matter (OM) inputs, and in the upper half of this layer >90% of the C is organic. Spikes in organic matter and C content correspond to decreases in bulk density through the record. Notably, at 2.5 m depth there is a low bulk density layer corresponding to an increase in organic matter and C that is found throughout the older subaerial delta. This layer formed in 1970, a few years before WLD became subaerial in 1973 and therefore likely represents the point at which vegetation colonization began. Atomic N:P ratios, which are ecological indicators of biological influence, also demonstrate trends similar to OM and C further supporting this interpretation. With over 40 years of continuous subaerial land building, WLD provides a stark contrast to most of Louisiana's retrograding coastline and is considered a model for future sediment diversions.

  5. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  6. Changes in community structure of active protistan assemblages from the lower Pearl River to coastal Waters of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Jiao, Nianzhi; Warren, Alan; Xu, Dapeng

    2018-04-01

    Protists make up an important component of aquatic ecosystems, playing crucial roles in biogeochemical processes on local and global scales. To reveal the changes of diversity and community structure of protists along the salinity gradients, community compositions of active protistan assemblages were characterized along a transect from the lower Pearl River estuary to the open waters of the South China Sea (SCS), using high-throughput sequencing of the hyper-variable V9 regions of 18S rRNA. This study showed that the alpha diversity of protists, both in the freshwater and in the coastal SCS stations was higher than that in the estuary. The protist community structure also changed along the salinity gradient. The relative sequence abundance of Stramenopiles was highest at stations with lower salinity and decreased with the increasing of salinity. By contrast, the contributions of Alveolata, Hacrobia and Rhizaria to the protistan communities generally increased with the increasing of salinity. The composition of the active protistan community was strongly correlated with salinity, indicating that salinity was the dominant factor among measured environmental parameters affecting protistan community composition and structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Behavior by Coastal River Otter (Lontra Canadensis in Response to Prey Availability in Prince William Sound, Alaska: A Spatially-Explicit Individual-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E Albeke

    Full Text Available Effects of climate change on animal behavior and cascading ecosystem responses are rarely evaluated. In coastal Alaska, social river otters (Lontra Canadensis, largely males, cooperatively forage on schooling fish and use latrine sites to communicate group associations and dominance. Conversely, solitary otters, mainly females, feed on intertidal-demersal fish and display mutual avoidance via scent marking. This behavioral variability creates "hotspots" of nutrient deposition and affects plant productivity and diversity on the terrestrial landscape. Because the abundance of schooling pelagic fish is predicted to decline with climate change, we developed a spatially-explicit individual-based model (IBM of otter behavior and tested six scenarios based on potential shifts to distribution patterns of schooling fish. Emergent patterns from the IBM closely mimicked observed otter behavior and landscape use in the absence of explicit rules of intraspecific attraction or repulsion. Model results were most sensitive to rules regarding spatial memory and activity state following an encounter with a fish school. With declining availability of schooling fish, the number of social groups and the time simulated otters spent in the company of conspecifics declined. Concurrently, model results suggested an elevation of defecation rate, a 25% increase in nitrogen transport to the terrestrial landscape, and significant changes to the spatial distribution of "hotspots" with declines in schooling fish availability. However, reductions in availability of schooling fish could lead to declines in otter density over time.

  8. Use of Reflectance Ratios as a Proxy for Coastal Water Constituent Monitoring in the Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectra, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS, in mg/L and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, ag(400 at 400 nm sampled in stations in 44 different locations on December 18, 19 and 21, in 2006 were measured and analyzed. The studied field covered a large variety of optically different waters, the absorption coefficient of CDOM ([ag(400] in m-1 varied between 0.488 and 1.41 m-1, and the TSS concentrations (mg/L varied between 7.0 and 241.1 mg/L. In order to detect salinity of the Pearl River Estuary, we analyzed the spectral properties of TSS and CDOM, and the relationships between field water reflectance spectra and water constituents’ concentrations based on the synchronous in-situ and satellite hyper-spectral image analysis. A good correlation was discovered (the positive correlation by linear fit, between in-situ reflectance ratio R680/R527 and TSS concentrations (R2 = 0.65 for the salinity range of 1.74-22.12. However, the result also showed that the absorption coefficient of CDOM was not tightly correlated with reflectance. In addition, we also observed two significant relationships (R2 > 0.77, one between TSS concentrations and surface salinity and the other between the absorption coefficient of CDOM and surface salinity. Finally, we develop a novel method to understand surface salinity distribution of estuarine waters from the calibrated EO-1 Hyperion reflectance data in the Pearl River Estuary, i.e. channels with high salinity and shoals with low salinity. The EO-1 Hyperion derived surface salinity and TSSconcentrations were validated using in-situ data that were collected on December 21, 2006, synchronous with EO-1 Hyperion satellite imagery acquisition. The results showed that the semi-empirical relationships are capable of predicting salinity from EO-1 Hyperion imagery in the Pearl River Estuary (RMSE < 2‰.

  9. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  10. Downscaling climate projections for the Peruvian coastal Chancay-Huaral Basin to support river discharge modeling with WEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Olsson

    2017-10-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: On average, GCMs indicate increased annual mean temperatures by 3.1 °C (RCP4.5 and by 4.3 °C (RCP8.5 and precipitation sum by 20% (RCP4.5 and by 28% (RCP8.5. With increasing total precipitation, river discharges are also found to increase, but the variability among the GCMs is considerable. The largest increases in monthly discharge are projected to occur in the wet season (November − April − with up to 31% increase of December multi-model mean. Despite the larger annual discharge for the mean multi-model result, discharges in the dry season may decrease according to some GCMs, showing the need for an adapted future water management.

  11. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  12. Arsenic speciation in water, suspended particles, and coastal organisms from the Taehwa River Estuary of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Jung-Suk; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and biota samples were collected from the Taehwa River Estuary to determine the distributions, partitioning, and bioaccumulation of arsenicals. Six forms of As were quantitated by the use of HPLC-ICP/MS. As was found mainly near urban and industrial areas, and inorganic As V was the predominant As form in both water and SPM. Particulate arsenicals were found at the greatest concentrations in coarse particles (> 180 μm), followed by medium (30–180 μm) and fine (0.45–30 μm) particles, in freshwater. Arsenical concentrations were similar across the three particle fractions in saltwater. Field-based distribution coefficient (K d ) values for As depended strongly on SPM, with a less robust dependence on salinity. Concentrations of As were greater in macroalgae than in marine animals, such as fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, and gastropods. Overall, the results of the present study provide useful information on the behaviors and fate of arsenicals in an estuarine environment. - Highlights: •Concentrations of As were greater in industrial and urban areas than in suburban area. •The predominant form of As in water and suspended particles was inorganic As V . •Particle-size distributions of arsenicals differed between freshwater and saltwater. •The K d values for As depended strongly on the presence of SPMs along the estuary. •Greater concentrations of arsenicals were found in macroalgae than in marine animals.

  13. Hurricane Isaac: observations and analysis of coastal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara S.; Morgan, Karen L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with a storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical process of interest is sediment transport that is driven by waves, currents, and storm surge associated with storms. Storm surge, which is the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to impact parts of the coast not normally exposed to these processes. Coastal geomorphology reflects the coastal changes associated with extreme-storm processes. Relevant geomorphic variables that are observable before and after storms include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to quantify coastal change and are used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms (Stockdon and others, 2007). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards (NACCH) project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/national-assessment/) provides hazard information to those concerned about the Nation’s coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. Extreme-storm research is a component of the NACCH project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes/) that includes development of predictive understanding, vulnerability assessments using models, and updated observations in response to specific storm events. In particular, observations were made to determine morphological changes associated with Hurricane Isaac, which made landfall in the United States first at Southwest Pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, at 0000 August 29, 2012 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) and again, 8 hours later, west of Port Fourchon, Louisiana (Berg, 2013). Methods of observation included oblique aerial photography

  14. The River Mondego terraces at the Figueira da Foz coastal area (western central Portugal): Geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of a terrace staircase affected by differential uplift and glacio-eustasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Anabela M.; Cunha, Pedro P.; Cunha, Lúcio. S.

    2012-01-01

    A geomorphological and sedimentological characterization of the River Mondego terraces in the Figueira da Foz coastal area, Portugal, is presented. The relief is dominated by a Pliocene a marine sandy unit ~ 10–15 m thick, reaching ~ 250 m a.s.l., that covers a shore platform surface. The River...... of terrace genesis in this coastal area should be dominated by glacio-eustasy whereby episodic valley incision would have been determined by periods of very low sea-level, probably at ~ 460–410 ka (T3/T4; MIS12), ~ 200–125 ka (T4/T5; MIS6) and 100–14 ka (T5/Recent alluvial infill; late MIS5, MIS4, MIS3......-gravels and silts, but also some colluvium at the top of each terrace. The younger terraces (T3, T4 and T5) show better developed sedimentary structures and less sedimentary matrix; the sedimentary features are indicative of both fluvial and coastal environments (estuary and beach, as nowadays). Under conditions...

  15. Effects of sediment burial disturbance on macro and microelement dynamics in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie

    2016-03-01

    From April 2008 to November 2009, a field decomposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sediment burial on macro (C, N) and microelement (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Mn) variations in decomposing litter of Phragmites australis in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. Three one-off sediment burial treatments [no sediment burial (0 mm year(-1), S0), current sediment burial (100 mm year(-1), S10), and strong sediment burial (200 mm year(-1), S20)] were laid in different decomposition sites. Results showed that sediment burials showed significant influence on the decomposition rate of P. australis, in the order of S10 (0.001990 day(-1)) ≈ S20 (0.001710 day(-1)) > S0 (0.000768 day(-1)) (p macro and microelement in decomposing litters of the three burial depths exhibited different temporal variations except for Cu, Zn, and Ni. No significant differences in C, N, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn concentrations were observed among the three burial treatments except for Cu and Ni (p > 0.05). With increasing burial depth, N, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Mn concentrations generally increased, while C, Pb, and Zn concentrations varied insignificantly. Sediment burial was favorable for C and N release from P. australis, and, with increasing burial depth, the C release from litter significantly increased, and the N in litter shifted from accumulation to release. With a few exceptions, Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the three treatments evidenced the export of metals from litter to environment, and, with increasing burial depth, the export amounts increased greatly. Stocks of Cu and Ni in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were generally positive, evidencing incorporation of the two metals in most sampling times. Except for Ni, the variations of C, N, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn stocks in P. australis in the S10 and S20 treatments were approximated, indicating that the strong burial episodes (S20) occurred in P. australis marsh in the future

  16. Aerosol number size distribution and new particle formation at a rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Hu, Min; Wu, Zhijun; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Cheng, Yafang

    Continuous measurements of aerosol number size distribution in the range of 3 nm-10 μm were performed in Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. These measurements were made during the period of 3 October to 5 November in 2004 at rural/coastal site, Xinken (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), in the south suburb of Guangzhou City (22°37'N, 113°35'E, 6 m above sea level), using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) combined with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The aerosol particles at Xinken were divided into four groups according to the observation results: nucleation mode particles (3-30 nm), Aitken mode particles (30-130 nm), accumulation mode particles (130-1000 nm) and coarse mode particles (1-10 μm). Concentrations of nucleation mode, Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles were observed in the same order of magnitude (about 10,000 cm -3), among which the concentration of Aitken mode particle was the highest. The Aitken mode particles usually had two peaks: the morning peak may be caused by the land-sea circulation, which is proven to be important for transporting aged aerosols back to the sampling site, while the noon peak was ascribed to the condensational growth of new particles. New particle formation events were found on 7 days of 27 days, the new particle growth rates ranged from 2.2 to 19.8 nm h -1 and the formation rates ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm -3 s -1, both of them were in the range of typical observed formation rates (0.01-10 cm -3 s -1) and typical particle growth rates (1-20 nm h -1). The sustained growth of the new particles for several hours under steady northeast wind indicated that the new particle formation events may occur in a large homogeneous air mass.

  17. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  18. Coastal and Riverine Flood Forecast Model powered by ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal flooding is becoming a major threat to increased population in the coastal areas. To protect coastal communities from tropical storms & hurricane damages, early warning systems are being developed. These systems have the capability of real time flood forecasting to identify hazardous coastal areas and aid coastal communities in rescue operations. State of the art hydrodynamic models forced by atmospheric forcing have given modelers the ability to forecast storm surge, water levels and currents. This helps to identify the areas threatened by intense storms. Study on Chesapeake Bay area has gained national importance because of its combined riverine and coastal phenomenon, which leads to greater uncertainty in flood predictions. This study presents an automated flood forecast system developed by following Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Surge Guidance System (ASGS) guidelines and tailored to take in riverine and coastal boundary forcing, thus includes all the hydrodynamic processes to forecast total water in the Potomac River. As studies on tidal and riverine flow interaction are very scarce in number, our forecast system would be a scientific tool to examine such area and fill the gaps with precise prediction for Potomac River. Real-time observations from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and field measurements have been used as model boundary feeding. The model performance has been validated by using major historical riverine and coastal flooding events. Hydrodynamic model ADCIRC produced promising predictions for flood inundation areas. As better forecasts can be achieved by using coupled models, this system is developed to take boundary conditions from Global WaveWatchIII for the research purposes. Wave and swell propagation will be fed through Global WavewatchIII model to take into account the effects of swells and currents. This automated forecast system is currently undergoing rigorous testing to include any missing parameters which

  19. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of suspended sediment at the mouth of the Amazon river: The role of continental and oceanic forcing, and implications for coastal geomorphology and mud bank formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensac, Erwan; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Anthony, Edward J.

    2016-04-01

    Fine-grained sediments supplied to the Ocean by the Amazon River and their transport under the influence of continental and oceanic forcing drives the geomorphic change along the 1500 km-long coast northward to the Orinoco River delta. The aim of this study is to give an encompassing view of the sediment dynamics in the shallow coastal waters from the Amazon River mouth to the Capes region (northern part of the Amapa region of Brazil and eastern part of French Guiana), where large mud banks are formed. Mud banks are the overarching features in the dynamics of the Amazon-Orinoco coast. They start migrating northward in the Capes region. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations were calculated from satellite products (MODIS Aqua and Terra) acquired over the period 2000-2013. The Census-X11 decomposition method used to discriminate short-term, seasonal and long-term time components of the SPM variability has rendered possible a robust analysis of the impact of continental and oceanic forcing. Continental forcing agents considered are the Amazon River water discharge, SPM concentration and sediment discharge. Oceanic forcing comprises modelled data of wind speed and direction, wave height and direction, and currents. A 150 km-long area of accretion is detected at Cabo Norte that may be linked with a reported increase in the river's sediment discharge concurrent with the satellite data study period. We also assess the rate of mud bank migration north of Cabo Norte, and highlight its variability. Although we confirm a 2 km y-1 migration rate, in agreement with other authors, we show that this velocity may be up to 5 km y-1 along the Cabo Orange region, and we highlight the effect of water discharge by major rivers debouching on this coastal mud belt in modulating such rates. Finally, we propose a refined sediment transport pattern map of the region based on our results and of previous studies in the area such as the AMASSEDS programme, and discuss the

  1. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  2. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity--Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid-solid partition coefficient (KD) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  4. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  5. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  6. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and clinical outcomes among young adults reporting high-risk sexual behavior, including men who have sex with men, in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-05-01

    African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.

  7. Monitoring Ecological and Environmental Changes in Coastal Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta from 1987 to 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kun; Zhao, Dong; Gan, Fuping; Xiao, Chenchao

    2016-04-01

    Many wetlands in the world have degraded rapidly in recent years, especially in China. The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is one of the largest deltas in China. The YRD Nature Reserve is one of China's most complete, broadest, and youngest wetland ecological systems in the warm-temperate zone. Most previous studies have placed particular emphasis on ecological environment or landscape of the YRD based on the distribution of wetlands. In recent years, with the rapid development of the city of Dongying, located in the YRD, the impacts of human activities are increasingly significant, so that monitoring changes in the wetlands has become especially important. In this research, we applied an improved Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach to wetland classification based on feature band set construction and optimization using seven Landsat images. By extracting waterlines, classifying wetlands and deriving landscape parameters, we have achieved high-frequency comprehensive monitoring of the wetlands in the YRD over a relatively long period. It offers a better estimate of wetland change trends than certain previous studies. From 1987 to 2010, the natural waterline primarily experienced erosion due to precipitation abnormalities, as well as coastal exploitation, as the co-analyzed meteorological data suggest. Meanwhile, the artificial waterline barely changed. The wetland area decreased rapidly from approximately 4,607 km2 to 2,714 km2 between 1987 and 2000. Ecological resilience and landscape diversity also decreased significantly during this period. The major impact factors were most likely urbanization, population expansion and the exploitation of the wetlands. After 2000, ecological resilience exhibited a positive trend. However, because newly built aquatic farms and salt works caused serious damages and threatened the natural beach landscape, the landscape fragmentation of muddy and sandy beaches increased after 2000. According to the results, more effective policies and

  8. The role of ocean tides on groundwater-surface water exchange in a mangrove-dominated estuary: Shark River Slough, Florida Coastal Everglades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Price, René M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Stalker, Jeremy C.

