WorldWideScience

Sample records for included coal system

  1. Education Program on Fossil Resources Including Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Masahiro

    Fossil fuels including coal play a key role as crucial energies in contributing to economic development in Asia. On the other hand, its limited quantity and the environmental problems causing from its usage have become a serious global issue and a countermeasure to solve such problems is very much demanded. Along with the pursuit of sustainable development, environmentally-friendly use of highly efficient fossil resources should be therefore, accompanied. Kyushu-university‧s sophisticated research through long years of accumulated experience on the fossil resources and environmental sectors together with the advanced large-scale commercial and empirical equipments will enable us to foster cooperative research and provide internship program for the future researchers. Then, this program is executed as a consignment business from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry from 2007 fiscal year to 2009 fiscal year. The lecture that uses the textbooks developed by this program is scheduled to be started a course in fiscal year 2010.

  2. Coal transporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevski, Goce; Sazdov, Dushko; Tasevski, Apostol

    1999-01-01

    Installation of transporting systems in coal open pits in Macedonia was connected with construction and purchasing of the equipment from foreign companies. During 1998 Electric Power Company of Macedonia in connection with needs of the Oslomej Thermal Power Plant and delivery conditions,decided to give this task to domestic companies. This paper presents the planning activities an the implementation of the new coal transporting system. (Author)

  3. Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanìk František

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits (calculation of coal reserves based on data stored in coal deposit database including processing of textual and graphic outputs was elaborated. The nature of such outputs is based on conventional coal reserve calculations so that connection with coal reserve calculations made in the past is secured. Differences in particular coal deposits as well as in individual coal seams are respected in the system. Coal seams differ one from another in their development by variability of seam thickness and seam quality within coal deposit etc. In addition to this, coal deposits are disturbed by tectonic failures and deformations. The system of evaluation of coal deposits is based on development of planar models of particular seams where calculation blocks are created and coal reserves contained in them are determined. Subsequently coal reserves of particular seams and of the whole deposit are determined. Natural limitation of seam model is given by determined minimum seam thickness and maximum ash content (i.e. content of inorganic component in coal. Basic model is structured according to detected main tectonic lines into tectonic blocks. According to further geological factors (e.g. erosion and contractual boundaries (e.g. demarcations, the deposit is structured into smaller units - calculation blocks. The whole system operates in a maximum automated regime with minimum manual interventions into solving procedure. The system enables rapid alternative calculations of coal reserves according to varying limit values of basic calculation parameters.

  4. Overview of United States coal export terminals. [Includes description of present coal port terminal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Existing coal export ports in the United States are in general not designed to the standards compatible with the current state of the art. The United States has a current coal export capacity in the order of 83 million tons per year. This could be increased to 138 million tons per year through a process of modernization and expansion which would take about six to eight years for full realization. Even if this expansion program took place it would not result in an overall coal export system that was economically competitive due to the fact that our export terminals are generally outmoded and cannot accommodate the large vessels engaged in the world coal trade and which can be accommodated at the major coal destination ports in Europe and Japan. In order for the United States to achieve an economically competitive posture in the world coal trade, new ports that will handle 150,000 to 250,000 DWT ships are needed. The new terminals must be designed to receive coal efficiently and minimize the demurrage costs for both railcars on the delivery side and ships on the load out side. There are port sites available in the US which could be developed to effectively handle the increased requirements. Each major new port could easily be designed to handle 20 to 50 million tons per year at ultimate capacity subject to the availability of coal from the source at a reasonable cost. New port construction is needed to satisfy the projected demand at a reasonable cost and to provide for the obsolescence of existing facilities. Decisions are needed now so that the ports will be operating 20 years from now and serve as replacements for present facilities which are becoming obsolete. The government of the United States can and must play a major role if success is to be achieved.

  5. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit

  6. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  7. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  8. A Modified Coal Mine Roof Rating Classification System to Design Support Requirements in Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Abbas; Lee, Yongha; Medina, Mario Andres Guardado

    2017-10-01

    The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) classification system has been applied in a number of coal mines worldwide including Australia. However, the current system cannot be used directly to design support measures in underground mines. Two case studies, the Eliza Hill project in Australia and Tabas coal mine in Iran were analyzed to assess the impact of various rock properties and gallery geometry on stability and to modify the CMRR classification system. Having considered the CMRR system as a working classification system, applicable information and related coal mine data were selected from the two case records. The CMRR value was evaluated and analysed by undertaking correlation between CMRR and factor of safety, followed by a parametric study based on various rock properties and gallery geometries. To improve the applicability of the current system, the CMRR system was then modified by adding additional parameters, namely, the width of roof span and the density of overburden rock. Consequently, based on the modified CMRR system (mCMRR) roof support requirements were recommended to select the suitable rock bolting system including length and spacing of rock bolt. Numerical modelling were then undertaken to verify the support requirements recommended. The support requirements recommended by the mCMRR were found to be relatively identical with numerical analysis results. Support systems proposed by mCMRR can assist mining engineers to assess the stability of underground coal mines or verify the results of other design tools.

  9. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  10. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  11. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  12. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  13. Seca Coal-Based Systems Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the August 1, 2006 - May 31, 2008 award period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42614 for the U. S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled 'SECA Coal Based Systems'. The initial overall objective of this program was to design, develop, and demonstrate multi-MW integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plants with >50% overall efficiency from coal (HHV) to AC power. The focus of the program was to develop low-cost, high performance, modular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology to support coal gas IGFC power systems. After a detailed GE internal review of the SOFC technology, the program was de-scoped at GE's request. The primary objective of this program was then focused on developing a performance degradation mitigation path for high performing, cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). There were two initial major objectives in this program. These were: (1) Develop and optimize a design of a >100 MWe integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) power plant; (2) Resolve identified barrier issues concerning the long-term economic performance of SOFC. The program focused on designing and cost estimating the IGFC system and resolving technical and economic barrier issues relating to SOFC. In doing so, manufacturing options for SOFC cells were evaluated, options for constructing stacks based upon various cell configurations identified, and key performance characteristics were identified. Key factors affecting SOFC performance degradation for cells in contact with metallic interconnects were be studied and a fundamental understanding of associated mechanisms was developed using a fixed materials set. Experiments and modeling were carried out to identify key processes/steps affecting cell performance degradation under SOFC operating conditions. Interfacial microstructural and elemental changes were characterized, and their relationships to observed degradation

  14. Development of a dry-feed system for a coal-fired gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, J.W. Jr.; Smith, C.F.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the reported of the reported work is to develop a dry coal feed system that provides smooth, controllable flow of coal solids into the high pressure combustor of the engine and all test rigs. The system must start quickly and easily, run continuously with automatic transfer of coal from low pressure hoppers to the high pressure delivery system, and offer at least a 3:1 smooth turn-down ratio. cost of the equipment must be minimized to maintain the economic attractiveness of the whole system. Before the current contract started some work was done with dry powder coal. For safety and convenience reasons, coal water slurry was selected as the fuel for all work on the program. Much of the experimental work, including running the Allison 501-KM engine was done with coal slurry. Recent economic analysis led to a change to powdered coal.

  15. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  16. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  17. SECA Coal-Based Systems – LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard [LG Fuel Cell Systems Incorporated, North Canton, OH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale distributed power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate, through analysis and testing, progress towards adequate stack life and stability in a low-cost solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack design. The emphasis of the proposed work has been the further understanding of the degradation mechanisms present within the LGFCS SOFC stack and development of the active layers to mitigate such mechanisms for achievement of a lower rate of power degradation. Performance enhancement has been achieved to support cost reduction. Testing is performed at a range of scales from single cells to ~350 kW bundles and ultimately pressurized 15kW blocks in test rigs that are representative of the product system cycle. The block is the representative fuel cell module that forms the building block for the LGFCS SOFC power system.

  18. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  19. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  20. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Pierre

    2010-09-01

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandia-stabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement wi th the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  1. SECA Coal-Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Joseph

    2010-09-10

    This report documents the results of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42613 between Siemens Energy and the U.S. Department of Energy for the period October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2010. The Phase I POCD8R0 stack test was successfully completed as it operated for approximately 5,300 hrs and achieved all test objectives. The stack test article contained twenty-four 75 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells. Maximum power was approximately 10 kWe and the SOFC generator demonstrated an availability factor of 85% at 50% power or greater. The Phase II POCD8R1 stack test operated for approximately 410 hrs before being aborted due to a sudden decrease in voltage accompanied by a rapid increase in temperature. The POCD8R1 test article contained forty-eight 100 cm active length Delta8 scandiastabilized zirconia cells arranged in an array of six bundles, with each bundle containing eight cells. Cell development activities resulted in an approximate 100% improvement in cell power at 900°C. Cell manufacturing process improvements led to manufacturing yields of greater than 40% for the Delta8 cells. Delta8 cells with an active length of 100 cm were successfully manufactured as were cells with a seamless closed end. A pressurized cell test article was assembled, installed into the pressurized test facility and limited pressurized testing conducted. Open circuit voltage tests were performed at one and three atmospheres at 950°C were in agreement with the theoretical increase in the Nernst potential. Failed guard heaters precluded further testing. The SOFC analytical basis for the baseline system was validated with experimental data. Two system configurations that utilize a pressurized SOFC design with separated anode and cathode streams were analyzed. System efficiencies greater than 60% were predicted when integrating the separated anode and cathode stream module configuration with a high efficiency catalytic gasifier.

  2. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data representing coal mines and coal-bearing areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung; Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled geographic information system (GIS) data representing the known coal mine locations and coal-mining areas of China as of 2001. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of China. Province-scale maps were also created to display the point locations of coal mines and the coal-mining areas. In addition, coal-field outlines from a previously published map by Dai and others (2012) were also digitized and are available for download as a separate GIS data file, and shown in a nation-scale map of China. Chemical data for 332 coal samples from a previous USGS study of China and Taiwan (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile, and shown on a nation-scale map of China. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  3. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  4. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  5. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  6. Simulation of longwall top coal caving sequence and coal clearance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, B.; Hebblewhite, B.; Cai, Y. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) system of mining thick coal seams offers productivity and safety benefits, compared to the single pass operations used in Australia. The application of simulation modelling (AutoMod) to optimize caving sequences, predict throughput of a LTCC system, find and minimize slow-downs, and predict peak loading capacity of each conveyor section is described. Data sampled from an operating LTCC face in China is used to verify the model. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data of coal mines and coal-bearing areas in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2015-09-10

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled GIS data representing coal mines, deposits (including those with and without coal mines), occurrences, areas, basins, and provinces of Mongolia as of 2009. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of Mongolia. Chemical data for 37 coal samples from a previous USGS study of Mongolia (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile and shown on the map of Mongolia. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  8. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  9. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  10. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  11. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  12. Palynology of selected coal beds in the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanke, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    The usefulness of Pennsylvanian palynomorphs, spores, and pollen grains, as an aid in coal-correlation investigations in the Appalachians, has been known for many years. However, much of this and subsequent information was scattered in the literature or was not from the proposed stratotype area of West Virginia. Investigation of coals from sections of the proposed Pennsylvanian System stratotype provided the opportunity to examine changes in palynomorph content through a number of coals from the New River Formation to the basal part of the Monongahela Formation. The rank of most coals of the Pocahontas and New River Formations of West Virginia does not permit extraction of palynomorphs with current laboratory maceration techniques. Because of this, the data of some possibly equivalent lower rank Pennsylvanian coals from adjacent parts of southern Ohio and eastern Kentucky have been included. The coals examined from the Kanawha Formation, Charleston Sandstone, and Monongahela Formations of West Virginia have yielded abundant and well-preserved palynomorphs. Attention has been focused on the Charleston Sandstone, which is a massive, complex unit lacking marine fossils and composed primarily of sandstone. The coal is a significant resource in Pennsylvanian rocks, and the correlation of coals is an important consideration in the area of the stratotype in West Virginia and in adjacent States. As a result of this preliminary examination, the approximate range zones of some important taxa have been established. These range zones together with abundance data are used to correlate the coals. The range zones of some important taxa from Lower to Upper Pennsylvanian coals are: Densosporites irregularis Hacquebard and Barss, Stenozonotriletes lycosporoides (Butterworth and Williams) Smith and Butterworth, Schulzospora rara Kosanke, Laevigatosporites spp., Radiizonates spp., Torispora securis Balme, Zosterosporites triangularis Kosanke, Thymospora pseudothiessenii (Kosanke

  13. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard

    2013-08-01

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations in subsequent phases. LGFCS is currently in Phase 2 of the program with the Phase 1 test carrying over for completion during Phase 2. Major technical results covering the initial Phase 2 budget period include: Metric Stack Testing: 1. The Phase I metric test is a ~7.6 kW block test (2 strips) in Canton that started in March 2012 and logged 2135 hours of testing prior to an event that required the test to be shutdown. The degradation rate through 2135 hours was 0.4%/1000 hours, well below the Phase I target of 2%/1000 hours and the Phase 2 target of 1.5%/1000 hours. 2. The initial Phase II metric test consisting of 5 strips (~19 kW) was started in May 2012. At the start of the test OCV was low and stack temperatures were out of range. Shutdown and inspection revealed localized structural damage to the strips. The strips were repaired and the test restarted October 11, 2012. 3. Root cause analysis of the Phase 1 and initial Phase 2 start-up failures concluded a localized short circuit across adjacent tubes/bundles caused localized heating and thermal stress fracture of substrates. Pre-reduction of strips rather than in-situ reduction within block test rigs now provides a critical quality check prior to block testing. The strip interconnect design has been modified to avoid short circuits. Stack Design: 1. Dense ceramic strip components were redesigned to achieve common components and a uniform design for all 12 bundles of a strip while meeting a flow uniformity of greater

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  15. SECA Coal-Based Systems - LGFCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard

    2014-01-31

    LGFCS is developing an integrated planar (IP) SOFC technology for mega-watt scale power generation including the potential for use in highly efficient, economically competitive central generation power plant facilities fuel by coal synthesis gas. This Department of Energy Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program has been aimed at achieving further cell and stack technical advancements and assessing the readiness of the LGFCS SOFC stack technology to be scaled to larger-scale demonstrations as a path to commercialization. Significant progress was achieved in reducing to practice a higher performance and lower cost cell technology, identifying and overcoming degradation mechanisms, confirming the structural capability of the porous substrate for reliability, maturing the strip design for improved flow to allow high fuel utilization operation while minimizing degradation mechanisms and obtaining full scale block testing at 19 kW under representative conditions for eventual product and meeting SECA degradation metrics. The SECA program has played a key role within the overall LGFCS development program in setting the foundation of the technology to justify the progression of the technology to the next level of technology readiness testing.

  16. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  17. System selection for coal combustion by-product transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coal combustion by-product transportation and handling systems are presented within the context of underground placement of the by-products in the old workings of the coal mines. The factors affecting the system selection are presented along with the tools and procedures developed to aid the selection process. A hypothetical case applicable to southern and central Illinois is given to illustrate the use of the developed products. 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. The coal cleat system: A new approach to its study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After a general analysis regarding the concept of coal “cleat system”, its genetic origin and practical applications to coalbed methane (CBM commercial production and to CO2 geological sequestration projects, the authors have developed a method to answer, quickly and accurately in accordance with the industrial practice and needs, the following yet unanswered questions: (1 how to define the spatial orientation of the different classes of cleats presented in a coal seam and (2 how to determine the frequency of their connectivites. The new available and presented techniques to answer these questions have a strong computer based tool (geographic information system, GIS, able to build a complete georeferentiated database, which will allow to three-dimensionally locate the laboratory samples in the coalfield. It will also allow to better understand the coal cleat system and consequently to recognize the best pathways to gas flow through the coal seam. Such knowledge is considered crucial for understanding what is likely to be the most efficient opening of cleat network, then allowing the injection with the right spatial orientation, of pressurized fluids in order to directly drain the maximum amount of gas flow to a CBM exploitation well. The method is also applicable to the CO2 geological sequestration technologies and operations corresponding to the injection of CO2 sequestered from industrial plants in coal seams of abandoned coal mines or deep coal seams.

  19. Successful identification of complex cleat systems in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jubori, A.; Khalid, S. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Natras, T.; McIlreath, I. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Coal in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) have complex cleat systems that can have a significant impact on gas recovery. In this study, resistivity micro-imaging was used to identify cleat systems in horizontal wells. A formation micro-imager was used to identify a master cleat superimposed on a conventional cleat structure. The feature extended beyond the coal and into the adjacent shale bed. The master cleats occurred more frequently near the coal seam. Data obtained with the resistivity micro-imaging tool can be used to predict the flow quality of coal seams, and can also be correlated with other datasets. The technique has been used to determine cleat systems in a number of Canadian wells. 4 figs.

  20. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  1. SECA Coal-Based Systems - FuelCell Energy, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project is the development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive central generation power plant facilities fueled by coal synthesis gas (syngas). This program incorporates the following supporting objectives: • Reduce SOFC-based electrical power generation system cost to $700 or less (2007 dollars) for a greater than 100 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) power plant, exclusive of coal gasification and CO2 separation subsystem costs. • Achieve an overall IGFC power plant efficiency of at least 50%, from coal (higher heating value or HHV) to AC power (exclusive of CO2 compression power requirement). • Reduce the release of CO2 to the environment in an IGFC power plant to no more than 10% of the carbon in the syngas. • Increase SOFC stack reliability to achieve a design life of greater than 40,000 hours. At the inception of the project, the efforts were focused on research, design and testing of prototype planar SOFC power generators for stationary applications. FuelCell Energy, Inc. successfully completed the initial stage of the project by meeting the program metrics, culminating in delivery and testing of a 3 kW system at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Subsequently, the project was re-aligned into a three phase effort with the main goal to develop SOFC technology for application in coal-fueled power plants with >90% carbon capture. Phase I of the Coal-based efforts focused on cell and stack size scale-up with concurrent enhancement of performance, life, cost, and manufacturing characteristics. Also in Phase I, design and analysis of the baseline (greater than 100 MW) power plant system—including concept identification, system definition, and cost analysis—was conducted. Phase II efforts focused on development of a ≥25 kW SOFC stack tower incorporating

  2. Low-rank coal research annual report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1990 including quarterly report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    Research programs in the following areas are presented: control technology and coal preparation; advance research and technology development; combustion; liquefaction; and gasification. Sixteen projects are included. Selected items have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... proposed rule is an important element in MSHA's Comprehensive Initiative to ``End Black Lung--Act Now..., and chronic bronchitis, known collectively as ``black lung.'' These diseases are debilitating... reducing the respirable coal mine dust levels, miners continue to develop black lung. Based on recent data...

  4. Delivered costs of Western coal shipped on the Great Lakes versus Eastern coal for Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. With appendices on relative cost impacts of coal scrubbing and on other Western coal transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.

    1979-02-01

    This report analyzes the present and projected delivered cost competitiveness of Great Lakes shipped, low sulfur Western coal with low and high sulfur Eastern coal at Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. Its findings are based upon detailed data acquired from appropriate transportation firms and four eastern utility companies which use or have studied using the appropriate coal types. Two appendices provide: (1) a tentative, preliminary analysis of this competition with additional costs required by likely EPA scrubbing (sulfur removal) requirements, and (2) background information on other Western coal transport systems. Briefly, the findings of this report are that if Western coal is shipped via the Great Lakes to utility plants in the eastern Great Lakes hinterlands (i.e., inland from ports up to 200 miles): currently, based upon delivered costs only, it cannot compete with any type of Eastern coal; by 1989, with favorable interim Western versus Eastern cost escalation rate advantages on minemouth coal and transportation costs, Western coal delivered costs can begin competing with those of Eastern low sulfur, but not high sulfur coal; by 1999, with favorable relative cost escalation rate advantages, Western coal's delivered costs can become substantially less expensive than Eastern low sulfur coal's, and just begin to be competitive with Eastern high sulfur coal's; extremely high Eastern rail costs due to port area system characteristics are the main cost factor driving Western coal delivered costs to uneconomic levels.

  5. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  6. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  7. Palynology in coal systems analysis-The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Palynology can be effectively used in coal systems analysis to understand the nature of ancient coal-forming peat mires. Pollen and spores preserved in coal effectively reveal the floristic composition of mires, which differed substantially through geologic time, and contribute to determination of depositional environment and paleo- climate. Such applications are most effective when integrated with paleobotanical and coal-petrographic data. Examples of previous studies of Miocene, Carboniferous, and Paleogene coal beds illustrate the methods and results. Palynological age determinations and correlations of deposits are also important in coal systems analysis to establish stratigraphic setting. Application to studies of coalbed methane generation shows potential because certain kinds of pollen are associated with gas-prone lithotypes. ??2005 Geological Society of America.

  8. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  9. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  10. Model documentation Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This report documents objectives and conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1996 (AEO96). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s three submodules: Coal Production Submodule, Coal Export Submodule, and Coal Distribution Submodule.

  11. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on...

  12. Cost estimating relationships for coal conversion process units. Volume 1. Technical report. [Includes in some cases dependence on capacity and data references from which estimates were derived

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, E.N.; Carden, H.W.; Curtis, R.L.; Heidler, L.M.; Roppel, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    Cost estimating relationships for commercial-scale coal conversion process units are developed in this study. The specific units include: coal preparation, oxygen plant, gasification, shift conversion, acid gas/CO/sub 2/ removal, sulfur recovery, and the dissolver. Also set forth is a detailed Cost Chart of Accounts, together with a discussion of cost analysis procedures and problems.

  13. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, D. G.

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  14. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never

  15. Coal to SNG: Technical progress, modeling and system optimization through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Ji, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Xiaosong; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical progresses of coal to SNG technologies are reported. • The entire coal to SNG system is modeled. • Coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated. • Breakthrough points for further energy saving are determined. • System performance is optimized based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. - Abstract: For both energy security and CO 2 emission reduction, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal is an important path to implement clean coal technologies in China. In this paper, an overview of the progress of coal to SNG technologies, including the development of catalysts, reactor designs, synthesis processes, and systems integration, is provided. The coal to SNG system is modeled, the coupling between SNG production and power generation is investigated, the breakthrough points for further energy savings are determined, and the system performance is optimized based on the first and the second laws of thermodynamics. From the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics, the energy conversion efficiency of coal to SNG system can reach 59.8%. To reduce the plant auxiliary power, the breakthrough points are the development of low-energy-consumption oxygen production technology and gas purification technology or seeking new oxidants for coal gasification instead of oxygen. From the viewpoint of the second law of thermodynamics, the major exergy destruction in a coal to SNG system occurs in the coal gasification unit, SNG synthesis unit and the raw syngas cooling process. How to reduce the exergy destruction in these units is the key to energy savings and system performance enhancement. The conversion ratio of the first SNG synthesis reactor and the split ratio of the recycle gas are key factors that determine the performance of both the SNG synthesis process and the whole plant. A “turning point” phenomenon is observed: when the split ratio is higher than 0.90, the exergy destruction of the SNG

  16. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  17. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  18. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... proposed rule for Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due... Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31, 2011. DATES: The public hearing dates and locations are listed...

  19. Acid-gas removal systems in coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, D.K.

    1979-01-01

    A large number of acid-gas removal systems exist or are under development for the removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ from process gas streams. A few systems have been applied to coal conversion processes; others will require extrapolation of presently-proved commercial operation. The feed to the acid-gas removal system for the generic coal-to-ammonia facility is not well-defined; particularly for minor and trace constituents. This is particularly true in the case of newer gasification processes that may have significant economic advantages in the overall process when evaluated on a total systems analysis approach. A number of species that could be present in the gas fed to the acid-gas removal system are discussed; the design of that subprocess should consider the fate of these species from both an environmental and an economic standpoint. In an overall evaluation, it appears that acid-gas removal systems can be successfully applied in coal conversion; no technical obstacle has yet been discovered to restrict their application.

  20. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  1. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  2. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  3. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  4. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  5. Coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications -- Technology development. Final report, March 1988--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have developed the technology to enable coal-water slurry to be utilized in large-bore, medium-speed diesel engines. The target application is modular power generation in the 10 to 100 MW size, with each plant using between two and eight engines. Such systems are expected to be economically attractive in the non-utility generation market after 2000, when oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate rapidly compared to the price of coal. During this development program, over 1,000 hours of prototype engine operation have been achieved on coal-water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder, 1.8 MW engine with an integrated emissions control system. Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed the coal-fueled diesel development, with Cooper-Bessemer as the principal subcontractor responsible for the engine design and testing. Several key technical advances which enable the viability of the coal-fueled diesel engine were made under this program. Principal among them are the development and demonstration of (1) durable injection nozzles; (2) an integrated emissions control system; ad (3) low-cost clean coal slurry formulations optimized for the engine. Significant advances in all subsystem designs were made to develop the full-scale Cooper-Bessemer coal engine components in preparation for a 100-hour proof-of-concept test of an integrated system, including emissions controls. The Clean Coal Diesel power plant of the future will provide a cost-competitive, low-emissions, modular, coal-based power generation option to the non-utility generation, small utility, independent power producer, and cogeneration markets. Combined cycle efficiencies will be approximately 48% (lower heating value basis) and installed cost will be approximately $1,300/kW (1992 dollars).

  6. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Based Coal Ash Impoundments Safety Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E. J.; Nieto, A.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-01-01

    Coal ash impoundments are inevitable production of the coal-fired power plants. All coal ash impoundments in North Carolina USA that tested for groundwater contamination are leaking toxic heavy metals and other pollutants. Coal ash impoundments are toxic sources of dangerous pollutants that pose a danger to human and environmental health if the toxins spread to adjacent surface waters and drinking water wells. Coal ash impoundments failures accidents resulted in serious water contamination along with toxic heavy metals. To improve the design and stability of coal ash impoundments, the Development of a Coal Ash Impoundment Safety Monitoring System (CAISM) was proposed based on the implementation of a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the ability to monitor the stability of coal ash impoundments, water level, and saturation levels on-demand and remotely. The monitoring system based on a robust Ad-hoc network could be adapted to different safety conditions.

  7. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  8. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  9. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  10. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; rescheduling of public hearings; correction. SUMMARY... also corrects one error in the preamble to the proposed rule. On November 15, 2010, MSHA published the... from any interested party, including those not presenting oral statements. Comments must be received by...

  11. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... suggested alternative timeframes, particularly in light of the CPDM's limited memory capacity of about 20... concentrations that exceed proposed standards. For example, the proposed plan would include pre-operational examination, testing and set-up procedures to verify the operational readiness of the CPDM before each shift...

  12. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of income. Like their counterparts elsewhere, they face many difficulties, including: ...

  13. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  14. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  15. Upper Paleozoic coal measures and unconventional natural gas systems of the Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Upper Paleozoic coal measures in the Ordos Basin consist of dark mudstone and coal beds and are important source rocks for gas generation. Gas accumulations include coal-bed methane (CBM, tight gas and conventional gas in different structural areas. CBM accumulations are mainly distributed in the marginal area of the Ordos Basin, and are estimated at 3.5 × 1012 m3. Tight gas accumulations exist in the middle part of the Yishan Slope area, previously regarded as the basin-centered gas system and now considered as stratigraphic lithologic gas reservoirs. This paper reviews the characteristics of tight gas accumulations: poor physical properties (porosity < 8%, permeability < 0.85 × 10−3 μm2, abnormal pressure and the absence of well-defined gas water contacts. CBM is a self-generation and self-reservoir, while gas derived from coal measures migrates only for a short distance to accumulate in a tight reservoir and is termed near-generation and near-reservoir. Both CBM and tight gas systems require source rocks with a strong gas generation ability that extends together over wide area. However, the producing area of the two systems may be significantly different.

  16. Study on bubble column humidification and dehumidification system for coal mine wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Penghui; Zhang, Meng; Du, Yuji; Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Donghai

    2018-04-01

    Water is important resource for human survival and development. Coal mine wastewater (CMW) is a byproduct of the process of coal mining, which is about 7.0 × 10 10 m 3 in China in 2016. Considering coal mine wastewater includes different ingredients, a new bubble column humidification and dehumidification system is proposed for CMW treatment. The system is mainly composed of a bubble column humidification and dehumidification unit, solar collector, fan and water tank, in which air is used as a circulating medium. The system can avoid water treatment component blocking for reverse osmosis (RO) and multi effect distillation (MED) dealing with CMW, and produce water greenly. By analysis of heat and mass transfer, the effects of solar radiation, air bubble velocity and mine water temperature on water treatment production characteristics are studied. Compared with other methods, thermal energy consumption (TEC) of bubble column humidification and dehumidification (BCHD) is moderate, which is about 700 kJ/kg (powered by solar energy). The results would provide a new method for CMW treatment and insights into the efficient coal wastewater treatment, besides, it helps to identify the parameters for the technology development in mine water treatment.

  17. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  18. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  19. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  20. System applications CRC -Biomass + Coal; Aplicaciones Sistema CRC-Biomasa+Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Main object of Phase I of the project is to analyse the technical-economic feasibility of the combined use of biomass and coal for power generation in the Spanish region of Andalusia, by means of new medium-size independent power plants or using biomass as supplementary fuel in existing large coal power plants, including: -Analysis and classification of biomass and coal resources in the region -Technical-economic study of conventional alternatives using the steam cycle -Analysis of efficiency improvement provided by advanced Rankine-cycle technologies, like the SMR cycle -Analysis of alternatives based on parallel combined cycles using gas turbines, including advanced solutions, like the EAPI and CRC-EAPI systems. -Description and evaluation of different biomass drying systems. -Description and evaluation of the three main biomass gasification systems currently under development: atmospheric direct, atmospheric indirect and pressurized. Main objects of Phase II of the project are to analyse a specific application of the EAPI system to a real cogeneration plant project and to analyse the application of the CRC2 system to a commercial supercritical power plant, including technical-economic study of both applications. (Author)

  1. Applications of artificial intelligence, including expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    When Artificial Intelligence is applied to a complex physical system like a nuclear plant it is useful to distinguish between two rather distinct and different intelligent views of such a plant. The first view may be characterised as ''the designer's view''. This is the view of the plant as it was originally conceived and designed; it is essentially a once-and-for-all static view, corresponding to the implicit assumption of an ''ageless plant'', or at most a plant which ages in a preconceived, preset manner. The second view, which may be characterised as ''the operators view'', has to do more with a real-world, ageing plant. It is a more dynamic view, which sees the ageing process as one in which unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable events may occur at equally unforeseen, and possibly unforeseeable times. The first view is predominantly a way of thinking about the plant, while the second is very often more a way of feeling about it. It should be emphasized that both ways are ways of intelligence. (author)

  2. A Wireless LAN and Voice Information System for Underground Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we constructed a wireless information system, and developed a wireless voice communication subsystem based on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN for underground coal mine, which employs Voice over IP (VoIP technology and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP to achieve wireless voice dispatching communications. The master control voice dispatching interface and call terminal software are also developed on the WLAN ground server side to manage and implement the voice dispatching communication. A testing system for voice communication was constructed in tunnels of an underground coal mine, which was used to actually test the wireless voice communication subsystem via a network analysis tool, named Clear Sight Analyzer. In tests, the actual flow charts of registration, call establishment and call removal were analyzed by capturing call signaling of SIP terminals, and the key performance indicators were evaluated in coal mine, including average subjective value of voice quality, packet loss rate, delay jitter, disorder packet transmission and end-to- end delay. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate that the wireless voice communication subsystem developed communicates well in underground coal mine environment, achieving the designed function of voice dispatching communication.

  3. Optimization of the solar field size for the solar–coal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The annual solar power with SM varies for typical solar hybrid plants was evaluated. • An economic optimization of SM for each solar hybrid plant was presented. • The influences of local solar radiation and turbine operation load were estimated. • The results provide a theoretical reference in designing a solar–coal hybrid project. - Abstract: The hybridization of middle-temperature solar heat with traditional coal-fired power plants has profound and realistic implications for China. Most solar hybrid power plants, which differ from solar-only power plants, are not designed to include a thermal storage system to maintain system performance at nominal conditions during off-design solar radiation periods. Thus, a proper solar field size is an important design parameter. An excessively large field is partially useless under high solar irradiance, whereas a small field mainly reduces the work output and leads to the poor utilization of invested capital. This paper presents an economic optimization of the solar multiple (SM) for typical solar–coal parabolic trough plants with different unit scales (200–600 MW). The thermal performance for each solar hybrid power plant demonstrates that the methods to calculate the annual solar electricity produced with SM varies. Once the annual electric energy generation is identified, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and payback period (PP) for each case can be calculated. Thus, the optimized SM values yielding a minimum LCOE value or PP can be obtained. Furthermore, the influences of local solar radiation resources and turbine operation load conditions on the economic optimization of a system are estimated. Results indicate that the optimization of the solar field size is promising for the economic improvement of a solar–coal hybrid system. The results may also provide a theoretical reference for investors and government officials in designing a solar–coal hybrid project.

  4. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Botero, Cristina; Herzog, Howard J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.; Field, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. Nevertheless, preparation of the CO[subscript 2] slurry is challenging and the losses associated with this process have not been accounted for in previous analyses. This work introduces the Phase Inversion-based Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry (PHICCOS) feeding system, in which coal-CO...

  5. Early detection of spontaneous combustion of coal in underground coal mines with development of an ethylene enriching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jun; Xue, Sheng [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Kenmore (Australia); Cheng, Weimin; Wang, Gang [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal (sponcom) is a major hazard in underground coal mining operations. If not detected early and managed properly, it can seriously affect mine safety and productivity. Gaseous products of sponcom, such as carbon monoxide, ethylene and hydrogen, are commonly used in coal mines as indicators to reflect the state of the sponcom. Studies have shown that ethylene starts to occur when sponcom reaches a characteristic temperature. However, due to dilution of ventilation air and detection limits of the instruments used for gas analysis at coal mines, ethylene cannot be detected until the sponcom has developed past its early stage, missing an optimum opportunity for mine operators to control the hazard. To address the issue, an ethylene-enriching system, based on its physical adsorption and desorption properties, has been developed to increase detection sensitivity of the ethylene concentration in mine air by about 10 times. This system has successfully been applied in a number of underground coal mines in China to detect sponcom at its early stage and enable mine operators to take effective control measures. This paper describes the ethylene enriching system and its application. (author)

  6. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  7. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  8. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  9. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  10. Energy analysis of technological systems of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaporowski, B.; Roszkiewicz, J.; Sroka, K.; Szczerbowski, R. [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    1996-11-01

    The paper presents the energy analysis of technological systems of combined cycle power plants integrated with coal gasification. The mathematical model of the coal gasification process allows to calculate the composition and physical properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification. The paper presents an energy analysis of various technological systems of the gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification, based on energy and mass balances of gas generator, gas cooler, combustion chamber of gas turbine, gas turbine, steam generator, and steam turbine. The paper contains the following results of calculations: properties of gas obtained in the process of coal gasification, energy parameters of particular devices of power plants, total electric power, and efficiency of electric energy generation in the gas-steam power plants. The conclusions compare the efficiencies of electric energy generation in various technological systems of combined gas-steam power plants integrated with coal gasification. 5 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Sensitivity problems of control system of coal preparation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaula Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of technological processes of coal preparation takes place in the presence of wide disturbances. An important problem is the choice of the controller which is robust for a variety of disturbances. No less important problem in the control process is the tuning of the controller parameters. In the paper the analysis of influence of changes in object model parameters on the course of the controlled value was carried out. For the controller settings, calculated according to model parameters research was carried out on object with other values of parameters. In the studies a sensitivity analysis method was used. The sensitivity analysis for the three methods of tuning PI controller for control systems of coal preparation processes characterized by dynamic properties of the inertial element with time delay was presented. Considerations were performed at various parameters of the object on the basis of the response of the control system for a constant value of the set point. The assessment of the considered tuning methods based on selected indices of control quality was realized.

  12. Development of a GIS-based monitoring and management system for underground coal mining safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salap, Seda; Karslioglu, Mahmut Onur [Civil Engineering Department, Geomatics Division, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Demirel, Nuray [Mining Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-11-01

    Coal mine safety is of paramount concern to mining industry. Mine accidents have various causes and consequences including catastrophic failure of mine, substantial economic losses and most notably loss of lives. Therefore, any initiative in mine monitoring is of vital importance for progressing safety surveillance and maintenance. This paper presents the development of a geographic information system (GIS)-based monitoring and management system for underground mine safety in three levels as constructive safety, surveillance and maintenance, and emergency. The developed model integrates the database design and management to the monitoring system implementation which encompasses query and analysis operations with the help of web and desktop applications. Interactive object-oriented graphical user interfaces (GUIs) were developed to visualize information about the entities gathered from the model and also to provide analysis operations based on the graphical representations and demonstrations using data tables and map objects. The research methodology essentially encompasses five main stages: (i) designing a conceptual database model; (ii) development of a logical model in terms of entity-relationship (ER) diagrams; (iii) development of a physical model based on physical constraints and requirements; (iv) development of GUIs and implementation of the developed model, analysis and queries; (v) verification and validation of the created model for Oemerler underground coal mine in Turkey. The proposed system is expected to be an efficient tool for improving and maintaining healthy standards in underground coal mines which can possibly be extended to a national GIS infrastructure. (author)

  13. Assessment of environmental control technologies for Koppers-Totzek, Winkler, and Texaco coal gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1979-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, supports the Assistant Secretary for Environment in discharging responsibilities for environmental control aspects of technology in use and development. The coal gasification technologies employed by Winkler, Koppers-Totzek (K-T) and Texaco are described. Evaluation of the status of these technologies for control of major environmental pollutants indicates that a minimum risk to the environment is involved. The complete gasification process involves coal storage, coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, particulate removal, acid gas cleanup, shift conversion, oxygen manufacture, cleanup of waste water and makeup water, and utility operation. The status of each of these technologies with respect to environmental acceptability is discussed. Very little is known about the behavior of trace elements in the K-T, Texaco and Winkler gasification systems. Airborne emissions of trace elements can occur from the utility boiler, and from wind entrainment of discharged residue and stored coal. Ash components are discharged from the gasification processes with gasifier residues and gas-cleanup sludges and residues. The trace element composition of coal is geochemically similar to the makeup of the earth's crust and includes almost all of the elements of the periodic table. The potential hazard from emissions of trace elements is mainly from long-term, low-level exposures to increased atmospheric pollution levels. Discharges from the K-T, Texaco and Winkler processes can be expected to have very minor contributions to atmospheric pollution levels of trace elements. Table 1 summarizes the status of technology and data needs for the different processing steps. The different process areas and their potential for intrusion of the environment are discussed.

  14. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  15. System design verification of a hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This hybrid plant utilizes geothermal fluid for feedwater heating. With respect to the extraction of available work from the geothermal fluids, this cycle is approximately two times as efficient as the all geothermal plant. The System Design Verification Study presented verifies the technical and economic feasibility of the hybrid plant. This report is comprised of a conceptual design, cost estimate, and economic analysis of a one-unit 715 MW hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plant. In addition to the use of geothermal fluid for feedwater heating, its use is also investigated for additional power generation, condensate and cooling tower makeup water, coal beneficiation, air preheating, flue gas reheating and plant space heating requirements. An engineering and construction schedule for the hybrid plant is also included.

  16. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  18. Empirical approach for designing of support system in mechanized coal pillar mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A.; Singh, S.K.; Tewari, S.; Sinha, A. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mechanized room-and-pillar system of coal pillar mining using side dump loading machine or load haul dumper machine, or by continuous miner, is the presently most dominant under ground method of extraction in India. Under this method of extraction, strata control is a major problem affecting safety and productivity of the mine. As per existing Director General of Mine Safety guidelines, systematic support rules must be followed at the depillaring faces irrespective of immediate roof rock type and competency. Therefore, there is a high chance that sometimes these systematic support rules give unnecessarily high support, or sometimes inadequate support, which may lead to roof failure at the face. As a result, there is a big loss of life and material including coal in terms of left-outribs/stooks and other associated mining equipment deployed at the faces. Therefore, in the present paper, authors attempted to develop generalized empirical equations for estimating the required support load density at different places of the face based on geotechnical parameters of the mine and physico-mechanical properties of the immediate roof rocks for designing of support system during mechanized coal pillar mining.

  19. 11th annual conference on clean coal technology, proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Topics covered at the conference include coal combustion technology, multi-purpose coal conversion technology (including entrained-bed coal flash pyrolysis process (CPX), hydrogen production from coal and coal liquefaction), coal ash utilization technology, next general technology (including dry coal cleaning technologies and coal conversion by supercritical water) and basic coal utilization technology (including ash behaviour during coal gasification).

  20. Situational approach to the choice of information systems for business management for various organizational structures of deep coal mines. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendkowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    Organizational models of business management in 65 underground black coal mines in Poland are evaluated. The following problems are discussed: development of black coal mining, organizational structures of underground mining and their changes from 1950 to 1983, information needs of a coal mine depending on position of the mine in organizational structures, analyses of mining and geologic conditions in underground coal mines, comparative evaluations of operation and profitableness of coal mines, investigations into information needs of coal mines, a model of information needs of a coal mine, recommendations for development of a computerized control systems for business management in underground mining, recommendations for hardware and software. Following a critical evaluation of information systems used in coal mines, recommendations are made for information and control systems which would correspond with the needs of coal mines. 68 references.

  1. 78 FR 52973 - ICG Knott County, LLC, a Subsidiary of ICG, Inc., a Subsidiary of Arch Coal, Inc.; Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Regarding Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of ICG Knott County, LLC, a... Officer, a mis- interpretation of facts or of the law justified reconsideration of the decision. The... increased use of natural gas instead of bituminous coal by customers of the subject firm and customers of...

  2. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  3. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  4. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  5. Localized interaction between coal-included minerals and Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents during the high-pressure steam coal gasification (HyPr-RING) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, K.; Ohtomo, K.; Suzuki, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Shibano, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Hatano, H.; Yamada, O.; Shi-Ying, L.; Harada, M.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-12-08

    Pulverized Japanese bituminous coal (Taiheiyo coal) samples with diameter ranges of 38-75 {mu}m and 180-250 {mu}m were gasified with high-pressure steam in the presence of Ca-based CO{sub 2} sorbents. The experiments were carried out at 873 and 973 K and at holding times ranging from 0 to 120 min using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor, and the solid-solid reaction between the Ca-based sorbents and the coal-included minerals during the steam gasification was investigated. Local scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the solid residues obtained under different conditions showed that some constituents of the coal-included minerals, such as Si and Al, were contained in the sorbent particles. The solid-solid interaction between the Ca-based sorbents and coal-included minerals became significant at the higher temperature and at longer holding periods. This interaction will locally decrease the CO{sub 2} sorption ability of the sorbents. However, when a holding time of less than 10 min was employed, the solid-solid reaction between the minerals and the sorbents was suppressed, even at 973 K, because the rate of formation of inorganic compounds through solid-solid reaction was low. In this case, our target carbon conversion (about 50%) was attainable, owing to the devolatilization during the heating period. Our results indicate that the holding time of the feedstock in the reactor should be shortened to avoid deactivation of the Ca-based sorbents during high-pressure steam gasification.

  6. Development of a pilot-scale acid gas removal system for coal syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kang, K.H.; Yoo, Y.D.; Yun, Y. [Inst. of Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Republic of Korea)

    2007-11-15

    The Korean pilot-scale gasification facility consists of a coal gasifier, hot gas filtering system, and acid gas removal (AGR) system. The syngas stream from the coal gasification at the rate of 100-120 Nm{sup 3}hr included pollutants such as fly ash, H{sub 2}S, COS, etc. The acid gas, such as H{sub 2}S and COS, is removed in the AGR system before generating electricity by gas engine and producing chemicals like Di-methyl Ether (DME) in the catalytic reactor. A hydrolysis system was installed to hydrolyze COS into H{sub 2}S. The designed operation temperature and pressure of the COS hydrolysis system are 150{sup o}C and 8 kg/cm{sup 2}. After the hydrolysis system, COS was reduced below 1 ppm at the normal operating condition. The normal designed operation temperature and pressure of the AGR system are below 40 {sup o}C and 8 kg/cm{sup 2}. Fe-chelate was used as an absorbent. H{sub 2}S was removed below 0.5 ppm in the AGR system when the maximum concentration of H{sub 2}S was 900 ppm. A small scale COS adsorber was also installed and tested to remove COS below 0.5 ppm. COS was removed below 0.1 ppm after the COS adsorbents such as the activated carbon and ion exchange resin.

  7. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  8. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  9. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  12. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  13. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  14. Model documentation, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System`s (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM`s two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS). CMM provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal for NEMS. In general, the CDS integrates the supply inputs from the CPS to satisfy demands for coal from exogenous demand models. The international area of the CDS forecasts annual world coal trade flows from major supply to major demand regions and provides annual forecasts of US coal exports for input to NEMS. Specifically, the CDS receives minemouth prices produced by the CPS, demand and other exogenous inputs from other NEMS components, and provides delivered coal prices and quantities to the NEMS economic sectors and regions.

  15. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  17. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  20. Reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The safety concept requires to ensure that - the reactor protection system - the active engineered safeguard - and the necessary auxiliary systems are so designed and interfaced in respect of design and mode of action that, in the event of single component failure reliable control of the consequences of accidents remains ensured at all times and that the availability of the power plant is not limited unnecessarily. In order to satisfy these requirements due, importance was attached to a consistent spacial separation of the mutually redundant subsystems of the active safety equipment. The design and layout of the reactor protection system, of the power supply (emergency power supply), and of the auxiliary systems important from the safety engineering point of view, are such that their subsystems also largely satisfy the requirements of independence and spacial separation. (orig./RW)

  1. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  7. Development of an illumination system for longwall coal mines. Report for 1973--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedline, G.; Gartley, M.; Ketler, A.; Pellmann, R.

    1975-11-06

    The report describes the development of a lighting system beginning with a prototype longwall mockup followed by the design, fabrication, and testing of the system in an operating coal mine. Details of the design, installation, operation, and performance are given. The results have provided the basic technology needed to illuminate longwall sections. The existence of the technology is part of the prerequisite to promulgation of illumination standards as required by the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. (GRA)

  8. Analyses of coal petrology and quality data supported by geographical information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Shifeng; Ren Deyi; Tang Yuegang; Hou Huimin; Ai Tinanjie; Zhang Jianhua; Liu Xuqiang [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1996-12-31

    Taking the Wuda Coal Mining District as an example, the possibility, fundamental principle, method, advantage and prospect of Geographical Information Systems in coal petrology and quality data analyses are introduced. In the analytical process, various types of geological data are linked in a scientific and systematic manner using the software or GIS system and dBASE IV, thereby providing a simple and convenient way of utilizing this information. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Thermodynamic analyses of a biomass-coal co-gasification power generation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2016-04-01

    A novel chemical looping power generation system is presented based on the biomass-coal co-gasification with steam. The effects of different key operation parameters including biomass mass fraction (Rb), steam to carbon mole ratio (Rsc), gasification temperature (Tg) and iron to fuel mole ratio (Rif) on the system performances like energy efficiency (ηe), total energy efficiency (ηte), exergy efficiency (ηex), total exergy efficiency (ηtex) and carbon capture rate (ηcc) are analyzed. A benchmark condition is set, under which ηte, ηtex and ηcc are found to be 39.9%, 37.6% and 96.0%, respectively. Furthermore, detailed energy Sankey diagram and exergy Grassmann diagram are drawn for the entire system operating under the benchmark condition. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the units composing the system are also predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enginnering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R ampersand D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update

  11. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Raymond [Avondale, AZ

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  12. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  13. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  14. Fractionation of chemical elements including the REEs and 226Ra in stream contaminated with coal-mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, L.M.; Faure, G.; Lee, G.; Talnagi, J.

    2004-01-01

    Water draining from abandoned open-pit coal mines in southeastern Ohio typically has a low pH and high concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn, as well as of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, etc.) and of the rare earth elements (REEs). The cations of different elements are sorbed selectively by Fe and Al hydroxide precipitates which form with increasing pH. As a result, the trace elements are separated from each other when the hydroxide precipitates are deposited in the channel of a flowing stream. Therefore, the low-energy environment of a stream contaminated by mine effluent is a favorable site for the chemical fractionation of the REEs and of other groups of elements with similar chemical properties. The interpretation of chemical analyses of water collected along a 30-km-stretch of Rush Creek near the town of New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, indicates that the abundances of the REEs in the water appear to change downstream when they are normalized to the REE concentrations of the mine effluent. In addition, the Ce/La ratios (and those of all REEs) in the water decrease consistently downstream. The evidence indicates that the REEs which remain in solution are enriched La and Ce because the other REEs are sorbed more efficiently. The solid Fe(OH) 3 precipitates in the channel of Rush Creek upstream of New Lexington also contain radioactive 226 Ra that was sorbed from the water. This isotope of Ra is a decay product of 238 U which occurs in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) coal and in the associated shale of southeastern Ohio. The activity of 226 Ra of the Fe(OH) 3 precipitates increases with rising pH, but then declines farther downstream as the concentration of Ra remaining in the water decreases

  15. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  16. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6 degrees. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  17. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  18. Simulation modeling of fluidized bed coal gasifier for new topping cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, Guilin; Yamazaki, Ryohei; Mori, Shigekatsu; Fujima, Yukihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A new topping cycle coal power generation process is to be developed as a Japanese national project of high efficiency power generation process of coal. This process consists of a combination system of a pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed coal gasifier and a pressurized bubbling fluidized-bed combustor in series. To evaluate the performances and also to determine specifications and operation parameters of this process, it is extremely important to analyze the behavior and the performance of this system by a reasonable simulation model. A simulation model of this new process is developed in this paper. It is demonstrated by calculated results from this model that the carbon conversion in the gasifier, the composition and the heating value of produced gas are strongly dependent on operating conditions. Heat recovery by the steam in the combustor is also estimated as the function of coal feed rate.

  19. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  20. Simulation of one-dimensional heat transfer system based on the blended coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. G.; Li, W. B.; Cheng, Z. S.; Cheng, J. W.; liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the supercritical boiler thermodynamic calculation model is studied. Three types of heat exchangers are proposed, namely furnace (total radiation type), semi-radiation and convection, and discussed. Two cases were simulated - mixing of two bituminous coals and mixing of a bituminous coal and lignite- order to analyze the performance on the flue gas side. The study shows that the influence of flue air leakage and gas distribution coefficient on the system.

  1. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  2. Bond forms of methane in porous system of coal II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Medek, Jiří; Kovář, Lukáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 13 (2004), s. 1759-1764 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2046101; GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : coal-bed methane * absorption * fifth bond form Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2004

  3. The World Coal Quality Inventory: South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Alex W.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Bragg, Linda J.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary-Introduction: The concepts of a global environment and economy are strongly and irrevocably linked to global energy issues. Worldwide coal production and international coal trade are projected to increase during the next several decades in an international energy mix that is still strongly dependent on fossil fuels. Therefore, worldwide coal use will play an increasingly visible role in global environmental, economic, and energy forums. Policy makers require information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding domestic coal resource allocation, import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy objectives, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. The development of a worldwide, reliable, coal quality database would help ensure the most economically and environmentally efficient global use of coal. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with many agencies and scientists from the world's coal producing countries, originally undertook a project to obtain representative samples of coal from most of the world's producing coal provinces during a limited period of time (roughly 1998-2005), which is called the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). The multitude of producing coal mines, coal occurrences, or limited accessibility to sites in some countries can preclude collecting more than a single sample from a mine. In some areas, a single sample may represent an entire coal mining region or basin. Despite these limitations in sampling and uneven distribution of sample collection, the analytical results can still provide a general overview of world coal quality. The USGS intends to present the WoCQI data in reports and, when possible, in Geographic Information System (GIS) products that cover important coal bearing and producing regions.