    2016-01-01

    Low-relief environments like the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) have complicated hydrologic systems where surface water and groundwater processes are intimately linked yet hard to separate. Fluid exchange within these lowhydraulic-gradient systems can occur across broad spatial and temporal scales, with variable contributions to material transport and transformation. Identifying and assessing the scales at which these processes operate is essential for accurate evaluations of how these systems contribute to global biogeochemical cycles. The distribution of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra have complex spatial patterns along the Shark River Slough estuary (SRSE), Everglades, FL. High-resolution time-series measurements of 222Rn activity, salinity, and water level were used to quantify processes affecting radon fluxes out of the mangrove forest over a tidal cycle. Based on field data, tidal pumping through an extensive network of crab burrows in the lower FCE provides the best explanation for the high radon and fluid fluxes. Burrows are irrigated during rising tides when radon and other dissolved constituents are released from the mangrove soil. Flushing efficiency of the burrows—defined as the tidal volume divided by the volume of burrows— estimated for the creek drainage area vary seasonally from 25 (wet season) to 100 % (dry season) in this study. The tidal pumping of the mangrove forest soil acts as a significant vector for exchange between the forest and the estuary. Processes that enhance exchange of O2 and other materials across the sediment-water interface could have a profound impact on the environmental response to larger scale processes such as sea level rise and climate change. Compounding the material budgets of the SRSE are additional inputs from groundwater from the Biscayne Aquifer, which were identified using radium isotopes. Quantification of the deep groundwater component is not obtainable, but isotopic data suggest a more prevalent signal in the dry

  9. Reproductive biology of Chromidotilapia guntheri (Sauvage, 1882 (Cichlidae, Perciformes in four coastal rivers (Ehania, Noé, Soumié and Eholié of Côte d’Ivoire in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussou C.K.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive activities of a small Cichlid Chromidotilapia guntheri were investigated from July 2003 to March 2005 in four coastal rivers (Ehania, Eholié, Noé and Soumié, in the southeast of Côte d’Ivoire. Trends in gonadosomatic indices and reproductive stages of development suggested that C. guntheri is a multiple (fractional spawner and breeds all year round with little fluctuation in spawning intensity. However, spawning activities were more intensive in August and September. The estimated mean standard length at first maturity did not differ significantly between rivers. It was, in the overall population, 85.53 mm SL for males and 100.13 mm SL for females. In general, the sex ratio differed from 1:1 with the predominance of the males in rivers, standard length classes, seasons and the entire population. Absolute fecundity (F varied from a minimum of 70 to a maximum of 470 eggs. The range of variation in the relative fecundity was from 3066 to 9135 eggs per kilogram of fish in the total population. Fecundity did not differ extensively between rivers. The absolute fecundity relations to fish standard length (SL and eviscerated weight (We were best described in the whole population by the following equations: F = 0.00069 × SL2.72 and F = 2.54 × We1.15, respectively. Moreover, there was no relationship between absolute fecundity and oocyte diameter.

  10. Carbon transport by the Lena River from its headwaters to the Arctic Ocean, with emphasis on fluvial input of terrestrial particulate organic carbon vs. carbon transport by coastal erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Semiletov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lena River integrates biogeochemical signals from its vast drainage basin, and the integrated signal reaches far out over the Arctic Ocean. Transformation of riverine organic carbon (OC into mineral carbon, and mineral carbon into the organic form in the Lena River watershed, can be considered to be quasi-steady-state processes. An increase in Lena discharge exerts opposite effects on total organic (TOC and total inorganic (TCO2 carbon: TOC concentration increases, while TCO2 concentration decreases. Significant inter-annual variability in mean values of TCO2, TOC, and their sum (total carbon, TC has been found. This variability is determined by changes in land hydrology which cause differences in the Lena River discharge. There is a negative correlation in the Lena River between TC in September and its mean discharge in August; a time shift of about one month is required for water to travel from Yakutsk to the Laptev Sea. Total carbon entering the sea with the Lena discharge is estimated to be almost 10 Tg C yr−1. The annual Lena River discharge of particulate organic carbon (POC can be as high as 0.38 Tg (moderate to high estimate. If we instead accept Lisytsin's (1994 statement that 85–95 % of total particulate matter (PM (and POC precipitates on the marginal "filter", then only about 0.03–0.04 Tg of Lena River POC reaches the Laptev Sea. The Lena's POC export would then be two orders of magnitude less than the annual input of eroded terrestrial carbon onto the shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas, which is estimated to be about 4 Tg. Observations support the hypothesis of a dominant role for coastal erosion (Semiletov, 1999a, b in East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS sedimentation and the dynamics of the carbon/carbonate system. The Lena River is characterized by relatively high concentrations of the primary greenhouse gases, dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH

  11. Pipe dream? Envisioning a grassroots Python ecosystem of open, common software tools and data access in support of river and coastal biogeochemical research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, E.

    2013-12-01

    Practical, problem oriented software developed by scientists and graduate students in domains lacking a strong software development tradition is often balkanized into the scripting environments provided by dominant, typically proprietary tools. In environmental fields, these tools include ArcGIS, Matlab, SAS, Excel and others, and are often constrained to specific operating systems. While this situation is the outcome of rational choices, it limits the dissemination of useful tools and their integration into loosely coupled frameworks that can meet wider needs and be developed organically by groups addressing their own needs. Open-source dynamic languages offer the advantages of an accessible programming syntax, a wealth of pre-existing libraries, multi-platform access, linkage to community libraries developed in lower level languages such as C or FORTRAN, and access to web service infrastructure. Python in particular has seen a large and increasing uptake in scientific communities, as evidenced by the continued growth of the annual SciPy conference. Ecosystems with distinctive physical structures and organization, and mechanistic processes that are well characterized, are both factors that have often led to the grass-roots development of useful code meeting the needs of a range of communities. In aquatic applications, examples include river and watershed analysis tools (River Tools, Taudem, etc), and geochemical modules such as CO2SYS, PHREEQ and LOADEST. I will review the state of affairs and explore the potential offered by a Python tool ecosystem in supporting aquatic biogeochemistry and water quality research. This potential is multi-faceted and broadly involves accessibility to lone grad students, access to a wide community of programmers and problem solvers via online resources such as StackExchange, and opportunities to leverage broader cyberinfrastructure efforts and tools, including those from widely different domains. Collaborative development of such

  12. Behaviour of radiocaesium in coastal rivers of the Fukushima Prefecture (Japan) during conditions of low flow and low turbidity – Insight on the possible role of small particles and detrital organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi; De Vismes, Anne; Cagnat, Xavier; Boulet, Béatrice; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate riverine transfers from contaminated soils of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan to the marine environment, suspended sediments, filtered water, sediments and detrital organic macro debris deposited onto river beds were collected in November 2013 within small coastal rivers during conditions of low flow rates and low turbidity. River waters were directly filtered on the field and high efficiency well-type Ge detectors were used to analyse radiocaesium concentrations in very small quantities of suspended particles and filtered water (a few mg to a few g). For such base-flow conditions, our results show that the watersheds studied present similar hydro-sedimentary behaviours at their outlets and that the exports of dissolved and particulate radiocaesium are comparable. Moreover, the contribution of these rivers to the instantaneous export of radiocaesium to the ocean is similar to that of the Abukuma River. Our preliminary results indicate that, in the estuaries, radiocaesium concentrations in suspended sediments would be reduced by more than 80%, while radiocaesium concentration in filtered waters would be maintained. Significant correlations between radiocaesium concentrations and radiocaesium inventories in the soils of the catchments indicate that there was at that time little intra and inter-watershed variability in the transfer processes of radiocaesium from lands to rivers at this regional scale. The apparent liquid–solid partition coefficient (K_D) values acquired for the lowest loads/finest particles complement the values acquired by using sediment traps and highlight the strong capacity of the smallest particles to transfer radiocaesium. Finally, but not least, our observations suggest that there could be a significant transfer of highly contaminated detrital biomass from forest litter to the downstream rivers in a rather conservative way. - Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations were assessed by using high performance well-type Ge

  13. Spatial variability of coastal wetland resilience to sea-level rise using Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, T.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal wetlands in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) account for 40% of coastal wetland area in the United States and provide various ecosystem services to the region and broader areas. Increasing rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR), and reduced sediment input have increased coastal wetland loss in the NGOM, accounting for 80% of coastal wetland loss in the nation. Traditional models for predicting the impact of RSLR on coastal wetlands in the NGOM have focused on coastal erosion driven by geophysical variables only, and/or at small spatial extents. Here we developed a model in Bayesian inference to make probabilistic prediction of wetland loss in the entire NGOM as a function of vegetation productivity and geophysical attributes. We also studied how restoration efforts help maintain the area of coastal wetlands. Vegetation productivity contributes organic matter to wetland sedimentation and was approximated using the remotely sensed normalized difference moisture index (NDMI). The geophysical variables include RSLR, tidal range, river discharge, coastal slope, and wave height. We found a significantly positive relation between wetland loss and RSLR, which varied significantly at different river discharge regimes. There also existed a significantly negative relation between wetland loss and NDMI, indicating that in-situ vegetation productivity contributed to wetland resilience to RSLR. This relation did not vary significantly between river discharge regimes. The spatial relation revealed three areas of high RSLR but relatively low wetland loss; these areas were associated with wetland restoration projects in coastal Louisiana. Two projects were breakwater projects, where hard materials were placed off-shore to reduce wave action and promote sedimentation. And one project was a vegetation planting project used to promote sedimentation and wetland stabilization. We further developed an interactive web tool that allows stakeholders to develop similar wetland

  14. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A

    2017-11-03

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemistry and behaviour of B, Ca and Mg in interstitial waters of sediments from the coastal and estuarine regions of Mandovi river along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; SenGupta, R.

    Interstitial waters of coastal and estuarine sediments show enrichment of B and Ca and a decrease in Mg. Increase in interstitial B in sediments is due to the downward diffusion from overlying water and release from solid phases by physicochemical...

  16. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, Merrimack River and Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts, June 2011 (NODC Accession 0103944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains both true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping...

  17. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  18. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  19. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  20. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  1. A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yeung, L.W.Y.; Yamashita, N.; Taniyasu, S.; Lam, P.K.S.; Sinha, R; Borole, D.V.; Kannan, K.

    and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L sup(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower...

  2. 33 CFR 165.T09-0166 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0166 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan.... waters of the Des Plaines River located between mile marker 286.0 (Brandon Road Lock and Dam) and mile...

  3. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Changing Course: navigating the future of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.

    2016-02-01

    Changing Course is a design competition to reimagine a more sustainable Lower Mississippi River Delta, bringing teams together from around the world to create innovative visions for one of America's greatest natural resources. Building off of Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan, and answering a key question from that plan, three winning teams (Baird & Associates, Moffatt & Nichol and Studio Misi-Ziibi) have generated designs for how the Mississippi River's water and sediment can be used to maximize rebuilding of delta wetlands while also continuing to meet the needs of navigation, flood protection, and coastal industries and communities. While each of the winning teams offered a different vision, all three identified the same key requirements as critical to sustaining the Mississippi River Delta today and into the future: Reconnecting the Mississippi River to its wetlands to help restore southeast Louisiana's first line of defense against powerful storms and rising sea levels. Planning for a more sustainable delta, including a gradual shift in population to create more protected and resilient communities. Protecting and maximizing the region's port and maritime activities, including a deeper more sustainable navigation channel upriver from Southwest Pass. Increasing economic opportunities in a future smaller delta through expanding shipping capacity, coastal restoration infrastructure, outdoor recreation and tourism and commercial fishing. This session will give a high level overview of the design competition process, results and common themes, similarities and differences in their designs, and how the ideas generated will inform coastal stakeholders and official government processes.

  5. Development of a coastal drought index using salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Darby, Lisa S.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of the uniqueness of coastal drought is the effects on the salinity dynamics of creeks, rivers, and estuaries. The location of the freshwater–saltwater interface along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socioeconomic dynamics of coastal communities. Salinity is a critical response variable that integrates hydrologic and coastal dynamics including sea level, tides, winds, precipitation, streamflow, and tropical storms. The position of the interface determines the composition of freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities as well as the freshwater availability for water intakes. Many definitions of drought have been proposed, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on the water supply. Indices have been developed incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. These water-availability drought indices were developed for upland areas and may not be ideal for characterizing coastal drought. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity for the development of a salinity-based coastal drought index. An approach similar to the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was modified and applied to salinity data obtained from sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Using the SPI approach, the index becomes a coastal salinity index (CSI) that characterizes coastal salinity conditions with respect to drought periods of higher-saline conditions and wet periods of higher-freshwater conditions. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that it provides additional coastal response information as compared to the SPI and the Palmer hydrologic drought index, and the CSI can be used for different estuary types and for comparison of conditions along coastlines.

  6. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, VA, 2002-2004 (NODC Accession 0090253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia in GIS...

  7. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  8. Coastal wetland adaptation to sea level rise: Quantifying potential for landward migration and coastal squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Sinéad M.; Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen

    2018-01-01

    Coastal wetland ecosystems are expected to migrate landwards in response to rising seas. However, due to differences in topography and coastal urbanization, estuaries vary in their ability to accommodate migration. Low‐lying urban areas can constrain migration and lead to wetland loss (i.e. coastal squeeze), especially where existing wetlands cannot keep pace with rising seas via vertical adjustments. In many estuaries, there is a pressing need to identify landward migration corridors and better quantify the potential for landward migration and coastal squeeze.We quantified and compared the area available for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands and the area where urban development is expected to prevent migration for 39 estuaries along the wetland‐rich USA Gulf of Mexico coast. We did so under three sea level rise scenarios (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m by 2100).Within the region, the potential for wetland migration is highest within certain estuaries in Louisiana and southern Florida (e.g. Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays, Mermentau River, Barataria Bay, and the North and South Ten Thousand Islands estuaries).The potential for coastal squeeze is highest in estuaries containing major metropolitan areas that extend into low‐lying lands. The Charlotte Harbor, Tampa Bay, and Crystal‐Pithlachascotee estuaries (Florida) have the highest amounts of urban land expected to constrain wetland migration. Urban barriers to migration are also high in the Galveston Bay (Texas) and Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays (Louisiana) estuaries.Synthesis and applications. Coastal wetlands provide many ecosystem services that benefit human health and well‐being, including shoreline protection and fish and wildlife habitat. As the rate of sea level rise accelerates in response to climate change, coastal wetland resources could be lost in areas that lack space for landward migration. Migration corridors are particularly important in highly urbanized estuaries where, due to low‐lying coastal

  9. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  10. Anticipated sediment delivery to the lower Elwha River during and following dam removal: Chapter 2 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the planned incremental removal of two large, century-old concrete dams between 2011 and 2014, the sediment-transport regime in the lower Elwha River of western Washington will initially spike above background levels and then return to pre-dam conditions some years after complete dam removal. Measurements indicate the upper reaches of the steep-gradient Elwha River, draining the northeast section of the Olympic Mountains, carries between an estimated 120,000 and 290,000 cubic meters of sediment annually. This large load has deposited an estimated 19 million cubic meters of sediment within the two reservoirs formed by the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams. It is anticipated that from 7 to 8 million cubic meters of this trapped sediment will mobilize and transport downstream during and after dam decommissioning, restoring the downstream sections of the sediment-starved river and nearshore marine environments. Downstream transport of sediment from the dam sites will have significant effects on channel morphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat during and after dam removal. Sediment concentrations are expected to be between 200 and 1,000 milligrams per liter during and just after dam removal and could rise to as much as 50,000 milligrams per liter during high flows. Downstream sedimentation in the river channel and flood plain will be potentially large, particularly in the lower Elwha River, an alluvial reach with a wide flood plain. Overall aggradation could be as much as one to several meters. Not all reservoir sediment, however, will be released to the river. Some material will remain on hill slopes and flood plains within the drained reservoirs in quantities that will depend on the hydrology, precipitation, and mechanics of the incising channel. Eventually, vegetation will stabilize this remaining reservoir sediment, and the overall sediment load in the restored river will return to pre-dam levels.

  11. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  12. Further investigations of plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed including the canal and ponds in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Groves, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a preliminary investigation of Pu in aquatic organisms of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio. Data are presented on the Pu content of aquatic biota from the canal and ponds located adjacent to the Mound Laboratory. These areas have elevated levels of 238 Pu in the water and sediments as the result of a past incident. Radiochemical analysis of biota sampled both upstream and downstream from the effluent pipe of Mound Laboratory showed that plants collected downstream of the laboratory concentrate more 238 Pu than the plants located upstream by two to three orders of magnitude. Activities of 238 Pu in background samples are unexpectedly high and may be attributed to contamination. Activities of fallout 239 , 240 Pu in the plants from upstream and downstream were approximately the same

  13. Aeromagnetic maps of the Colorado River region including the Kingman, Needles, Salton Sea, and El Centro 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangles, California, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, John; Grauch, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data for the Colorado river region have been compiled as part of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) Project. The data are presented here in a series of six compilations for the Kingman, Needles, Salton Sea, and El Centro 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangles, California, Arizona, and Nevada, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:750,000. The scales and map areas are identical to those used by Mariano and others (1986) to display the Bouguer and isotatic residual gravity for this region. Data were compiled separately for the Kingman quadrangle, the Needles quadrangle, and an area covering the Salton Sea quadrangle and part of the El Centro quadrangle.