  4. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  5. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  6. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  7. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  8. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  9. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  10. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  11. Coal deposition in carbonate rich shallow Lacustrine systems: The Calaf and Mequinenza sequences (Oligocene, eastern Ebro Basin, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Sáez, Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Two main coal-bearing sequences developed during the Oligocene in the Tertiary Ebro Basin, the Calaf (early Oligocene) and Mequinenza (late Oligocene) coal basins. Coal deposition took place in shallow marsh-swamp-lake complexes which sometimes became closed and evolved under warm climatic conditions with fluctuating humidity. These shallow lacustrine systems are closely interrelated with the terminal parts of the distributive fluvial systems which spread from the tectonically active Ebro bas...

  12. Report of activities of the advanced coal extraction systems definition project, 1979 - 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M. L.; Isenberg, L.

    1981-01-01

    During this period effort was devoted to: formulation of system performance goals in the areas of production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and coal conservation, survey and in depth assessment of promising technology, and characterization of potential resource targets. Primary system performance goals are to achieve a return on incremental investment of 150% of the value required for a low risk capital improvement project and to reduce deaths and disability injuries per million man-hour by 50%. Although these performance goals were developed to be immediately applicable to the Central Appalachian coal resources, they were also designed to be readily adaptable to other coals by appending a geological description of the new resource. The work done on technology assessment was concerned with the performance of the slurry haulage system.

  13. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  14. Payment Services for Global Online Systems Including Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebeck, Bill; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A panel of four conference presenters address issues related to paying for services provided through online systems. Discussion includes the following topics: metering devices; electronic/digital cash; working within existing banking/credit card structures; provision of payment mechanisms in countries without extensive credit card usage; and…

  15. Prediction of China's coal production-environmental pollution based on a hybrid genetic algorithm-system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiwei; Wei Yiming

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid model based on genetic algorithm (GA) and system dynamics (SD) for coal production–environmental pollution load in China. GA has been utilized in the optimization of the parameters of the SD model to reduce implementation subjectivity. The chain of “Economic development–coal demand–coal production–environmental pollution load” of China in 2030 was predicted, and scenarios were analyzed. Results show that: (1) GA performs well in optimizing the parameters of the SD model objectively and in simulating the historical data; (2) The demand for coal energy continuously increases, although the coal intensity has actually decreased because of China's persistent economic development. Furthermore, instead of reaching a turning point by 2030, the environmental pollution load continuously increases each year even under the scenario where coal intensity decreased by 20% and investment in pollution abatement increased by 20%; (3) For abating the amount of “three types of wastes”, reducing the coal intensity is more effective than reducing the polluted production per tonne of coal and increasing investment in pollution control. - Highlights: ► We propos a GA-SD model for China's coal production-pollution prediction. ► Genetic algorithm (GA) can objectively and accurately optimize parameters of system dynamics (SD) model. ► Environmental pollution in China is projected to grow in our scenarios by 2030. ► The mechanism of reducing waste production per tonne of coal mining is more effective than others.

  16. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  17. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... using the proximity detection system on remote controlled continuous mining machines, shuttle cars, roof.... Another commenter stated that most machines will be retrofitted with proximity detection systems in a shop... introduced a new initiative titled ``Safety Practices Around Shuttle Cars and Scoops in Underground Coal...

  18. A large depth of field LIBS measuring system for elemental analysis of moving samples of raw coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redoglio, D.; Golinelli, E.; Musazzi, S.; Perini, U.; Barberis, F.

    2016-02-01

    We present preliminary results of laboratory tests carried out on moving samples of coal by means of an innovative LIBS system with a large depth of field. The measuring system has been conceived to operate on line in a coal fired power plant. To duplicate at laboratory level the real situation, the coal samples are sequentially positioned under the measuring head by means of a translation/rotation unit that allows reproducing the behavior of the raw coal transported by a conveyor belt. Experimental results show that both carbon and hydrogen concentration as well as the content of some inorganic components (Al, Ca, Fe, Si) can be evaluated with good accuracy.

  19. Evaluation of the influence of a milling system on the coal consumption in a PF utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, E.; Gil, A.; Arauzo, I.; Iranzo, I. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain). Center for Power Plant Efficiency Research (CIRCE)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for milling system performance analysis in coal fired power plants. A mill model has been designed. As inputs of the model, the following parameters are chosen: air mass flow rates, coal flow rates, grinding pieces age and classifier position. The outputs are: mill drive current, pressure drop through the mill and percentage of pulverized coal passing through 150, 75 and 45 {mu}m sieves. The developed models have been applied to the Teruel Power Station, a pulverized coal fired plant in Spain with a milling system of six planetary rod mills, each feeding a row of four burners. 7 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  1. Conceptual design of coal-fueled diesel system for stationary power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary conceptual design of a coal-fueled diesel system was prepared as part of a previous systems study. Since then, our team has accumulated extensive results from testing coal-water slurry on the 13-inch bore JS engine (400 rpm) in 1987 and 1988. These results provided new insights into preferred design concepts for engine components. One objective, therefore, was to revise the preliminary design to incorporate these preferred design concepts. In addition there were certain areas where additional, more detailed analysis was required as a result of the previous conceptual design. Another objective, therefore was to perform additional detailed design efforts, such as: (1) market applications and engine sizes, (2) coal-water slurry cleaning and grinding processes, (3) emission controls and hot gas contaminant controls, (4) component durability, (5) cost and performance assessments. (VC)

  2. Fiscal 1997 for the upgrading of the Asia/Pacific coal development. Survey of the optimization of the coal transportation system in Indonesia; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Indonesia ni okeru sekitan yuso system saitekika chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of Phase 1 and Phase 2 surveys conducted based on `Agreement on the comprehensive survey of a coal transportation system in South Sumatra` concluded between NEDO and the Ministry of Mine and Energy in Indonesia. In addition to the data collection and site surveys made in Phase 1, conducted in Phase 2 were determination of sites for harbors, determination of a scenario on coal transportation from coal mines to harbors, optimization of the coal transportation system, social/economic assessment, and proposal on the optimum transportation system. The results of the simulation were as follows: It is the most advantageous to transport coal from coal deposit area to harbor by rail and from harbor to Paiton by barge weighed over 10,000 tons. Tanjung Api Api is the most advantageous as harbor. The production scale which is profitable became more than 15 million tons. The present coal price of PTBA is $25/t arriving Suralaya. The coal in this case is said to be 5500kcal/kg in quality, and the coal of the same quality to this is only profitable. 8 refs., 68 figs., 104 tabs.

  3. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  4. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  5. A Novel Real-Time Coal Miner Localization and Tracking System Based on Self-Organized Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, we envision that the key of improving coal mine safety is how to get real-time positions of miners. In this paper, we propose a prototype system for real-time coal miner localization and tracking based on self-organized sensor networks. The system is composed of hardware and software platform. We develop a set of localization hardware devices with the Safety Certificate of Approval for Mining Products include miner node, wired fixed access station, and base with optical port. On the software side, we develop a layered software architecture of node application, server management, and information dissemination and broadcasting. We also develop three key localization technologies: an underground localization algorithm using received signal strength indication- (RSSI- verifying algorithm to reduce the influence of the severe environment in a coal mine; a robust fault-tolerant localization mechanism to improve the inherent defect of instability of RSSI localization; an accurate localization algorithm based on Monte Carlo localization (MCL to adapt to the underground tunnel structure. In addition, we conduct an experimental evaluation based on a real prototype implementation using MICA2 motes. The results show that our system is more accurate and more adaptive in general than traditional localization algorithms.

  6. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20% reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launc...

  7. Decision support system of coal mine planning using system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Sontamino, Phongpat

    2015-01-01

    Coal is a fossil fuel mineral, which is presently a major source of electricity and energy to industries. From past to present, there are many coal reserves around the world and large scale coal mining operates in various areas such as the USA, Russia, China, Australia, India, and Germany, etc. Thailand’s coal resources can be found in many areas; there are lignite mining in the north of Thailand, the currently operational Mae Moh Lignite Mine, and also coal reserves in the south of Thailand,...

  8. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  9. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  10. Improving Occupational and Industrial Safety Management System at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Svetlana; Kadnikova, Oksana; Demidenko, Ksenia; Chistyakova, Galina; Rolgayzer, Anastasia

    2017-11-01

    The article highlights the problem of mine workers occupational safety. The foreign and domestic experience of the field is analyzed. Some areas, activities and methods that meet modern requirements for ensuring occupational safety and production development, which are aimed at improving the quality of occupational safety management system, are described. The possibilities of their use in industrial safety of Kuzbass coal mining enterprises are considered. The proposed methods were implemented by JSC "Shakhta Yuzhnaya", "Kiselevsky Razrez" Ltd., the coal mining enterprises of the Kemerovo region.

  11. New integrated monitoring and control system for disaster gas application in coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deng-yu; Lai, Xing-ping; Ji, Chang-fa; Xi, Hong-jun; Bo, Zhang; Liu, Chen

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces the composition, working principle and characteristics of the new gas monitoring system, which are used to monitor the gas in the gob area and working face of the mine in real time. According to the oxygen concentration, the spontaneous combustion of gob area “three zones” was determined and divided. In order to carry out disaster early warning, the methane and carbon monoxide super gas concentration changes were studied and analyzed. And the variation law of gas concentration in gob area and coal face in coal mining was obtained. This study provides reference for the follow-up fire prevention and production.

  12. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  13. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  14. Improving the effectiveness of boiler units with coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    Problems pertinent to controlling the load of steam boilers and coal dust systems equipped with mill-ventilators are analyzed. A comprehensive set of patented technical solutions for these problems is presented. A formula for determining the ventilation output of mill-ventilators as a function of the fuel charge is proposed.

  15. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  16. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  17. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  18. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...... to integrate as many sectors as possible in these efforts. Farmers, however, do not trade GHG under the Kyoto agreement. The idea of including farmers in a national emission trading system has been launched in Australia but it has not yet been applied to the EU....

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  1. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  2. Energy-recuperative coal-integrated gasification/gas turbine power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchonthara, P.; Tsutsumi, A. [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2006-05-15

    Coal-integrated gasification/gas turbine (CIG/GT) based power plants are well known for achieving electricity more efficient and at a lower cost than direct combustion based power plants. Since the gasification is an endothermic, thermochemical conversion process, it requires heat to proceed. In general, this heat is furnished by internal combustion taking place in the gasifier by virtue of oxygen-blown or air-blown gasification. However, the direct combustion of the solid fuel is seen to be inefficient because of the large amount of exergy destruction posed during the combustion, especially at relatively low temperatures like gasification temperatures. This causes the overall performance deterioration of the CIG/GT system. Therefore, a decrease in the destruction of exergy during the combustion can contribute to improve overall system efficiency. In this paper, an innovative concept of energy-recuperative gasification was proposed and incorporated in the CIG/GT system. The idea is to make use of the waste heat from the gas turbine exhaust as the reaction heat for the gasification instead of the internal combustion. This type of energy recuperation is also called thermochemical recuperation. In addition, the proposed CIG/GT incorporates other effective energy recuperation, including heat and steam recuperation, in order to maximize the generation efficiency. The feasibility of the concept implementation and the system improvement were preliminarily examined and discussed.

  3. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  4. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of Blast Furnace Slag Waste Heat-Recovery System Integrated with Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, W. J.; Li, P.; Lei, W.; Chen, W.; Yu, Q. B.; Wang, K.; Qin, Q.

    2015-05-01

    The blast furnace (BF) slag waste heat was recovered by an integrated system stage by stage, which combined a physical and chemical method. The water and coal gasification reactions were used to recover the heat in the system. Based on the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of the system was carried out by the enthalpy-exergy diagram. The results showed that the concept of the "recovery-temperature countercurrent, energy cascade utilization" was realized by this system to recover and use the high-quality BF slag waste heat. In this system, the high-temperature waste heat was recovered by coal gasification and the relatively low-temperature waste heat was used to produce steam. The system's exergy and thermal recycling efficiency were 52.6% and 75.4%, respectively. The exergy loss of the integrated system was only 620.0 MJ/tslag. Compared with the traditional physical recycling method producing steam, the exergy and thermal efficiencies of the integrated system were improved significantly. Meanwhile, approximately 182.0 m3/tslag syngas was produced by coal gasification. The BF slag waste heat will be used integrally and efficiently by the integrated system. The results provide the theoretical reference for recycling and using the BF slag waste heat.

  7. A novel integrated treatment system for coal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and heavy metals present in coal conversion wastewaters. To remove and recover heavy metals from wastewaters, four different types of surfactant-clay complexes have been prepared using hectored or montmorillonite as the base clays. The adsorbent is prepared by first coating the clay surface, upto a monolayer, with a cationic surfactant, CBDA, to which an amine, (DT), or a carboxylic acid (Palmitic acid, PA) is anchored using hydrophobic effect to form a mixed bilayer. Such an arrangement is expected to locate the functional groups in metal adsorption at the solid-solution interface. Complexes based on hectored are shown to adsorb Cu{sup 2+} ions more strongly than the ones based on montmorillonite. The rate of adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions is quite rapid and the adsorbed amount levels off in less than 2 hrs. The optimum pH for metal adsorption is around 6.5 and the amount of metal adsorbed declines sharply on the lower pH side of the pH optimum, suggesting that removal and recovery of adsorbed metal ions can be effected by a slight pH shift.

  8. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of the above project. The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the inorganics present in coal conversion wastewaters. The initial phase of the work has been focused on the development of modified clays for use in the selective removal and recovery of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, chromate and selenate. The results presented here show that a surfactant-modified clay adsorbs Cd strongly at a pH of 8.5 and poorly at pH 4.0. Further, the adsorption of Cd on modified clay is unaffected by the ionic strength of the medium. In the case of Cu, it has been shown that the metal forms a complex with alkyl diamines in aqueous solutions at a pH of 6.0 and does not bind to these surfactants at a lower pH of 3.0. These findings are a preliminary indication that the surface and solution chemistry of amine surfactants can be gainfully modified to adsorb and desorb cationic heavy metals.

  9. Liquid-metal MHD for solar and coal: system and component status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S.; Grammel, S,J.; Cohen, D.; Frisardi, T.

    1980-01-01

    The motivations for using two-phase-generator liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) energy-conversion systems with solar collectors and cyclone-type coal combustors are given. The solar LMMHD studies presented focus on two collector temperatures - approx. 590/sup 0/K (600/sup 0/F) with an LMMHD Rankine cycle, an attractive temperature for near-term use, and approx. 1090/sup 0/K (1500/sup 0/F) with an LMMHD Brayton cycle, typical of higher-performance long-range uses. The coal LMMHD studies emphasize the development of a new system model and its application to performance and optimization analysis, and reactions of liquid copper with coal combustion products (gas, slag) and the use of the copper to control environmental impacts. Cogeneration applications and retrofits of existing central-station electric plants are particularly-attractive options for LMMHD with both solar and coal. High-efficiency high-power-density, and high-temperature LMMHD generator data are summarized, because they indicate that large, high-efficiency generators can be built. The status of the two-phase mixer and separator is discussed.

  10. Kalaeloa Energy System Redevelopment Options Including Advanced Microgrids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, Marion Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baca, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanderMey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In June 2016, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Branch for the Hawaii State Energy Office (HSEO), the Hawaii Community Development Authority (HCDA), the United States Navy (Navy), and Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) established a project to 1) assess the current functionality of the energy infrastructure at the Kalaeloa Community Development District, and 2) evaluate options to use both existing and new distributed and renewable energy generation and storage resources within advanced microgrid frameworks to cost-effectively enhance energy security and reliability for critical stakeholder needs during both short-term and extended electric power outages. This report discusses the results of a stakeholder workshop and associated site visits conducted by Sandia in October 2016 to identify major Kalaeloa stakeholder and tenant energy issues, concerns, and priorities. The report also documents information on the performance and cost benefits of a range of possible energy system improvement options including traditional electric grid upgrade approaches, advanced microgrid upgrades, and combined grid/microgrid improvements. The costs and benefits of the different improvement options are presented, comparing options to see how well they address the energy system reliability, sustainability, and resiliency priorities identified by the Kalaeloa stakeholders.

  11. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  12. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module's three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS)

  13. Advanced CO2 Capture Technology for Low Rank Coal IGCC System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan [Tda Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO2 above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a new Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant designed to efficiently process low rank coals. The plant uses an integrated CO2 scrubber/Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst to capture over90 percent capture of the CO2 emissions, while providing a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a similar plant with conventional cold gas cleanup system based on SelexolTM technology and 90 percent carbon capture. TDA’s system uses a high temperature physical adsorbent capable of removing CO2 above the dew point of the synthesis gas and a commercial WGS catalyst that can effectively convert CO in bituminous coal the net plant efficiency is about 2.4 percentage points higher than an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant equipped with SelexolTM to capture CO2. We also previously completed two successful field demonstrations: one at the National Carbon Capture Center (Southern- Wilsonville, AL) in 2011, and a second demonstration in fall of 2012 at the Wabash River IGCC plant (Terra Haute, IN). In this project, we first optimized the sorbent

  14. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  15. Improving energy efficiency of cyclone circuits in coal beneficiation plants by pump-storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Xia, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A pump-storage system (PSS) is introduced in a coal washing plant to reduce energy consumption and cost. • Optimal operation of the PSS under TOU tariff is formulated and solved. Life cycle cost analysis of the design is done. • Simulation results show the effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement and load shifting effect of the proposed approach. • An annual 38% reduction of overall cost of the coal washing plant with 2.86 years payback period is achieved. • Capacity improvement of power plants contracted to the coal mine is expected as less electricity is required to get fuel. - Abstract: A pump storage system (PSS) is introduced to the coal preparation dense medium cyclone (DMC) plants to improve their energy efficiency while maintaining the required medium supply. The DMC processes are very energy intensive and inefficient because the medium supply pumps are constantly over-pumping. The PSS presented is to reduce energy consumption and cost by introducing an addition medium circulation loop. The corresponding pump operation optimization problem in the PSS scheme under time-based electricity tariff is formulated and solved, based on which the financial benefits of the design is investigated using life cycle cost analysis. A case study based on the operation status of a South African coal mine is carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is demonstrated that the energy cost can be reduced by more than 50% in the studied case by introducing a 160 m 3 storage tank. According to life cycle analysis, the PSS Option 1 yields an annual 38% reduction of the overall cost for the beneficiation plant with a payback period of 2.68 years

  16. Prediction and assessment of the disturbances of the coal mining in Kailuan to karst groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Honglei; Jiao, Jian

    Coal resources and water resources play an essential and strategic role in the development of China's social and economic development, being the priority for China's medium and long technological development. As the mining of the coal extraction is increasingly deep, the mine water inrush of high-pressure confined karst water becomes much more a problem. This paper carried out research on the hundred-year old Kailuan coal mine's karst groundwater system. With the help of advanced Visual Modflow software and numerical simulation method, the paper assessed the flow field of karst water area under large-scale exploitation. It also predicted the evolution ofgroundwaterflow field under different mining schemes of Kailuan Corp. The result shows that two cones of depression are formed in the karst flow field of Zhaogezhuang mining area and Tangshan mining area, and the water levels in two cone centers are -270 m and -31 m respectively, and the groundwater generally flows from the northeast to the southwest. Given some potential closed mines in the future, the mine discharge will decrease and the water level of Ordovician limestone will increase slightly. Conversely, given increase of coal yield, the mine drainage will increase, falling depression cone of Ordovician limestone flow field will enlarge. And in Tangshan's urban district, central water level of the depression cone will move slightly towards north due to pumping of a few mines in the north.

  17. Intelligent monitoring system of unburned carbon of fly ash for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusingam Pogganeswaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal fired power plant becoming preferable power plant type to support electricity demand mainly in Asia due to stable coal price and low maintenance. However, most coal fired plant operator struggle with condition where coal undergo incomplete combustion and produced unburned carbon where can be found in ashes especially in fly ash. Higher percentage of unburned carbon in fly ash reflects the lower efficiency of furnace and contributes to financial loses for plant operators. This problem also leads to technical issues such as slagging and clinkering and further reduces the efficiency of furnace. The plant operator determines the amount of unburned carbon by using conventional method and this proves be a challenge to identify and rectify the problem on day basis due time constraint to obtain results of unburned carbon. Thus in this paper, best Artificial Neural Network model was derived to develop intelligent monitoring system to predict unburned carbon level on more daily basis. By this model, the power producer can predict the unburned carbon level by using data in power plant to predict the unburned carbon level in short period of time.

  18. Weaving Ecosystem Service Assessment into Environmental Impact Assessments of Thar Coal Field: Impact of Coal Mining on Socio-Ecological Systems of Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Research takes into account Block II Mining and Power Plant Project of Thar Coal field in Pakistan by carrying out ecosystem service assessment of the region to identify the impact on important ecosystem service losses and the contribution of mining companies to mitigate the socio-economic problems as a part of their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The study area includes 7 rural settlements, around 921 households and 7000 individuals, dependent on agriculture and livestock for their livelihoods. Currently, the project has adopted the methods of strip mining (also called open-cut mining, open-cast mining, and stripping), undergoing removing the overburden in strips to enable excavation of the coal seams. Since the consequences of mine development can easily spill across community and ecological boundaries, the rising scarcity of some ecosystem services makes the case to examine both project impact and dependence on ecosystem services. A preliminary Ecosystem Service review of Thar Coal Field identifies key ecosystems services owing to both high significance of project impact and high project dependence are highlighted as: the hydrogeological study results indicate the presence of at least three aquifer zones: one above the coal zone (the top aquifer), one within the coal and the third below the coal zone. Hence, Water is identified as a key ecosystem service to be addressed and valued due to its high dependency in the area for livestock, human wellbeing, agriculture and other purposes. Crop production related to agricultural services, in association with supply services such as soil quality, fertility, and nutrient recycling and water retention need to be valued. Cultural services affected in terms of land use change and resettlement and rehabilitation factors are recommended to be addressed.

  19. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  20. Preliminary studies on the observation of oxygen-18 exchange in coal by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, investigations in the use of FTIR for coal ultimate analysis, and a fast pneumatic transfer system for 0-18 determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeKeyser, C.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Use of isotope exchange kinetics for functional group determination in coal is investigated. Net exchange kinetics determined by time dependent Neutron Activation Analysis measurements (NAA) would be related to individual functional group exchange kinetics determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements. The work described herein can be grouped into three categories: 1) work relating to the FTIR spectroscopy of coal, 2) work relating to oxygen exchange in coal, and 3) work relating to measurements of O-18 by NAA. Methods are discussed for preparing IR observable samples of coal and ash, obtaining FTIR spectra of these samples, and reducing the spectral data to numerical form. Also included in this category is an investigation into the use of IR spectroscopic methods for the ultimate analysis of coals. An initial attempt at the observation of oxygen exchange in coal is described which includes two exchange schemes and the FTIR spectroscopic observation of their end products. A facile exchange between O-18 water and O-16 in coal was attempted with and without catalysts. Also, the design and construction of a fast pneumatic transfer system for the determination of O-18 is described

  1. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  2. Indoor air pollution by different heating systems: coal burning, open fireplace and central heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriske, H J; Drews, M; Ebert, G; Menk, G; Scheller, C; Schöndube, M; Konieczny, L

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of indoor air pollution by different heating systems in private homes are described. Sixteen homes, 7 with coal burning, 1 with open fireplace (wood burning) and 8 with central heating have been investigated. We measured the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and sedimented dust in indoor air, of total suspended particulates, heavy metals and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were taken during winter (heating period) and during summer (non-heating period). Generally, we found higher indoor air pollution in homes with coal burning and open fireplace than in homes with central heating. Especially, the concentrations of carbon monoxide, sedimented dust and of some heavy metals were higher. In one case, we found also high indoor air pollution in a home with central heating. This apartment is on the ground floor of a block of flats, and the central heating system in the basement showed a malfunctioning of the exhaust system.

  3. COAL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  4. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  5. Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolay P. K.; Singh H.

    2013-01-01

    The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which w...

  6. Exploitation examination of reliability of coal dust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojchinovski, Ilija; Trajkovski, Kole

    1997-01-01

    Designers and operators wish is, long, failure free operation at designed parameters of every system. Always we know the system start up time, but we don't know how long this system will operate successfully. Because of that in this article is given a method how, step by step, to determine the reliability of the system. Reliability parameters are obtained from experimental and operational data. When reliability parameters are determined then it is very easy to compare reliability of similar systems, for example excavators, or different systems, such as truck and rubber band transport system. Practical use of the theory of reliability is by purchasing of the systems when manufacturers have to have and present reliability parameters and on this way we can decide which system satisfies our needs regarding the quality-price-reliability. Reliability can be practically used in system operation where: 1) system reliability is maintained with proper start, use and shutdown of the system; 2) a system reliability is maintained with good maintenance organization; 3) a system reliability is maintained with innovations and improvements with final purpose removing of the imperfections experienced through the operation. Reliability is very important parameter in power generation plants. (Author)

  7. Environmental life cycle assessment of methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwińska, Anna; Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions generated through methanol and electricity co-production system based on coal gasification technology. The analysis focuses on polygeneration technologies from which two products are produced, and thus, issues related to an allocation procedure for LCA are addressed in this paper. In the LCA, two methods were used: a 'system expansion' method based on two approaches, the 'avoided burdens approach' and 'direct system enlargement' methods and an 'allocation' method involving proportional partitioning based on physical relationships in a technological process. Cause-effect relationships in the analysed production process were identified, allowing for the identification of allocation factors. The 'system expansion' method involved expanding the analysis to include five additional variants of electricity production technologies in Poland (alternative technologies). This method revealed environmental consequences of implementation for the analysed technologies. It was found that the LCA of polygeneration technologies based on the 'system expansion' method generated a more complete source of information on environmental consequences than the 'allocation' method. The analysis shows that alternative technologies chosen for generating LCA results are crucial. Life cycle assessment was performed for the analysed, reference and variant alternative technologies. Comparative analysis was performed between the analysed technologies of methanol and electricity co-production from coal gasification as well as a reference technology of methanol production from the natural gas reforming process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    of the machinery system. The wet sulphuric acid process has shown to be an effective way of removing sulphur oxides from flue gas of land-based coal fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper is aimed at designing...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two......-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...

  9. An Event Reporting and Early-Warning Safety System Based on the Internet of Things for Underground Coal Mines: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wan Jo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatal accidents associated with underground coal mines require the implementation of high-level gas monitoring and miner’s localization approaches to promote underground safety and health. This study introduces a real-time monitoring, event-reporting and early-warning platform, based on cluster analysis for outlier detection, spatiotemporal statistical analysis, and an RSS range-based weighted centroid localization algorithm for improving safety management and preventing accidents in underground coal mines. The proposed platform seamlessly integrates monitoring, analyzing, and localization approaches using the Internet of Things (IoT, cloud computing, a real-time operational database, application gateways, and application program interfaces. The prototype has been validated and verified at the operating underground Hassan Kishore coal mine. Sensors for air quality parameters including temperature, humidity, CH4, CO2, and CO demonstrated an excellent performance, with regression constants always greater than 0.97 for each parameter when compared to their commercial equivalent. This framework enables real-time monitoring, identification of abnormal events (>90%, and verification of a miner’s localization (with <1.8 m of error in the harsh environment of underground mines. The main contribution of this study is the development of an open source, customizable, and cost-effective platform for effectively promoting underground coal mine safety. This system is helpful for solving the problems of accessibility, serviceability, interoperability, and flexibility associated with safety in coal mines.

  10. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    Energi, Haesselbyverket, has now invested in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping wastes of rubber are mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1997 was 370 SEK/ton or 10 per cent higher than in 1996. For the world, the average import price fell to 46 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1998 as a result of the crisis in Asia. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO 2 -removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, Vaesteraas, has newly invested in a ca talytic NO x -cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO x -burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 800 tons in 1997, a minor increase compared to 1996. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1.7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian countries and the developing countries. However, greater efforts to minimize the

  11. [Effect of underground work on cardiovascular system 
in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiaoye; Tan, Hongzhuan; Huang, Yaoyu; Lu, Changcheng

    2015-10-01

    To study the effect of underground work on cardiovascular system health in coal miners.
 Male coal miners, who received electrocardiographic examinations between June, 2013 and August, 2014 in Hunan Prevention and Treatment Institute for Occupational Diseases to exclude pneumoconiosis, were enrolled for this study (n=3 134). Miners with 2 years or more underground work experience were selected as the exposed group (n=2 370), while miners without underground work experience were selected as the control group (n=764). The prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and the influential factors were compared between the 2 groups.
 The prevalences of electrocardiographic abnormalities, hypertension, heart rate abnormalities and cardiovascular system abnormalities in the exposed group vs the control group were 37.6% vs 25.4%, 20.5% vs 13.4%, 5.7% vs 6.0%, 49.8% vs 35.2%, respectively. The cardiovascular system abnormalities were correlated with the underground work (OR=3.128, 95% CI: 1.969-4.970), the underground work experience (OR=1.205, 95% CI: 1.070-1.358) and the type of works (mining worker OR=1.820, 95% CI: 1.527-2.169; auxiliary worker OR=1.937, 95% CI: 1.511-2.482; other worker OR=3.291, 95%CI: 2.120-5.109).
 Underground work may increase the prevalence of cardiovascular system abnormalities for coal miners. The longer the coal miners work in underground, the higher the risk of the cardiovascular system abnormalities they are.

  12. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine. PMID:27775657

  13. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  14. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-10-21

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  15. Penentuan Kebijakan Perawatan dan Optimasi Persediaan Suku Cadang pada Coal Handling System PLTU Paiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeli Muhammad F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasilitas yang terdapat pada sebuah pembangkit listrik membutuhkan perawatan agar dapat berfungsi  sesuai dengan kapasitasnya. Salah satu fasilitas yang membutuhkan perawatan pada PLTU Paiton adalah fasilitas coal handling system. Perusahaan perlu menerapkan strategi perawatan yang tepat agar biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan dapat optimal. Permasalahan yang ada pada PLTU Paiton adalah strategi perawatan yang ada masih belum bisa mengatasi kemungkinan kegagalan yang terjadi dan aktivitas perawatan yang dilakukan tidak didukung oleh ketersediaan suku cadang yang dibutuhkan. Hal tersebut menyebabkan biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan menjadi tidak optimal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode reliability centered maintenance (RCM II yang dikombinasikan dengan metode evaluasi dari electrical power research institute (EPRI untuk menentukan strategi perawatan yang tepat terhadap coal handling system. Permasalahan persediaan untuk mendukung implementasi penerapan strategi perawatan akan diselesaikan dengan metode probabilistic economic order quantity (EOQ model. Penggunaan metode RCM II yang dikombinasikan dengan metode evaluasi dari EPRI dan penggunaan metode probabilistic EOQ model bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan biaya perawatan yang dikeluarkan.

  16. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  17. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, D.; Bhuyan, S. [Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati 781013 (India); Chowdhury, S.P. [Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-05-15

    The paper describes an algorithm for determining the line outage contingency of a line taking into account of line over load effect in remaining lines and subsequent tripping of over loaded line(s) leading to possible system split or islanding of a power system. The optimally ordered sparse [B'], [B'] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [{delta}] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in remaining line(s), the over loaded lines are removed from the system and a topology processor is used to find the islands. A fast decoupled load flow (FDLF) analysis is carried out for finding out the system variables for the islanded (or single island) system by incorporating appropriate modification in the [B'] and [B'] matrices of the integrated system. Line outage indices based on line overload, loss of load, loss of generation and static voltage stability are computed to indicate severity of a line outage of a selected line. (author)

  18. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  19. Overview of the influence of syn-sedimentary tectonics and palaeo-fluvial systems on coal seam and sand body characteristics in the Westphalian C strata, Campine Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Roland; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dusar, Michiel; Flores, R.M.; Verkaeren, Paul; Whateley, M. K. G.; Spears, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Westphalian C strata found in the northeastern part of the former Belgian coal district (Campine Basin), which is part of an extensive northwest European paralic coal basin, are considered. The thickness and lateral continuity of the Westphalian C coal seams vary considerably stratigraphically and areally. Sedimentological facies analysis of borehole cores indicates that the deposition of Westphalian C coal-bearing strata was controlled by fluvial depositional systems whose architectures were ruled by local subsidence rates. The local subsidence rates may be related to major faults, which were intermittently reactivated during deposition. Lateral changes in coal seam groups are also reflected by marked variations of their seismic signatures. Westphalian C fluvial depositional systems include moderate to low sinuosity braided and anastomosed river systems. Stable tectonic conditions on upthrown, fault-bounded platforms favoured deposition by braided rivers and the associated development of relatively thick, laterally continuous coal seams in raised mires. In contrast, rapidly subsiding downthrown fault blocks favoured aggradation, probably by anastomosed rivers and the development of relatively thin, highly discontinuous coal seams in topogenous mires.

  20. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  1. Design and modeling of an advanced marine machinery system including waste heat recovery and removal of sulphur oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...

  2. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1. Introduction. It is not only required to meet the demand for electrical energy but also to improve its quality. .... It is necessary to pay attention to energy system stability in the planning, management, and control of electrical ... where k ∈ {m, m + 1,... ,n} and n is total number of the buses in the system. F(h) r,k and F(h) i,k.

  3. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  4. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  5. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  6. IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SHOVEL-TRUCK SYSTEMS IN OPEN-PIT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark KORYAGIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to reduce idle times of mining trucks and shovels in an open-pit coal mine. A heuristic algorithm for making dispatching decisions in conditions of dynamic allocation of trucks is developed. Priority parameters for choosing the shovel after the end-of-truck unloading are introduced. Also, an algorithm for searching for the optimal priority parameters to satisfy the required efficiency criterion is developed. This algorithm is based on a simulation model of a shovel-truck system. The proposed approach is applicable in terms of the group of shovels with a common dump point in various open-pit coal mines. The importance of this work lies in the fact that the proposed model takes into account the random factors related with the duration of loading and dumping, truck movement, repair of shovels and haul trucks, as well as the duration of periods between repairs.

  7. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  8. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  9. Evaluation of an Automated Reflectance Microscope system for coal characterization. Technical report 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscinsky, D. S.; Vastola, F.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of an Automated Reflectance Microscope (ARM) system to determine the petrographic composition of a coal has been examined. The analysis involves the automatic scanning of a polished coal surface with a reflectance microscope. The reflectivity of consecutive 4-square-micrometer spots on the surface is measured by a photomultiplier tube and recorded by a microcomputer. This study was aimed at making the interpretation of a reflectogram more straightforward, that is, increasing the ability to discriminate among species. Although hardware improvements to decrease the spot size and the error associated with each reading would allow some increase in the ability to discriminate among species, the heterogeneous nature of the surface still limits the qualitative and quantitative information that can be derived from a reflectogram. Therefore a real-time data processing algorithm was implemented during data acquisition to study the effects that processing can have on a reflectogram. By measuring connectivity, it was found that edge readings could be indirectly eliminated. This greatly improved the ability to discriminate among species. Further investigation led to the conclusion that physical particle size has a major effect on a reflectogram. The concentration of coal in a pellet also has an effect on the ability to discriminate among species. A bonus of using processing to enhance the data was the ability to simultaneously gather information on particle size distributions. Based on the results the potential of an ARM system is improved by algorithm enhancement. The processing of the data allows some of the inherent limitations to be reduced.

  10. Increased occupational coal dust toxicity in blood of central heating system workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluce, Yasin; Ozkol, Halil; Koyuncu, Ismail; Ine, Hatice

    2011-02-01

    Coal dust causes lung diseases in occupational exposure. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of its toxicity. In this study, serum enzymes, lipid profile and other biochemical values with oxidant/antioxidant status in whole blood and serum of central heating system workers (CHSW; the persons responsible for heating the apartment with coal) were determined to reflect the cell injury. Blood samples were obtained from CHSW (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 25). All values were measured in whole blood and serum. ANOVA was used for the estimation of statistical data. In the group of CHSW, creatinine, ferritin, alanin aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities as well as triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, protein carbonyl and malondialdehide were significantly higher, while transferrin, high density lipoprotein and catalase (CAT) activities were lower than the group of healthy individuals. This result is consistent with hypothesis that respirable coal dust generates lipid and protein oxidation and induces leakage of serum enzymes by cell damage. It also leads to imbalance in antioxidant defense system, lipid profile and other biochemical parameters.

  11. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious harmonic distortions in transmission and distribution systems. In this paper, harmonic generation of a static VAR compensator with thyristor-controlled reactor and effects of the harmonics on steady-state voltage stability are examined for various operational conditions.

  12. Top 10 Threats to Computer Systems Include Professors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    User awareness is growing in importance when it comes to computer security. Not long ago, keeping college networks safe from cyberattackers mainly involved making sure computers around campus had the latest software patches. New computer worms or viruses would pop up, taking advantage of some digital hole in the Windows operating system or in…

  13. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious harmonic ...

  14. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this study, non-sinusoidal quantities and voltage stability, both known as power quality criteria, are examined together in detail. The widespread use of power electronics elements cause the existence of significant non-sinusoidal quantities in the system. These non-sinusoidal quantities can create serious har-.

  15. Line outage contingency analysis including the system islanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimally ordered sparse [Bʹ], [Bʺ] matrices for the integrated system are used for load flow analysis to determine modified values of voltage phase angles [d] and bus voltages [V] to determine the over loading effect on the remaining lines due to outage of a selected line outage contingency. In case of over loading in ...

  16. Study of Info backup system of strategy management for coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Dai, B.; Li, Q.; Shao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    It is an application system which helps the determination, enforcement and control of the development strategy of a coal enterprise. This system, which is based on Delphi 5.0, is a Windows application and is bundled with some excellent software, such as 3D Studio Max, Autocad, PhotoShop, Gif Gear etc. It comprises of two subsystems, i.e., the information backup subsystem of strategy management and the control subsystem of strategy enforcement. This system can provide not only the effective information to the leaders or the managers, but also the timely and effective control in the whole course of strategy enforcement. 5 refs.,1 fig.

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  18. Clean coal technologies and future prospects for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.; Torries, T.; Labys, W.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future potential of coal in the US economy during the next 25 years in light of clean coal technologies. According to official US Department of Energy (DOE) designations, these technologies pertain only to the beneficiation, transformation, combustion, and postcombustion clean-up stages of the coal cycle; no coal mining or coal transport technologies are included. In general, clean coal technologies offer the prospect of mitigating environmental side-effects of coal utilization, primarily through improved operating efficiencies and lowered costs of air emission controls. If they prove successful, coal users will be able to meet more stringent environmental regulations at little or no additional cost. In assessing the influence of clean coal technologies on coal demand, we focus on the economics of three crucial areas: their development, their deployment, and coal utilization implications of their operation

  19. Biofilms from a Brazilian water distribution system include filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, V M; Oliveira, H M B; Santos, C; Paterson, R R M; Gusmão, N B; Lima, N

    2013-03-01

    Filamentous fungi in drinking water can block water pipes, can cause organoleptic biodeterioration, and are a source of pathogens. There are increasing reports of the involvement of the organisms in biofilms. This present study describes a sampling device that can be inserted directly into pipes within water distribution systems, allowing biofilm formation in situ. Calcofluor White M2R staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization with morphological analyses using epifluorescent microscopy were used to analyse biofilms for filamentous fungi, permitting direct observation of the fungi. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) was applied to detect bacteria. Filamentous fungi were detected in biofilms after 6 months on coupons exposed to raw water, decanted water and at the entrance of the water distribution system. Algae, yeast, and bacteria were also observed. The role of filamentous fungi requires further investigations.

  20. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 2, Sections 6 and 7: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  1. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  2. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures, and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% by mass coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3)), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time, and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  3. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  5. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  6. Measurements and simulation for design optimization for low NOx coal-firing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Bar-Ziv; Y. Yasur; B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker [Ben-Gurion University of Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    The information required to design a utility steam generator is the heat balance, fuel analysis and emission. These establish the furnace wall configuration, the heat release rates, and the firing technology. The furnace must be sized for (1) residence time for complete combustion with low NOx, and (2) reduction of flue gas temperature to minimize ash deposition. To meet these, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of the combustion process in the furnace were performed and proven to be a powerful tool for this purpose. Still, reliable numerical simulations require careful interpretation and comparison with measurements. We report numerical results and measurements for a 575 MW pulverized coal tangential firing boiler of the Hadera power plant of Israel Electric Corporation (IEC). Measured and calculated values were found to be in reasonable agreement. We used the simulations for optimization and investigated temperature distribution, heat fluxes and concentration of chemical species. We optimized both the furnace flue gas temperature entering the convective path and the staged residence time for low NOx. We tested mass flow rates through close-coupled and separate overfire air ports and its arrangement and the coal powder fineness. These parameters can control the mixing rate between the fuel and the oxidizer streams and can affect the most important characteristics of the boiler such as temperature regimes, coal burning rate and nitrogen oxidation/reduction. From this effort, IEC started to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing typical tangential burners to low NOx firing system to ensure the current regulation requirements of emission pollutions.

  7. Commercial liquid-metal MHD conversion systems coupled to LMFBR and coal-fired fluidized bed combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amend, W.E.; Brunsvold, A.; Pierson, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The constraints imposed on two-phase liquid-metal MHD (LMMHD) when employed in commercial power plants with practical heat sources have not previously been studied. The coupling of a LMMHD power system with an LMFBR and a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor are considered. Two MHD systems are considered. The first is a dual cycle where heat is added to both the liquid metal and the gas, and the gas may expand through a gas turbine after the MHD generator. The second system, a binary cycle, differs in that a significant portion of the sensible heat in the gas entering the compression loop is converted to useful power in a steam bottoming cycle. The effect of liquid-metal vapor carry-over into the gas loop is included. The couplings of the LMMHD system with the heat sources and with the steam plants were studied in depth. The results of the study of each interface are presented parametrically for each heat source and energy conversion system. Operating points have been selected and the complete schematic of each system considered is presented along with all thermodynamic state points and fluid flow rates. All system parameters and component efficiencies were selected to be consistent with near term technology and good engineering design principles. These criteria yielded a system performance of 37 percent for an LMFBR operating with a maximum reactor coolant temperature of 1200 0 F when the pure LMMHD energy converter was used. A LMMHD/steam binary cycle is shown to be capable of achieving a thermal efficiency of 44.8 percent when used with the same heat source. Results with the coal fluidized bed combustor as a heat source show even higher performance levels (about 50 percent efficiency) since the maximum cycle temperature is increased

  8. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  9. Integrated High Temperature Coal-to-Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Ruud; Anthony Ku; Vidya Ramaswamy; Wei Wei; Patrick Willson

    2007-05-31

    A significant barrier to the commercialization of coal-to-hydrogen technologies is high capital cost. The purity requirements for H{sub 2} fuels are generally met by using a series of unit clean-up operations for residual CO removal, sulfur removal, CO{sub 2} removal and final gas polishing to achieve pure H{sub 2}. A substantial reduction in cost can be attained by reducing the number of process operations for H{sub 2} cleanup, and process efficiency can be increased by conducting syngas cleanup at higher temperatures. The objective of this program was to develop the scientific basis for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H{sub 2} from a coal-based system. The approach was to evaluate the feasibility of a 'one box' process that combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membrane to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO{sub 2} in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. A system-level design was produced for a shift reactor that incorporates a high-temperature membrane. The membrane performance targets were determined. System level benefits were evaluated for a coal-to-hydrogen system that would incorporate membranes with properties that would meet the performance targets. The scientific basis for high temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membranes was evaluated by developing and validating a model for high temperature surface flow membranes. Synthesis approaches were pursued for producing membranes that integrated control of pore size with materials adsorption properties. Room temperature reverse-selectivity for CO{sub 2} was observed and performance at higher temperatures was evaluated. Implications for future membrane development are discussed.

  10. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  11. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  12. Measurement of the Industrial Collaboration of the Diversified Coal Industry: China Coal Energy Company as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Mao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development of coal enterprises in China, the industries related to coal, including coal chemical, electric power, transportation, and building materials, have witnessed rapid development. There is a collaboration relation between the coal industries and most of the aforementioned industries. Based on the synergy theory and the theory of industrial cooperation, the collaboration among coal industries is assessed in this research. Examining China Coal Energy Company as an example, this research divides the compound enterprise system into subsystems such as coal-electric, coal-chemical, and coal-equipment. Next, collaboration indices, including market, scale, and management, are created for each subsystem. Then, the overall collaboration degree of the China Coal Energy Company since it was listed was calculated by standardizing data and estimating the order degree of order parameters and subsystems. Thus, a model measuring the industrial collaboration degree of coal enterprises was established to quantitatively reflect the collaboration degree between various industries. At the same time, the factors influencing the collaboration effect between various industries were analyzed so as to improve this effect, which then can provide a decision basis for enterprises.

  13. Interactive program system for application of modern evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hoňková

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution methodical procedures of modeling and assessing of coal deposits, applied in the frame of the solution of the (Grant Agency of the Czech Republic project No 105/03/1417 entitled „Interactive program system for application of modern methods of evaluation of coal deposits and their parts under complicated conditions“, are presented. The development of the computer technology as well as the new results in the domain of scientific geoinformatics have enabled an application of new modeling procedures and subsequent assessing of coal seams. Above all, the procedures in the sphere of the statistical data processing, geostatistics, selection and the application of a proper interpolation method, the graphic elaboration of maps and the 3D visualization of modeled coal seams and further procedures facilitating the selection of in-seam balanced thickness as well as identifying and correlating of coal seams are concerned. The program system formed in this way is conceived for applying to all types of coal deposits occurring in the Czech Republic.

  14. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  15. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  16. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  17. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed

  19. Fiber optic sensing system for monitoring of coal waste piles in combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Carvalho, J. P.; Ferreira, J.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martins, H. F.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Baierl, H.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; González-Herráez, M.; López-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    The combustion of coal wastes resulting from mining is of particular environmental concern and therefore the importance of the proper management involving real-time assessment of their status and identification of probable evolution scenarios is recognized. Continuous monitoring of combustion temperature and emission levels of certain gases opens the possibility to plan corrective actions to minimize their negative impact in the surroundings. Optical fiber technology is well-suited to this purpose and in this work it is described the main attributes of a fiber optic sensing system projected to gather data on distributed temperature and gas emission in these harsh environments.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF INTEGRATED CARBON RECOVERY SYSTEMS FROM FINE COAL PROCESSING WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Patil; A. Patwardhan; R.Q. Honaker; B.K. Parekh; D. Tao; Latif Khan

    2000-07-01

    The project involves the development of an efficient, environmentally friendly system for the economical recovery of carbon from fine-coal refuse ponds. The project will be conducted in two phases. Phase I was involved in the development and evaluation of process equipment and techniques to be used in carbon recovery, product dewatering and reconstitution, and refuse management. Phase II will integrate the various units into a continuously operating circuit that will be demonstrated at a site selected based on the results presented in this study.

  1. Cause analysis and suggestion of urea consumption in denitrification system of coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Dong, Ruifeng; Guo, Yang; Wang, Fangfang; Yang, Shuo

    2018-02-01

    In the daily operation of many power plants, the urea consumption of denitration system is much more than normal. Therefore, the process of site testing and laboratory analysis are carried out. Several suggestions are given out. (1) The position of sampling hole on the exit flue of denitrification system should be redesigned. (2) The denitrification optimization and adjustment should be carried out based on the technical specifications for the operation system. (3) The flue gas CEMS system for single point sampling should be transformed into two or three point sampling mode. (4) When the coal - fired unit is shutting down, examine the ammonia injection and nozzle branch, in order to improve the operation reliability of denitration system.

  2. A viscosity model for fully liquid coal ash slags in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kondratiev; P.C. Hayes; E. Jak [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Pyrometallurgy Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    A general viscosity model for fully liquid coal ash slags in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} system in reducing conditions has been developed. The present model links the coal ash slag viscosity with the internal structure of the molten slags described by the thermodynamic quasi-chemical model. The model describes slag viscosities over the whole compositional range, including all unary, binary, ternary and higher-order sub-systems. The overall agreement between the critically assessed experimental data in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-'FeO'-MgO-SiO{sub 2} slag system at metallic iron saturation and the quasi-chemical viscosity model is within 19.5 per cent. The present viscosity model can now be used to assist in a number of coal industrial issues such as analysis of coal suitability for different slagging gasifiers, coal fluxing and blending, modelling of slag flow in slagging gasifiers and adhesion of ash particles to reactor walls etc. The application of the model in the coal gasification field will be demonstrated in the paper. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The use of solvent extractions and solubility theory to discern hydrocarbon associations in coal, with application to the coal-supercritical CO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    findings indicate that hydrocarbon solubility does not exert a strong influence on hydrocarbon behavior in the systems studied. Other factors such as coal composition and maceral content, surface processes (physisorption), or other molecular interactions appear to affect the partitioning of hydrocarbons within the coal–supercritical CO2 system. Resolving the extent to which these factors might affect hydrocarbon behavior under different geological settings is important to efforts seeking to model petroleum generation, fractionation and expulsion from coal beds and to delineate potential hydrocarbon fate and transport in geologic CO2 sequestration settings.

  4. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  5. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal.

  6. Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the Coal Production Submodule (CPS). It provides a description of the CPS for model analysts and the public. The Coal Market Module provides annual forecasts of prices, production, and consumption of coal

  7. Coal and our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet describes how coal is important for economic development and how it can be used without environmental damage. Aspects covered include: improved air quality; Clean Air Act; controlling emissions from coal; flue gas desulfurization; acid rain; the greenhouse effect and climatic change; the cost of clean air; surface coal mining and land reclamation; underground mining and subsidence; and mining and water pollution including acid mine drainage

  8. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey in Malaysia and Vietnam (Malaysia); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In this survey, the coal utilization status in individual consumption sectors and coal distribution status in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of environmentally acceptable coal utilization systems. In this fiscal year, the status of existing coal utilization technology and environmental issues in Malaysia are summarized as basic data for the introduction of above-mentioned systems on the basis of data and information collected by basic research and site survey in FY 1996. Malaysia is one of the rich countries producing the primary resources with crude petroleum, natural gas, hydro-power, and coal. The coal demand will be realized after saturating LNG development since 2000. The major coal consumption industries are power generation sector and cement industry sector. As expected increase in the future coal consumption, efficiency of coal utilization and environmental issues are problems in the future. Based on the FS results of this survey, the survey will be continued for planning and conducting the model project required from Malaysia. 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Limestone FGD systems data book. Final report. [25 units: location, capacity, installation data, coal (calorific value, ash, sulfur content), particulate control system and design efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.O.; Blythe, G.M.; Cannell, A.L.; Meadows, M.L.; Swenson, D.O.

    1983-03-01

    Selecting and installing a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can be a difficult task for the utility engineer. Often, the technology is unfamiliar and the array of alternatives disconcerting. Approximately 33,000 MW of FGD systems are now operating and another 39,000 MW are planned or under construction. With the current EPA regulations requiring an FGD system on essentially every new coal-fired utility generating unit, the ability to decide on the most advantageous FGD system on technical, environmental, and economic bases is critical to the success of the unit and can result in substantial improvements in the reliability of the system. This manual presents discussions of the chemical processes involved in SO/sub 2/ removal using limestone, process control methods, mechanical component design, and methods of requesting and evaluating proposals. The discussion of mechanical components includes numerous examples of existing utility installations and problems.