  14. Ecology of tidal freshwater forests in coastal deltaic Louisiana and northeastern South Carolina: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Doyle, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Tidal freshwater swamps in the southeastern United States are subjected to tidal hydroperiods ranging in amplitude from microtidal (forests, scrub-shrub stands, marsh, or open water but are less likely to convert mesotidal swamps. Changes to hydrological patterns tend to be more noticeable in Louisiana than do those in South Carolina.The majority of Louisiana’s coastal wetland forests are found in the Mississippi River deltaic plain region. Coastal wetland forests in the deltaic plain have been shaped by the sediments, water, and energy of the Mississippi River and its major distributaries. Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) are the primary tree species in the coastal swamp forests of Louisiana. Sites where these species grow usually hold water for most of the year; however, some of the more seaward sites were historically microtidal, especially where baldcypress currently dominates. In many other locations, baldcypress and water tupelo typically grow in more or less pure stands or as mixtures of the two with common associates such as black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), water locust (Gleditsia aquatic Marsh.), overcup oak (Quercus lyrata Walt.), water hickory (Carya aquatica [Michx. f.] Nutt.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), pumpkin ash (F. profunda Bush.), and redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Sprengel) (Brown and Montz 1986).The South Carolina coastal plain occupies about two-thirds of the state and rises gently to 150 m from the Atlantic Ocean up to the Piedmont plateau. Many rivers can be found in the Coastal Plain with swamps near the coast that extend inland along the rivers. Strongly tidal freshwater forests occur along the lower reaches of redwater rivers (Santee, Great Pee Dee, and Savannah) that arise in the mountains and along the numerous blackwater rivers (Ashepoo, Combahee, Cooper, and Waccamaw) that arise in the coastal regions. Most of the tidal freshwater forests

  15. Impacts of the dam-orientated water-sediment regulation scheme on the lower reaches and delta of the Yellow River (Huanghe): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houjie; Wu, Xiao; Bi, Naishuang; Li, Song; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Aimei; Syvitski, James P. M.; Saito, Yoshiki; Yang, Zuosheng; Liu, Sumei; Nittrouer, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    The water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS), beginning in 2002, is an unprecedented engineering effort to manage the Yellow River with the aims to mitigate the siltation both in the lower river channel and within the Xiaolangdi Reservoir utilizing the dam-regulated flood water. Ten years after its initial implementation, multi-disciplinary indicators allow us to offer a comprehensive review of this human intervention on a river-coastal system. The WSRS generally achieved its objective, including bed erosion in the lower reaches with increasing capacity for flood discharge and the mitigation of reservoir siltation. However, the WSRS presented unexpected disturbances on the delta and coastal system. Increasing grain size of suspended sediment and decreasing suspended sediment concentration at the river mouth resulted in a regime shift of sediment transport patterns that enhanced the disequilibrium of the delta. The WSRS induced an impulse delivery of nutrients and pollutants within a short period ( 20 days), which together with the altered hydrological cycle, impacted the estuarine and coastal ecosystem. We expect that the sediment yield from the loess region in the future will decrease due to soil-conservation practices, and the lower channel erosion will also decrease as the riverbed armors with coarser sediment. These, in combination with uncertain water discharge concomitant with climate change, increasing water demands and delta subsidence, will put the delta and coastal ocean at high environmental risks. In the context of global change, this work depicts a scenario of human impacts in the river basin that were transferred along the hydrological pathway to the coastal system and remotely transformed the different components of coastal environment. The synthesis review of the WSRS indicates that an integrated management of the river-coast continuum is crucially important for the sustainability of the entire river-delta system. The lessons learned from the WSRS in

  16. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fortunato

    Full Text Available Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33, the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1 the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2 metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in

  17. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  18. Types and Functions of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection...

  19. Modeling Compound Flood Hazards in Coastal Embayments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhari, H.; Schubert, J. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Luke, A.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal cities around the world are built on lowland topography adjacent to coastal embayments and river estuaries, where multiple factors threaten increasing flood hazards (e.g. sea level rise and river flooding). Quantitative risk assessment is required for administration of flood insurance programs and the design of cost-effective flood risk reduction measures. This demands a characterization of extreme water levels such as 100 and 500 year return period events. Furthermore, hydrodynamic flood models are routinely used to characterize localized flood level intensities (i.e., local depth and velocity) based on boundary forcing sampled from extreme value distributions. For example, extreme flood discharges in the U.S. are estimated from measured flood peaks using the Log-Pearson Type III distribution. However, configuring hydrodynamic models for coastal embayments is challenging because of compound extreme flood events: events caused by a combination of extreme sea levels, extreme river discharges, and possibly other factors such as extreme waves and precipitation causing pluvial flooding in urban developments. Here, we present an approach for flood risk assessment that coordinates multivariate extreme analysis with hydrodynamic modeling of coastal embayments. First, we evaluate the significance of correlation structure between terrestrial freshwater inflow and oceanic variables; second, this correlation structure is described using copula functions in unit joint probability domain; and third, we choose a series of compound design scenarios for hydrodynamic modeling based on their occurrence likelihood. The design scenarios include the most likely compound event (with the highest joint probability density), preferred marginal scenario and reproduced time series of ensembles based on Monte Carlo sampling of bivariate hazard domain. The comparison between resulting extreme water dynamics under the compound hazard scenarios explained above provides an insight to the

  20. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  1. Banks and Financial Services, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Banks and Financial Services dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was...

  2. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St. , Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  3. Hospitals, The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009 with the intent to map critical infrastructure in the Coastal Zone. The initial four parishes included Lafourche, Plaquemine, St., Published in 2011, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, LSU Louisiana Geographic Information Center (LAGIC).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Hospitals dataset current as of 2011. The featured data collection is the USGS-LAGIC Coastal Parishes Structures Project. This ongoing project was started in 2009...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of organs within the coelomic cavity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta), Coastal plain cooters (Pseudemys concinna floridana), and hieroglyphic river cooters (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Karina A; Schnack, Marcus; Rohn, Karl; Fehr, Michael

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]). PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension. RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

  5. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  6. 77 FR 17037 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic... impact statement (EIS) for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA)--Louisiana, Mississippi River Hydrodynamic... tiered off of the November 2004, programmatic EIS for the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA), Louisiana...

  7. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  8. Hydrochemistry, water quality and land use signatures in an ephemeral tidal river: implications in water management in the southwestern coastal region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Islam, Md. Safiqul; Ahmed, Kousik; Rahman, Masudur; Datta, Dilip Kumar; Khan, M. Shah Alam

    2018-05-01

    Despite its complexity and importance in managing water resources in populous deltas, especially in tidal areas, literatures on tidal rivers and their land use linkage in connection to water quality and pollution are rare. Such information is of prior need for Integrated Water Resource Management in water scarce and climate change vulnerable regions, such as the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Using water quality indices and multivariate analysis, we present here the land use signatures of a dying tidal river due to anthropogenic perturbation. Correlation matrix, hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis, and bio-geo-chemical fingerprints were used to quantify the hydro-chemical and anthropogenic processes and identify factors influencing the ionic concentrations. The results show remarkable spatial and temporal variations ( p quality parameters. The lowest solute concentrations are observed at the mid reach of the stream where the agricultural and urban wastewater mix. Agricultural sites show higher concentration of DO, Na+ and K+ reflecting the effects of tidal spill-over and shrimp wastewater effluents nearby. Higher level of Salinity, EC, Cl-, HCO3 -, NO3 -, PO4 3- and TSS characterize the urban sites indicating a signature of land use dominated by direct discharge of household organic waste into the waters. The spatial variation in overall water quality suggests a periodic enhancement of quality especially for irrigation and non-drinking purposes during monsoon and post-monsoon, indicating significant influence of amount of rainfall in the basin. We recommend that, given the recent trend of increasing precipitation and ground water table decrease, such dying tidal river basins may serve as excellent surface water reservoir to supplement quality water supply to the region.

  9. Understanding and Projecting Climate and Human Impacts on Terrestrial-Coastal Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W. J.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Fennel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. Here, we describe a NASA Carbon Monitoring System project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The nature of our approach, coupling models of terrestrial and ocean ecosystem dynamics and associated carbon processes, allows for assessment of how societal and human-related land use, land use change and forestry and climate-related change affect terrestrial carbon transport as well as export of materials through watersheds to the coastal margins. Our objectives include the following: 1) Provide representation of carbon processes in the terrestrial ecosystem to understand how changes in land use and climatic conditions influence the export of materials to the coastal ocean, 2) Couple the terrestrial exports of carbon, nutrients and freshwater to a coastal biogeochemical model and examine how different climate and land use scenarios influence fluxes across the land-ocean interface, and 3) Project future changes under different scenarios of climate and human impact, and support user needs related to carbon management and other activities (e.g., water quality, hypoxia, ocean acidification). This research is providing information that will contribute to determining an overall carbon balance in North America as well as describing and predicting how human- and climate-related changes impact coastal water quality including possible effects of coastal

  10. Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989 : with Listings of Historical Streamflow, Summation of Storage Change and Adjusted Streamflow : Columbia River and Coastal Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The development of irrigation projects since the 1830's and the construction of major dams and reservoirs since the early 1900's have altered substantially the natural streamflow regimen of the Columbia River and its tributaries. As development expanded a multipurpose approach to streamflow regulation evolved to provide flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, navigation, recreation, water quality enhancement, fish and wildlife, and instream flow maintenance. The responsible agencies use computer programs to determine the effects of various alternative system regulations. This report describes the development of the streamflow data that these computer programs use.

  11. 2005-2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Polk County (Including Hampton, Judy, Lake Wales, Peace River (North), and Polk District Remainder Tracts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the SWFWMD Polk District. This record includes information about the LiDAR data for the following...

  12. Oil coastal tanker maintenance and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsztejn, Eduardo; Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [Government' s Oil Company of Uruguay (ANCAP), Montivideo (Uruguay)

    2008-07-01

    ANCAP (Government's Oil Company of Uruguay) owns a 4000 DWT oil coastal tanker which is mainly used for oil transport in the River Plate, Uruguay and Parana rivers. Availability of the ship is critical because of shortage of available vessels in the region. Full maximum draught of the vessel is 4m , so it can navigate in very shallow waters as it is the case of some places in the Uruguay and Parana rivers. Although the ship was built in 1979, it is a complete double hull, powered by two twin main engines and propellers. Since 1994, several changes in maintenance management have been introduced, in order to increase the availability, thus increasing the total oil volume yearly transported. These changes affected several maintenance items and they also included a modification in the design of part of the cargo tank floors of the ship. As a result of these changes, an increase of 60% of the oil derivatives volume transported yearly was achieved. In this paper, some of the important improvements on maintenance practises and management are described, together with a quantification of their influence on vessel's availability and overall maintenance costs. (author)

  13. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate and CDOM in the Mississippi River Bight (MRB) from Optical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, Eurico; Miller, Richard; DelCastillo, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    NASA's projects for the Mississippi River Coastal Margin Study include Mississippi River Interdisciplinary Research (MiRIR) and NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). These projects, undertaken with the help of Tulane University and the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium (LUMCON) sampled water in the Gulf of Mexico to measure colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). This viewgraph presentation contains images of each program's sampling strategy and equipment.

  14. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...

  15. The fate of river organic carbon in coastal areas: A study in the Rhône River delta using multiple isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C) and organic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathalot, C.; Rabouille, C.; Tisnérat-Laborde, N.; Toussaint, F.; Kerhervé, P.; Buscail, R.; Loftis, K.; Sun, M.-Y.; Tronczynski, J.; Azoury, S.; Lansard, B.; Treignier, C.; Pastor, L.; Tesi, T.

    2013-10-01

    A significant fraction of the global carbon flux to the ocean occurs in River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar) although large uncertainties remain in the cycle of organic matter (OM) in these systems. In particular, the OM sources and residence time have not been well clarified. Surface (0-1 cm) and sub-surface (3-4 cm) sediments and water column particles (bottom and intermediate depth) from the Rhône River delta system were collected in June 2005 and in April 2007 for a multi-proxy study. Lignin phenols, black carbon (BC), proto-kerogen/BC mixture, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon stable isotope (δ13COC), and radiocarbon measurements (Δ14COC) were carried out to characterize the source of sedimentary organic material and to address degradation and transport processes. The bulk OM in the prodelta sediment appears to have a predominantly modern terrigenous origin with a significant contribution of modern vascular C3 plant detritus (Δ14COC = 27.9‰, δ13COC = -27.4‰). In contrast, the adjacent continental shelf, below the river plume, seems to be dominated by aged OM (Δ14COC = -400‰, δ13COC = -24.2‰), and shows no evidence of dilution and/or replacement by freshly produced marine carbon. Our data suggest an important contribution of black carbon (50% of OC) in the continental shelf sediments. Selective degradation processes occur along the main dispersal sediment system, promoting the loss of a modern terrestrial OM but also proto-kerogen-like OM. In addition, we hypothesize that during the transport across the shelf, a long term resuspension/deposition loop induces efficient long term degradation processes able to rework such refractory-like material until the OC is protected by the mineral matrix of particles.

  16. Riverine input of organic carbon and nitrogen in water-sediment system from the Yellow River estuary reach to the coastal zone of Bohai Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei

    2018-04-01

    The temporal-spatial distribution of the carbon and nitrogen contents and their isotopic compositions of suspended matter and sediments from the Yellow River estuary reach (YRER), the estuary to the offshore area were measured to identify the source of organic matter. The higher relative abundances of suspended and sedimentary carbon and nitrogen (POC, TOC, PN and TN) in the offshore marine area compared to those of the riverine and estuarine areas may be due to the cumulative and biological activity impact. The organic matter in surface sediments of YRER, the estuary and offshore area of Bohai Sea is basically the mixture of continental derived material and marine material. The values of δ13Csed fluctuate from values indicative of a land source (- 22.50‰ ± 0.31) to those indicative of a sea source (- 22.80‰ ± 0.38), which can be attributed to the fine particle size and decrease in terrigenous inputs to the offshore marine area. Contrary to the slight increase of POC and PN during the dry season, TOC and TN contents of the surface sediments during the flood season (October) were higher than those during the dry season (April). The seasonal differences in water discharge and suspended sediment discharge of the Yellow River Estuary may result in seasonal variability in TOC, POC, TN and PN concentrations in some degree. Overall, the surface sediments in the offshore area of Bohai Sea are dominated by marine derived organic carbon, which on average, accounts for 58-82% of TOC when a two end-member mixing model is applied to the isotopic data.

  17. Global Bedload Flux Modeling and Analysis in Large Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. T.; Cohen, S.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Proper sediment transport quantification has long been an area of interest for both scientists and engineers in the fields of geomorphology, and management of rivers and coastal waters. Bedload flux is important for monitoring water quality and for sustainable development of coastal and marine bioservices. Bedload measurements, especially for large rivers, is extremely scarce across time, and many rivers have never been monitored. Bedload measurements in rivers, is particularly acute in developing countries where changes in sediment yields is high. The paucity of bedload measurements is the result of 1) the nature of the problem (large spatial and temporal uncertainties), and 2) field costs including the time-consuming nature of the measurement procedures (repeated bedform migration tracking, bedload samplers). Here we present a first of its kind methodology for calculating bedload in large global rivers (basins are >1,000 km. Evaluation of model skill is based on 113 bedload measurements. The model predictions are compared with an empirical model developed from the observational dataset in an attempt to evaluate the differences between a physically-based numerical model and a lumped relationship between bedload flux and fluvial and basin parameters (e.g., discharge, drainage area, lithology). The initial study success opens up various applications to global fluvial geomorphology (e.g. including the relationship between suspended sediment (wash load) and bedload). Simulated results with known uncertainties offers a new research product as a valuable resource for the whole scientific community.

  18. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  19. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  20. New York 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Niagara River and Lake Erie and Lake Ontario...

  1. Bromide in some coastal and oceanic waters of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, F.P.; Dalal, V.N.K.

    Bromide concentration and bromide/chlorinity ratio are estimated in coastal waters of Goa, Minicoy Lagoon, Western Arabian Sea and Western Bay of Bengal. The influence of precipitation and river runoff on bromide and bromide/chlorinity ratio...

  2. Nevada 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along Truckee River in NV in 2008. The data types...

  3. Characterisation of the Ionian-Lucanian coastal plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Limoni, P.P.; Mitolo, D.; Santaloia, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a Southern Italy area, 40 km by 10 km wide, located where four river valleys anastomose themselves in the coastal plain. The geological and hydrogeological features of the study area and the chemical-physical groundwater characterisation have been inferred from the data analysis of 1130 boreholes. Some aquifers, connected among them, constituted by soils of different geological origin -marine terraces deposits, river valley alluvial deposits and alluvial and coastal depo...

  4. Coastal change and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR has identified the input of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB as the prime cause of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the prime means for its control. A Watershed Nutrient Task Force was formed to solve the hypoxia problem by managing the MARB catchment. However, the hypoxic zone is also experiencing massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological changes associated with an immense river-switching and delta-building event that occurs here about once a millennium. Coastal change induced hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to European settlement. It is recommended that for further understanding and control of Gulf hypoxia the Watershed Nutrient Task Force adopt a truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area.

  5. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  6. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  7. Threshold of long-term survival of a coastal delphinid in anthropogenically degraded environment: Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins in Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarski, Leszek; Huang, Shiang-Lin; Chan, Stephen C Y

    2017-02-23

    Defining demographic and ecological threshold of population persistence can assist in informing conservation management. We undertook such analyses for the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, southeast China. We use adult survival estimates for assessments of population status and annual rate of change. Our estimates indicate that, given a stationary population structure and minimal risk scenario, ~2000 individuals (minimum viable population in carrying capacity, MVP k ) can maintain the population persistence across 40 generations. However, under the current population trend (~2.5% decline/annum), the population is fast approaching its viability threshold and may soon face effects of demographic stochasticity. The population demographic trajectory and the minimum area of critical habitat (MACH) that could prevent stochastic extinction are both highly sensitive to fluctuations in adult survival. For a hypothetical stationary population, MACH should approximate 3000-km 2 . However, this estimate increases four-fold with a 5% increase of adult mortality and exceeds the size of PRD when calculated for the current population status. On the other hand, cumulatively all current MPAs within PRD fail to secure the minimum habitat requirement to accommodate sufficiently viable population size. Our findings indicate that the PRD population is deemed to become extinct unless effective conservation measures can rapidly reverse the current population trend.

  8. Sea surface temperature trends in the coastal ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Amos, C.L.; Al-Rashidi, Thamer B.; Rakha, Karim; El-Gamily, Hamdy; Nicholls, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the coastal zone are shown to be increasing at rates that exceed the global trends by up to an order of magnitude. This paper compiles some of the evidence of the trends published in the literature. The evidence suggests that urbanization in the coastal hinterland is having a direct effect on SST through increased temperatures of river and lake waters, as well as through heated run-off and thermal effluent discharges from coastal infrastructure. These l...

  9. The European water framework directive: A challenge for nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Ángel

    2005-09-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of the water resources management in Europe because, for the first time, water management is: (i) based mainly upon biological and ecological elements, with ecosystems being at the centre of the management decisions; (ii) applied to European water bodies, as a whole; and (iii) based upon the whole river basin, including also the adjacent coastal area. Although the marine water bodies affected by the WFD relate to only 19.8% of the whole of the European continental shelf, its application constitutes a challenge and an opportunity in nearshore, coastal and continental shelf research. This contribution highlights some of the main tasks and the research to be undertaken in the coming years, proposing investigations into: typologies; physico-chemical processes; indicator species; reference conditions; integration of the quality assessment; methodologies in determining ecological status, etc.

  10. River Export of Plastic from Land to Sea: A Global Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Max; Gabbert, Silke; Koelmans, Albert A.; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje; Verburg, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Plastic is increasingly considered a serious cause of water pollution. It is a threat to aquatic ecosystems, including rivers, coastal waters and oceans. Rivers transport considerable amounts of plastic from land to sea. The quantity and its main sources, however, are not well known. Assessing the amount of macro- and microplastic transport from river to sea is, therefore, important for understanding the dimension and the patterns of plastic pollution of aquatic ecosystems. In addition, it is crucial for assessing short- and long-term impacts caused by plastic pollution. Here we present a global modelling approach to quantify river export of plastic from land to sea. Our approach accounts for different types of plastic, including both macro- and micro-plastics. Moreover, we distinguish point sources and diffuse sources of plastic in rivers. Our modelling approach is inspired by global nutrient models, which include more than 6000 river basins. In this paper, we will present our modelling approach, as well as first model results for micro-plastic pollution in European rivers. Important sources of micro-plastics include personal care products, laundry, household dust and car tyre wear. We combine information on these sources with information on sewage management, and plastic retention during river transport for the largest European rivers. Our modelling approach may help to better understand and prevent water pollution by plastic , and at the same time serves as 'proof of concept' for future application on global scale.

  11. Pwani Yetu: Issue 4. April 1999.Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership

    1999-01-01

    The Newsletter of the Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership - Pwani Yetu - 'our coast', is produced every other month in both Kiswahili and English and circulated to all coastal management partners from national level, coastal communities and the private sector. Pwani Yetu reports on coastal and marine activities, including issues on conservation, environment, and social economic development. 'Research Group' TCMP.

  12. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  13. Influences of riverine and upwelling waters on the coastal carbonate system off Central Chile and their ocean acidification implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Contreras, Paulina Y.; Pérez, Claudia A.; Sobarzo, Marcus; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Salisbury, Joe

    2016-06-01

    A combined data set, combining data from field campaigns and oceanographic cruises, was used to ascertain the influence of both river discharges and upwelling processes, covering spatial and temporal variation in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and aragonite saturation state. This work was conducted in one of the most productive river-influenced upwelling areas in the South Pacific coasts (36°S). Additionally, further work was also conducted to ascertain the contribution of different DIC sources, influencing the dynamics of DIC along the land-ocean range. Six sampling campaigns were conducted across seven stations at the Biobío River basin, covering approximately 200 km. Three research cruises were undertaken simultaneously, covering the adjacent continental shelf, including 12 sampling stations for hydrographic measurements. Additionally, six stations were also sampled for chemical analyses, covering summer, winter, and spring conditions over 2010 and 2011. Our results evidenced that seaward extent of the river plume was more evident during the winter field campaign, when highest riverine DIC fluxes were observed. The carbonate system along the river-ocean continuum was very heterogeneous varying over spatial and temporal scales. High DIC and pCO2 were observed in river areas with larger anthropogenic effects. CO2 supersaturation at the river plume was observed during all campaigns due to the influence of low pH river waters in winter/spring and high-pCO2 upwelling waters in summer. δ13CDIC evidenced that main DIC sources along the river and river plume corresponded to the respiration of terrestrial organic matter. We have linked this natural process to the carbonate saturation on the adjacent river-influenced coastal area, suggesting that Ωaragonite undersaturation in surface/subsurface waters is largely modulated by the influence of both river discharge and coastal upwelling events in this productive coastal area. Conditions of low Ωaragonite might impact

  14. Coastal and estuarine resources of Bangladesh: management and conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hena M. Kamal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The coastal area of Bangladesh includes a number of bays into which different types of rivers empty, creating an estuarine ecosystem adjacent to the shore. The main estuarine systems are Brahmaputra-Megna (Gangetic delta, Karnaphuly, Matamuhuri, Bakkhali and Naf rivers, which are comprised of mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass, seaweeds, fisheries, coastal birds, animals, coral reefs, deltas, salt beds, minerals and sand dunes. The estuarine environment, which serves as feeding, breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of animals, varies according to the volume of discharge of the river and tidal range. It is highly productive in terms of nutrient input from different sources that promotes other living resources in the estuaries. Drought conditions exist during the winter months, i.e. November to February, and effective rainfall is confined to the monsoon period, i.e. May to June. Changes in salinity and turbidity depend on annual rainfall. The colour of most estuarine waters is tea brown or brown due to heavy outflows during the monsoon. The tidal mixing and riverine discharge governs the distribution of the hydrological parameters. The pH of these waters is reported to be slightly alkaline (>7.66 and dissolved oxygen (<6.0 mg/l shows an inverse relationship to temperature. Studies of plankton have indicated two periods of maximum abundance, i.e. February-March and August-September. The abundance of fish and shrimp larvae varies in number and composition with season. Many marine and freshwater species are available in various types of coastal brackish water, which depend on monsoonal activities and local environmental conditions.

  15. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  16. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  17. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

  18. Typology of Slum Management in Coastal Settlement as a Reference of Neighborhood Planning in Konawe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi; Bachrun, Ratna; Ornam, Kurniati

    2017-05-01

    Handling slum area actually needs to be done not only in slum areas that are part of a metropolitan city or a large town, but it also need to be conducted in the slum areas in the middle city, small town, and coastal areas. A slum generally includes physical condition, socio-economic conditions of cultural communities who live in the settlements, and the impact of both of these conditions. Environmental coastal settlements in Konawe located in the riverside that lead to loss of quality due to environmental stress of the condition of settlement that are not habitable, can be seen from the problems that exist, namely the existence of housing that goes into river body which causes malfunction of watershed river (DAS), and that is prone to flooding. The purpose of this study is to identify slums in coastal settlements in an effort to improve the quality of structured settlements to obtain a picture of the slum in Konawe, to know the problems regarding the existence of slums and future recommendation of the slum settlement in Konawe. Normative analysis was carried out in this research together with quantitative and qualitative description, as well as methods of spatial analysis (spatial). Identification of slum areas was analyzed based on indicators and parameters issued by the Directorate General of Human Settlements. Problems in some districts in Konawe located in the coastal rivers and coastal areas, consist of drainage, disposal of waste water, waste, and the settlement which is not in accordance with the Spatial Konawe. Among those, there are settlements categorized as slums and some are recommended for refurbishment.

  19. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on biogenic elements in a subtropical coastal mangrove wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Tian, Yuan; Yu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The invasion by exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) has become one of the most serious and challenging environmental and ecological problems in coastal China because it can have adverse effects on local native species, thereby changing ecosystem processes, functions, and services. In this study, 300 surface sediments were collected from 15 stations in the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China, across four different seasons, in order to reveal the spatiotemporal variability of biogenic elements and their influencing factors in the subtropical coastal mangrove wetland. The biogenic elements including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (C, N, and S) were determined by an element analyzer, while the phosphorus (P) was determined by a flow injection analyzer. The concentrations of biogenic elements showed no significant differences among four seasons except total phosphorus (TP); however, our ANOVA analyses revealed a distinct spatial pattern which was closely related with the vegetation type and tidal level. Values of total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the surface sediment of mangrove vegetation zones were higher than those in the cordgrass and mudflat zones. The concentrations of TC, TN, TP, and total sulfur (TS) in the high tidal zones were higher than those in the middle and low tidal zones. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that tidal level, vegetation type, and season had some significant influence on the distribution of biogenic elements in the Jiulong River Estuary, by explaining 18.2, 7.7, and 4.9 % of total variation in the four biogenic elements, respectively. In conclusion, S. alterniflora invasion had substantial effects on the distributions of biogenic elements in the subtropical coastal wetland. If regional changes in the Jiulong River Estuary are to persist and much of the mangrove vegetation was to be replaced by cordgrass, there would be significant decreases on the overall storage of C and N in this coastal zone. Therefore, the native

  20. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  1. Quantity, distribution, and impacts of coastal driftwood triggered by a typhoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Chuang, Hui-Chieh; Shieh, Chjeng-Lun; Hu, Jian-Hwa

    2011-07-01

    Typhoon Morakot pounded Taiwan in 2009 with record-breaking rainfall, washing an unprecedented amount of driftwood into the sea that was partially deposited at the coastal areas. According to the satellite imagery analysis, more than three million trees fell and were washed away to occupy 83.2% of the Taiwanese coastline, including 52 fishing harbors. The amount cleaned-up was only 1/7 of the total coastal driftwood. It was found that the amount of coastal driftwood is not only related to the amount of precipitation but is also related to the distance from the location of the landslide to the river mouth and to the landslide area. The amount of accumulated coastal driftwood demonstrated log-profile declines with increasing distance to the river mouth. Nearshore current and wave motion are the critical factors for driftwood deposition. Much of the driftwood washed into the sea harmed the tourism and fishing industries, endangered navigation and oceanic activities, and impacted the marine environment and ecosystem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Centennial-scale human alterations, unintended natural-system responses, and event-driven mitigation within a coupled fluvial-coastal system: Lessons for collective management and long-term coastal change planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, C. J.; Hoagland, P.; Huang, J. C.; Canuel, E. A.; Fitzsimons, G.; Rosen, P.; Shi, W.; Fallon, A. R.; Shawler, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    On decadal to millennial timescales, human modifications of linked riparian and coastal landscapes have altered the natural transport of sediments to the coast, causing time-varying sediment fluxes to estuaries, wetlands, and beaches. This study explored the role of historical changes in land use and river/coastal engineering on patterns of coastal erosion in the coupled system comprising the Merrimack River and the Plum Island barrier beach (northern Massachusetts, USA). Recreational values of the beach, attendant impacts on the local housing market, human perceptions of future beach utilization, and collective management options were investigated. Key historical changes included the installation of dams to benefit industry and control flooding in the early 19th century; river-mouth jetties to maintain navigation and allow for the residential development of a more stable barrier in the early 20th century; and the progressive hardening of the shoreline in response to multi-decadal cyclical erosion and house losses throughout the latter 20th and 21st centuries. The tools of sedimentology, shoreline-change analysis, historic documentation, population surveys, and economic modeling were used to examine these changes and the dynamic linked responses of the natural system and human populations. We found cascading effects of human alterations to the river that changed sediment fluxes to the coastal zone, driving a need for mitigation over centennial timescales. More recently, multidecadal erosion-accretion cycles of the beach have had little impact on the housing market, which is instead more responsive to public shoreline stabilization efforts in response to short-term (sustainable management of coupled fluvial-coastal systems.

  3. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  4. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  5. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  6. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  7. Benthic Habitat Mapping - Indian River Lagoon, Florida Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) Data 1996 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Office for Coastal Management's Coastal Change Analysis Program, in cooperation with the St. Johns River and South Florida Water Management Districts, used...

  8. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  9. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) Export from Watersheds to Coastal Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Gardner, G. B.; Peri, F.

    2016-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial plants and soils is transported by surface waters and groundwaters to coastal ocean waters. Along the way, photochemical and biological degradation can remove DOM, and in situ processes such as phytoplankton leaching and sediment sources can add to the DOM in the river water. Wetlands, especially coastal wetlands can add significant amounts of DOM that is carried by rivers and is exported through estuaries to coastal systems. We will present observational data from a variety of coastal systems (San Francisco Bay, Boston Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Hudson River, the Mississippi River, and a small salt marsh in the Gulf of Mexico). High resolution measurements of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) so can be used to estimate DOC in specific systems and seasons. Gradients in CDOM/DOC combined with water fluxes can be used to estimate DOC fluxes from a variety of coastal watersheds to coastal systems. Influences of land use, system size, residence time, DOM quality, and photochemical and biological degradation will be discussed. The significance of coastal wetlands in the land-to-ocean export of DOC will be emphasized.

  10. Flowing with Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  11. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  12. An integrated framework to assess plausible future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.; Nicholls, R. J.; Hutton, C.; Adams, H.; Salehin, M.; Haque, A.; Clarke, D.; Bricheno, L.; Fernandes, J. A.; Rahman, M.; Ahmed, A.; Streatfield, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Deltas represent one of the most densely populated areas in the world. This is especially true for the coastal zone of Bangladesh where more than a thousand people live in each square kilometre of land. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in Bangladesh are strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential; thus severely affect land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish, rice), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on natural resource conservation and poverty levels. This presentation describes the model framework and aims to illustrate the cause-effect relationship in-between changes of the hydro-environment and the livelihoods and

  13. Bacterial Biogeography across the Amazon River-Ocean Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Doherty

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal patterns in microbial biodiversity across the Amazon river-ocean continuum were investigated along ∼675 km of the lower Amazon River mainstem, in the Tapajós River tributary, and in the plume and coastal ocean during low and high river discharge using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in whole water and size-fractionated samples (0.2–2.0 μm and >2.0 μm. River communities varied among tributaries, but mainstem communities were spatially homogeneous and tracked seasonal changes in river discharge and co-varying factors. Co-occurrence network analysis identified strongly interconnected river assemblages during high (May and low (December discharge periods, and weakly interconnected transitional assemblages in September, suggesting that this system supports two seasonal microbial communities linked to river discharge. In contrast, plume communities showed little seasonal differences and instead varied spatially tracking salinity. However, salinity explained only a small fraction of community variability, and plume communities in blooms of diatom-diazotroph assemblages were strikingly different than those in other high salinity plume samples. This suggests that while salinity physically structures plumes through buoyancy and mixing, the composition of plume-specific communities is controlled by other factors including nutrients, phytoplankton community composition, and dissolved organic matter chemistry. Co-occurrence networks identified interconnected assemblages associated with the highly productive low salinity near-shore region, diatom-diazotroph blooms, and the plume edge region, and weakly interconnected assemblages in high salinity regions. This suggests that the plume supports a transitional community influenced by immigration of ocean bacteria from the plume edge, and by species sorting as these communities adapt to local environmental conditions. Few studies have explored patterns of microbial diversity in

  14. Coastal erosion and accretion rates in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Papadopoulos, Costas; Koutsogiannaki, Irini; Synolakis, Costas

    2010-05-01

    Erosion threatens many coastal regions of Greece. Anthropogenic changes of landforms such as coastal roads built on even narrow beaches, sand mining for construction, poor design of coastal structures that interfere with sediment, and dams without sediment bypasses have significantly reduced beach widths. We present erosion rates for different beaches, some of which are in sensitive ecosystems, otherwise "protected" by local and EU ordinances. By comparing inferences of beach widths in varying intervals from 1933 to 2006, we infer that the construction of dams in Acheloos river in western Greece, built in a faraonic attempt to partially divert its flows to eastern Greece, this is responsible for up to 20m/year erosion rates observed in certain locales in the Acheloos delta. More characteristic erosion rates in the region are ~ 2m/year. By contrast, there appears rapid accretion of up to 4m/year in the beaches around the Nestos delta in northern Greece (Papadopoulos, 2009). In beaches that are not near large river deltas, erosion rates range from 0.5m/year to 1m/year. While we have not done comprehensive comparisons among coastlines with different levels of coastal development, it does appear that rapid coastal development correlates well with erosion rates. The underlying problem is the complete lack of any semblance of coastal zone management in Greece and substandard design of coastal structures, which are often sited without any measurements of waves and currents offshore (Synolakis et al, 2008). Beach maintenance remains an exotic concept for most local authorities, who invariably prefer to build hard coastal structures to "protect" versus nourish, siting lack of experience with nourishment and "environmental" concerns. In certain cases, choices are dictated by costs, the larger the cost the easier the project gets approved by regulatory authorities, hence the preference for concrete or rubble structures. We conclude that, unless urgent salvage measures are

  15. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles for Brunswick, Kings Bay and Fernandina Beach, and Savannah and the Savannah River, Georgia, 2009-2010 (NODC Accession 0092435)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains orthorectified true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) image mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping...

  16. Climate Change, Coastal Vulnerability and the Need for Adaptation Alternatives: Planning and Design Examples from Egypt and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeffress Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Planning and design of coastal protection for high-risk events with low to moderate or uncertain probabilities are a challenging balance of short- and long-term cost vs. protection of lives and infrastructure. The pervasive, complex, and accelerating impacts of climate change on coastal areas, including sea-level rise, storm surge and tidal flooding, require full integration of the latest science into strategic plans and engineering designs. While the impacts of changes occurring are global, local effects are highly variable and often greatly exacerbated by geophysical (land subsidence, faulting, oceanographic (ocean circulation, wind patterns and anthropogenic factors. Reducing carbon emissions is needed to mitigate global warming, but adaptation can accommodate at least near future change impacts. Adaptation should include alternatives that best match region-specific risk, time frame, environmental conditions, and the desired protection. Optimal alternatives are ones that provide protection, accommodate or mimic natural coastal processes, and include landforms such as barrier islands and wetlands. Plans are often for 50 years, but longer-term planning is recommended since risk from climate change will persist for centuries. This paper presents an assessment of impacts of accelerating climate change on the adequacy of coastal protection strategies and explores design measures needed for an optimum degree of protection and risk reduction. Three coastal areas facing similar challenges are discussed: Abu-Qir Bay, Nile River delta plain, Egypt; Lake Borgne, New Orleans, Louisiana delta plain; and the New York City region.