  10. An Integrated Environment Monitoring System for Underground Coal Mines—Wireless Sensor Network Subsystem with Multi-Parameter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-01-01

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected. PMID:25051037

  11. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-07-21

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  12. Introduction of information control systems in electricity transformer stations for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of introducing information control systems into main and subpower transformer stations supplying large capacity continuous production surface coal mines. The main characteristics and economic advantages of such a system are described and it is recommended that a full-scale feasibility study be carried out by a team of experts drawn from the fields of mining technology, mining machinery and electricity supply. It is envisaged that optimizing the use of transformer facilities could significantly reduce operational breakdowns and also result in considerable cost savings in electricity charges. Savings at a typical mine producing 2000 t/h are estimated to be 24.6 million Yu Din and, according to Soviet experience, the utilization of automatic information and managerial systems has resulted in reductions in electricity costs of 32%. 8 refs.

  13. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  14. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  15. Fibre Optics In Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    1984-08-01

    Coal mines have a number of unique problems which affect the use of fibre optic technology. These include a potentially explosive atmosphere due to the evolution of methane from coal, and a dirty environment with no cleaning facilities readily available. Equipment being developed by MRDE to allow the exploitation of optical fibres underground includes: A hybrid electrical/fibre optic connector for the flexible power trailing cable of the coal-face shearer; An Intrinsically Safe (IS) pulsed laser transmitter using Frequency Shift Key (FSK) data modulation; An IS Avalanche Photo Diode Receiver suitable for pulsed & continuous wave optical signals; A mine shaft and roadway cable/ connector system incorporating low loss butt-splices and preterminated demountable connectors.

  16. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  17. Dynamic simulation model of a coal thermoelectric plant with a flue gas desulphurisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio Caselles-Moncho; Liliana Ferrandiz-Serrano; Eduardo Peris-Mora [Universitat de Valencia, Burjassot (Spain). Departament de Matematica Aplicada

    2006-12-15

    In this paper a Dynamic Simulation Model has been used to present the likely responses of the electricity industries' latest perturbations such as: changes in environmental regulations, international fuel market evolution, restriction on fuel supply and increase on fuel prices, liberalisation of the European electricity market, and the results of applying energy policies and official tools such as taxes and emission allowances. The case study refers to the Teruel Power Plant, built after the 1970s oil crisis to ensure Spain's electricity supply, burning domestically produced coal in order to ensure local mining activity. The Teruel Power Plant has made relevant investments in order to meet emission limits, such as a flue gas desulphurisation plant. The economic viability of the power stations has to be analysed after environmental costs have been internalised. A system is defined that studies the coal-firing electric power plant selling energy to the free electricity market, whenever the generation cost is competitive. A Dynamic Simulation Model would appear to be an accurate tool to optimise power station management within different frameworks. 82 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs., 2 apps.

  18. Dynamic simulation model of a coal thermoelectric plant with a flue gas desulphurisation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselles-Moncho, Antonio [Departament de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)]. E-mail: Antonio.Caselles@uv.es; Ferrandiz-Serrano, Liliana [Departamento de Ingenieria de la Construccion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Peris-Mora, Eduardo [Departamento de Ingenieria de la Construccion, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    In this paper a Dynamic Simulation Model has been used to present the likely responses of the electricity industries' latest perturbations such as: changes in environmental regulations, international fuel market evolution, restriction on fuel supply and increase on fuel prices, liberalisation of the European Electricity Market, and the results of applying energy policies and official tools such as taxes and emission allowances. The case under study refers to the Teruel Power Plant, built after the 1970s oil crisis to ensure national electricity supply; burning domestically produced coal in order to ensure local mining activity. The Teruel Power Plant has made relevant investments in order to meet emission limits, such as a Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant. The economic viability of the power stations has to be analysed after environmental costs have been internalised. A system is defined that studies the coal-firing Electric Power Plant selling energy to the free electricity market, whenever the generation cost is competitive. A Dynamic Simulation Model would appear to be an accurate tool to optimise power station management within different frameworks.

  19. Dynamic simulation model of a coal thermoelectric plant with a flue gas desulphurisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselles-Moncho, Antonio; Ferrandiz-Serrano, Liliana; Peris-Mora, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a Dynamic Simulation Model has been used to present the likely responses of the electricity industries' latest perturbations such as: changes in environmental regulations, international fuel market evolution, restriction on fuel supply and increase on fuel prices, liberalisation of the European Electricity Market, and the results of applying energy policies and official tools such as taxes and emission allowances. The case under study refers to the Teruel Power Plant, built after the 1970s oil crisis to ensure national electricity supply; burning domestically produced coal in order to ensure local mining activity. The Teruel Power Plant has made relevant investments in order to meet emission limits, such as a Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant. The economic viability of the power stations has to be analysed after environmental costs have been internalised. A system is defined that studies the coal-firing Electric Power Plant selling energy to the free electricity market, whenever the generation cost is competitive. A Dynamic Simulation Model would appear to be an accurate tool to optimise power station management within different frameworks

  20. A method for development of a system of identification for Appalachian coal-bearing rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, J.C.; Weisenfluh, G.A.; Smith, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    The number of observable properties of sedimentary rocks is large and numerous classifications have been proposed for describing them. Some rock classifications, however, may be disadvantageous in situations such as logging rock core during coal exploration programs, where speed and simplicity are the essence. After experimenting with a number of formats for logging rock core in the Appalachian coal fields, a method of using color photographs accompanied by a rock name and numeric code was selected. In order to generate a representative collection of rocks to be photographed, sample methods were devised to produce a representative collection, and empirically based techniques were devised to identify repeatedly recognizable rock types. A number of cores representing the stratigraphic and geographic range of the region were sampled so that every megascopically recognizable variety was included in the collection; the frequency of samples of any variety reflects the frequency with which it would be encountered during logging. In order to generate repeatedly recognizable rock classes, the samples were sorted to display variation in grain size, mineral composition, color, and sedimentary structures. Class boundaries for each property were selected on the basis of existing, widely accepted limits and the precision with which these limits could be recognized. The process of sorting the core samples demonstrated relationships between rock properties and indicated that similar methods, applied to other groups of rocks, could yield more widely applicable field classifications. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Commissioning and maintenance experience of in-plant coal handling system of captive power plant at HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 5.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugappan, K.; Mohan Rao, A.C.; Sastry, M.S.N.

    1992-01-01

    For achieving a non-stop generation of power for a minimum period of one year can be a reality only if due importance is given to inplant coal handling system. The paper highlights the major commissioning and maintenance problem faced and corrective action taken for inplant coal handling system of the captive power plant at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru. (author)

  2. Economic analysis of coal-based polygeneration system for methanol and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Jin, Hongguang; Gao, Lin; Han, Wei

    Polygeneration system for chemical and power co-production has been regarded as one of promising technologies to use fossil fuel more efficiently and cleanly. In this paper the thermodynamic and economic performances of three types of coal-based polygeneration system were investigated and the influence of energy saving of oxygenation systems on system economic performance was revealed. The primary cost saving ratio (PCS) is presented as a criterion, which represents the cost saving of polygeneration system compared with the single-product systems with the same products outputs, to evaluate economic advantages of polygeneration system. As a result, the system, adopting un-reacted syngas partly recycled to the methanol synthesis reactor and without the shift process, can get the optimal PCS of 11.8%, which results from the trade-off between the installed capital cost saving and the energy saving effects on the cost saving, and represents the optimal coupling relationship among chemical conversion, energy utilization and economic performance. And both of fuel price and the level of equipment capital cost affect on PCS faintly. This paper provides an evaluation method for polygeneration systems based on both technical and economic viewpoints. (author)

  3. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  4. Zimpro's biophysical treatment and wet-air-regeneration-system engineering study for H-COAL wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churton, B.M.

    1982-12-01

    As part of an overall environmental evaluation of the H-COAL liquefaction process, sour water treatability studies have been performed. These studies consisted of the following major components: H-COAL sour and stripped water characterization study; Zimpro's biophysical treatability and characterization study on H-COAL Wastwater; Zimpro's biophysical treatment system stress testing; Zimpro's biophysical treatment and wet air regeneration system engineering study; engineering analysis of reuse concepts for treated H-COAL wastewater; and evaluation of reverse osmosis treatment of treated H-COAL wastewater. These studies indicate that H-COAL Sour Water can be successfully treated for reuse or for discharge to public waters. Zimpro performed the first three studies on the biophysical treatment utilizing Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT). The PACT studies achieved the following results: Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) removal was > 98.8%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85 to 87%; esentailly complete nitrification was achieved; phenolics removal was > 99%; priority pollutants were removed to levels below Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined detection limits; PACT operated well using wet air regenerated carbon; and carbon recovery was approx. 90% in the wet air regeneration step. The third step in the Zimpro studies was a larger scale pilot investigation to: Confirm information developed in bench-scale experiments on a larger scale; provide performance data necessary to evaluate the PACTs Wet Air Regeneration System; optimize PACT operating conditions; produce treatment wastewater for additional testing; and perform a stress test at elevated concentrations of cyanide and thiocyanate. The results of the third Zimpro study are presented here.

  5. Correlation between gas permeability and pore structure of coal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, Y.; Niu, H.; Gao, H.

    2012-04-01

    The sequestration of CO2 in unminable coal seams represents a promising option for CO2 geologic storage, because the injected CO2 may enhance coalbed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM), which could partly offset the costs of the storage process. The CO2-ECBM technology is based on the relative affinity of CO2 and CH4 to coals under given pressure and temperature conditions. The excess sorption capacity of coals for CO2 is generally higher than the sorption capacity for methane. The coal seams are characterized by a dual porosity structure including cleat and matrix pores. The cleats in the coal seams are considered as highways for gas and water flow, while the matrix is the storage location of gas by adsorption. The slow transport process of gas in coal matrix may constrain the efficiency of the displacement of CH4 by CO2 due to the compacted pore structure of the coal matrix. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the correlation between permeability of gas and pore structure in coal matrix is crucial for the CO2-ECBM processes. Yangquan coals originating from the Qingshui basin, which contains gas-rich coals in China, were selected for the tests in this study. Yangquan coals are classified as anthracite. In order to avoid the influence of coal cleats on fluid flow, small coal plugs (~6 mm in diameter, ~13 mm in length) were selected and fixed in the sample compartment by special glue. A test system for simultaneously measuring adsorption-porosity-permeability on the coal matrix blocks in its free state is constructed. The permeability of gas and porosity in coal plugs to He under different gas pressure and temperature conditions were simultaneously investigated. The permeability and excess sorption capacity of the coal plugs to He, N2, CH4 and CO2 were compared at a constant gas pressure and temperature. It is expected that gas break through a cleat-plug is much faster than that through a coal matrix-plug. Different sample plugs with the different pore structure results

  6. Coal market outlook in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhufeng; Zheng Xingzhou

    2005-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in China. It is forecast that coal will account for over 60% of the primary energy consumption mix, and the total coal demand will reach 2.3-2.9 billion tons in 2020. However, ensuring the coal supply will be faced with a lot of obstacles in fields such as the degree of detailed exploration of coal reserves, the level of mining technology and mine safety, the production capacity building of mines, transport conditions, and ecological and environmental impacts. More comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, strengthening coal production and transportation capacity, to rationalise coal mine disposition and the coal production structure, and to raise the levels of coal mining technologies and mine safety management, etc. (author)

  7. The World Coal Quality Inventory: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, S.J.; Willett, J.C.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    National and international policy makers and industry require accurate information on coal, including coal quality data, to make informed decisions regarding international import needs and export opportunities, foreign policy, technology transfer policies, foreign investment prospects, environmental and health assessments, and byproduct use and disposal issues. Unfortunately, the information needed is generally proprietary and does not exist in the public domain. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in conjunction with partners in about 60 countries, is developing a digital compilation of worldwide coal quality. The World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI) will contain coal quality information for samples obtained from major coal beds in countries having significant coal production, as well as from many countries producing smaller volumes of coal, with an emphasis on coals currently being burned. The information that will be incorporated includes, but is not limited to, proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur-form data; major, minor, and trace element analysis; and semi-quantitative analyses of minerals, modes of occurrence, and petrography. The coal quality information will eventually be linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS) that shows the coal basins and sample locations along with geologic, land use, transportation, industrial, and cultural information. The WoCQI will be accessible on the USGS web page and new data added periodically. This multi-national collaboration is developing global coal quality data that contain a broad array of technologic, economic, and environmental parameters, which should help to ensure the efficient and environmentally compatible use of global coal resources in the 21st century.

  8. Modelling of coal combustion enhanced through plasma-fuel systems in full-scale boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Askarova; Z. Jankoski; E.I. Karpenko; E.I. Lavrischeva; F.C. Lockwood; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-rank coal combustion. This work presents numerical modelling results of plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air-fuel mixture plasma activation, ignition and combustion. A 1D kinetic code, PLASMA-COAL, calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures and velocities of treated coal-air mixtures in a burner incorporating a plasma source. It gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of pulverised coal fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated. 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  10. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  12. Proceedings of the papers of the 33rd Coal Science Conference (1996); Dai 33 kai sekitan kagaku kaigi happyo ronbunshu (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-28

    This is a proceedings of the papers made public in the 33rd (fiscal 1996) Coal Science Conference held by the Japan Institute of Energy. The number of the papers included is 82. The processes such as coal liquefaction, coal gasification and pyrolysis are largely influenced by reaction of the carbon compound in coal. However, coal, which is different in reaction characteristics depending on its producing area, is a comprehensive compound. Therefore, the trial has been made for clarifying the molecular structure and skeleton. In the sense, the following papers are taken notice of: Suzuki and others` Estimation for origin of coals by biomaker analysis; Sugimoto and others` Change of unit skeletons during the artificial coalification; Hirado and others` Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Okawa and others` Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kanbayashi and others` Analysis of the relationship between coal properties and liquefaction characteristics by using the coal database.

  13. Optimal design of power system stabilizer for power systems including doubly fed induction generator wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derafshian, Mehdi; Amjady, Nima

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm-based approach for optimal design of power system stabilizer (PSS) for multi-machine power systems that include doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. The proposed evolutionary algorithm is an improved particle swarm optimization named chaotic particle swarm optimization with passive congregation (CPSO-PC) applied for finding the optimal settings of PSS parameters. Two different eigenvalue-based objectives are combined as the objective function for the optimization problem of tuning PSS parameters. The first objective function comprises the damping factor of lightly damped electro-mechanical modes and the second one includes the damping ratio of these modes. The effectiveness of the proposed method to design PSS for the power systems including DFIG (Doubly Fed Induction Generator) is extensively demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis and time-domain simulations and also by comparing its simulation results with the results of other heuristic optimization approaches. - Highlights: • A new optimization model for design of PSS in power systems including DFIG is proposed. • A detailed and realistic modeling of DFIG is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm is suggested for solving the optimization problem of designing PSS

  14. COAL OF THE FUTURE (Supply Prospects for Thermal Coal by 2030-2050)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The report, produced by Messrs. Energy Edge Ltd. (the U.K.) for the JRC Institute for Energy, aims at making a techno-economic analysis of novel extraction technologies for coal and their potential contribution to the global coal supply. These novel extraction technologies include: advanced coal mapping techniques, improved underground coal mining, underground coal gasification and utilisation of coalmine methane gas.

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  16. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  17. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  18. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  19. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, September 26, 1990--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  20. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  1. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  2. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  3. Feasibility analysis of nuclear–coal hybrid energy systems from the perspective of low-carbon development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, QianQian; Tang, ZhiYong; Lei, Yang; Sun, YuHan; Jiang, MianHeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a nuclear–coal hybrid energy systems. • We address the high-carbon energy resource integrating with a low-carbon energy resource. • We establish a systematic techno-economic model. • Improving both energy and carbon efficiency. • A significantly lower CO 2 emission intensity is achieved by the system. - Abstract: Global energy consumption is expected to increase significantly due to the growth of the economy and population. The utilization of fossil resource, especially coal, will likely be constrained by carbon dioxide emissions, known to be the principal contributor to climate change. Therefore, the world is facing the challenge of how to utilize fossil resource without a large carbon footprint. In the present work, a nuclear–coal hybrid energy system is proposed as a potential solution to the aforementioned challenge. A high-carbon energy such as coal is integrated effectively with a low-carbon energy such as nuclear in a flexible and optimized manner, which is able to generate the chemicals and fuels with low carbon dioxide emissions. The nuclear–coal hybrid energy system is presented in this paper for the detailed analysis. In this case, the carbon resource required by the fuel syntheses and chemical production processes is mainly provided by coal while the hydrogen resource is derived from nuclear energy. Such integration can not only lead to a good balance between carbon and hydrogen, but also improve both energy and carbon efficiencies. More importantly, a significantly lower CO 2 emission intensity is achieved. A systematic techno-economic model is established, and a scenario analysis is carried out on the hybrid system to assess the economic competitiveness based on the considerations of various types of externalities. It is found that with the rising carbon tax and coal price as well as the decreasing cost of nuclear energy, the hybrid energy system will become more and more economically competitive with the

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994; January 1995--March 1995; April 1995--June 1995; July 1995--September 1995; October 1995--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers five quarters of work on the engineering development of a coal-fired low -emissions boiler systems. Contents include summaries of activities and key accomplishments for the following: project management; NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystems; controls and sensors subsystems; boiler subsystem; and balance of plant subsystem.

  5. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  6. Coal pile leachate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  7. The Dual Role of Oxygen Functions in Coal Pretreatment and Liquefaction: Crosslinking and Cleavage Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Serio; Erik Kroo; Sylvie Charpenay; Peter Solomon

    1993-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to elucidate and model the dual role of oxygen functions in thermal pretreatment and liquefaction of low rank coals through the application of analytical techniques and theoretical models. The project was an integrated study of model polymers representative of coal structures, raw coals of primarily low rank, and selectively modified coals in order to provide specific information relevant to the reactions of real coals. The investigations included liquefaction experiments in microautoclave reactors, along with extensive analysis of intermediate solid, liquid and gaseous products. Attempts were made to incorporate the results of experiments on the different systems into a liquefaction model.

  8. Coal technology program. Progress report, May 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Two successful operability tests with sustained operation of the bench-scale hydrocarbonizer were achieved with Illinois No. 6 coal diluted with char. Several activities in the area of nondestructive testing of coatings are reviewed. Failure analysis activities included examination of several components from the solvent refined coal plants at Wilsonville, Alabama, and Tacoma, Washington. In the gas-fired potassium boiler project, all of the design work were completed except for several of the instrument and control drawings. In the design studies of a coal-fired alkali metal vapor topping cycle, the first phase of a cycle analysis and the design and analysis of a metal vapor turbine were completed. A report entitled ''Critical Component Test Facility--Advance Planning for Test Modules'' presents the planning study for the conceptual design of component test modules on a nonsite-specific basis. Engineering studies, project evaluation and process and program analysis of coal conversion processes were continued. A report on the landfill storage of solid wastes from coal conversion is being finalized. In the coal-fueled MIUS project, a series of successful tests of the coal feeding system and a report on the analysis of 500-hr fire-side corrosion tests in a fluidized bed combustor were completed.

  9. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A systems approach to risk assessment: Application to methylmercury from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroff, L. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lipfert, F.W.; Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) asked Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform a probabilistic assessment of the health risks associated with Hg from coal-fired power plants. The objective of the assessment is to estimate the incremental health risks that might ensue from a typical coal-fired power plant, together with their uncertainties, taking into account existing background levels and the actual adverse health effects that have previously been associated with exposure to various Hg species. Mercury has a long history of association with adverse neurological effects at high exposure levels. The most important current exposure pathway has been found to be ingestion of fish containing methylmercury (MeHg), which is the end product of bioconcentration moving up the aquatic food chain. Mercury can enter natural waters from either industrial discharges or from atmospheric deposition of various inorganic Ho. compounds. Because of the worldwide background and the existence of local emissions sources, Hg deposition must be considered on local, regional and global scales. The regulatory technical challenge presented by methy1mercury is to protect public health without foreclosing an appreciable a portion of the food supply or impacting on the lifestyles of North American native populations. This paper presents an abbreviated account of the DOE/BNL risk assessment, as viewed from a systems perspective. We review the structure of the model, the sources of data used, the assumptions that were made, and the interpretation of the findings. Since publication of the first risk assessment report, we have refined our estimates of local atmospheric dispersion and deposition and {open_quotes}calibrated{close_quotes} the pharmacokinetic portion of the model against observations.

  11. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate

  12. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  13. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700°, 750°, and 800°C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800°C. The electrical performance of SOFC

  14. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  15. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Anbo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  16. Development of a Universal Safety Behavior Management System for Coal Mine Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Jizu; LI, Yuejiao; LIU, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application. Methods: Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees. Results: The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character. Conclusion: The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment. PMID:26258088

  17. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  18. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  19. Effect of structural discontinuities on coal pillar strength as a basis for improving safety in the design of coal pillar systems.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esterhuizen, GS

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The stability of underground coal mines depends on the integrity of the pillars which are required to support the overlying strata. Should the pillars collapse, the safety of the persons in the workings will be threatened. The strength of a coal...

  20. Seed recovery and regeneration in coal-fired, open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.C.; Jackson, D.M.; Attig, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems not only have high cycle efficiency, but they also have an inherent sulfur removal capability. The potassium compound uses as ''seed'' plays a dual role. It 1) increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma needed to produce power in the MHD electrical topping cycle, and 2) reacts with sulfur dioxide to form potassium sulfate, thereby eliminating most of the sulfur oxides from the gaseous effluent. For economical reasons, the spent seed must be recovered, desulfurized and recycled to the MHD power plant. This paper reviews some of the available experimental results and literature relating to SO 2 removal and seed recovery, and will also discuss several potential seed regeneration processes. Three methods of potassium extraction are discussed, i.e., hot aqueous digestion with CA(OH) 2 /NaOH, acid washing, and aqueous extraction. The selected candidate regeneration systems are discussed from the viewpoint of energy and process water requirements and environmental considerations such as waste discharges and emissions of gaseous, particulate and trace element pollutants

  1. The role of diatomite particles in the activated sludge system for treating coal gasification wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.Q.; Rao, P.H.; Zhang, H.; Xu, J.L. [Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai (China)

    2009-02-15

    Diatomite is a kind of natural low-cost mineral material. It has a number of unique physical properties and has been widely used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the aerobic biodegradation of coal gasification wastewater with and without diatomite addition. Experimental results indicated that diatomite added in the activated sludge system could promote the biomass and also enhance the performance of the sludge settling. The average mixed-liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) is increased from 4055 mg.L{sup -1} to 4518 mg.L{sup -1} and the average settling volume (SV) are changed only from 45.9% to 47.1%. Diatomite additive could enhance the efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols removal from the wastewater. The COD removal increased from 73.3% to near 80% and the total phenols removal increased from 81.4% to 85.8%. The mechanisms of the increase of biomass and pollutants removal may correlated to the improvement of bioavailability and sludge settlement characteristics by diatomite added. Micrograph of the sludge in the diatomite-activated sludge system indicated that the diatomite added could be the carrier of the microbe and also affect the biomass and pollutant removal.

  2. Assessment of materials technology of pressure vessels and piping for coal conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canonico, D.A.; Cooper, R.H.; Foster, B.E.; McClung, R.W.; Nanstad, R.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1978-08-01

    The current technology of the materials, fabrication, and inspection of pressure vessels and piping for commercial coal conversion systems is reviewed. Comparison is made between the various codes applicable to these conversion systems. Areas of concern, such as material compatibility and fracture toughness, are cited. Recommendations are made that should increase the reliability of these components, the failure of which would result in a major outage of the plant. We believe that to date most of the current studies of various competing processes have emphasized the capital cost aspects to show potential competition with other energy sources but have not adequately examined the influence of design features on both potential maintenance and disruptive failure costs. It appears, for example, that the choice of vessel size (which is dictated by single vs multiple train process designs) has been examined primarily from the standpoint of capital costs. Maintenance, operation, relative part load capability, and relative probability of failure are unanswered questions. The materials having the most favorable mechanical properties and costs, unfortunately, are sensitive to various embrittling phenomena.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  4. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D. [United Technologies Research Center, E. Hartford, CT (United States); Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E. [Univ. of Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  5. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  6. Potentially useful elements (Al, Fe, Ga, Ge, U) in coal gangue: a case study in Weibei coal mining area, Shaanxi Province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Wang, Xing

    2018-02-14

    Coal gangue has become one of the largest industrial solid waste in China, but it is also a kind of reserve resources. Representative coal gangue samples from different coal mines (mainly in Permo-Carboniferous and Jurassic) in Weibei area in Shaanxi Province are collected, and potentially useful elements (Al, Fe, Ga, Ge, U) in coal gangue are analyzed. The results show that the reserves of Al and Fe in Chinese coal gangue are 262 million tons and 196 million tons, respectively, based on the geometric mean values of Al 2 O 3 (15.18%, weight percent) and Fe 2 O 3 (6.24%, weight percent). Meanwhile, the crude reserves estimation of Ga, Ge, and U are 55,282, 6867, and 32,981 tons, respectively, based on the weighted mean contents of Ga, Ge, and U in coal gangue at 17.55, 2.18, and 10.47 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, Ga and Al contents in quite a large number of coal gangue mines exceed the cutoff value, which has a prospect of development and utilization from coal gangue. The policy implications from this study may include that (1) recycling of useful elements in Chinese coal gangue should be treated as an integral part of sustainable development with professional legislations and (2) establishing a basic database of coal gangue and authoritative system with relevant departments for solid waste management may effectively improve comprehensive utilization of coal gangue in the future.

  7. Early Warning System for Seismic Events in Coal Mines Using Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bogucki, Robert; Lasek, Jan; Milczek, Jan Kanty; Tadeusiak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This document describes an approach to the problem of predicting dangerous seismic events in active coal mines up to 8 hours in advance. It was developed as a part of the AAIA'16 Data Mining Challenge: Predicting Dangerous Seismic Events in Active Coal Mines. The solutions presented consist of ensembles of various predictive models trained on different sets of features. The best one achieved a winning score of 0.939 AUC.

  8. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  9. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.

  10. Development and implementation of bottom ash crushing system in Submerged Scrapper Conveyor (SSC for Coal-fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Ismail Firas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Submerged Scrapper Conveyor (SSC in coal-fired power plant is to handle the by-product of bottom ash. However, soot-blowing will be performed sometimes, in order to remove slag formed at the boiler furnace wall. Thence, this lead to a sudden loading of large amount of slags and bottom ash at SSC after soot-blowing, causing SSC conveying system to jam and conveying chain breakage. In this paper, a new SSC design with additional crushing system is proposed. By implementing the new design proposed, it is expected to improve the overall current performances, and to reduce the trip issue of SSC in coal-fired power plant. The new 3D model of SSC is designed, and stress-strain simulation of the model is analysed by using software of PTC Creo Parametric. Final cost and safety factor analysis of model is made to prove its validation.

  11. Characterization of manganese oxide precipitates from Appalachian coal mine drainage treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hui; Zhang Gengxin; Heaney, Peter J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Burgos, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The removal of Mn(II) from coal mine drainage (CMD) by chemical addition/active treatment can significantly increase treatment costs. Passive treatment for Mn removal involves promotion of biological oxidative precipitation of manganese oxides (MnO x ). Manganese(II) removal was studied in three passive treatment systems in western Pennsylvania that differed based on their influent Mn(II) concentrations (20-150 mg/L), system construction (±inoculation with patented Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria), and bed materials (limestone vs. sandstone). Manganese(II) removal occurred at pH values as low as 5.0 and temperatures as low as 2 deg. C, but was enhanced at circumneutral pH and warmer temperatures. Trace metals such as Zn, Ni and Co were removed effectively, in most cases preferentially, into the MnO x precipitates. Based on synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and Mn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the predominant Mn oxides at all sites were poorly crystalline hexagonal birnessite, triclinic birnessite and todorokite. The surface morphology of the MnO x precipitates from all sites was coarse and 'sponge-like' composed of nm-sized lathes and thin sheets. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), MnO x precipitates were found in close proximity to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The greatest removal efficiency of Mn(II) occurred at the one site with a higher pH in the bed and a higher influent total organic C (TOC) concentration (provided by an upstream wetland). Biological oxidation of Mn(II) driven by heterotrophic activity was most likely the predominant Mn removal mechanism in these systems. Influent water chemistry and Mn(II) oxidation kinetics affected the relative distribution of MnO x mineral assemblages in CMD treatment systems.

  12. Improvement of methane drainage in high gassy coal seam using waterjet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tingkan; Yu, Hong; Guo, Baohua [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University (China); Zhou, Tingyang [Rujigou Colliery, Shenning Coal Group, Ningxia (China); Mao, Jushen [School of Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology (China)

    2009-07-01

    Traditional methane drainage methods, including conventional ventilation and boreholes drilled in the coal seam, are widely used in modern coal mining operation in China. However, it is often noted that the gas drainage presents low efficiency in most coal mines due to low permeability of the coal seam, which not only affects the safety, but also the productivity of the coal mine. This paper describes the development and application of the waterjet cutting system, which is used to create artificial fractures and increase the permeability of coal seam for the improvement of methane drainage in underground coal mines in China. According to underground monitoring, a significant improvement of methane drainage efficiency of up to 3 to 6 times over the traditional methods has been achieved. (author)

  13. Modeling on the Effect of Coal Loads on Kinetic Energy of Balls for Ball Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the detection and control of coal loads that is more accurate and convenient than those currently used. To date, no research has addressed the use of a grinding medium as the controlled parameter. To improve the accuracy of the coal load detection based on the kinetic energy of balls in a tubular ball mill, a Discrete Element Method (DEM model for ball kinematics based on coal loads is proposed. The operating process for a ball mill and the ball motion, as influenced by the coal quality and the coal load, was analyzed carefully. The relationship between the operating efficiency of a coal pulverizing system, coal loads, and the balls’ kinetic energy was obtained. Origin and Matlab were utilized to draw the variation of parameters with increasing coal loads in the projectile and cascading motion states. The parameters include the balls’ real-time kinetic energy, the friction energy consumption, and the mill’s total work. Meanwhile, a method of balanced adjacent degree and a physical experiment were proposed to verify the considerable effect of the balls’ kinetic energy on coal loads. The model and experiment results indicate that a coal load control method based on the balls’ kinetic energy is therefore feasible for the optimized operation of a coal pulverizing system.

  14. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  15. Coal bottom ash and pine wood peelings as root substrates in a circulating nutriculture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, M.A.; Bearce, B.C.; Cluskey, S.; Townsend, E. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    'Inca Yellow' marigolds ([ital Tagetes erecta L.]) were planted in polyethylene bags containing coal bottom ash (CBA), pine wood peelings (PWP), a mixture of 1 CBA: 1 PWP (v/v), and loose Grodan Rockwool (RW) and grown in a circulating nutriculture system. Three fertigation frequencies of 12,6, or 4 cycles per 12-hour light period were set with a duration of 5 minutes each. Flower diameters of marigolds grown in CBA, PWP, and CBA-PWP exceeded flower diameters of RW-grown marigolds, and days from planting to harvest were less in CBA and CBA-PWP than in the other two media. There was no interaction between medium and fertigation frequency. Foliar analysis showed no significant differences in plant elemental composition among root media or fertigation frequencies. Postharvest PWP water extracts contained higher P levels than extracts of other media, and CBA-PWP water extracts contained higher K, Ca, and Mg. In the CBA-PWP mixture, decomposition products from PWP may have increased P solubility and solubilized the K, Ca, and Mg in CBA.

  16. Cellular functional changes in the endocrine system of the rats upon exposure to coal rock dust and during exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk

    2004-07-15

    Exposure to coal rock dust in combination with exercise for 2 months was found to have a negative impact on cellular metabolism in the endocrine system. The early form of anthracosilicosis developed in this period. Cytomorphological study revealed cellular changes in the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and pancreatic glands. The cells of the endocrine organs are functionally tense upon exposure to toxic and physical factors and they are most vulnerable in this period of an experiment.

  17. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  18. 42 CFR 413.217 - Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payment system. 413.217 Section 413.217 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT....217 Items and services included in the ESRD prospective payment system. The following items and services are included in the ESRD prospective payment system effective January 1, 2011: (a) Renal dialysis...

  19. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  20. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  1. Coal power and combustion. Quarterly report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    ERDA's coal combustion and power program has focused on two major areas: Direct combustion of coal and advanced power systems. Efforts in the area of direct combustion are concentrated on: Development of atmospheric and pressurized systems capable of burning high-sulfur coal of all rank and quality in fluidized-bed combustors; development of advanced technology power systems to generate power more economically than present technology permits while using medium- and high-sulfur coal in an environmentally-acceptable manner; development of the technology enabling coal-oil slurries to be substituted as feedstock for gas or oil-fired combustors; and improvement of the efficiency of present boilers. Compared with conventional coal-fired systems, fluidized-bed combustion systems give higher power generation efficiencies and cleaner exhaust gases, even when burning high-sulfur coals. If the fluidized-bed system is pressurized, additional economies in capital and operating costs may be realized. The benefits from high-pressure combustion are a reduction of furnace size due to decreased gas volume and better sulfur removal. High-pressure combustion, however, requires the development of equipment to clean the hot combustion products to make them suitable for use in power generation turbines. The advanced power systems program is directed toward developing electric power systems capable of operating on coal or coal-derived fuels. These systems involve the use of high temperature gas turbines burning low-Btu gas and turbine systems using inert gases and alkali metal vapors. Some 25 projects in these areas are described, including a brief summary of progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  2. CVFA: Coal vendor financial advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goote, W.G.; Andersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    An expert system for determining coal vendor financial viability in fuel purchasing contracts at an electric utility is described. The system blends rules, data objects, and financial knowledge to provide a rational basis for accepting or rejecting coal contracts given the financial capability of the coal vendor. The discussion concludes with a critique of managerial issues in the development of the system and its use in decision making. 3 refs., 1 fig

  3. Assessment of reliability and efficiency of mining coal seams located above or below extracted coal seams with support coal pillars. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batmanov, Yu.K.; Bakhtin, A.F.; Bulavka, E.I.

    1981-04-01

    Mining thin (under 1.1 m) coal seams located above or below extracted thicker coal seams in which coal support pillars were left is one of the ways of increasing coal output without major investment in Donbass coal mines. It is planned that by 1985 25 thin coal seams will be mined in the Donbass. Investigations show that mining thin coal seams with gradients up to 12 degrees by a system of raise faces without leaving coal pillars is economical using mining systems available at present. This mining scheme is economical also in the case of coal seams located in zones of geologic dislocations. Using integrated mining systems (coal cutter, powered supports and face conveyor) in this coal seams would reduce mining cost from 0.2 to 0.3 rubles/t. Using automated integrated mining systems is economical in working faces with coal output exceeding 900 t/d. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  4. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and : lime kiln dust. The laboratory program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, : resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud C...

  5. Use of coal fly ash and other waste products in soil stabilization and road construction-including non-destructive testing of roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An extensive laboratory testing program was performed on subgrade soils stabilized using fly ash and lime kiln dust. The laboratory : program included measurements of: compaction curves, small strain elastic moduli, resilient modulus (Mr), Briaud Com...

  6. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  7. Annexes to the lecture on reactor protection system including engineered features actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present paper deals with the fundamentals for a reactor protection system and discusses the following topics: - System lay-out - Analog measured data acquisition - Analog measured data processing - Limit value generation and logical gating - Procesing of the reactor protection actuation signals - Decoupling of the reactor protection system - Mechanical lay-out - Monitoring system and - Emergency control station. (orig./RW)

  8. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  9. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  11. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  12. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  13. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  14. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  15. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Yoko; Ijiri, Akira; Ikegawa, Yojiro; Tsutsumi, Masazumi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Uramoto, Go-Ichiro; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Morono, Yuki; Sakai, Sanae; Saito, Yumi; Tanikawa, Wataru; Hirose, Takehiro; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in-situ pressure (0-100 MPa) and temperature (0-70°C) conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 ml/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ(13)Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to acetate.

  16. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eOhtomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological CO2 sequestration in unmineable subsurface oil/gas fields and coal formations has been proposed as a means of reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. However, the feasibility of injecting CO2 into subsurface depends upon a variety of geological and economic conditions, and the ecological consequences are largely unpredictable. In this study, we developed a new flow-through-type reactor system to examine potential geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impacts associated with CO2 injection by simulating in situ pressure (0–100 MPa and temperature (0–70°C conditions. Using the reactor system, anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively were continuously supplemented into a column comprised of bituminous coal and sand under a pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa at 40°C for 56 days. 16S rRNA gene analysis of the bacterial components showed distinct spatial separation of the predominant taxa in the coal and sand over the course of the experiment. Cultivation experiments using sub-sampled fluids revealed that some microbes survived, or were metabolically active, under CO2-rich conditions. However, no methanogens were activated during the experiment, even though hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogens were obtained from conventional batch-type cultivation at 20°C. During the reactor experiment, the acetate and methanol concentration in the fluids increased while the δ13Cacetate, H2 and CO2 concentrations decreased, indicating the occurrence of homo-acetogenesis. 16S rRNA genes of homo-acetogenic spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Sporomusa were consistently detected from the sandstone after the reactor experiment. Our results suggest that the injection of CO2 into a natural coal-sand formation preferentially stimulates homo-acetogenesis rather than methanogenesis, and that this process is accompanied by biogenic CO2 conversion to

  17. Coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined-cycle (GMS) power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J.M.; Marchant, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    The coal-gasification/MHD/steam-turbine combined cycle (GMS) refers to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems in which coal gasification is used to supply a clean fuel (free of mineral matter and sulfur) for combustion in an MHD electrical power plant. Advantages of a clean-fuel system include the elimination of mineral matter or slag from all components other than the coal gasifier and gas cleanup system; reduced wear and corrosion on components; and increased seed recovery resulting from reduced exposure of seed to mineral matter or slag. Efficiencies in some specific GMS power plants are shown to be higher than for a comparably sized coal-burning MHD power plant. The use of energy from the MHD exhaust gas to gasify coal (rather than the typical approach of burning part of the coal) results in these higher efficiencies.

  18. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoko, E.; McLellan, B.; Dicks, A.L.; da Costa, J.C. Diniz

    2006-01-01

    Although coal may be viewed as a dirty fuel due to its high greenhouse emissions when combusted, a strong case can be made for coal to be a major world source of clean H 2 energy. Apart from the fact that resources of coal will outlast oil and natural gas by centuries, there is a shift towards developing environmentally benign coal technologies, which can lead to high energy conversion efficiencies and low air pollution emissions as compared to conventional coal fired power generation plant. There are currently several world research and industrial development projects in the areas of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) systems. In such systems, there is a need to integrate complex unit operations including gasifiers, gas separation and cleaning units, water gas shift reactors, turbines, heat exchangers, steam generators and fuel cells. IGFC systems tested in the USA, Europe and Japan employing gasifiers (Texaco, Lurgi and Eagle) and fuel cells have resulted in energy conversions at efficiency of 47.5% (HHV) which is much higher than the 30-35% efficiency of conventional coal fired power generation. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are the front runners in energy production from coal gases. These fuel cells can operate at high temperatures and are robust to gas poisoning impurities. IGCC and IGFC technologies are expensive and currently economically uncompetitive as compared to established and mature power generation technology. However, further efficiency and technology improvements coupled with world pressures on limitation of greenhouse gases and other gaseous pollutants could make IGCC/IGFC technically and economically viable for hydrogen production and utilisation in clean and environmentally benign energy systems. (author)

  19. Biological CO2 conversion to acetate in subsurface coal-sand formation using a high-pressure reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Y.; Ijiri, A.; Ikegawa, Y.; Tsutsumi, M.; Imachi, H.; Uramoto, G.; Hoshino, T.; Morono, Y.; Tanikawa, W.; Hirose, T.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    The geological CO2 sequestration into subsurface unmineable oil/gas fields and coal formations has been considered as one of the possible ways to reduce dispersal of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. However, feasibility of CO2 injection largely depends on a variety of geological and economical settings, and its ecological consequences have remained largely unpredictable. To address these issues, we developed a new flow-through-type CO2 injection system designated as the 'geobio-reactor system' to examine possible geophysical, geochemical and microbiological impact caused by CO2 injection under in-situ pressure (0-100 MPa) and temperature (0-70°C) conditions. In this study, we investigated Eocene bituminous coal-sandstones in the northwestern Pacific coast, Hokkaido, Japan, using the geobio-reactor system. Anaerobic artificial fluid and CO2 (flow rate: 0.002 and 0.00001 mL/min, respectively) were continuously supplemented into the coal-sand column under the pore pressure of 40 MPa (confined pressure: 41 MPa) at 40°C for 56 days. Molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that predominant bacterial components were physically dispersed from coal to sand as the intact form during experiment. Cultivation experiments from sub-sampling fluids indicated that some terrestrial microbes could preserve their survival in subsurface condition. Molecular analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA genes also showed that no methanogens were activated during experiment. We also anaerobically incubated the coal sample using conventional batch-type cultivation technique with a medium for methanogens. After one year of the batch incubation at 20°C, methane could be detected from the cultures except for the acetate-fed culture. The sequence of archaeal 16S rRNA genes via PCR amplification obtained from the H2 plus formate-fed culture was affiliated with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen within the genus Methanobacterium, whereas the methanol plus trimethylamine culture

  20. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  1. 47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV interface devices, including cable system... FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.115 TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices. (a) Measurements of the radiated emissions of a TV interface device shall be conducted with the...

  2. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my Safety Management... Environmental and Safety Management, Inspections, and Facility Assessments for Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my Safety Management System...

  3. Quantitative Modelling of Trace Elements in Hard Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Howaniec, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The significance of coal in the world economy remains unquestionable for decades. It is also expected to be the dominant fossil fuel in the foreseeable future. The increased awareness of sustainable development reflected in the relevant regulations implies, however, the need for the development and implementation of clean coal technologies on the one hand, and adequate analytical tools on the other. The paper presents the application of the quantitative Partial Least Squares method in modeling the concentrations of trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn) in hard coal based on the physical and chemical parameters of coal, and coal ash components. The study was focused on trace elements potentially hazardous to the environment when emitted from coal processing systems. The studied data included 24 parameters determined for 132 coal samples provided by 17 coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Since the data set contained outliers, the construction of robust Partial Least Squares models for contaminated data set and the correct identification of outlying objects based on the robust scales were required. These enabled the development of the correct Partial Least Squares models, characterized by good fit and prediction abilities. The root mean square error was below 10% for all except for one the final Partial Least Squares models constructed, and the prediction error (root mean square error of cross-validation) exceeded 10% only for three models constructed. The study is of both cognitive and applicative importance. It presents the unique application of the chemometric methods of data exploration in modeling the content of trace elements in coal. In this way it contributes to the development of useful tools of coal quality assessment.

  4. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  5. Organization, activities, and issues with particular emphasis on coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses Colorado's coal industry; the Colorado Mining Association; lobbying and legislative actions; industry networking, information, and communications; coal issues and activities; and Colorado issues and activities. Some of the latter include: land reclamation of mined lands; oil and gas drilling and coal mine conflicts; wild and scenic river designations; general permitting of coal mining discharges; and coal mine land reclamation awards

  6. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  7. A new type of rapid and simple coal and other bulk commodities inventory system based on two-dimensional laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qianqian; Xu, Wenhai; Ma, Qisheng; Yang, Deshan; Zhang, Wang; Fu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    The acceleration of large coal base construction needs the modern management technology of heap storage as a guarantee. And the inventory of coal and other bulk commodities is an important aspect in the modern management technology of heap storage. Therefore, a rapid, accurate and simple method to measure the volume and quality of coal heaps for scientific management, economic benefit evaluation and storage evaluation of heap storage is very important which has a significant application value. In this paper, we introduce the structural features, working principle and application status of a new type portable heap bulk inventory system. Actual measurements have been carried out in the coal base located in Huanghua port, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao. The measurement results indicate that the system can measure the volume of bulk commodities efficiently, quickly and accurately, and it has extensive application prospects.

  8. Release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalimetallverbindungen in kohlebefeuerten Kombikraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Coal fired combined cycle power systems will be a sufficient way to increase the efficiency of coal combustion. However, combined cycle power systems require a reliable hot gas cleanup. Especially alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, can lead to hot corrosion of the gas turbine blading if they condensate as sulphates. The actual work deals with the release and sorption of alkali metals in coal fired combined cycle power systems. The influence of coal composition, temperature and pressure on the release of alkali species in coal combustion was investigated and the relevant release mechanisms identified. Alumosilicate sorbents have been found that reduce the alkali concentration in the hot flue gas of the Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion 2{sup nd} Generation (CPFBC 2{sup nd} Gen.) at 750 C to values sufficient for use in a gas turbine. Accordingly, alumosilicate sorbents working at 1400 C have been found for the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC). The sorption mechanisms have been identified. Thermodynamic calculations were performed to upscale the results of the laboratory experiments to conditions prevailing in power systems. According to these calculations, there is no risk of hot corrosion in both processes. Furthermore, thermodynamic calculations were performed to investigate the behaviour of alkali metals in an IGCC with integrated hot gas cleanup and H{sub 2} membrane for CO{sub 2} sequestration. (orig.)

  9. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-09-30

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized.

  10. Including natural systems into the system engineering process: benefits to spaceflight and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2014-03-01

    How did we get to the point where we don't have time to be inspired by the wonders of Nature? Our office walls, homes and city streets are so plain that even when we do escape to a retreat with nature all around us, we may be blind to its magnificence. Yet there are many who have applied what can be known of natural systems (NS) to create practical solutions, but often definite applications for them are lacking. Mimicry of natural systems is not only more possible than ever before, but the education and research programs in many major universities are churning out graduates with a real appreciation for Nature's complex integrated systems. What if these skills and perspectives were employed in the teams of systems engineers and the technology developers that support them to help the teams think "outside-the-box" of manmade inventions? If systems engineers (SE) and technology developers regularly asked the question, "what can we learn from Nature that will help us?" as a part of their processes, they would discover another set of potential solutions. Biomimicry and knowledge of natural systems is exploding. What does this mean for systems engineering and technology? Some disciplines such as robotics and medical devices must consider nature constantly. Perhaps it's time for all technology developers and systems engineers to perceive natural systems experts as potential providers of the technologies they need.

  11. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  12. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  13. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  14. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  15. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts via a Closed Loop Leaching Process: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Richard [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Heinrichs, Michael [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Argumedo, Darwin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Winecki, Slawomir [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Riordan, Daniel [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-08-31

    REEs using the ADP technology. In AOI 1, Ohio coal sources with the potential to provide a consistent source of rare earth element concentrations above 300 parts per million will be identified. Coal sample inventories from West Virginia and Pennsylvania will also be assessed for purposes of comparison. Three methods of preparing the coal ash will be evaluated for their potential to enhance the technical feasibility and economics of REE recovery. Three sources of coal ash are targeted for evaluation of the economics of REE recovery in this project: (1) coal ash from power generation stations, to include fly ash and/or bottom ash, (2) ash generated in a lower temperature ashing process, and (3) ash residual from Battelle’s coal liquefaction process. Making use of residual ash from coal liquefaction processes directly leverages work currently being conducted by Battelle for DOE NETL in response to DE-FOA-0000981 entitled “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions Research and Development Leading to Cost-Competitive Coal-to-Liquids Based Jet Fuel Production.” Using the sample characterization results and regional information regarding REE concentration, availability and cost, a TEA will be developed. The previously generated laboratory testing results for leaching and REE recovery via the ADP will be used to perform the TEA, along with common engineering assumptions for scale up of equipment and labor costs. Finally, upon validation of the economic feasibility of the process by the TEA, limited laboratory testing will be performed to support the design of a bench scale system. In a future project phase, it is envisioned that the bench scale system will be constructed and operated to prove the process on a continuous basis.

  16. System principles and evaluation criteria of reliability for optimization of technological parameters of coal deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.О. Khorolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with solving the scientific problem of select mining equipment for selection longwall faces of mining venture. The main goal of the paper is to study technology of coal extraction of mining venture. The paper proposes a new approach to solve a problem of mining equipment selection for longwall faces of mining venture. The article describes new method for selection of mining equipment based on theory graph. Special attention is given to technological aspects; they are lenght of longwall faces, depth of coal stratum. Predictions obtained for daily production of mining equipment are compared with design outputs. Conclusions regarding the main reason of instability of longwall faces workings are made. It is found that to be able to use standard algorithms find the shortest path between vertices, you must perform matrix description of the constructed graphs that illustrate the structure of the interaction of different types of control equipment. Using classical optimization of method of discrete mathematics and algorithms for finding the shortest path between two vertices of network models obtained from the formalization of graphs with maximum results of specific types of equipment production chains, solved the problem of rational choice cleaning equipment for the new site with the cost parameters of the mining equipment and cost of mining coal. The authors developed effective and appropriate variants for the mine development for different coal deposits of mining venture.

  17. Ground water monitoring system design: the Iowa Coal Project demonstration mine No. 1, a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, J.A.; Gulliford, J.B.; Stangl, D.W.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining of Midwestern coals often causes detrimental changes in associated surface and ground water supplies. The Iowa Coal Project was initiated to study the economic feasibility of the surface mining of Iowa's coal and the subsequent reclamation of areas affected by mining. One portion of this study is designated to monitor the hydrogeological impacts of mining on a 40 acre study site in southeastern Iowa. The purpose of this environmental is two fold. The first objective is to monitor the ground water quality of the mine site for alterations caused by acid effluent generated in mining cuts, highwalls, and spoil storage areas. The second objective is to measure the piezometric changes which occur in the geologic materials in and around the mine. A monitoring network of 49 ground water piezometers and sampling tubes has been placed to accomplish these goals. Additional hydrogeologic data pertaining to the materials of the study site were obtained from drilling logs of 35 auger holes and 26 coal exploration holes. Documentation of background conditions was achieved by fitting many of the exploration borings with sampling tubes. All wells are constructed of 1 1/2 and 2 inch PVC pipe with slotted screens surrounded by pea rock. Nesting of several well casings in individual auger holes allows for an analysis of the vertical distribution of the water which is resaturating the spoil. Bentonite backfill in the holes limits leakage between the different materials penetrated in each location.

  18. Removal of COD, phenols and ammonium from Lurgi coal gasification wastewater using A2O-MBR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zixing; Xu, Xiaochen; Gong, Zheng; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anaerobic–anoxic–aerobic MBR system treated the coal gasification wastewater. ► COD removal rate was 97.4% with effluent concentration less than 100 mg/L. ► NH 4 + -N removal rate was 92.8% with effluent concentration less than 12 mg/L. ► HRT and recycle ratio strongly affected the performance of the system. ► GC/MS analysis found refractory organic removal in anaerobic and anoxic stage. - Abstract: As a typical industrial wastewater, coal gasification wastewater has poor biodegradability and high toxicity. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic–anoxic–oxic membrane reactor (A 2 O-MBR) system was developed to investigate the treatment ability of coal gasification wastewater. The removal capacity of each pollutants used in this system were determined at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) and mixed liquor recycle ratios (R). The experimental results showed that this system could effectively deal with COD and phenol removal and remain in a stable level when the operational parameters altered, while the nitrification was sensitive to operational conditions. The best performance was obtained at HRT of 48 h and R of 3. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, NH 4 + -N and phenols were 97.4%, 92.8% and 99.7%, with final concentrations in the effluent of 71 mg/L, 9.6 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively. Organics degradation and transformation were analyzed by GC/MS and it was found that anaerobic process played an important role in degradation of refractory compounds.

  19. Performance evaluation of solar aided feedwater heating of coal-fired power generation (SAFHCPG) system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-juan, Hou; Zhen-yue, Yu; Yong-ping, Yang; Si, Chen; Na, Luo; Junjie, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a SAFHCPG system at design point is analyzed. • The solar radiation intensity and the electrical load demand on the grid side are considered in the annual performance analysis. • The optimum aperture area of the solar field has been discussed based on the annual performance. - Abstract: Integrating solar energy with a coal-fired power plant or other power systems has been proved to be an efficient way to utilize solar energy for power generation. Solar aided feedwater heating of a coal-fired power generation (SAFHCPG) system, which is mainly discussed in this paper, is chosen as an option for its easy operation and flexible control nature. The performance of a SAFHCPG system at design point is analyzed under various load conditions in the paper. As the results show in Table 4, the lower load of coal-fired unit that solar aid, the lower solar-to-electric efficiency will be. For a SAFHCPG system, its performance is influenced by the solar radiation intensity and the electrical load demand on the grid side. The correlation between the annual performance of a SAFHCPG plant and the two key factors is discussed and then the optimal aperture area of solar field is derived. The result shows that, for the case studied the optimal aperture area of solar field and the lowest LEC (Levelized Electricity Costs) are: 115395 m 2 and 0.472 ¥/kW h in a typical year; 138945 m 2 and 1.010 ¥/kW h in an extremely low radiation year; 91845 m 2 and 0.426 ¥/kW h in an extremely high radiation year respectively

  20. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  1. Supplying the world : how Australia is meeting the coal infrastructure challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovski, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is an export oriented industry, meeting world needs as a secure, reliable and competitive supplier of high quality coal. It is also the world's largest exporter, with 30 per cent of world coal market. An overview of the Australian coal industry and the impacts of coal infrastructure bottlenecks were addressed in this presentation, with particular reference to demurrage; shipping costs; lost profit and income for coal companies; costs to end users; lost royalties; lost income for infrastructure providers; and higher shipping costs. Perspectives from 2002 were illustrated in graph format, including thermal and metallurgical coal prices; forecast for world coal imports; and forecasted global demand versus actual demand. Other contributing factors to capacity constraints include the underperformance of coal infrastructure supply chains and investment issues. Australia's infrastructure response required a coordinated response between the federal government, state government, mining companies, shippers and buyers, port authorities, Australian Rail Track Corporation, coal terminal operators, and private and public rail freight operators. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the Australian infrastructure response, such as supply side improvement strategies, demand management strategies, and investment in increased infrastructure capacity. It was concluded that infrastructure issues must be addressed on a system wide basis. tabs., figs

  2. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  3. New fuel choices change coal handling and storage rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel handling systems at power plants face new pressures. Those forces already mentioned in this article include the latest clean coal technologies, future compliance to the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments, and adjustments in fuel for economic reasons. Western and eastern coals of various types have their own unique handling characteristics. In addition, Round IV of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal technology Program offers examples of what utility fuels engineers are studying. Some, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), have taken on a complete basic review of their overall situation before venturing into new choices

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. [and others

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Including Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset – Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...

  6. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  7. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Catalytic Decomposing Element with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  8. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3... missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile...

  9. The design of a mechanical referencing system for the rear drum of the Longwall Shearer Coal Miner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. W.; Yang, T. C. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of two systems which reference the position of a longwall shearer coal miner to the mine roof of the present cut and of the last cut are presented. This system is part of an automation system that will guide the rear cutting drum in such a manner that the total depth of cut remains constant even though the front drum may be following an undulating roof profile. The rear drum referencing mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof to the floor for the present cut. This system provides a signal to control a constant depth of cut. The last cut follower mechanism continually monitors the distance from the mine roof of the prior cut to the cutting drum. This latter system provides a signal to minimize the step height in the roof between cuts. The dynamic response of this hydraulic-pneumatic and mechanical system is analyzed to determine accumulator size and precharge pressure.

  10. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The African continent contains approximately 5 percent of the world's proven recoverable reserves of coal (World Energy Council, 2007). Energy consumption in Africa is projected to grow at an annual rate of 2.3 percent from 2004 through 2030, while average consumption in first-world nations is expected to rise at 1.4 percent annually (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Coal reserves will undoubtedly continue to be part of Africa's energy portfolio as it grows in the future. A review of academic and industrial literature indicates that 27 nations in Africa contain coal-bearing rock. South Africa accounts for 96 percent of Africa's total proven recoverable coal reserves, ranking it sixth in the world. This report is a digital compilation of information on Africa's coal-bearing geology found in the literature and is intended to be used in small scale spatial investigations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and as a visual aid for the discussion of Africa's coal resources. Many maps of African coal resources often include points for mine locations or regional scale polygons with generalized borders depicting basin edges. Point locations are detailed but provide no information regarding extent, and generalized polygons do not have sufficient detail. In this dataset, the polygons are representative of the actual coal-bearing lithology both in location and regional extent. Existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital geology datasets provide the majority of the base geologic polygons. Polygons for the coal-bearing localities were clipped from the base geology that represented the age and extent of the coal deposit as indicated in the literature. Where the 1:5,000,000-scale geology base layer's ages conflicted with those in the publications, polygons were generated directly from the regional African coal maps (1:500,000 scale, approximately) in the published material. In these cases, coal-bearing polygons were clipped to the literature's indicated coal

  11. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  12. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  13. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  15. A risk-based decision support framework for selection of appropriate safety measure system for underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantra, Chitrasen; Datta, Saurav; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2017-03-01

    In the context of underground coal mining industry, the increased economic issues regarding implementation of additional safety measure systems, along with growing public awareness to ensure high level of workers safety, have put great pressure on the managers towards finding the best solution to ensure safe as well as economically viable alternative selection. Risk-based decision support system plays an important role in finding such solutions amongst candidate alternatives with respect to multiple decision criteria. Therefore, in this paper, a unified risk-based decision-making methodology has been proposed for selecting an appropriate safety measure system in relation to an underground coal mining industry with respect to multiple risk criteria such as financial risk, operating risk, and maintenance risk. The proposed methodology uses interval-valued fuzzy set theory for modelling vagueness and subjectivity in the estimates of fuzzy risk ratings for making appropriate decision. The methodology is based on the aggregative fuzzy risk analysis and multi-criteria decision making. The selection decisions are made within the context of understanding the total integrated risk that is likely to incur while adapting the particular safety system alternative. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been validated through a real-time case study. The result in the context of final priority ranking is seemed fairly consistent.

  16. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  17. Capacity modelling of the coal value chain at Sasol Coal Supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harmse, M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available , chemical and related manufacturing and marketing operations, complemented by interests in technology development, oil and gas exploration, and production. At Secunda, petrochemicals are produced from coal which is mined in the area and transported... via a complex conveyor system from the mine bunkers to stockpiles at the two gas production plants. Coal stackers are used to build the stockpiles while coal reclaimers remove the coal from the stockpiles and feed the plants. Since the coal...

  18. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

  19. New Hope Coal Australia: leaders in thin seam coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    New Hope Corporation Ltd.'s coal activities in Queensland are conducted under the business name of New Hope Coal Australia and comprise open-cut mines in the West Moreton coal fields, 40 km west of Brisbane. The company gained an award for its reject co-disposal system and another for its organic overburden conditioning programme. Walloon coal from the Jeebropilly and New Oakleigh open-cut mines has characteristics which are making it increasingly popular as power plant fuel. The article describes operations at these mines and also at Swanbank and Acland. Other projects with which New Hope is involved are mentioned. 4 photos.

  20. Coal-nuclear energy system. Method of study. Examples of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneuve, F.; Le Penhuizic, B.

    1981-01-01

    Given the outlook for hydrocarbon depletion, three primary energy sources could enable supplies to be diversified, i.e. nuclear energy, coal and solar energy. These primary energy sources can rarely be used directly and must be converted into energy carriers such as electricity, hydrogen, substitute natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons derived from coal, etc. The nature of future gas carriers and their position in the national energy balance must be examined. Within the framework of an overall energy pattern. Many of the potential conversion processes are often interrelated through their production and consumption. Likewise, seasonal variations in consumption make it necessary to design production plants for peak demand or to create large-scale storage facilities. An initial model taking these interactions into consideration has been worked out to represent the variety of solutions possible. This model can be used to evaluate the technical paths to be followed within the framework of different assumptions concerning the future [fr

  1. Computerized thermogravimetric reactor with video microscopy imaging system for coal pyrolysis and combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzakos, Andreas N.; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    1993-06-01

    We present the development of a novel thermogravimetric reactor with in situ video microscopy imaging capabilities (TGA/VMI) and discuss its use for studying coal pyrolysis and combustion. Our design combines a long working distance optical microscope and video recording equipment with a computer-automated microbalance reactor. The TGA/VMI apparatus allows for simultaneous thermogravimetric measurement of reaction rates and direct viewing or video taping of structural transformations that may accompany the heterogeneous reactions. Reactor temperature is controlled by a digital algorithm combining feedback with model-based feedforward control. With its computer control and custom-built furnace, our reactor can achieve high heating rates (up to 50 °C/s) and temperatures (1000 °C) with excellent accuracy, stability, and reproducibility. We present some experimental results from our studies on coal pyrolysis and gasification to demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus and suggest other potential applications.

  2. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix H: Work breakdown structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A work breakdown structure (WBS) is presented which encompasses the multiple facets (hardware, software, services, and other tasks) of the coal gasification program. The WBS is shown to provide the basis for the following: management and control; cost estimating; budgeting and reporting; scheduling activities; organizational structuring; specification tree generation; weight allocation and control; procurement and contracting activities; and serves as a tool for program evaluation.

  3. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  4. Indaba 2009. Clean coal technologies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include coal reserves/mining beneficiation, combustion and power generation, underground coal gasification, coalbed methane, coal gasification and conversion, coke, and emission reduction. The presentations (overheads/viewgraphs) are included on the CD-ROM, along with 12 of the papers, and a delegates list.

  5. Cascade Controller Including Back-stepping for Hydraulic-Mechanical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin; Hovland, Geir; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants of an adapt......Development of a cascade controller structure including adaptive backstepping for a nonlinear hydraulic-mechanical system is considered in this paper where a dynamic friction (LuGre) model is included to obtain the necessary accuracy. The paper compares the performance of two variants...... of an adaptive backstepping tracking controller with earlier results. The new control architecture is analysed and enhanced tracking performance is demonstrated when including the extended friction model. The complexity of the backstepping procedure is significantly reduced due to the cascade structure. Hence......, the proposed control structure is better suited to real-time implementation. © 2012 IFAC....

  6. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. P.; Rao, A. K.; Smith, W. C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970's. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980's, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10-100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990's and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  7. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  8. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  9. Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    Full Text Available In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting the surface cracks of loaded coal by a vibration failure process is proposed based on the characteristics of the surface cracks of coal and support vector machine (SVM. A large number of cracked images are obtained by establishing a vibration-induced failure test system and industrial camera. Histogram equalization and a hysteresis threshold algorithm were used to reduce the noise and emphasize the crack; then, 600 images and regions, including cracks and non-cracks, were manually labelled. In the crack feature extraction stage, eight features of the cracks are extracted to distinguish cracks from other objects. Finally, a crack identification model with an accuracy over 95% was trained by inputting the labelled sample images into the SVM classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm and can effectively identify cracks on the surface of the coal and rock mass automatically.

  10. Assessing coal combustion and sourcing strategies using EPRI`s CQIM{sup {trademark}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, G.S.; Jennison, K.D. [Black & Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the cost and performance issues associated with coal quality or, more precisely, specific constituents within coal is an important ingredient of engineering and planning processes. Such processes can cover a wide range of activities, including how to most cost-effectively burn local coal supplies, how to identify what technologies or designs should be employed for new facilities, and how to identify potentially viable {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} coal supplies. Selection of coals, coal blends, or coal benefication processes is a complex problem. Similarly, it is difficult for industry participants (ministries, regulators, distribution companies, etc.) To correlate fuel selection strategies to overall power system performance costs. The underlying need to understand coal quality impacts on the financial efficiency of a plant is increasingly important in light of economic and environmental pressures faced by today`s power industry. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{reg_sign}) offers an ideal platform for understanding and evaluating coal quality impacts. Developed by Black & Veatch for the electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), CQIM is a computer {open_quotes}tool{close_quotes} that is dedicated to maintaining state-of-the-art status by continually incorporating the latest technologies or modeling techniques as they become available. By taking advantage of research efforts and a sound engineering modeling approach, the CQIM is capable of predicting plant-wide performance impacts and translating them into costs.

  11. Hydrochemical processes in a shallow coal seam gas aquifer and its overlying stream–alluvial system: implications for recharge and inter-aquifer connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvert, Clément; Raiber, Matthias; Owen, Daniel D.R.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major ions and isotopes used to study inter-aquifer mixing in a shallow CSG setting. • Considerable heterogeneity in the water composition of the coal-bearing aquifer. • Rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks. • Potential mixing between the coal-bearing aquifer and downstream alluvial aquifer. • Need to consider the seasonal influences on inter-aquifer mixing in CSG settings. - Abstract: In areas of potential coal seam gas (CSG) development, understanding interactions between coal-bearing strata and adjacent aquifers and streams is of highest importance, particularly where CSG formations occur at shallow depth. This study tests a combination of hydrochemical and isotopic tracers to investigate the transient nature of hydrochemical processes, inter-aquifer mixing and recharge in a catchment where the coal-bearing aquifer is in direct contact with the alluvial aquifer and surface drainage network. A strong connection was observed between the main stream and underlying alluvium, marked by a similar evolution from fresh Ca–Mg–HCO 3 waters in the headwaters towards brackish Ca–Na–Cl composition near the outlet of the catchment, driven by evaporation and transpiration. In the coal-bearing aquifer, by contrast, considerable site-to-site variations were observed, although waters generally had a Na–HCO 3 –Cl facies and high residual alkalinity values. Increased salinity was controlled by several coexisting processes, including transpiration by plants, mineral weathering and possibly degradation of coal organic matter. Longer residence times and relatively enriched carbon isotopic signatures of the downstream alluvial waters were suggestive of potential interactions with the shallow coal-bearing aquifer. The examination of temporal variations in deuterium excess enabled detection of rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks, particularly at the catchment

  12. Carbon-free hydrogen production from low rank coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2018-02-01

    Novel carbon-free integrated system of hydrogen production and storage from low rank coal is proposed and evaluated. To measure the optimum energy efficiency, two different systems employing different chemical looping technologies are modeled. The first integrated system consists of coal drying, gasification, syngas chemical looping, and hydrogenation. On the other hand, the second system combines coal drying, coal direct chemical looping, and hydrogenation. In addition, in order to cover the consumed electricity and recover the energy, combined cycle is adopted as addition module for power generation. The objective of the study is to find the best system having the highest performance in terms of total energy efficiency, including hydrogen production efficiency and power generation efficiency. To achieve a thorough energy/heat circulation throughout each module and the whole integrated system, enhanced process integration technology is employed. It basically incorporates two core basic technologies: exergy recovery and process integration. Several operating parameters including target moisture content in drying module, operating pressure in chemical looping module, are observed in terms of their influence to energy efficiency. From process modeling and calculation, two integrated systems can realize high total energy efficiency, higher than 60%. However, the system employing coal direct chemical looping represents higher energy efficiency, including hydrogen production and power generation, which is about 83%. In addition, optimum target moisture content in drying and operating pressure in chemical looping also have been defined.

  13. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of a multi-task research and development program in coal fired MHD/steam combined cycle power production (more detailed information on specific topics is presented in topical reports). Current emphasis is on developing technology for the Steam Bottoming Cycle Program. The approach being taken is to design test components that simulate the most important process variables, such as gas temperature, chemical composition, tube metal temperature, particulate loading, etc., to gain test data needed for scale-up to larger size components. This quarter, a 217 hour coal-fired long-duration test was completed as part of the Proof-of-Concept (POC) test program. The aggregate test time is now 1512 hours of a planned 2000 hours on Eastern coal. The report contains results of testing the newly installed automatic ash/seed handling system and the high pressure sootblower system. The conceptual design for the modifications to the coal processing system to permit operation with Western coal is presented. Results of analysis of superheater test module tube removed after 500 hours of coal-fired testing are summarized. The status of the environmental program is reported. Pollutant measurements from remote monitoring trailers that give the dispersion of stack emissions are presented. Results of advanced measurement systems operated by both UTSI and Mississippi State University during the POC test are summarized. Actions to prepare for the installation of a 20MW(sub t) prototype of the TRW slag rejection combustor first stage are discussed. Contract management and administrative actions completed during the quarter are included.

  14. Establishment and application of an index system for prevention of coal workers' pneumoconiosis: a Delphi and analytic hierarchy process study in four state-owned coal enterprises of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2018-03-21

    To explore the difference of cumulative incidence rate of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) among four large state-owned coal enterprises in northern China, we created an index system for evaluating the quality of comprehensive measures against CWP and applied the system to evaluate and compare the measures of the four coal enterprises. A two-round Delphi investigation was conducted to identify the indicators in the index system. The weight values of the indicators were calculated with analytic hierarchy process methods. Measures of CWP, mine annals, records and other information in each coal mine of the four enterprises were collected. The evaluation scores, which ranged from 0 to 100, were calculated and compared with. A three-grade index system with 3 first-grade indicators, 9 second-grade indicators and 44 tertiary-grade indicators was established. The expert authority coefficient ( C r ) was 0.75 and the Kendall's coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W ) was 0.15 (χ 2 =193.30, Pcontrol engineering technology', and that of 'Occupational health management' was 0.14. The medians and quartiles of the evaluation scores of comprehensive measures against CWP of the four enterprises were 58.38 (54.60~63.02), 64.63 (60.83~67.06), 72.99 (68.92~77.67) and 75.07 (70.73~79.20), respectively. The index system could be effectively used for evaluation and comparison of the comprehensive measures against CWP among different enterprises. The geological conditions and dust control engineering technology played an important role in preventing and controlling CWP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  16. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-01

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO 2 emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this calibration process, it can

  17. Resuspension of coal and coal/municipal sewage sludge combustion generated fine particles for inhalation health effects studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, 85721 Tucson, AZ (United States); Cenni, Roberta [Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Young, R. Scott; Witten, Mark L. [Lung Injury Laboratory, Department of Pediatrics, Arizona Health Sciences Center, 85721 Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2002-03-27

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is an important environmental issue because of its association with acute respiratory distress in humans, although the specific particle characteristics that cause lung damage have yet to be identified. Particle size, acid aerosols, water-soluble transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, V, Ni and Zn), polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and particle composition are the focus of several popular hypotheses addressing respiratory distress. All of the above mentioned characteristics are contained in PM generated from the combustion of both pulverized coal, and biomass, including dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS). In this investigation, we report results from collaborative interdisciplinary research on the inhalation health risks caused by particles emitted from the co-combustion of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. A solid particle resuspension system was implemented to resuspend ash particles. Mice were exposed to resuspended coal and MSS/coal ash particles. Mice exposed to MSS/coal ash particulate demonstrated significant increases in lung permeability, a marker of the early stages of pathological lung injury, while the mice exposed to coal-only ash did not. These results show that the composition of particles actually inhaled is important in determining lung damage. Zinc was significantly more concentrated in the MSS/coal ash than coal ash particles and the pH of these particles did not differ significantly. Specifically, an MSS/coal mixture, when burned, emits particles that may cause significantly more lung damage than coal alone, and that consequently, the use of MSS as a 'green', CO{sub 2}-neutral replacement fuel should be carefully considered.

  18. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  19. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  20. Systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Li, Anyin; Luo, Qingjie

    2017-08-01

    The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.

  1. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  3. 75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-697] In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337. SUMMARY: Notice...

  4. Multi-Objective Dynamic Economic Dispatch of Microgrid Systems Including Vehicle-to-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of electric vehicles (EVs, this paper establishes the load models of EVs under the autonomous charging mode and the coordinated charging and discharging mode. Integrating the EVs into a microgrid system which includes wind turbines (WTs, photovoltaic arrays (PVs, diesel engines (DEs, fuel cells (FCs and a storage battery (BS, this paper establishes multi-objective economic dispatch models of a microgrid, including the lowest operating cost, the least carbon dioxide emissions, and the lowest pollutant treatment cost. After converting the multi-objective functions to a single objective function by using the judgment matrix method, we analyze the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid system including vehicle-to-grid (V2G with an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm under different operation control strategies. With the example system, the proposed models and strategies are verified and analyzed. Simulation results show that the microgrid system with EVs under the coordinated charging and discharging mode has better operation economics than the autonomous charging mode. Meanwhile, the greater the load fluctuation is, the higher the operating cost of the microgrid system is.

  5. Design of multi-function sensor detection system in coal mine based on ARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan-Xiang; Zhang, Quan-Zhu; Deng, Yong-Hong

    2017-06-01

    The traditional coal mine sensor in the specific measurement points, the number and type of channel will be greater than or less than the number of monitoring points, resulting in a waste of resources or cannot meet the application requirements, in order to enable the sensor to adapt to the needs of different occasions and reduce the cost, a kind of multi-functional intelligent sensor multiple sensors and ARM11 the S3C6410 processor is used to design and realize the dust, gas, temperature and humidity sensor functions together, and has storage, display, voice, pictures, data query, alarm and other new functions.

  6. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. [ed.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. [PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  7. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  8. Carbonization heat of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Ueda; V. Zymla; F. Honnart [Nippon Steel (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The heat of carbonization is an important element of the coke oven heat balance. It is therefore important to know its absolute value or, at least, its relative variation when coal properties and process parameters change, in order for it to be taken into account by automatic heating control systems. An experimental procedure was thus developed, enabling the heat flow over the whole carbonization temperature range (25-1100{sup o}C) to be measured by DTA. Five coals of different ranks (from 18 to 34% volatile matter) were tested. Results show that all of them exhibit similar behaviour: an endothermic effect below 500{sup o}C and an exothermic effect at higher temperatures. It was established that the heat of carbonization varies with coal rank. The highest exothermic peak was measured for medium volatile hard coking coal. Having ascertained the right measurement procedure, the influence of coal weathering and plastic addition to coal blends on carbonisation heat were studied as well. It was found that the weight loss of oxidized coals during a heating in nitrogen was reduced (coke yield increased) and the heat of carbonization dramatically decreased, especially for medium and high volatile coals. The copyrolysis of coals and plastics (PE, PP, PS, PET) showed also a notable decrease of exothermic heat of carbonization, even for relatively low percentage plastic addition (less then 2%). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  10. BALANCED SCORECARDS EVALUATION MODEL THAT INCLUDES ELEMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING AHP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  11. Development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense Facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, March 28, 1997--September 27, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L. [and others

    1998-01-06

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of developing technologies which can potentially decrease DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE. Phase I was completed on November 1, 1995. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations included performing pilot-scale air toxics (i.e., trace elements and volatile organic compounds) testing and evaluating a ceramic filtering device on the demonstration boiler. Also, a sodium bicarbonate duct injection system was installed on the demonstration boiler. An economic analysis was conducted which investigated the benefits of decreased dependence on imported oil by using new coal combustion technologies. Work related to coal preparation and utilization was primarily focused on preparing the final report. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, pilot-scale NO{sub x} reduction studies, economic analyses of coal use, and evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel. Coal preparation studies were focused on continuing activities on particle size control, physical separations, and surface-based separation processes. The evaluation of deeply-cleaned coal as boiler fuel included receiving three cleaned coals from Cyprus-Amax.

  12. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Geological and economic characteristics of Yugoslav coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicic, S.; Cveticanin, R.; Ercegovac, M.; Knezevic, V. (Rudarski Fakultet, Tuzla (Yugoslavia))

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Yugoslav coal reserves, which amount to 486 t of coal equivalent per capita. Since exploration started in 1804, 22 hard coal, 13 lignite and more than 40 brown coal basins have been discovered. Their geological condition and average calorific value of the coal are given, as are recommendations to improve geological exploration of all types of basin, with a view to bettering coal production, preparation and processing. Descriptions of individual mines are given, including geological, hydrogeological and tectonic properties, coal quality, coal reserves and other parameters. 14 refs.

  14. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  15. 48 CFR 908.7110 - Coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal. 908.7110 Section 908... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7110 Coal. DOE offices and authorized contractors may participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) coal contracting program for...

  16. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  17. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  18. World coal prices and future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments will create some important changes in the US domestic steam coal market, including price increases for compliance coal by the year 2000 and price decreases for high-sulfur coal. In the international market, there is likely to be a continuing oversupply which will put a damper on price increases. The paper examines several forecasts for domestic and international coal prices and notes a range of predictions for future oil prices

  19. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  20. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  1. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  2. Economic system analysis of coal preconversion technology: Phase I. Volume V. Survey of socioeconomics, financial statistics, and legal aspects. Interim report for the period August 1973--July 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    The future of large-scale surface coal mining in the United States will be affected by socio-economic factors, corporate finances, and legal constraints. This report presents a survey of these considerations and how they affect mining. Socio-economic factors are defined as the effects of a mining project on the surrounding communities. This volume presents the changes some consider beneficial, others detrimental, which occur when a new mine is opened in a virgin area. A new mine would cause an increase in employment, population and the community's tax base, but also would generate population profile changes, urbanize a previously rural community, and increase demands on community services. Corporate finances are an important consideration when assessing industry's ability to meet the required expansion in coal mining. As discussed in this report, the coal industry is dominated by companies whose revenues are generated mainly from non-coal operations. The production of coal is dispersed among many companies; however, the trend is toward more concentration of production among fewer firms through mergers. Internal sources of capital within the industry are limited and may curtail the opening of large-scale surface mines in the future. Federal, state, and local laws are becoming more constrictive and demanding of the coal industry. Federal involvement alone, throughout the life cycle of a mine, includes regulations on environmental protection, health, safety and public land control. A list of twenty Federal laws and a directory of eight major Federal agencies outlining the legal aspects that have an impact on surface coal mining are presented. (auth)

  3. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  4. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  5. The exergy release mechanism and exergy analysis for coal oxidation in supercritical water atmosphere and a power generation system based on the new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Qiuhui; Hou, Yanwan; Luo, Jieren; Miao, Haijun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The exergy release mechanism of coal oxidation in SCW is revealed, and energy level, exergy losses as well as exergy efficiency are quantitatively investigated. Finally, based on the SCWO technology of coal, a new power generation system is constructed, and the exergy efficiency of the new system and conventional system is compared and analyzed. - Highlights: • Revealed release mechanism of exergy in supercritical water oxidation of coal. • Energy level, exergy losses and exergy efficiency are quantitatively investigated. • Exergy efficiency of supercritical water oxidation reactors is 80.1%. • Built a new power generation system based on supercritical water oxidation of coal. • Exergy efficiency of new power generation system is 21% higher than the conventional. - Abstract: The oxidation environment has important influence on the transformation of the energy contained in fuel and generation of pollutants. To the problem of nearly 50% exergy losses in coal oxidation at air atmosphere, this research intends to change oxidation atmosphere from air to supercritical water/oxidant and achieve efficient release of exergy in coal at about 650 °C with the aid of a high solubility and unique performance of heat and mass transfer of supercritical water. Therefore, firstly, based on the exergy analysis theory and the energy-utilization diagrams, the release mechanism of exergy of coal in supercritical water oxidation process is revealed. It is pointed out that supercritical water oxidation has changed the release pathways of chemical exergy, and decreased the level difference between chemical exergy and thermal energy, and more exergy is released. Meanwhile, there is also no exergy loss of physical heat transfer. As a result, supercritical water oxidation has higher exergy efficiency than conventional oxidation. Secondly, the exergy losses, level difference between chemical exergy and thermal energy as well as exergy efficiency, are

  6. EVALUATION AND MITIGATION OF VISIBLE ACIDIC AEROSOL PLUMES FROM COAL FIRED POWER BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The formation of sulfur trioxide during the combustion of coal can increase significantly following the installation and operation of selective catalytic reduction systems for reduction of nitrogen oxides. This can in turn lead to adverse environmental impacts, including visible...

  7. Carbon Formation and Metal Dusting in Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems of Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter F.; Judkins, Roddie R.; DeVan, Jackson H.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-12-31

    There are several possible materials/systems degradation modes that result from gasification environments with appreciable carbon activities. These processes, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, include carbon deposition, carburization, metal dusting, and CO disintegration of refractories. Carbon formation on solid surfaces occurs by deposition from gases in which the carbon activity (a sub C) exceeds unity. The presence of a carbon layer CO can directly affect gasifier performance by restricting gas flow, particularly in the hot gas filter, creating debris (that may be deposited elsewhere in the system or that may cause erosive damage of downstream components), and/or changing the catalytic activity of surfaces.

  8. Coal-fueled diesel technology development -- Fuel injection equipment for coal-fueled diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N.; Hayden, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the abrasive and corrosive nature of coal water slurries, the development of coal-fueled diesel engine technology by GE-Transportation Systems (GE-TS) required special fuel injection equipment. GE-Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD) undertook the design and development of fuel injectors, piston pumps, and check valves for this project. Components were tested at GE-CRD on a simulated engine cylinder, which included a cam-actuated jerk pump, prior to delivery to GE-TS for engine testing.

  9. 'Including health in systems responsible for urban planning': a realist policy analysis research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-07-23

    Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as collaborators, throughout. We outline our research translation

  10. Development of sorption database (JAEA-SDB). Update of sorption data including soil and cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Tadahiro; Tachi, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Sorption of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks is the key process in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in this barrier is expected to be controlled by sorption processes. Distribution coefficient (K d ) is therefore important parameter in the performance assessment (PA) of geological disposal. The sorption database including extensive compilations of K d data measured by batch sorption experiments plays key roles in PA-related K d setting and predictive model development under a variety of geochemical conditions. For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as an important basis for the PA of high-level radioactive waste disposal. This sorption database was firstly developed for the H12 PA, and was improved and updated in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to PA-related parameter setting. The present report focuses on updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) by adding K d data for various systems including soil and cement systems, to apply JAEA-SDB for the PA-related K d setting for disposal of low level radioactive wastes including TRU wastes and the evaluation of radionuclide transport in surface soil systems. The updated data includes K d data for soil and cement systems extracted from mainly previous published database, and K d data related to our recent activities on the K d setting and mechanistic model development. As a result, 16,000 K d data from 334 references are added, total K d values in the JAEA-SDB are about 46,000. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data, and to have suitable access to the respective data for the performance assessment of various types of radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Accidents in Coal Mining from Perspective of Risk Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamidullina, E. A.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Smirnov, G. I.

    2017-11-01

    Introduction. The indicators of the safety system quality in the technosphere include risk indicators. The purpose of this work is to assess the social risk of coal mining since coal mining is associated with specific working conditions, and any emergency situation immediately jeopardizes thelives of many people at the same time. Methods. The work is based on the analysis of statistical information. Results and discussion. The F/N curve of coal mining for the 70-year period (1943-2012) was constructed, and the normative values of the social risk of Russia and other industrialized countries were discussed. Judging by the F/N diagram, only the frequency of accidents with a large number of deaths can correspond to the normative level indicating an exceptionally high level of coal mining risk.

  12. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  13. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  14. Coal processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  15. Coal liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-07-01

    Coal liquefaction is an emerging technology receiving great attention as a possible liquid fuel source. Currently, four general methods of converting coal to liquid fuel are under active development: direct hydrogenation; pyrolysis/hydrocarbonization; solvent extraction; and indirect liquefaction. This work is being conducted at the pilot plant stage, usually with a coal feed rate of several tons per day. Several conceptual design studies have been published recently for large (measured in tens of thousands of tons per day coal feed rate) commercial liquefaction plants, and these reports form the data base for this evaluation. Products from a liquefaction facility depend on the particular method and plant design selected, and these products range from synthetic crude oils up through the lighter hydrocarbon gases, and, in some cases, electricity. Various processes are evaluated with respect to product compositions, thermal efficiency, environmental effects, operating and maintenance requirements, and cost. Because of the large plant capacities of current conceptual designs, it is not clear as to how, and on what scale, coal liquefaction may be considered appropriate as an energy source for Integrated Community Energy Systems (CES). Development work, both currently under way and planned for the future, should help to clarify and quantify the question of applicability.

  16. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  17. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  18. Assessment of Comprehensive Effects and Optimization of a Circular Economy System of Coal Power and Cement in Kongtong District, Pingliang City, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suocheng Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a circular economy (CE, which differs from traditional linear economy with a high consumption of natural resources and pollution, has captured much interest and attention. This paper uses a CE system of coal power and cement in Kongtong District, Pingliang City, Gansu Province, China as a case study to analyze the comprehensive effects of CE paradigm. Our simulation results, based on system dynamics (SD modeling, infer that the transformation of manufacturing towards a CE system can prominently help coal power and cement enterprises reduce waste emission and increase economic profits. Through solid waste exchanges, a power plant can achieve over RMB 80 million of additional revenue per year at the highest level. CE also contributes to the reduction of regional pollution, saves mineral resources, and improves the atmospheric environment, an accumulated total of 14.11 million t of natural gypsum and 22.67 million t of coal can be saved. This sets a promising example for coal power and cement plants worldwide. Effective regulatory measures and further optimization towards a circular economy system are essential in maintaining the stable development of a CE system due to the risk of surplus production of upstream industries and other defects.

  19. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  20. Determination of inorganic elements in coal and coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koklu, U.; Akman, S.; Ruppert, L.F. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    Many different methods are applicable to the analysis of inorganic elements in coal and other geological materials. There are only a few elements, namely Cl, F, and P, that are still routinely determined by chemical methods; the majority of elements are determined by instrumental methods. The instrumental techniques commonly employed by coal analysts which will be briefly reviewed here include: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), mass spectroscopy (MS), electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). All of these methods, with the possible exception of electron microscopy, offer rapid and accurate multielement results for the bulk analyses of coal and coal products. There is no single method that can be used to determine all of the elements found in coal. However, nowadays AAS may be the most commonly used instrumental technique. For example, in 1983 about 70% of the geochemical exploration samples collected annually were analyzed with AAS. 105 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  2. Coal terminal developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2008-02-15

    The article reports developments at many coal terminals worldwide. These include Bulgaria's Port of Bourgas Temrinal 2A, Spain's Tarragona Port Services (TPS) terminal, New Zealand's Lyttleton Port of Christchurch (LPC), Kinder Morgan's terminals in the USA (the International Marine terminal, Cora terminal, Grand Rivers terminal and Fairless Hills terminal) and Croatia's Port of Ploce. Developments at coal terminals in France and Belgium are also summarized. Global transportation services offered by Rhenus are described. 12 photos.

  3. Pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  4. Induced Systemic Tolerance to Multiple Stresses Including Biotic and Abiotic Factors by Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Je Yoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, global warming and drastic climate change are the greatest threat to the world. The climate change can affect plant productivity by reducing plant adaptation to diverse environments including frequent high temperature; worsen drought condition and increased pathogen transmission and infection. Plants have to survive in this condition with a variety of biotic (pathogen/pest attack and abiotic stress (salt, high/low temperature, drought. Plants can interact with beneficial microbes including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, which help plant mitigate biotic and abiotic stress. This overview presents that rhizobacteria plays an important role in induced systemic resistance (ISR to biotic stress or induced systemic tolerance (IST to abiotic stress condition; bacterial determinants related to ISR and/or IST. In addition, we describe effects of rhizobacteria on defense/tolerance related signal pathway in plants. We also review recent information including plant resistance or tolerance against multiple stresses (bioticabiotic. We desire that this review contribute to expand understanding and knowledge on the microbial application in a constantly varying agroecosystem, and suggest beneficial microbes as one of alternative environment-friendly application to alleviate multiple stresses.

  5. Research on Occupational Safety, Health Management and Risk Control Technology in Coal Mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu-Jie; Cao, Qing-Gui; Yu, Kai; Wang, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2018-04-26

    This paper studies the occupational safety and health management methods as well as risk control technology associated with the coal mining industry, including daily management of occupational safety and health, identification and assessment of risks, early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks, etc.; also, a B/S mode software (Geting Coal Mine, Jining, Shandong, China), i.e., Coal Mine Occupational Safety and Health Management and Risk Control System, is developed to attain the aforementioned objectives, namely promoting the coal mine occupational safety and health management based on early warning and dynamic monitoring of risks. Furthermore, the practical effectiveness and the associated pattern for applying this software package to coal mining is analyzed. The study indicates that the presently developed coal mine occupational safety and health management and risk control technology and the associated software can support the occupational safety and health management efforts in coal mines in a standardized and effective manner. It can also control the accident risks scientifically and effectively; its effective implementation can further improve the coal mine occupational safety and health management mechanism, and further enhance the risk management approaches. Besides, its implementation indicates that the occupational safety and health management and risk control technology has been established based on a benign cycle involving dynamic feedback and scientific development, which can provide a reliable assurance to the safe operation of coal mines.

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  7. Environmental fate mechanisms influencing biological degradation of coal-tar derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in soil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Nakles, D.V.; Sherman, D.F.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Erickson, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses biodegradation, a technically viable and cost effective approach for the reduction and immobilization of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in contaminated soils and sludges associated with coal-tar derived processes. While it is widely reported and accepted that PAH biodegradation in soil systems does occur, the specific controlling mechanisms are not entirely understood. One common observation among published reports is that the more soluble, lower molecular weight PAH compounds are biodegraded to a greater extent than the less soluble, higher molecular weight PAHs. The rate and extent to which PAHs are removed form soil/sludges is influenced by the combined and simultaneously occurring effects of volatilization, sorption and biological oxidation. The degree to which each of these three environmental fate mechanisms occurs is mainly influenced by the physical/chemical characteristics of the contaminated media, the physical/chemical characteristics of the specific PAH compounds, and the design and operation of the particular biological treatment process

  8. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  9. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  10. Methanol from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Economic feasibility of methanol or methyl fuel produced from coal using existing technology is discussed. Other factors considered include environmental, safety, toxicity, transportation, so storage, ease of burning, and retrofitting of present boilers. Demonstrations of its uses as a boiler fuel and as a turbine fuel are cited.

  11. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. World coal outlook to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of the World Coal Outlook to the Year 2000 examines the worldwide impact of lower oil prices and lower economic activity on the demand, production, and international trade in coal. The report includes detailed regional forecasts of coal demand by end-use application. Regions include the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Other Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia/New Zealand, Communist Europe, and Communist Asia. In addition, regional coal production forecasts are provided with a detailed analysis of regional coal trade patterns. In all instances, the changes relative to Chase's previous forecasts are shown. Because of the current situation in the oil market, the report includes an analysis of the competitive position of coal relative to oil in the generation of electricity, and in industrial steam applications. The report concludes with an examination of the impact of an oil price collapse on the international markets for coal.

  13. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  14. Coal fly ash: a review of the literature and proposed classification system with emphasis on environental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W.R.; Thiery, R.G.; Schuller, R.M.; Suloway, J.J.

    1981-04-01

    This comprehensive review of the scientific literature on fly ash generated by coal burning power plants cites studies reported in 284 publications up to September 1980. General conclusions are formulated, on the basis of data compiled from this review, on the physico-chemical characteristics of the solid waste and the possible environmental impacts of its disposal. Fly ash is composed of fine-grained particles that have a variable morphology and consist primarily of an amorphous glassy material. The elemental composition of fly ash is highly variable and directly related to compositional variations in the parent coals and to the operational characteristics of the individual power plants. Some elements are concentrated (enriched) on fly ash particle surfaces. While the glass-like particles are essentially insoluble in water, the enriched surface elements may be soluble and therefore available to the environment upon leaching of the solid waste. Fly ash leachates also demonstrate a great deal of variability in chemical composition. Toxicity studies suggest that fly ash leachates may adversely effect aquatic ecosystems, while the solid material may be hazardous to terrestrial ecosystems by direct external reactions (skin, eyes, etc.) or reactions in the respiratory tract or alimentary canal. The predominant method of fly ash disposal is by wet sluicing to on-site ash ponds. The greatest use of the solid waste is as an additive to concrete mixture; several other schemes for using the solid waste have been proposed. Plants grown experimental fly ash amended soils have shown enrichment of certain chemical constituents in plant tissues. A classification system for fly ash is proposed in this paper; this system should aid in systematic fly ash research and in the discussion of fly ash properties.

  15. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering

    1997-12-31

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model.

  16. Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model

  17. Monitoring system including an electronic sensor platform and an interrogation transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Robert L.; Sheets, Larry R.

    2003-09-23

    A wireless monitoring system suitable for a wide range of remote data collection applications. The system includes at least one Electronic Sensor Platform (ESP), an Interrogator Transceiver (IT) and a general purpose host computer. The ESP functions as a remote data collector from a number of digital and analog sensors located therein. The host computer provides for data logging, testing, demonstration, installation checkout, and troubleshooting of the system. The IT transmits signals from one or more ESP's to the host computer to the ESP's. The IT host computer may be powered by a common power supply, and each ESP is individually powered by a battery. This monitoring system has an extremely low power consumption which allows remote operation of the ESP for long periods; provides authenticated message traffic over a wireless network; utilizes state-of-health and tamper sensors to ensure that the ESP is secure and undamaged; has robust housing of the ESP suitable for use in radiation environments; and is low in cost. With one base station (host computer and interrogator transceiver), multiple ESP's may be controlled at a single monitoring site.

  18. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  19. Coal-fired water pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilinger, J.E.; Kawa, W.; Lewis, P.S.; Hiteshue, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using energy from explosive ignitions of coal dust to pump water was demonstrated in an exploratory investigation. Ignition of small amounts of pulverized coal that were dispersed in air over columns of water pumped 5.3 gallons of water per cycle when operated against a head of 30.75 feet. Water displacement was accomplished by either manual or automatic operation through a single cycle and by automatic operation through a continuous series of cycles of 1-minute duration. Operating through single cycles, slurries containing up to 3 pounds of coal and 4.6 gallons of water were also pumped. Possible uses of an efficient coal-fired pump would include pumping water for irrigation purposes, removing water from mines, transporting coal from mines in the form of a slurry, and pumping water to elevated reservoirs at electric power-plants so that it could be used to generate electricity during peak periods of demand.

  20. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  1. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Javier Orqueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system.

  2. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orqueda, Andrés Javier; Giménez, Carla Alejandra; Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico

    2016-01-01

    When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system.

  3. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  4. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-09-19

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  5. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  6. Investigations of coal ignition in a short-range flame burner using optical measuring systems; Untersuchungen zur Kohlezuendung am Flachflammenbrenner unter Verwendung optischer Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackert, G.; Kremer, H.; Wirtz, S. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energieanlagentechnik

    1999-09-01

    The short-range flame burner and the KOALA reactor of DMT are experimental facilities for realistic simulation of coal conversion processes at high temperatures and pressures in atmospheric conditions. The TOSCA system enable measurements of temperatures, sizes, shapes and velocities of the fuel particles, which serve as a basis for a three-dimensional simulation model of coal combustion. In the future, further parameter studies will deepen the present knowledge of coal dust combustion under pressure and enable optimisation of the numerical models for simulation of industrial-scale systems for coal dust combustion under pressure. [Deutsch] Mit dem Flachflammenbrenner und dem KOALA-Reaktor der DMT stehen Versuchsapparaturen zur Verfuegung, mit deren Hilfe die Kohleumwandlungsprozesse bei hohen Temperaturen unter Druck und unter atmosphaerischen Bedingungen realistisch wiedergegeben werden. Das TOSCA-System erlaubt dabei die Bestimmung von Temperaturen, Groessen, Formen und Geschwindigkeiten der Brennstoffpartikel. Diese Daten liefern die Grundlage fuer die Erstellung eines dreidimensionalen Simulationsmodells zur Modellierung der Kohleverbrennung. In Zukunft werden weitere Parameterstudien das Verstaendnis der Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennung vertiefen und ein Optimierung der numerischen Modelle ermoeglichen, so dass die Simulation grosstechnischer Kohlenstaubdruckverbrennungsanlagen realisiert werden kann. (orig.)

  7. Coal recovery from a coal waste dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanski Zenon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities and efficiency of coal recovery from the waste material located at the Central Coal Waste Dump in Poland were presented in this paper. The waste material includes significant amount of fly ash. Research conducted into determination of energetic properties of such wastes showed that the average ash content was 75.75% and the average gross calorific value was 7.81 MJ/kg. Coal was gravitationally separated from the waste material in a pulsatory jig and in a spiral washer including size fractions: 30-5 and 8-0 mm (this was crushed to a size <3.2 mm, respectively. The application of the pulsatory jig (pulse classifier allowed to obtain a high-quality energetic concentrate with the ash content lower than 12% and the gross calorific value higher than 26 MJ/kg (with average yield 7.8%. The spiral separator gave much worse results. The average gross calorific value for the concentrate was 11.6 MJ/kg, with the high ash content 56.5% and yield approximately 26%.

  8. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    Union Fenosa's La Robla I Power Station is a 270-MW Foster Wheeler arch-fired system. The unit is located at the mine that provides a portion of the semianthracitic coal. The remaining coals used are from South Africa, Russia, Australia, and China. The challenges at the La Robla I Station stem from the various fuels used, the characteristics of which differ from the design coal. The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and the Lehigh University Energy Research Center (LUERC) undertook a program to assess problematic slagging and unburned carbon issues occurring at the plant. Full-scale combustion tests were performed under baseline conditions, with elevated oxygen level and with redistribution of air during a site visit at the plant. During these tests, operating information, observations and temperature measurements, and coal, slag deposit, and fly ash samples were obtained to assess slagging and unburned carbon. The slagging in almost all cases appeared due to elevated temperatures rather than fuel chemistry. The most severe slagging occurred when the temperature at the sampling port was in excess of 1500 C, with problematic slagging where first-observed temperatures exceeded 1350 C. The presence of anorthite crystals in the bulk of the deposits analyzed indicates that the temperatures were in excess of 1350 C, consistent with temperature measurements during the sampling period. Elevated temperatures and ''hot spots'' are probably the result of poor mill performance, and a poor distribution of the coal from the mills to the specific burners causes elevated temperatures in the regions where the slag samples were extracted. A contributing cause appeared to be poor combustion air mixing and heating, resulting in oxygen stratification and increased temperatures in certain areas. Air preheater plugging was observed and reduces the temperature of the air in the windbox, which leads to poor combustion

  9. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  10. An intermodal network model of coal distribution in the United States and its economic implications for the inland waterway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a GIS-based intermodal network model for the shipment of coal in the United States. The : purpose of this research was to investigate the role played by railways, waterways, and highways in the movement of : coal from its source ...

  11. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  12. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO(sub x)). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process

  13. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  14. Challenges for Life Support Systems in Space Environments, Including Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) refer to the technologies needed to sustain human life in space environments. Histor ically these technologies have focused on providing a breathable atmo sphere, clean water, food, managing wastes, and the associated monitoring capabilities. Depending on the space agency or program, ELCSS has sometimes expanded to include other aspects of managing space enviro nments, such as thermal control, radiation protection, fire detection I suppression, and habitat design. Other times, testing and providing these latter technologies have been associated with the vehicle engi neering. The choice of ECLSS technologies is typically driven by the mission profile and their associated costs and reliabilities. These co sts are largely defined by the mass, volume, power, and crew time req uirements. For missions close to Earth, e.g., low-Earth orbit flights, stowage and resupply of food, some 0 2, and some water are often the most cost effective option. But as missions venture further into spa ce, e.g., transit missions to Mars or asteroids, or surface missions to Moon or Mars, the supply line economics change and the need to clos e the loop on life support consumables increases. These are often ref erred to as closed loop or regenerative life support systems. Regardless of the technologies, the systems must be capable of operating in a space environment, which could include micro to fractional g setting s, high radiation levels, and tightly closed atmospheres, including perhaps reduced cabin pressures. Food production using photosynthetic o rganisms such as plants by nature also provides atmospheric regenerat ion (e.g., CO2 removal and reduction, and 0 2 production), yet to date such "bioregenerative" technologies have not been used due largely t o the high power requirements for lighting. A likely first step in te sting bioregenerative capabilities will involve production of small a mounts of fresh foods to supplement to crew

  15. A novel integrated treatment system for coal wastewaters. Quarterly report, March 2, 1992--June 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1992-08-01

    The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and heavy metals present in coal conversion wastewaters. To remove and recover heavy metals from wastewaters, four different types of surfactant-clay complexes have been prepared using hectored or montmorillonite as the base clays. The adsorbent is prepared by first coating the clay surface, upto a monolayer, with a cationic surfactant, CBDA, to which an amine, (DT), or a carboxylic acid (Palmitic acid, PA) is anchored using hydrophobic effect to form a mixed bilayer. Such an arrangement is expected to locate the functional groups in metal adsorption at the solid-solution interface. Complexes based on hectored are shown to adsorb Cu{sup 2+} ions more strongly than the ones based on montmorillonite. The rate of adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions is quite rapid and the adsorbed amount levels off in less than 2 hrs. The optimum pH for metal adsorption is around 6.5 and the amount of metal adsorbed declines sharply on the lower pH side of the pH optimum, suggesting that removal and recovery of adsorbed metal ions can be effected by a slight pH shift.

  16. A novel, integrated treatment system for coal wastewaters. Quarterly report, September 2, 1991--December 1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1991-12-31

    This is the first quarterly report of the above project. The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the inorganics present in coal conversion wastewaters. The initial phase of the work has been focused on the development of modified clays for use in the selective removal and recovery of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, chromate and selenate. The results presented here show that a surfactant-modified clay adsorbs Cd strongly at a pH of 8.5 and poorly at pH 4.0. Further, the adsorption of Cd on modified clay is unaffected by the ionic strength of the medium. In the case of Cu, it has been shown that the metal forms a complex with alkyl diamines in aqueous solutions at a pH of 6.0 and does not bind to these surfactants at a lower pH of 3.0. These findings are a preliminary indication that the surface and solution chemistry of amine surfactants can be gainfully modified to adsorb and desorb cationic heavy metals.

  17. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  18. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  19. Advanced Systems for Preprocessing and Characterizing Coal-Biomass Mixtures as Next-Generation Fuels and Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmis, Michael [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Luttrell, Gerald [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ripepi, Nino [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Bratton, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Dohm, Erich [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The research activities presented in this report are intended to address the most critical technical challenges pertaining to coal-biomass briquette feedstocks. Several detailed investigations were conducted using a variety of coal and biomass feedstocks on the topics of (1) coal-biomass briquette production and characterization, (2) gasification of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, (3) combustion of coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes, and (4) conceptual engineering design and economic feasibility of briquette production. The briquette production studies indicate that strong and durable co-firing feedstocks can be produced by co-briquetting coal and biomass resources commonly available in the United States. It is demonstrated that binderless coal-biomass briquettes produced at optimized conditions exhibit very high strength and durability, which indicates that such briquettes would remain competent in the presence of forces encountered in handling, storage and transportation. The gasification studies conducted demonstrate that coal-biomass mixtures and briquettes are exceptional gasification feedstocks, particularly with regard to the synergistic effects realized during devolatilization of the blended materials. The mixture combustion studies indicate that coal-biomass mixtures are exceptional combustion feedstocks, while the briquette combustion study indicates that the use of blended briquettes reduces NOx, CO2, and CO emissions, and requires the least amount of changes in the operating conditions of an existing coal-fired power plant. Similar results were obtained for the physical durability of the pilot-scale briquettes compared to the bench-scale tests. Finally, the conceptual engineering and feasibility analysis study for a commercial-scale briquetting production facility provides preliminary flowsheet and cost simulations to evaluate the various feedstocks, equipment selection and operating parameters.

  20. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.