  17. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of multiple geochemical markers to investigate organic pollution in a dynamic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-02-01

    Multiple geochemical markers, including aliphatic hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were employed to relate sediment organic chemical pollution in the coastal zone off South China to socioeconomic development there. Concentrations of Σn-C(15-35) (n-alkanes with 15-35 carbon atoms), ΣLAB (sum of C(10) to C(13) LABs), and Σ(26) PAH (sum of 26 PAH compounds) ranged from 110 to 3,160, 11 to 160, and 26 to 600 ng/g, with medians of 730, 40, and 230 ng/g, respectively. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from terrestrial higher plant waxes, and in minor amounts from aquatic plankton and bacteria. Compositions of LABs indicated that considerable amounts of poorly treated wastewater had been directly discharged or transported to the eastern and western coastal areas of Guangdong Province. In addition, anthropogenic hydrocarbons were derived largely from vehicular emissions and combustion of domestic coal and biomass and to a lesser extent from oil spills. Eastern and western coastal sediments contained higher levels of LABs but lower levels of PAHs than those of the Pearl River Estuary, a coastal area of the Pearl River Delta. This spatial pattern of organic pollution was consistent with chemical use patterns. The eastern and western regions of Guangdong Province are economically less developed than the Pearl River Delta region, where more domestic wastewater treatment plants have been built. However, greater amounts of energy are consumed in the latter region to produce more combustion-derived PAH contamination. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  19. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  20. National Coastal Condition Report III Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  1. National Coastal Condition Report III (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  2. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  3. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  4. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS are being developed and used by technical specialists, stakeholder publics, and executive/policy decision makers for improving our understanding and management of coastal areas, separately and together as more organizations focus on improving the sustainability and resilience of coastal systems. Coastal systems—defined as the area of land closely connected to the sea, including barrier islands, wetlands, mudflats, beaches, estuaries, cities, towns, recreational areas, and maritime facilities, the continental seas and shelves, and the overlying atmosphere—are subject to complex and dynamic interactions among natural and human-driven processes. Coastal systems are crucial to regional and national economies, hosting valued human-built infrastructure and providing ecosystem services that sustain human well-being. This special issue of IJGI about coastal GIS presents a collection of nine papers that address many of the issues mentioned above. [...

  5. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  6. Groundwater potential zonation by Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and its relation to the Groundwater level in the Coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is being pumped extensively from the coastal part of the Arani and Koratalai River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India for irrigation and water supply to the city of Chennai. The objective of this study is to delineate the groundwater potential zones of this area using Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques. Weighted overlay analysis was used to demarcate the ground- water potential zones. Various thematic layers such as geology, geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, rainfall and landuse maps were prepared. The geological map was prepared using a Geological Survey of India (GSI district resource map. Indian Remote Sensing System Linear Imaging Self-scanning Sensor III (IRS-1D LISS III satellite imagery was used to prepare the geomorphology, soil, lineament density, drainage density, and landuse maps. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage to different thematic maps and adding them to the final groundwater potential map. The derived groundwater potential map was overlaid with the groundwater level and location of well fields for validation. The map prepared will help in systematic and proper development of groundwater resources in this area to meet the growing water requirements of the city of Chennai.  Resumen Aguas subterráneas se bombean en gran cantidad desde la parte costera en las cuencas de los ríos Arani, en Tamil Nadu, India, para el riego y el aprovisionamiento de agua a la ciudad de Chennai. El objetivo de este estudio es delinear las zonas potenciales de aguas subterráneas en esta área a través de sistemas de Teledeteción (RS y de Información Geográfica (GIS. Se hizo un análisis sobrepuesto compensado para demarcar las zonas con posibilidad de tener aguas subterráneas. Se prepararon mapas de uso de la tierra con varios elementos temáticos como geología, geomorfología, terreno, densidad de lineamiento, densi- dad de drenaje y

  7. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions

  8. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  9. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (54th) Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 4-6 June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Sanda, CECW-EG SOUTH PACIFIC DIVISION Mr. Jaime R. Merino, CESPD-ED-W BOARD OF ENGINEERS FOR RIVERS Mr. Jeffrey C. Cole, CESPN-PE-W AND HARBORS Mr...areas. 68 Coastal areas experiencing erosion and economic loss include: a. Sabine Pass to Rollover Pass/Highway 87. In the fall of 1989, the State... Sabine Pass. The closure was prompted by the dangerous conditions resulting from erosion along the highway. In some areas, the highway lies at the

  10. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN River Station 05 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-23 to 2016-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0162430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162430 contains biological, chemical, navigational and physical data collected at SATURN River Station 05, a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  11. The Morphologic Evolution of the Amazon Coastal Plain, Cabo Norte, Amapa, Brazil: The Need for Integrated Investigation on the Internal Continental Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, O.; Santos, V. F.; Takiyama, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    refers to the coastal zone between the Amapa Grande River and Araguari River, including Maraca Island and the Oriental lacustrine Belt. Westward the island, at least three paleolevels of clays with roots in life position suggests regressive/transgressive events. Extraordinaty paleodrainage network beginnig at the continent and recognized at the insular portion suggests links with the paleochannels found at the continental shelf. The Oriental Belt of lakes is located close to the coastline, at Cabo Norte. It main feature is a mud lump approximately 10 Km ratio, well recognized at the remote sensing. It shows similar evolutionary processes with Araguari River, dating from XIX century, when this river had two mouths defined by the Carpori Island. The reasons of the deactivation are still unknowed, but, this rapid morphological evolution indicates short time colmatation processes that can be linked to tectonic regional processes. On the other hand, the Cabo Norte feature consolidation may impose changes in the sedimentation processes yielding space reduction over the coastal plain accumulation, diminishing of the solid and liquid fluvial discharge and promoting the availability of the local sediment transport over the littoral. The investigation of these processes requires an integrated coastal plain-continental shelf morphological study applying adequate techniques for modification studies and dating ages over short geological time frame, in century scale level.

  12. Temperature Calculations in the Coastal Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-110 April 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited . Temperature Calculations in the Coastal Modeling...tide) and river discharge at model boundaries, wave radiation stress, and wind forcing over a model computational domain. Physical processes calculated...calculated in the CMS using the following meteorological parameters: solar radiation, cloud cover, air temperature, wind speed, and surface water temperature

  13. Scientific, Social, and Institutional Constraints Facing Coastal Restoration in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.; Shabman, L. A.; Brown, G.

    2017-12-01

    Due to multiple stressors, including subsidence, accelerated sea level rise, canal construction, tropical storm damages, and basin-wide river management decisions, southern Louisiana is experiencing some of the world's highest rates of coastal land loss. Although ideas abound, the solutions proposed to mitigate for land loss are often uncertain, complex, expensive, and difficult. There are significant scientific uncertainties associated with fundamental processes including the spatial distribution of rates of subsidence, the anticipated impacts of increased inundation on marsh plant species and questions about the resilience of engineered solutions. Socially and politically, there is the need to balance navigation, flood risk management and environmental restoration with the fact that the land involved is largely privately owned and includes many communities and towns. And layered within this, there are federal and state regulatory constraints which seek to follow a myriad of existing State and Federal laws, protect the benefits realized from previous federal investments, and balance the conflicting interests of a large number of stakeholders. Additionally, current practice when implementing some environmental regulations is to assess impacts against the baseline of current conditions, not projected future, non-project conditions, making it difficult to receive a permit for projects which may have a short-term detriment, but hope for a long-term benefit. The resolution (or lack thereof) of these issues will serve to inform similar future struggles in other low lying coastal areas around the globe.

  14. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  15. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: source-to-sink sediment budget and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; East, Amy E.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Randle, Timothy J.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Pess, George R.; Leung, Vivian; Duda, Jeff J.

    2015-01-01

    waters, where slightly less than half of the sediment was deposited in the river-mouth delta. Although most of the measured fluvial and coastal deposition was sand-sized and coarser (> 0.063 mm), significant mud deposition was observed in and around the mainstem river channel and on the seafloor. Woody debris, ranging from millimeter-size particles to old-growth trees and stumps, was also introduced to fluvial and coastal landforms during the dam removals. At the end of our two-year study, Elwha Dam was completely removed, Glines Canyon Dam had been 75% removed (full removal was completed 2014), and ~ 65% of the combined reservoir sediment masses—including ~ 8 Mt of fine-grained and ~ 12 Mt of coarse-grained sediment—remained within the former reservoirs. Reservoir sediment will continue to be released to the Elwha River following our two-year study owing to a ~ 16 m base level drop during the final removal of Glines Canyon Dam and to erosion from floods with larger magnitudes than occurred during our study. Comparisons with a geomorphic synthesis of small dam removals suggest that the rate of sediment erosion as a percent of storage was greater in the Elwha River during the first two years of the project than in the other systems. Comparisons with other Pacific Northwest dam removals suggest that these steep, high-energy rivers have enough stream power to export volumes of sediment deposited over several decades in only months to a few years. These results should assist with predicting and characterizing landscape responses to future dam removals and other perturbations to fluvial and coastal sediment budgets.

  16. Multivariate analysis of the influences of oceanic and meteorological processes on suspended particulate matter distributions in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S. J.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Dykstra, S. L.; Wallace, D. J.; Church, I.; Wiggert, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is influenced by a high volume of sediment discharge from the Biloxi River, Mobile Bay via Pas aux Herons, Pascagoula River, Pearl River, Wolf River, and Lake Pontchartrain through the Rigolets. The river discharge, variable wind speed, wind direction and tides have a significant impact on the turbidity and transport of sediments in the Sound. Level 1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data is processed to extract the remote sensing reflectance at the wavelength of 645 nm and binned into an 8-day composite at a resolution of 500 m. The study uses a regional ocean color algorithm to compute suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration based on these 8-day composite images. Multivariate analysis is applied between the SPM and time series of tides, wind, turbidity and river discharge measured at federal and academic institutions' stations and moorings. The multivariate analysis also includes in situ measurements of suspended sediment concentration and advective exchanges through the Mississippi Sound's tidal inlets between the coastal shelf and the nearshore estuarine waters. Mechanisms underlying the observed spatiotemporal distribution of SPM, including material exchange between the Sound and adjacent shelf waters, will be explored. The results of this study will contribute to current understanding of exchange mechanisms and pathways with the Mississippi Bight via the Mississippi Sound's tidal inlets.

  17. Emerging organic contaminants in coastal waters: anthropogenic impact, environmental release and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2014-08-30

    This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47 ng/L to 156 ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pollutant dispersion studies - An update on the problems in Indian coastal waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.

    Pollutant dispersion problems along the Indian coastal waters are characterisEd. by site-specificity, as a result of seasonal and physiographic variabilities. Presence of large rivers, estuaries and backwaters add to the problems of waste disposal...

  19. SEDIMENTATION IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS -- EVIDENCE FROM REGIONAL SURVEY OF BED SUBSTRATE SIZE AND STABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive erosion, transport and deposition of sediment are major problems in streams and rivers throughout the United States. We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys duri...

  20. Predicting impact of SLR on coastal flooding in Banda Aceh coastal defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'ala, Musa; Syamsidik, Kato, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Banda Aceh is a low-lying city located at the northern tip of Sumatra Island and situated at the conjuncture of Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea. A Sea Level Rise (SLR) rate at 7 mm/year has been observed around this region. In the next 50 years, this city will face a serious challenge to encounter impacts of the sea level rise, such as frequent coastal floodings. This study is aimed at estimating impacts of the sea level rise induced coastal floodings on several types of coastal structures and city drainage system. Numerical simulations of Delft3D were applied to investigate the influence of the gradual sea level rise in 50 years. The hydrodynamic process of coastal flooding and sediment transport were simulated by Delft3D-Flow. Topography and bathymetry data were collected from GEBCO and updated with the available nautical chart (DISHIDROS, JICA, and field measurements). Hydrodynamic process gains the flow process revealing the level of the sea water intrusion also observed in the model. Main rivers (Krueng Aceh, Krueng Neng, and Alue Naga Flood Canal) and the drainage system were observed to see the tides effects on coastal structures and drainage system. The impact on coastal community focusing on affected area, shoreline retreat, the rate of sea intrusion was analyzed with spatial tools. New coastal line, coastal flooding vulnerable area, and the community susceptibility properties map influenced by 50 years sea level rise is produced. This research found that the city needs to address strategies to anticipate the exacerbating impacts of the sea level rise by managing its coastal spatial planning and modify its drainage system, especially at the drainage outlets.

  1. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A mass-wasting dominated Quaternary mountain range, the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Hogg, Alan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial bedrock incision, which creates topographic relief and controls hillslope development, has been considered the key medium linking denudation and tectonic uplift of unglaciated mountains. This article, however, shows a different scenario from the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. This range, with the steepness inherited from pre-orogenic volcanoes, has been subject to mass wasting even before its emergence above sea level no earlier than Middle Pleistocene. Numerous terraced alluvial fans/fan deltas record the ancient mass movements of the range, including rock avalanches. Multiple radiocarbon dates sequences not clearly related to the known climate-change events, and are believed to have been triggered mainly by severe rainfall events, large earthquakes, or their combinations. The resulting fluctuation of sediment yield has episodically changed river behavior, forming river terraces in catchments >1 km2. Alluvial terraces are typically exhibited close to the source ridges of mass movements, and strath terraces along the downstream parts of rivers. Both were created when enormous sediment supply had exceeded or matched the prevailing river transport capacity. This process, along with the protection by giant boulders from mass movement, disturbed the long-term incision trend of rivers in response to tectonic uplift. As a result, the observed Holocene bedrock incision at most sites has not kept pace with the tectonic uplift. The spatial contrast in mass-wasting histories further accounts for the great diversity of the terrace sequences, even in areas with similar tectonic and base-level conditions.

  3. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N; Stibal, Marek

    2016-01-01

    of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation......Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity...

  4. Anthropogenic activities including pollution and contamination of coastal marine environment.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Ecophysiol_Occup_Health_14_71.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Coastal Risk Management in a Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Existing coastal management and defense approaches are not well suited to meet the challenges of climate change and related uncertanities. Professionals in this field need a more dynamic, systematic and multidisciplinary approach. Written by an international group of experts, "Coastal Risk...... Management in a Changing Climate" provides innovative, multidisciplinary best practices for mitigating the effects of climate change on coastal structures. Based on the Theseus program, the book includes eight study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments...... such as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located. Integrated risk assessment tools for considering the effects of climate change and related uncertainties. Presents latest insights on coastal engineering defenses. Provides integrated guidelines for setting up...

  6. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  7. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  8. Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport on the Huanghe (Yellow River) Delta: Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kineke, G. C.; Calson, B.; Chadwick, A. J.; Chen, L.; Hobbs, B. F.; Kumpf, L. L.; Lamb, M. P.; Ma, H.; Moodie, A. J.; Mullane, M.; Naito, K.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are perhaps the most dynamic of coastal landforms with competing processes that deliver and disperse sediment. As part of the NSF Coastal SEES program, an interdisciplinary team of scientists from the US and China are investigating processes that link river and coastal sediment transport responsible for morphodynamic change of the Huanghe delta- an excellent study site due to its high sediment load and long history of natural and engineered avulsions, that is, abrupt shifts in the river course. A fundamental component of the study is a better understanding of sediment transport physics in a river system that transports mostly silt. Through theory and data analysis, we find that fine-grained rivers fail to develop full scale dunes, which results in faster water flow and substantially larger sediment fluxes as compared to sandy rivers (e.g. the Mississippi River). We also have developed new models for sediment-size dependent entrainment that are needed to make longer term predictions of river sedimentation patterns. On the delta front, we are monitoring the high sediment flux to the coast, which results in steep foresets and ideal conditions for off-shore sediment delivery via gravity flows. These constraints on sediment transport are being used to develop new theory for where and when rivers avulse - including the effects of variable flood discharge, sediment supply, and sea level rise -and how deltas ultimately grow through repeated cycles of lobe development. Flume experiments and field observations are being used to test these models, both in the main channel of the Huanghe and in channels abandoned after historic avulsions. Abandoned channels and floodplains are now dominated by coastal sediment transport through a combination of wave resuspension and tidal transport, settling lag and reverse estuarine circulation. Finally, the field and laboratory tested numerical models are being used as inputs to define a cost curve for efficient avulsion management of

  9. Presence of Microplastics in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdages, M.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Paine, J. K.; Bogaerts, P.; Strangway, A.; Robertson, K.; Groeneweg, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics are a source of anthropogenic contamination in watercourses and water bodies around the world. The extent of the implications associated with microplastics, however, is not fully known. These plastic particles, less than 5mm in diameter by definition, threaten a wide range of aquatic and land-based organisms, as the ingestion of microplastics by aquatic organisms can form blockages in digestive tracts, and can provide pathways for other contaminants to enter their bodies (Ziajahromi et al. 2017). Land-based organisms can then ingest the contaminated organisms, potentially impacting their health. Microplastics can be introduced into the aquatic environment through aquatic or land-based sources (Ziajahromi et al. 2017). A river system that is at a particular threat from microplastic contamination is the Fraser River. The Fraser River is a major salmon bearing river system in British Columbia and drains an area of over 220,000 km2. Potential sources of microplastic contamination include pulp and lumber mills near Prince George and Quesnel, the agriculturally dominated Fraser Valley, and the highly urbanized and industrialized stretch of the Lower Mainland east of Vancouver. Preliminary tests in the summer of 2016 on 200 liters of Fraser River water, processed through a 45 µm sieve, revealed the presence of microplastics, including the detection of blue dye polyethylene by Raman spectroscopy. Since then additional water samples were taken monthly at the Fraser River Observatory in Fort Langley from October 2016 to March 2017, and then bi-weekly commencing in April 2017. These samples are to be analysed at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in the Fall of 2017. This ongoing project aims at identifying the presence, amount, and type of microplastics being transported by the Fraser River to the coastal ocean. Ziajahromi, S.,et al., 2017. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater

  10. Ocean model system for radionuclides - validation and application to the Rokkasho coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya

    2010-01-01

    Coastal areas have complex environmental systems and often a high influence from the atmosphere, rivers and the open sea. A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan releases liquid radioactive waste from a discharge pipe to such a complex coastal area. Consequently, the development of radionuclide migration forecast system in the ocean plays an important rule for assessing the behavior of radionuclides in the coastal area. The development of ocean model systems will be presented and model application will also be described. (author)

  11. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program 2 (DCERP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Assessing TMDL effectiveness using flow-adjusted concentrations:  A case study of the Neuse River , North Carolina. Environmental Science & Technology 37...activities, and data collection in the NRE Basin and New River by local stakeholder groups. Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP) Monitoring...relationships between light penetration and solids/chl a levels. ArcGIS and spatial statistics will be used to estimate average bathymetric areas

  12. Ocean and Coastal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  13. An integrated framework to assess future livelihood and poverty changes in deltas: an application to coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Lazar, Attlia; Payo, Andres; Adams, Helen; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Haque, Anisul; Clarke, Derek; Bricheno, Lucy; Fernandes, Jose; Rahman, Mofizur; Ahmed, Ali; Streatfield, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Coastal deltas represent some of the most densely populated areas in the world. A good example is the coastal zone of Bangladesh where there are more than 1000 people/km2 in the rural areas. Livelihoods, food security and poverty in this area is strongly dependent on natural resources affected by several factors including climate variability and change, upstream river flow modifications, commercial fish catches in the Bay of Bengal, and engineering interventions such as polderisation. The scarcity of fresh water, saline water intrusion and natural disasters (e.g. river flooding, cyclones and storm surges) have negative impact on drinking water availability and crop irrigation potential. This severely affects land use and livelihood opportunities of the coastal population. Hydro-environmental changes can be especially detrimental for the well-being of the poorest households that are highly dependent on natural resources. The ESPA Deltas project aims to holistically examine the interaction between the coupled bio-physical environment and the livelihoods of these poor populations in coastal Bangladesh. Here we describe a new integrated model that allows the long-term analysis of the possible changes in this system by linking projected changes in physical processes (e.g. river flows, nutrients), with productivity (e.g. fish catches, rice production), social processes (e.g. access, property rights, migration) and governance/management (e.g. fisheries, agriculture, water and land use management). This includes the development and application of a range of scenarios, including expert-derived scenarios on issues such as climate change, and stakeholder-derived scenarios on more local issues in Bangladesh. This integrated approach is designed to provide Bangladeshi policy makers with science-based evidence of possible development trajectories within the coastal delta plain over timescales up to 50 years, including the likely robustness of different governance options on

  14. Coastal tourism, environment, and sustainable local development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Noronha, L.; Lourenco, N.; Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.; Lieopart, A.; Feoli, E.; Sawkar, K.; Chachadi, A.

    This book is among the products of a research project entitled "Measuring, monitoring and managing sustainability: The coastal dimension" INCO-DC programme over the period 1998-2002. The contributions reflect a range of disciplines including...

  15. Coastal flooding in Denmark – future outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.; Knudsen, P.; Andersen, O. B.

    2014-01-01

    Water loading from all directions due to river discharge, precipitation, groundwater and the sea state (i.e. mean and extreme water levels) need to be carefully considered when dealing with flooding hazards at the coast. Flooding hazard and risk mapping are major topics in low-lying coastal are- ...... this knowledge together to enable a practice-oriented methodology that combines their effects and future sea extremes in hazard and risk mapping and climate change adaptation schemes in Denmark......- as before even considering the adverse effects of climate change and sea level rise (SLR). From an assessment of Danish sea extremes from historical evidence, tide gauge series, and space measurements, we discuss the current and future hazards, exposure, and vulnerability to flooding along the diverse......, land-use, protection measures a.o. that must be taken into account in order to evaluate current and future flooding hazards and management options. We provide examples from Danish case-studies underlining the necessity of including these factors and we outline an interdisciplinary approach to bring...

  16. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a compilation of summaries of papers presented at the Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems workshop. Topics include; marine forecasting, regulatory agencies and regulations, research and application models, research and operational observing, oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation, and coastal physical processes

  17. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  18. Correlation between land use changes and shoreline changes around THE Nakdong River in Korea using landsat images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J. S.; Lim, C.; Baek, S. G.; Shin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal erosion has badly affected the marine environment, as well as the safety of various coastal structures. In order to monitor shoreline changes due to coastal erosion, remote sensing techniques are being utilized. The land-cover map classifies the physical material on the surface of the earth, and it can be utilized in establishing eco-policy and land-use policy. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between land-use changes around the Nakdong River and shoreline changes at Busan Dadaepo Beach adjacent to the river. We produced the land-cover map based on the guidelines published by the Ministry of Environment Korea, using eight Landsat satellite images obtained from 1984 to 2015. To observe land use changes around the Nakdong River, the study site was set to include the surroundings areas of the Busan Dadaepo Beach, the Nakdong River as well as its estuary, and also Busan New Port. For the land-use classification of the study site, we also produced a land-cover map divided into seven categories according to the Ministry of Environment, Korea guidelines and using the most accurate Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM). Land use changes inland, at 500m from the shoreline, were excluded for the correlation analysis between land use changes and shoreline changes. The other categories, except for the water category, were transformed into numerical values and the land-use classifications, using all other categories, were analyzed. Shoreline changes were observed by setting the base-line and three cut-lines. We assumed that longshore bars around the Nakdong River and the shoreline of the Busan Dadaepo Beach are affected. Therefore, we expect that shoreline changes happen due to the influence of barren land, wetlands, built-up areas and deposition. The causes are due to natural factors, such as weather, waves, tide currents, longshore currents, and also artificial factors such as coastal structures, construction, and dredging.

  19. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  20. Airborne Mission Concept for Coastal Ocean Color and Ecosystems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Morrow, John H.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Palacios, Sherry L.; Torres Perez, Juan L.; Hayashi, Kendra; Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA airborne missions in 2011 and 2013 over Monterey Bay, CA, demonstrated novel above- and in-water calibration and validation measurements supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The resultant airborne data characterize contemporaneous coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems spanning a next-generation spectral domain (320-875 nm). This airborne instrument suite for calibration, validation, and research flew at the lowest safe altitude (ca. 100 ft or 30 m) as well as higher altitudes (e.g., 6,000 ft or 1,800 m) above the sea surface covering a larger area in a single synoptic sortie than ship-based measurements at a few stations during the same sampling period. Data collection of coincident atmospheric and aquatic properties near the sea surface and at altitude allows the input of relevant variables into atmospheric correction schemes to improve the output of corrected imaging spectrometer data. Specific channels support legacy and next-generation satellite capabilities, and flights are planned to within 30 min of satellite overpass. This concept supports calibration and validation activities of ocean color phenomena (e.g., river plumes, algal blooms) and studies of water quality and coastal ecosystems. The 2011 COAST mission flew at 100 and 6,000 ft on a Twin Otter platform with flight plans accommodating the competing requirements of the sensor suite, which included the Coastal-Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) for the first time. C-AIR (Biospherical Instruments Inc.) also flew in the 2013 OCEANIA mission at 100 and 1,000 ft on the Twin Otter below the California airborne simulation of the proposed NASA HyspIRI satellite system comprised of an imaging spectrometer and thermal infrared multispectral imager on the ER-2 at 65,000 ft (20,000 m). For both missions, the Compact-Optical Profiling System (Biospherical

  1. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Paludosa na planície costeira da bacia do rio Itaguaré, Bertioga, SP, Brasil. Floristic composition andstructure of an arboreal component of the Paludal Forest in the coastal plain of the Itaguaré river basin, Bertioga (São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina de Gouveia SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As Florestas Paludosas costeiras ou “caxetais” ocorrem no Domínio Atlântico, em geral associadas a depressões paleolagunares, cujos terrenos são permanentemente encharcados. Essas florestas se caracterizam por apresentar elevada densidade de indivíduos da espécie Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., conhecida popularmente por “caxeta”. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em uma Floresta Paludosa situada na planície costeira do rio Itaguaré, município de Bertioga, Baixada Santista, Estado de São Paulo. A composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica foram investigadas através da amostragem por parcelas, sendo incluídos todos os indivíduos com 10 cm ou mais de diâmetro a 1,3 m de altura do peito (DAP. Foram registradas 20 espécies e 11 famílias botânicas, resultando em uma densidade total de 450 ind./ha-1. A família com maior riqueza de espécies foi Myrtaceae, com quatro espécies. A análise de similaridade indicou dois grupos florísticos. Tabebuia cassinoides foi, de fato, a espécie mais importante, apresentando grande densidade e dominância de indivíduos, o que reforça sua posição de espécie indicadora deste tipo vegetacional, conforme difundido na literatura. The coastal Paludal Forest or “Caxetal” occurs on the Atlantic Domain, associated to wetlands within palaeolagoonal depressions. It is characterized by a high density of individuals of Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., which is popularly known as “caxeta”. A Paludal Forest located in the Itaguaré river coastal plain, in the municipality of Bertioga, Santos Lowland, São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. The floristic composition and phytossociological structure was investigated through a plot method including all individuals with diameter at 1.3 m (DBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 20species and 11 botanic families were sampled, resulting in a total density of 450 ind./ha-1. Myrtaceae showed the highest species richness. The similarity index indicated

  2. Monitoring coastal wetlands in a highly dynamic tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saynor, M.J.; Finlayson, C.M.; Spiers, A.; Eliot, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has been selected by government and collaborating agencies as a key study area for the monitoring of natural and human-induced coastal change. The Region contains the floodplain wetlands of Kakadu National Park which have been recognised internationally for their natural and cultural heritage value. A coastal monitoring program for assessing and monitoring environmental change in the Alligator Rivers Region has been established at the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. This program has developed a regional capacity to measure and assess change on the wetlands, floodplains and coastline within the region. Field assessment and monitoring procedures have been developed for the program. The assessment procedures require use of georeferencing and data handling techniques to facilitate comparison and relational overlay of a wide variety of information. Monitoring includes regular survey of biophysical and cultural processes on the floodplains; such as the extension of tidal creeks and mangroves, shoreline movement, dieback in Melaleuca wetlands, and weed invasion of freshwater wetlands. A differential Global Positioning System is used to accurately georeference spatial data and a Geographic Information System is then used to store and assess information. The assessment and monitoring procedures can be applied to the wet-dry tropics in general. These studies are all particularly pertinent with the possibility of greenhouse gases causing global warming and potential sea-level rise, a major possible threat to the valued wetlands of Kakadu National Park, and across the wet-dry tropics in general

  3. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  4. Connecting large-scale coastal behaviour with coastal management of the Rhône delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, François; Samat, Olivier; Ullmann, Albin; Suanez, Serge

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to connect the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the Rhône delta (shoreface sediment budget, river sediment input to the beaches, climatic change) with the impact and efficiency of hard engineering coastal structures. The analysis of the 1895 to 1974 bathymetric maps as well as 2D modelling of the effect of wave blocking on longshore transport allows us to draw up a conceptual model of the LSCB of the Rhône delta. The river sand input, settled in the mouth area (prodeltaic lobe), favours the advance of adjacent beaches. There is however a very weak alongshore sand feeding of the non-adjacent beaches farther off the mouth. After a mouth shift, the prodelta is eroded by aggressive waves and the sand is moved alongshore to build spits. This conceptual model suggests that there is a "timeshift" between the input of river sediments to the sea and the build up of a beach (nonadjacent to the mouth). Nowadays, as the river channels are controlled by dykes and human interventions, a river shift is not possible. It thus appears unlikely that the river sediments can supply the beaches of the Rhône delta coast. Under these conditions, we must expect that the problems of erosion will continue at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer and on the Faraman shore, in areas with chronic erosion where the shoreline retreat has been partially stopped by hard engineering practices in the 1980s. Therefore, these artificially stabilised sectors remain potentially under threat because of profile steepening and downdrift erosion evidenced in this paper by bathymetric profile measurements. In the long-term (1905 to 2003), the temporal analysis of the storm surges and the sea level show very weak but reliable increasing trends. Thus, these climatic agents will be more aggressive on the beaches and on the coastal structures calling their efficiency into question. We also evidence that the hard engineering structures were built in a favourable climatic context during the

  5. Riverine input of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the coastal pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Everaarts, J.M.

    of various chlorinated hydrocarbons. It deals with an in-depth analysis of pollution of the coastal ecosystem around the Netherlands, U.K. and Germany due to inputs of contaminants from the rivers namely, Elbe, Weser, Ems Ijssel, Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Thames...

  6. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  7. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  8. Upstream Freshwater and Terrestrial Sources Are Differentially Reflected in the Bacterial Community Structure along a Small Arctic River and Its Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja L.; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Elberling, Bo; Bælum, Jacob; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns. PMID:27708629

  9. Upstream freshwater and terrestrial sources are differentially reflected in the bacterial community structure along a small Arctic river and its estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviaja Lyberth Hauptmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems by linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on the Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N. Samples were taken in August when there is maximum precipitation and temperatures are high in the Disko Bay area. We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while the glacier and lake supplied the river with water containing fewer terrestrial organisms. Also, more psychrophilic taxa were found in the community supplied by the lake. At the river mouth, the presence of dominant bacterial taxa from the lake and glacier was unnoticeable, but these taxa increased their abundances again further into the estuary. On average 23% of the estuary community consisted of indicator OTUs from different sites along the river. Environmental variables showed only weak correlations with community composition, suggesting that hydrology largely influences the observed patterns.

  10. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  11. Towards an Integrated Management and Planning in the Romanian Black Sea Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Catalin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic and “natural” systems are, to a variable extent, now locked in a coevolutionary path, characterized by a joint determinism and complex feedback effects. The management of the coastal zones, including also modeling and assessment measures, should, be reoriented over time to properly capture the causes and consequences of the joint system changes as manifested in the coastal areas. This will require a collaborative work among a range of economical, environmental and social science disciplines. The pressures and the high instability are similar between the coast and the sea, in both senses (from the land to the sea and also from the sea to the land, being given by various factors as the strong winds, waves, storms, open sea, currents, as well well also the variability of temperatures, salinity, density, due to the Danube impact, etc. The influence of the rivers discharging into the Black Sea is important, while the coastal erosion, flooding, urbanization, tourism, naval industry have an impact on the coast and the sea environment. The Marine Spatial Planning Directive is appropriate in Romania to put in practice the similar tools, and practical approach from the coast to the maritime space. This paper aims to represent an useful starting point in the management of the coastal zones for both natural and social science research that would be seeked (by a more integrated modelling and assessment process to better describe and understand the functioning of the ecosystems, that form the coastal interface, and in particular the filter effect is exerted on nutrients in response to the environmental pressures, both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic - the climate change, land use/cover change, urbanization and effluent treatment from both point and non-point sources. For this it is necessary a broad analytical framework (rather than a specific model in which to set a more detailed analysis.

  12. Coastal Sea Level and Estuary Tide Modeling in Bangladesh Using SAR, Radar and GNSS-R Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Shum, C. K.; Sun, J.; Li, D.; Shang, K.; Yi, Y.; Calmant, S.; Ballu, V.; Chu, P.; Johnson, J.; Park, J.; Bao, L.; Kuo, C. Y.; Wickert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Bangladesh, located at the confluence of three large rivers - Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna, is a low-lying country. It is prone to monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Its coastal estuaries, the Sundarbans wetlands, have the largest Mangrove forest in the world, and exhibits complex tidal dynamics. In order to study flood hazards, ecological or climate changes over floodplains, it is fundamentally important to know the water level and water storage capacity in wetlands. Inaccurate or inadequate information about wetland water storage will cause significant errors in hydrological simulation and modeling for understanding ecological and economic implications. However, in most areas, the exact knowledge of water level change and the flow patterns is lacking due to insufficient monitoring of water level gauging stations on private and public lands within wetlands or floodplains, due to the difficulty of physical access to the sites and logistics in data gathering. Usage of satellite all-weather remote sensing products provides an alternative approach for monitoring the water level variation over floodplains or wetlands. In this study, we used a combination of observations from satellite radar altimetry (Envisat/Jason-2/Altika/Sentinel-3), L-band synthetic aperture radar (ALOS-1/-2) backscattering coefficients inferred water level, GNSS-R altimetry from two coastal/river GNSS sites, for measuring coastal and estuary sea-level and conducting estuary ocean tide modeling in the Bangladesh delta including the Sundarbans wetlands.

  13. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oursel, B; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Mounier, S; Omanović, D; Lucas, Y

    2013-04-15

    Quantification and characterization of chronic inputs of trace metals and organic carbon in a coastal Mediterranean area (the city of Marseille) during the dry season was carried out. The 625 km(2) watershed includes two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) just before their outlet into the sea. Dissolved and particulate Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and organic carbon concentrations in the rivers were comparable to those in other Mediterranean coastal areas, whereas at the outlet, 2- to 18-fold higher concentrations reflected the impact of the TWW. A non-conservative behavior observed for most of the studied metals in the mixing zone was validated by a remobilization experiment performed in the laboratory. The results showed that sorption/desorption processes could occur with slow kinetics with respect to the mixing time in the plume, indicating non-equilibrium in the dissolved/particulate metal distribution. Thus, a sample filtration immediately after sampling is strictly required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Land-margin ecosystem hydrologic data for the coastal Everglades, Florida, water years 1996-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.; Balentine, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and salt marshes dominate the landscape of the coastal Everglades (Odum and McIvor, 1990). However, the ecological effects from potential sea-level rise and increased water flows from planned freshwater Everglades restoration on these coastal systems are poorly understood. The National Park Service (NPS) proposed the South Florida Global Climate Change Project (SOFL-GCC) in 1990 to evaluate climate change and the effect from rising sea levels on the coastal Everglades, particularly at the marsh/mangrove interface or ecotone (Soukup and others, 1990). A primary objective of SOFL-GCC project was to monitor and synthesize the hydrodynamics of the coastal Everglades from the upstream freshwater marsh to the downstream estuary mangrove. Two related hypotheses were set forward (Nuttle and Cosby, 1993): 1. There exists hydrologic conditions (tide, local rainfall, and upstream water deliveries), which characterize the location of the marsh/mangrove ecotone along the marine and terrestrial hydrologic gradient; and 2. The marsh/mangrove ecotone is sensitive to fluctuations in sea level and freshwater inflow from inland areas. Hydrologic monitoring of the SOFL-GCC network began in 1995 after startup delays from Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) and organizational transfers from the NPS to the National Biological Survey (October 1993) and the merger with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Research Division in 1996 (Smith, 2004). As the SOFL-GCC project progressed, concern by environmental scientists and land managers over how the diversion of water from Everglades National Park would affect the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem. Everglades restoration scenarios were based on hydrodynamic models, none of which included the coastal zone (Fennema and others, 1994). Modeling efforts were expanded to include the Everglades coastal zone (Schaffranek and others, 2001) with SOFL-GCC hydrologic data assisting the ecological modeling needs. In 2002

  15. Occurrence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in coastal recreational waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montezzi, Lara Feital; Campana, Eloiza Helena; Corrêa, Laís Lisboa; Justo, Livia Helena; Paschoal, Raphael Paiva; da Silva, Isabel Lemos Vieira Dias; Souza, Maria do Carmo Maciel; Drolshagen, Marcia; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. Although most infections due to carbapenemase producers are limited to healthcare institutions, reports of the occurrence of clinically relevant carbapenemase producers in sewage and polluted rivers are increasingly frequent. Polluted rivers flowing to oceans may contaminate coastal waters with multidrug-resistant bacteria, potentially threatening the safety of recreational activities in these locations. Here we assessed the occurrence of carbapenemase producers in water from touristic beaches located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing distinct pollution patterns. The presence of enterobacteria was noted, including the predominantly environmental genus Kluyvera spp., producing either Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) or Guyana extended-spectrum (GES)-type carbapenemases and often associated with quinolone resistance determinants. An Aeromonas sp. harbouring blaKPC and qnrS was also observed. These findings strengthen the role of aquatic matrices as reservoirs and vectors of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with potential to favour the spread of these resistance threats throughout the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  17. The MARINA model (Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients to seAs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Bai, Zhaohai; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese agriculture has been developing fast towards industrial food production systems that discharge nutrient-rich wastewater into rivers. As a result, nutrient export by rivers has been increasing, resulting in coastal water pollution. We developed a Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrients

  18. Seasonal variability of the inorganic carbon system in a large coastal plain estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, Andrew; Kirchman, David L.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Cai, Wei-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Carbonate geochemistry research in large estuarine systems is limited. More work is needed to understand how changes in land-use activity influence watershed export of organic and inorganic carbon, acids, and nutrients to the coastal ocean. To investigate the seasonal variation of the inorganic carbon system in the Delaware Estuary, one of the largest estuaries along the US east coast, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH were measured along the estuary from June 2013 to April 2015. In addition, DIC, TA, and pH were periodically measured from March to October 2015 in the nontidal freshwater Delaware, Schuylkill, and Christina rivers over a range of discharge conditions. There were strong negative relationships between river TA and discharge, suggesting that changes in HCO3- concentrations reflect dilution of weathering products in the drainage basin. The ratio of DIC to TA, an understudied but important property, was high (1.11) during high discharge and low (0.94) during low discharge, reflecting additional DIC input in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2), most likely from terrestrial organic matter decomposition, rather than bicarbonate (HCO3-) inputs due to drainage basin weathering processes. This is also a result of CO2 loss to the atmosphere due to rapid water transit during the wet season. Our data further show that elevated DIC in the Schuylkill River is substantially different than that in the Delaware River. Thus, tributary contributions must be considered when attributing estuarine DIC sources to the internal carbon cycle versus external processes such as drainage basin mineralogy, weathering intensity, and discharge patterns. Long-term records in the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers indicate shifts toward higher alkalinity in estuarine waters over time, as has been found in other estuaries worldwide. Annual DIC input flux to the estuary and export flux to the coastal ocean are estimated to be 15.7 ± 8.2 × 109 mol C yr-1 and 16

  19. Monitoring Drought along the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean Using the Coastal Salinity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Rouen, L.; Lackstrom, K.; McCloskey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal droughts have a different dynamic than upland droughts, which are typically characterized by agricultural, hydrologic, meteorological, and (or) socio-economic impacts. Drought uniquely affects coastal ecosystems due to changes in salinity conditions of estuarine creeks and rivers. The location of the freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. The location of the interface determines the freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities, fisheries spawning habitat, and the freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. The severity of coastal drought may explain changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. To address the data and information gap for characterizing coastal drought, a coastal salinity index (CSI) was developed using salinity data. The CSI uses a computational approach similar to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The CSI is computed for unique time intervals (for example 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month) that can characterize the onset and recovery of short- and long-term drought. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that the index can be used for different estuary types (for example: brackish, oligohaline, or mesohaline), for regional comparison between estuaries, and as an index of wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought (saline) conditions. In 2017, three activities in 2017 will be presented that enhance the use and application of the CSI. One, a software package was developed for the consistent computation of the CSI that includes preprocessing of salinity data, filling missing data, computing the CSI, post-processing, and generating the supporting metadata. Two, the CSI has been computed at sites along the Gulf of Mexico (Texas to Florida) and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Florida to

  20. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  1. Downwelling dynamics of the western Adriatic Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, W. R.; Mullenbach, B. L.; Kineke, G. C.; Sherwood, C. R.; Signell, R. P.; Ogston, A. S.; Puig, P.; Traykovski, P.

    2004-12-01

    The western Adriatic coastal current (WACC) flows for hundreds of kilometers along the east coast of Italy at speeds of 20 to 100 cm/s. It is fed by the buoyancy input from the Po River and other rivers of the northern Adriatic Sea, with typical freshwater discharge rates of 2000 m**3/s. The Bora winds provide the dominant forcing agent of the WACC during the winter months, resulting in peak southeastward flows reaching 100 cm/s. The energy input of the Bora is principally in the northern Adriatic, and the coastal current response is due mainly to the set up of the pressure field, although there is sometimes an accompanying local component of down-coast winds that further augments the coastal current. Downwelling conditions occur during Bora, with or without local wind-forcing, because the bottom Ekman transport occurs in either case. Downwelling results in destratification of the coastal current, due to both vertical mixing and straining of the cross-shore density gradient. The relative contributions of mixing and straining depends on the value of the Kelvin number K=Lf/(g_Oh)**1/2, where L is the width of the coastal current, f is the Coriolis parameter, g_O is reduced gravity, and h is the plume thickness. For a narrow coastal current (KWACC during Bora events, with strain-induced destratification occurring in less than 24 hours. The straining process limits vertical mixing of the coastal current with the ambient Adriatic water, because once the isopycnals become vertical, no more mixing can occur. This limitation of mixing may explain the persistence of the density anomaly of the coastal current in the presence of high stresses. The straining process also has important implications for sediment transport: destratification allows sediment to be distributed throughout the water column during Bora events, resulting in enhanced down-coast fluxes. The influence of the downwelling dynamics on cross-shore sediment transport is still under examination.

  2. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.; Dü rr, H. H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C. P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P. A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  3. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  4. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  5. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  6. Heavy mineral analysis for assessing the provenance of sandy sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Florence L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Heavy or high-specific gravity minerals make up a small but diagnostic component of sediment that is well suited for determining the provenance and distribution of sediment transported through estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. By this means, we see that surficial sand-sized sediment in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System comes primarily from the Sierra Nevada and associated terranes by way of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and is transported with little dilution through the San Francisco Bay and out the Golden Gate. Heavy minerals document a slight change from the strictly Sierran-Sacramento mineralogy at the confluence of the two rivers to a composition that includes minor amounts of chert and other Franciscan Complex components west of Carquinez Strait. Between Carquinez Strait and the San Francisco Bar, Sierran sediment is intermingled with Franciscan-modified Sierran sediment. The latter continues out the Gate and turns southward towards beaches of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Sierran sediment also fans out from the San Francisco Bar to merge with a Sierran province on the shelf in the Gulf of the Farallones. Beach-sand sized sediment from the Russian River is transported southward to Point Reyes where it spreads out to define a Franciscan sediment province on the shelf, but does not continue southward to contribute to the sediment in the Golden Gate area.

  7. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  8. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  9. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Port of Albany weather/hydro by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2011-01-04 to 2017-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0163364)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163364 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Port of Albany weather/hydro, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  10. Oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected from station Schodack Island hydro/weather by Hudson River Environmental Conditions Observing System (HRECOS) and assembled by Mid-Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) in the Hudson River from 2008-04-25 to 2017-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0163416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163416 contains oceanographic and surface meteorological data collected at Schodack Island hydro/weather, a fixed station in the Hudson River. These...

  11. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  12. Evaluating Sea water Quality in the Coastal Zone of North Lebanon using Telemac-2DTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Mohamad; Darwich, T.

    2009-01-01

    The coastal zones of the Mediterranean are undergoing rapid development withgrowing and conflicting demands on the natural resources. Coastal zones are often subjected to irreversible land degradation and environmental deterioration. Lebanon is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean basin and the integrated management of the environment in the Lebanese coastal zone must be given concern. Most of the successful decisions addressing the environment protection or the elaboration of preventive measures in the coastal zone. These decisions depend on the availability of efficient simulation tools. The existence of these tools can help protecting the environment and establishing the ground for sustainable natural resources in the coastal zones. In this paper, a simulation tool called Telemac-2D TM software was used to simulate the business as usual, pessimistic, and optimistic status of the sea water quality in the coastal zone of Tripoli (North Lebanon). The coastal zone is affected by the effluents of solid and liquid wastes from Abou-Ali river. The different quality states of the coastal zone represent the normal, high, and low flow of the effluents (plume pollutants) from Abou-Ali river. In addition, it represents the variation of different factors such as wind and sea currents speed and direction. This simulation will help the decision makers to implement pre-cautious measures before a disaster takes place by assessing the quality of the sea water near the coastal zones. (author)

  13. Salvage excavations at the Tokanui River mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three years, invstigations have been undertaken at three sites in eastern Foveaux Strait that are particularly severely threatened by coastal erosion. The last of these three sites is at the mouth of the Tokanui River, near Fortrose. (author). 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  15. Developments in Coastal Ocean Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2001-12-01

    Capabilities in modeling continental shelf flow fields have improved markedly in the last several years. Progress is being made toward the long term scientific goal of utilizing numerical circulation models to interpolate, or extrapolate, necessarily limited field measurements to provide additional full-field information describing the behavior of, and providing dynamical rationalizations for, complex observed coastal flow. The improvement in modeling capabilities has been due to several factors including an increase in computer power and, importantly, an increase in experience of modelers in formulating relevant numerical experiments and in analyzing model results. We demonstrate present modeling capabilities and limitations by discussion of results from recent studies of shelf circulation off Oregon and northern California (joint work with Newberger, Gan, Oke, Pullen, and Wijesekera). Strong interactions between wind-forced coastal currents and continental shelf topography characterize the flow regimes in these cases. Favorable comparisons of model and measured alongshore currents and other variables provide confidence in the model-produced fields. The dependence of the mesoscale circulation, including upwelling and downwelling fronts and flow instabilities, on the submodel used to parameterize the effects of small scale turbulence, is discussed. Analyses of model results to provide explanations for the observed, but previously unexplained, alongshore variability in the intensity of coastal upwelling, which typically results in colder surface water south of capes, and the observed development in some locations of northward currents near the coast in response to the relaxation of southward winds, are presented.

  16. Implementation of remote sensing data in research of coastal dynamics at the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. E.; Belova, N.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.

    2011-12-01

    , detailed enough for preliminary analysis, free for significant part), Ikonos, QuickBird, and other modern high-resolution imagery. Georeferencing is taken from State topographic and bathymetric maps and high resolution imagery (corrected by field GPS survey where possible). All data are aligned and catalogued with ArcGIS. Corona and aerial images must be aligned thoroughly with use of high-resolution data as reference, placing control points on most stable topography (gully junctions, inter-lake channels, river heads), which are vectorized in advance. Shoreline is usually easily recognizable for both erosion and accumulation sections of the coast. Other distinct features include alongshore bars, thermokarst basins, deflation sites. Basing on above-mentioned analysis, coastal dynamics maps were created for time span long enough to ensure shore dynamics forecasts. For the coast of Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea, the maps cover period from 1964 to 2009. Further steps include creation of shore classification and segmentation maps, which consider different features of coastal morphology, dynamics, and formation taken from both field investigations and remote sensing data analysis. This work was supported by Sustainable Arctic Coastal and Marine Technology (SACME) Project.

  17. Developing New Tourism routes in Coastal Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Flognfeldt, Thor

    2013-01-01

    For Norwegians the name of our country is based on a route - "the way to the North" - and this was not a built route but using of the coast-line itself. As long as the boats and ships were the main means of travel this coastal way - "Nor-way" - was the main communication basis for most people, and for transport of goods. But even in the interior of the country, water, namely rivers and lakes were the main structures for communication. The lakes were most efficient for transport during the col...

  18. Seasonal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus retention in an agricultural drainage river in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dingjiang; Lu, Jun; Wang, Hailong; Shen, Yena; Kimberley, Mark O

    2010-02-01

    Riverine retention decreases loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in running water. It is an important process in nutrient cycling in watersheds. However, temporal riverine nutrient retention capacity varies due to changes in hydrological, ecological, and nutrient inputs into the watershed. Quantitative information of seasonal riverine N and P retention is critical for developing strategies to combat diffuse source pollution and eutrophication in riverine and coastal systems. This study examined seasonal variation of riverine total N (TN) and total P (TP) retention in the ChangLe River, an agricultural drainage river in east China. Water quality, hydrological parameters, and hydrophyte coverage were monitored along the ChangLe River monthly during 2004-2006. Nutrient export loads (including chemical fertilizer, livestock, and domestic sources) entering the river from the catchment area were computed using an export coefficient model based on estimated nutrient sources. Riverine TN and TP retention loads (RNRL and RPRL) were estimated using mass balance calculations. Temporal variations in riverine nutrient retention were analyzed statistically. Estimated annual riverine retention loads ranged from 1,538 to 2,127 t year(-1) for RNRL and from 79.4 to 90.4 t year(-1) for RPRL. Monthly retention loads varied from 6.4 to 300.8 t month(-1) for RNRL and from 1.4 to 15.3 t month(-1) for RPRL. Both RNRL and RPRL increased with river flow, water temperature, hydrophyte coverage, monthly sunshine hours, and total TN and TP inputs. Dissolved oxygen concentration and the pH level of the river water decreased with RNRL and RPRL. Riverine nutrient retention ratios (retention as a percentage of total input) were only related to hydrophyte coverage and monthly sunshine hours. Monthly variations in RNRL and RPRL were functions of TN and TP loads. Riverine nutrient retention capacity varied with environmental conditions. Annual RNRL and RPRL accounted for 30.3-48.3% and 52

  19. Catchment-coastal zone interaction based upon scenario and model analysis: Elbe and the German Bight case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, J.; Behrendt, H.; Gilbert, A.J.; Janssen, R.; Kannen, A.; Kappenberg, J.W.; Lenhart, H.; Lise, W.; Nunneri, C.; Windhorst, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic strategy on the interaction of activities in the Elbe river basin and their effects on eutrophication in the coastal waters of the German Bight. This catchment-coastal zone interaction is the main target of the EUROCAT (EUROpean CATchments, catchment changes and their

  20. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of

  1. C2R2: Training Students To Build Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, C.; Kopp, R. E.; Jordan, R.; Gong, J.; Andrews, C.; Auermuller, L. M.; Herb, J.; McDonnell, J. D.; Bond, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, about 23 million people live within 6 meters of sea level. In many parts of the country, sea-level rise between 1960 and 2010 has already led to a 2-5-fold increase in the rate of `nuisance' flooding. On top of rising seas, intensifying hurricanes and more frequent extremes of heat, humidity and precipitation pose additional risks to coastal societies, economies and ecosystems. Addressing risks posed by changing climate conditions in coastal areas demands innovative strategies that intersect multiple disciplines including engineering, ecology, communication, climate science, and community planning. To be usable, it also requires engaging coastal stakeholders in the development of research questions, the assessment of implications of research for planning and policy, and the communication of research results. Yet traditional, disciplinary programs are poorly configured to train the workforce needed to assess coastal climate risk and to develop and deploy integrated strategies for increasing coastal climate resilience. Coastal Climate Risk & Resilience (C2R2) is an NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) working to prepare the workforce that will build coastal resilience in the face of climate risks. Through its trainee and certificate programs, C2R2 works with graduate students at Rutgers University from multiple disciplines to better integrate all the elements of coastal systems and to communicate effectively with coastal stakeholders. C2R2 students will acquire the knowledge and practical skills needed to become leading researchers and practitioners tackling the critical challenges of coastal resilience.

  2. Untangling Trends and Drivers of Changing River Discharge Along Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodzik, K.; Kaplan, D. A.; Klarenberg, G.

    2017-12-01

    Along the relatively undeveloped Big Bend coastline of Florida, discharge in many rivers and springs is decreasing. The causes are unclear, though they likely include a combination of groundwater extraction for water supply, climate variability, and altered land use. Saltwater intrusion from altered freshwater influence and sea level rise is causing transformative ecosystem impacts along this flat coastline, including coastal forest die-off and oyster reef collapse. A key uncertainty for understanding river discharge change is predicting discharge from rainfall, since Florida's karstic bedrock stores large amounts of groundwater, which has a long residence time. This study uses Dynamic Factor Analysis (DFA), a multivariate data reduction technique for time series, to find common trends in flow and reveal hydrologic variables affecting flow in eight Big Bend rivers since 1965. The DFA uses annual river flows as response time series, and climate data (annual rainfall and evapotranspiration by watershed) and climatic indices (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] Index and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] Index) as candidate explanatory variables. Significant explanatory variables (one evapotranspiration and three rainfall time series) explained roughly 50% of discharge variation across rivers. Significant trends (representing unexplained variation) were shared among rivers, with geographical grouping of five northern rivers and three southern rivers, along with a strong downward trend affecting six out of eight systems. ENSO and NAO had no significant impact. Advancing knowledge of these dynamics is necessary for forecasting how altered rainfall and temperatures from climate change may impact flows. Improved forecasting is especially important given Florida's reliance on groundwater extraction to support its growing population.

  3. Sources and Reactivity of Terrestrial Organic Carbon to the Colville River Delta, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Bianchi, T. S.; Rosenheim, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial particulate organic carbon (tPOC) delivery to nearshore deltaic regions is an important mechanism of OC storage and burial, and continental margins worldwide account for approximately 90% of the carbon burial in the ocean. Increasing warming in the Arctic is leading to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle, warming of permafrost, and broad shifts in vegetation. All of these changes are likely to affect the delivery, reactivity, and burial of tPOC in nearshore Arctic regions, making the Arctic an ideal place to study the effects of climate change on tPOC delivery. However, to date, most studies of tPOC delivery from North America to the Arctic Ocean have focused on large Arctic rivers like the Mackenzie and Yukon, and a significant portion of those watersheds lie in sub-Arctic latitudes, meaning that their tPOC delivery is likely not uniquely representative of the high Arctic tundra. Here, we focus on tPOC delivery by the Colville River, the largest North American river with a watershed that does not include sub-Arctic latitudes. Sediment samples from the river delta and nearby Simpson's Lagoon were taken in August of 2010 and subsequently fractionated by density, in order to study the delivery of both discrete and sediment-sorbed tPOC. Samples were analyzed for stable carbon isotopes, bulk radiocarbon, terrestrial biomarkers (including lignin-phenols, and other CuO reaction products), and aquatic biomarkers (algal pigments), and additionally a subset of the samples were analyzed by ramped pyrolysis-14C. Results show that tPOC delivery near the river mouth is sourced from coastal plain tundra, with additional delivery of tPOC from peat released into the lagoon from the seaward limit of the tundra by coastal erosion. Ramped pyrolysis-14C analysis also shows a clear differentiation between tPOC delivered by the river and tPOC delivered by coastal retreat in the lagoon. Additionally, a significant portion of the OC released by the Colville River is

  4. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Compound simulation of fluvial floods and storm surges in a global coupled river-coast flood model: Model development and its application to 2007 Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip J.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Verlaan, Martin; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-08-01

    Water-related disasters, such as fluvial floods and cyclonic storm surges, are a major concern in the world's mega-delta regions. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of extreme discharges from rivers and storm surges could exacerbate flood risk, compared to when they occur separately. Hence, it is of great importance to assess the compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, including mega-deltas. However, most studies on compound fluvial and coastal flooding have been limited to relatively small scales, and global-scale or large-scale studies have not yet addressed both of them. The objectives of this study are twofold: to develop a global coupled river-coast flood model; and to conduct a simulation of compound fluvial flooding and storm surges in Asian mega-delta regions. A state-of-the-art global river routing model was modified to represent the influence of dynamic sea surface levels on river discharges and water levels. We conducted the experiments by coupling a river model with a global tide and surge reanalysis data set. Results show that water levels in deltas and estuaries are greatly affected by the interaction between river discharge, ocean tides and storm surges. The effects of storm surges on fluvial flooding are further examined from a regional perspective, focusing on the case of Cyclone Sidr in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta in 2007. Modeled results demonstrate that a >3 m storm surge propagated more than 200 km inland along rivers. We show that the performance of global river routing models can be improved by including sea level dynamics.

  6. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  7. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  8. STORMTOOLS: Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing coastal zone managers and municipal planners is the development of an objective, quantitative assessment of the risk to structures, infrastructure, and public safety that coastal communities face from storm surge in the presence of changing climatic conditions, particularly sea level rise and coastal erosion. Here we use state of the art modeling tool (ADCIRC and STWAVE to predict storm surge and wave, combined with shoreline change maps (erosion, and damage functions to construct a Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI. Access to the state emergency data base (E-911 provides information on structure characteristics and the ability to perform analyses for individual structures. CERI has been designed as an on line Geographic Information System (GIS based tool, and hence is fully compatible with current flooding maps, including those from FEMA. The basic framework and associated GIS methods can be readily applied to any coastal area. The approach can be used by local and state planners to objectively evaluate different policy options for effectiveness and cost/benefit. In this study, CERI is applied to RI two communities; Charlestown representing a typical coastal barrier system directly exposed to ocean waves and high erosion rates, with predominantly low density single family residences and Warwick located within Narragansett Bay, with more limited wave exposure, lower erosion rates, and higher residential housing density. Results of these applications are highlighted herein.

  9. Simulation of morphodinamic processes in small coastal systems: application to the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André B.; Oliveira, Anabela; Bertin, Xavier; Bruneau, Nicolas; Rodrigues, Marta

    2010-05-01

    In small and shallow coastal streams, morphological changes may have a dramatic effect on tidal propagation and distortion, on hydrodynamics and, ultimately, on the transport and fate of water-borne material. Hence, the ability to simulate the morphodynamic evolution of these dynamic and complex systems can be required for water quality studies. This work aimed at implementing, validating and exploring the morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D (Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004, Bertin et al., 2009) in the Aljezur stream, a small and dynamic coastal system located in south-west Portugal. Four extensive field campaigns were carried out in 2008 and 2009 to measure bathymetry, water levels, waves and currents, in both the estuary and the adjoining beach. Between the two 2009 campaigns, bathymetry was measured on a monthly basis. Data revealed significant morphological changes, including channel migration and the formation of sandbars. The morphodynamic modelling system MORSYS2D consists of a wave model (SWAN - Booij et al., 1999), a circulation model (ELCIRC - Zhang et al., 2004) and a sediment transport and bottom update model (SAND2D, Fortunato and Oliveira, 2004), and is controlled by a script that runs the models, manages the transfer of information between them and performs control checks. The model was shown to reproduce successfully the waves, the water levels and the velocities. Preliminary morphodynamic simulations revealed that the model is highly sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions, the parameterization of friction and the sediment transport formulation. This presentation will describe the calibration and validation of the morphodynamic modelling system and will investigate on the circumstances that can lead to the inlet closure (including wave action and river flow). Acknowledgements This work was sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT), project MADyCOS (PTDC/ECM/66484/2006). The authors thank the developers of the

  10. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  11. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  12. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  13. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  14. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  15. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  16. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  17. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  18. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  19. Estimation of /sup 65/Zn background levels for marine coastal waters. [Data from northeast Pacific coast for August 1964

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G V; Rowland, R H

    1966-04-09

    Data are presented on Zn and /sup 65/Zn contents in tissues of marine animals collected along the Pacific coast near to and remote from the Columbia River. Specimens of barnacles, starfish, and mussels were collected during August of 1964. Tissues were dried by lyophilization and the radioisotope concentration was determined with a whole-body counter. To evaluate the background contamination level of /sup 65/Zn on the Pacific coast, /sup 54/Mn analyses were included to differentiate the contribution of fallout and /sup 51/Cr was determined to evaluate the contribution from the Columbia River. It was concluded that coastal /sup 65/Zn levels result essentially from fallout and that the present level in fallout is relatively constant at 0.05 to 2.7 pc /sup 65/Zn/mg Zn.

  20. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  1. Descriptions and preliminary report on sediment cores from the southwest coastal area, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from five locations in the southwest coastal area of Everglades National Park, Florida, in May 2004 for the purpose of determining the ecosystem history of the area and the impacts of changes in flow through the Shark River Slough. An understanding of natural cycles of change prior to significant human disturbance allows land managers to set realistic performance measures and targets for salinity and other water quality and quantity quality measures. Preliminary examination of the cores indicates significant changes have taken place over the last 1000-2000 years. The cores collected from the inner bays - the most landward bays - are distinctly different from other estuarine sediment cores examined in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay. Peats in the inner-bay cores from Big Lostmans Bay, Broad River Bay, and Tarpon Bay were deposited at least 1000 years before present (BP) based on radiocarbon analyses. The peats are overlain by poorly sorted organic muds and sands containing species indicative of deposition in a freshwater to very low salinity environment. The Alligator Bay core, the most northern inner-bay core, is almost entirely sand; no detailed faunal analyses or radiometric dating has been completed on this core. The Roberts River core, taken from the mouth of the River where it empties into Whitewater Bay, is lithologically and faunally similar to previously examined cores from Biscayne and Florida Bays; however, the basal unit was deposited ~2000 years before the present based on radiocarbon analyses. A definite trend of increasing salinity over time is seen in the Roberts River core, from sediments representing a terrestrially dominated freshwater environment at the bottom of the core to those representing an estuarine environment with a strong freshwater influence at the top. The changes seen at Roberts River could represent a combination of factors including rising sea-level and changes in freshwater supply, but the timing and

  2. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  3. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, S.K.; Slyman, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  4. River Restoration by Dam Removal: Assessing Riverine Re-Connectivity Across New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Graber, B.; Sneddon, C.; Fox, C.; Martin, E.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of dams in New England are especially acute as it possesses one of the highest densities of dams in the US, with the NID documenting more than 4,000 dams, and state agency records indicating that >14,000 dams are peppered throughout the landscape. This large number of dams contributes to pervasive watershed fragmentation, threatening the ecological integrity of rivers and streams, and in the case of old, poorly maintained structures, posing a risk to lives and property. These concerns have generated active dam removal efforts throughout New England. To best capture the geomorphic, hydrologic, and potential ecological effects of dam removal at a regional level, we have compiled a dataset of 127 removed dams in New England, which includes information about structural characteristics, georectified locations, and key watershed attributes (including basin size, distance to next upstream obstacle, and number of free-flowing river kms opened up). Our specific research questions address (1) what is the spatial distribution of removed dams and how does this pattern relate to stated management goals of restoring critical habitat for native resident freshwater and diadromous fish, (2) what are the structural or management commonalities in dam types that have been removed, and (3) what has been the incremental addition of free-flowing river length? Rather than reflecting an overall management prioritization strategy, results indicate that dam removals are characterized more by opportunistic removals. For example, despite a regional emphasis on diadromous fish protection and restoration, most removals are inland rather than coastal settings. Most of the removed dams were small (~ 45% 2,300 river kms over the past several decades, with implication for both resident and diadromous fish, and with many removals located in mid-sized rivers that are a key link between upstream and downstream/coastal aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sea Surface Salinity in Coastal Waters of China Based on Aquarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Jin, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) is a fundamental parameter for the study of global ocean dynamics, water cycle, and climate variability. Aquarius launched by NASA and the Space Agency of Argentina is a breakthrough which could achieve the remote sensing data of SSS. The present paper takes the coastal of China as study area, which is a representative area of ocean boundary and influenced by continental rivers (Yangtze River and Pearl River). After analyze the temporal and spatial variation of SSS in the coastal of China, the estuary area has obvious low salinity because the injected of freshwater from continent. Take the East China Sea (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS) as representative region to discuss the effect of freshwater to SSS. The salinity is almost equal in winter when the diluted water is inadequate in both rivers. However, an obvious decrease appeared in summer especial July in Yangtze River for abundance discharge inflow the ECS. This is a reasonable expression of Yangtze River discharge is remarkable influence the SSS in coastal area then Pearl River. Survey the distribution range of Yangtze River diluted water (SSS<31psu). The range is small in winter and expands to peak value in summer

  6. Proceedings of a workshop on coastal impacts and adaptation related to climate change : the C-CIARN Coastal Node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Coastal zones are sensitive to increases in air, sea and ground temperatures as well as to variations in sea level, precipitation, ice thickness, and storm intensity. In order to address concerns regarding climate change in coastal areas, the government of Canada established a Coastal Node as part of the Canadian Climate Impact and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN). The role of C-CIARN Coastal Node was recently outlined in a workshop aimed at providing guidelines and research priorities for stakeholders from all coastal regions of Canada. The workshop considered the integration of the node function with one or more of the regional nodes or with the fisheries node. Topics of discussion included both direct impacts on coastal infrastructure or human-use activities as well as indirect impacts resulting from changes in the ecosystem. refs., tabs

  7. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  8. Hurricane Ike: Observations and Analysis of Coastal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara S.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Serafin, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding storm-induced coastal change and forecasting these changes require knowledge of the physical processes associated with the storm and the geomorphology of the impacted coastline. The primary physical processes of interest are the wind field, storm surge, and wave climate. Not only does wind cause direct damage to structures along the coast, but it is ultimately responsible for much of the energy that is transferred to the ocean and expressed as storm surge, mean currents, and large waves. Waves and currents are the processes most responsible for moving sediments in the coastal zone during extreme storm events. Storm surge, the rise in water level due to the wind, barometric pressure, and other factors, allows both waves and currents to attack parts of the coast not normally exposed to those processes. Coastal geomorphology, including shapes of the shoreline, beaches, and dunes, is equally important to the coastal change observed during extreme storm events. Relevant geomorphic variables include sand dune elevation, beach width, shoreline position, sediment grain size, and foreshore beach slope. These variables, in addition to hydrodynamic processes, can be used to predict coastal vulnerability to storms The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/hurricanes), strives to provide hazard information to those interested in the Nation's coastlines, including residents of coastal areas, government agencies responsible for coastal management, and coastal researchers. As part of the National Assessment, observations were collected to measure coastal changes associated with Hurricane Ike, which made landfall near Galveston, Texas, on September 13, 2008. Methods of observation included aerial photography and airborne topographic surveys. This report documents these data-collection efforts and presents qualitative and quantitative descriptions of hurricane-induced changes to the shoreline

  9. Analysis of Compound Water Hazard in Coastal Urbanized Areas under the Future Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuo, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Sanuki, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Lee, S.; Tajima, Y.; Koike, T.; Furumai, H.; Sato, S.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies indicate the increased frequency and magnitude of heavy rainfalls as well as the sea level rise under the future climate, which implies that coastal low-lying urbanized areas may experience increased risk against flooding. In such areas, where river discharge, tidal fluctuation, and city drainage networks altogether influence urban inundation, it is necessary to consider their potential interference to understand the effect of compound water hazard. For instance, pump stations cannot pump out storm water when the river water level is high, and in the meantime the river water level shall increase when it receives pumped water from cities. At the further downstream, as the tidal fluctuation regulates the water levels in the river, it will also affect the functionality of pump stations and possible inundation from rivers. In this study, we estimate compound water hazard in the coastal low-lying urbanized areas of the Tsurumi river basin under the future climate. We developed the seamlessly integrated river, sewerage, and coastal hydraulic model that can simulate river water levels, water flow in sewerage network, and inundation from the rivers and/or the coast to address the potential interference issue. As a forcing, the pseudo global warming method, which applies the changes in GCM anomaly to re-analysis data, is employed to produce ensemble typhoons to drive the seamlessly integrated model. The results show that heavy rainfalls caused by the observed typhoon generally become stronger under the pseudo global climate condition. It also suggests that the coastal low-lying areas become extensively inundated if the onset of river flooding and storm surge coincides.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sediments from South Bohai coastal watersheds, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Relatively high concentrations of PFAS, especially PFOA, were found in the Xiaoqing River sediment. • PFOA and PFBS were the dominant PFAS in the sediments from coastal and riverine area, respectively. • Concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFHxS in sediment were significantly correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. • Risks posed by PFOA and PFOS to benthic organisms from concentrations of PFAS in sediments were small. - Abstract: This study investigated the concentrations and distribution of Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in sediments of 12 rivers from South Bohai coastal watersheds. The highest concentrations of ΣPFAS (31.920 ng g −1 dw) and PFOA (29.021 ng g −1 dw) were found in sediments from the Xiaoqing River, which was indicative of local point sources in this region. As for other rivers, concentrations of ΣPFAS ranged from 0.218 to 1.583 ng g −1 dw were found in the coastal sediments and from 0.167 to 1.953 ng g −1 dw in the riverine sediments. Predominant PFAS from coastal and riverine areas were PFOA and PFBS, with percentages of 30% and 35%, respectively. Partitioning analysis showed the concentrations of PFNA, PFDA and PFHxS were significantly correlated with organic carbon. The results of a preliminary environmental hazard assessment showed that PFOS posed the highest hazard in the Mi River, while PFOA posed a relative higher hazard in the Xiaoqing River

  11. From Rivers to Oceans and Back: Linking Models to Encompass the Full Salmon Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner,