WorldWideScience

Sample records for included classroom observations

  1. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  2. Emotional Bias in Classroom Observations: Within-Rater Positive Emotion Predicts Favorable Assessments of Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floman, James L.; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom observations increasingly inform high-stakes decisions and research in education, including the allocation of school funding and the evaluation of school-based interventions. However, trends in rater scoring tendencies over time may undermine the reliability of classroom observations. Accordingly, the present investigations, grounded in…

  3. Does a Teacher's Classroom Observation Rating Vary across Multiple Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoxuan; Li, Hongli; Leroux, Audrey J.

    2018-01-01

    Classroom observations have been increasingly used for teacher evaluations, and it is important to examine the measurement quality and the use of observation ratings. When a teacher is observed in multiple classrooms, his or her observation ratings may vary across classrooms. In that case, using ratings from one classroom per teacher may not be…

  4. "Keeping SCORE": Reflective Practice through Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice means that teachers must subject their own teaching beliefs and practices to critical examination. One way of facilitating reflective practice in ESL teachers is to encourage them to engage in classroom observations as part of their professional development. This paper reports on a case study of a short series of classroom…

  5. Slooh Takes Observing into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Paige

    2018-01-01

    For many students, studying space is limited to simulations and a vivid imagination. Slooh is providing a new education tool that gives students an authentic experience, mimicking the practices of professional astronomers by bringing real-time astronomical observing to the classroom. Teachers and students have robotic control of Slooh’s global network of ground-based telescopes located at the Institute of Astrophysics in the Canary Islands and at the Catholic University based in Santiago, Chile. Slooh Classroom and Slooh Astrolab are products designed to offer K-12 and higher education an accessible, affordable way to interact with space. The lab manuals provide fully-designed classroom activities that explore celestial objects representing a robust sample of star clusters, nebulae, galaxies, stars, planets, comets and asteroids. Slooh’s education tools provide a unique online platform for the sharing of space content and access to live-hosted shows that discuss current astronomy events, creating a full STEAM experience.

  6. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  7. The "Classroom Systems Observation Scale": Development of an Instrument To Assess Classrooms Using a Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Marian C.; Dane, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), which assesses preschool through sixth grade classroom functioning from a systems perspective using a theoretical framework based on the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Discusses influences of home environment and parental support on learning; and…

  8. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  9. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Shapiro, Edward S; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically-grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social climate of classrooms, our research team developed an observation tool through participatory action research (PAR). This article details how the assessment tool was designed and preliminarily validated in 18 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms in a large urban public school district. The goals of this study are to illustrate the feasibility of a PAR paradigm in measurement development, ascertain the psychometric properties of the assessment tool, and determine associations with different indices of classroom levels of relational and physical aggression.

  10. For the Classroom: Observing the Social Behavior of Guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, Elizabeth

    1981-01-01

    Guppies serve as a hardy, inexpensive, yet interesting species for classroom observation. Through a series of observations of individual males, groups of males, and males with females, students discover the signals male guppies use to set up social structure and to court females. (Author/DC)

  11. Teacher's Approaches in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustakim, Siti Salina; Mustapha, Ramlee; Lebar, Othman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the approaches employed by teachers in teaching Contemporary Children's Literature Program to upper primary school. Using classroom observations and interview as research instruments, this paper evaluates the approaches of five ESL teachers teaching Year 5 students and examines the various challenges faced by them in…

  12. Relating Teacher PCK and Teacher Practice Using Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, Erik; Henze, Ineke

    2017-09-01

    Science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been researched in many studies, yet little empirical evidence has been found to determine how this knowledge actually informs teachers' actions in the classroom. To complement previous quantitative studies, there is a need for more qualitative studies to investigate the relationship between teacher knowledge (as formulated by the teacher) and classroom practice, especially in the context of an educational innovation. In this study we explored a possible way to investigate this relationship in an in-depth and systematic fashion. To this end, we conducted a case study with a chemistry teacher in the context of the implementation of a context-based science curriculum in The Netherlands. The teacher's PCK was captured using the Content Representation form by Loughran, Mulhall, and Berry. We used an observation table to monitor classroom interactions in such a way that the observations could be related to specific elements of teachers' PCK. Thus, we were able to give a detailed characterization of the correspondences and differences between the teacher's personal PCK and classroom practice. Such an elaborate description turned out to be a useful basis for discussing mechanisms explaining the relationship between teachers' knowledge and teachers' actions.

  13. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" section of Resonance, February 1996. As a teacher of chemistry, I read the author's observations on the textbook experiment to determine the percentage of oxygen in air, with great interest. I carried out this experiment carefully, as follows:.

  14. Including children with autism in general education classrooms. A review of effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G

    2001-10-01

    Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

  15. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  16. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  17. Toward a More Inclusive Multicultural Education: Methods for Including LGBT Themes in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Although multicultural education scholars and the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME) have encouraged the implementation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender themes in the classroom (NAME, 2005), many classroom educators look the other way because of fear, retaliation, or personal discomfort. The following article will…

  18. Raising the Stakes: Classroom Observation in the Further Education Sector in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Matt; Brooks, Val

    2014-01-01

    Successive governments in England have regarded classroom observation as an essential tool for monitoring and improving teacher performance. Despite its importance in national policy for teacher development, the impact of classroom observation on individual teachers, and on improving quality and standards in teaching and learning, remain…

  19. A Classroom Observational Study of Qatar's Independent Schools: Instruction and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Douglas J.; Sadiq, Hissa M.; Lynch, Patricia; Parker, Dawn; Viruru, Radhika; Knight, Stephanie; Waxman, Hersh; Alford, Beverly; Brown, Danielle Bairrington; Rollins, Kayla; Stillisano, Jacqueline; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M. Hamdan; Nasser, Ramzi; Allen, Nancy; Al-Binali, Hessa; Ellili, Maha; Al-Kateeb, Haithem; Al-Kubaisi, Huda

    2016-01-01

    Qatar initiated a K-12 national educational reform in 2001. However, there is limited information on the instructional practices of the teachers in the reform schools. This project was an observational study of classrooms with a stratified random sample of the first six cohorts of reform schools. Specifically, 156 classrooms were observed in 29…

  20. Evaluating the Validity of Classroom Observations in the Head Start Designation Renewal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom observations are increasingly common in education policies as a means to assess the quality of teachers and/or education programs for purposes of making high-stakes decisions. This article considers one policy, the Head Start Designation Renewal System (DRS), which involves classroom observations to assess the quality of Head Start…

  1. Observational constraints on unified dark matter including Hubble parameter data

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Kai; Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Gong, Xiaolong; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    We constrain a unified dark matter (UDM) model from the latest observational data. This model assumes that the dark sector is degenerate. Dark energy and dark matter are the same component. It can be described by an affine equation of state $P_X= p_0 +\\alpha \\rho_X$. Our data set contains the newly revised $H(z)$ data, type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from Union2 set, baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) observation from the spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7 (DR7) galaxy ...

  2. Executive control goes to school: Implications of preschool executive performance for observed elementary classroom learning engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; James, Tiffany D; Clark, Caron A C; Kidwell, Katherine M; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2017-05-01

    The transition to elementary school is accompanied by increasing demands for children to regulate their attention and behavior within the classroom setting. Executive control (EC) may be critical for meeting these demands; however, few studies have rigorously examined the association between EC and observed classroom behavior. This study examined EC in preschool (age 5 years 3 months) as a predictor of classroom learning engagement behaviors in first grade, using a battery of performance-based EC tasks and live classroom observations in a longitudinal sample of 313 children. Multilevel modeling results indicated that stronger EC predicted more focused engagement and fewer task management and competing responses, controlling for socioeconomic status, child sex, and age at observations. Results suggest that early EC may support subsequent classroom engagement behaviors that are critical for successful transition to elementary school and long-term learning trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  4. Relating Teacher PCK and Teacher Practice Using Classroom Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, Erik; Henze-Rietveld, I.

    2017-01-01

    Science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been researched in many studies, yet little empirical evidence has been found to determine how this knowledge actually informs teachers’ actions in the classroom. To complement previous quantitative studies, there is a need for more

  5. Developing and Validating a New Classroom Climate Observation Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Paskewich, Brooke; Wilson, Kim; Necowitz-Hoffman, Beth; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2011-01-01

    The climate of school classrooms, shaped by a combination of teacher practices and peer processes, is an important determinant for children's psychosocial functioning and is a primary factor affecting bullying and victimization. Given that there are relatively few theoretically grounded and validated assessment tools designed to measure the social…

  6. General Education Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions of Including Students with Disabilities in Their Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuwon, Paul M.; Lechtenberger, DeAnn; Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Sokolosky, Stephanie; Zhou, Li; Mullins, Frank E.

    2012-01-01

    In this empirical study, the authors compare the perceptions of future general educators on two dichotomous scales (hostility/receptivity and anxiety/calmness) regarding the teaching of students with exceptionalities in their classrooms. A total of 116 teacher candidates from one southwestern and two Midwestern universities in the United States…

  7. Secondary Teacher Attitudes toward Including English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jenelle R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have given limited attention to teacher attitudes toward inclusion of English-language learners (ELLs) in mainstream classrooms. The author explored 4 categories within secondary teacher attitudes toward ELL inclusion: (a) ELL inclusion, (b) coursework modification for ELLS, (c) professional development for working with ELLs, and (d)…

  8. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential...... position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom...

  9. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invitt responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching ...

  10. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters reiated to ...

  11. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues arid sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  12. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Environmental Education in a 'Green Classroom'. Keywords. Environmental attitudes, expe- riential learning, learning outside school, small animals (inverte- brates, insects). Jürgen Drissner1, Hans-Martin. Haase2, Mara Nikolajek3 and. Katrin Hille4. 1,3 Botanical Garden, University of Ulm, D–89081 ULM, ...

  13. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  14. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. How Stimulating Ideas Can Generate An Attitude of Inquiry.

  15. Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kay

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…

  16. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. 5 N Moitra. Mathematics Department. National Defence Academy. Khadakvasla ...

  17. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and 'Viewpoints on matter·s related to teaching and learning science. , Teaching and Learning Genetics with Drosophila. 2.

  18. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. N Kumar. Raman Research Institute. C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore. 560 080, India.

  19. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and 'Viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. R Vasudeva, Department of. Statistics, University of Mysore,. Mysore 570006, India ...

  20. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Ashok Singh. Department of Mathematics. Government Nehru Memorial. College.

  1. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. P H Talapadtur c/o Secretary. School of Mathematics. TlFR, Homi Bhabha Road.

  2. Exploring Differences in Measurement and Reporting of Classroom Observation Inter-Rater Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Gillespie Rouse, Amy; Jones, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Although inter-rater reliability is an important aspect of using observational instruments, it has received little theoretical attention. In this article, we offer some guidance for practitioners and consumers of classroom observations so that they can make decisions about inter-rater reliability, both for study design and in the reporting of data…

  3. On the Representativeness of Behavior Observation Samples in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred…

  4. A classroom observation tool for scaffolding reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke; van de Grift, Wim; de Bot, Kees; Jansen, Ellen

    An important goal of educational research is to find out which teaching practices are effective in promoting students' learning. In order to assess these practices, adequate observation instruments are needed. Existing observation schemes for language teaching are not suitable to gauge which

  5. Observations of Children with Disabilities in Four Elementary Music Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Ellary A.

    2017-01-01

    Much of what we know about music classes comes from observing students without disabilities; there is little empirical research that informs music education practices for students with disabilities in inclusive music settings. The purpose of this study was to systematically observe and describe opportunities for nine students with disabilities to…

  6. Convergence of Observer Ratings and Student Perceptions of Reform Practices in Sixth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark W.; Malloy, Carol E.; Meece, Judith L.; Sylvester, Patricia R.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research project examining relationships between instructional practices and student cognitive and social outcomes in middle-school mathematics classes, external observers and students reported perceptions of teachers' instructional practices. The extent to which students in classrooms identified by external raters as reform-oriented…

  7. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. School in the forest. A joint experiment between Centre for Learning and Gurukula. Botanical Sanctuary. What do a school in Bangalore and a forest garden in the.

  8. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ite image of the Mercury. Transit, taken by Domin- ique Derrick, Belgium, on the 7th of May 2003. (repro- duced with permission). CLASSROOM scale in our understanding of the Universe - the Astronomical. Unit, or the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Historically, the transits of Venus were the first opportunity.

  9. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this section of Resonance, we invite readers to pose questions likely to be raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to ...

  10. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally ti forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. .... Rate (R) = k [Acid]P [NaHC0. 3. ] q. The values of p and q for HCOOH-NaHC0. 3 reaction are calculated as follows as an illustration. Rset - I.

  11. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters ... find the values taken by f at some n distinct points ao, aI,. ,an-I, one can determine the values of the Ci'S from the usual method of solving a system of linear equa- tions.

  12. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Surya Majjana ... MES College of Arts, Com- merce and Science ...

  13. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. “Classroom” is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Pythagorean Theorem From Heron's Formula: Another Proof.

  14. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reduction in dimensionality of bio- logical diffusion pro- cesses, in Structural. Chemistry and Molecular. Biology, (Edns) N David- son and A Rich, W H. Freeman, San Francisco,. 1968. From Uday Maitra, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. ClASSROOM what happens. Given any point, however far away from the origin,.

  15. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    tum associated with such an apparently simple purely oscillatory 1D harmonic lattice system. The classroom exercise will conclude with a sug- gestion for the possibility that the 'Concrete' case may well correspond to that of hard nanopar- ticulate crystallites embedded in a 1D elastic con- tinuum, e.g., a spider dragline silk, ...

  16. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a foru11J. for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Point Set Topological Proof of 'no-retraction'. Theorem for 2 and 3 Dimensional Cases. Sourav Chakraborty. C/o Suprakash Chakraborty. D-138, Grissom Street.

  17. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Jyoti Ramakrishnan. M.Stat. lind Year. Indian Statistical Institute ... is, as evident from the normal meaning of the English word, a correspondence which associates ...

  18. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    manipulate and gain experimental knowledge from. The minds-on examples serve to consistently stimulate the mind of both the self-starter student and the bored/disinterested student to develop an attitude of inquiry. Motivation in the Classroom. What, exactly, is a discrepant event? A discrepant event is a phenomenon that ...

  19. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Thomas R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing pressure of meeting the demands of No Child Left Behind, and reducing the achievement gap between subgroups of school populations, school administrators across the nation have implemented a variety of short classroom walk-through observations. A walk-through is defined as a 3-5 minute observation of the classroom teacher by…

  20. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

  1. Evaluating and Using Literature Including People with Disabilities in All Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslick, Mary Ellen; Pearson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To help students see their worlds differently and to expand those views beyond their own backyards, educators can expose them to quality multicultural children's literature. In this article, we focus on a subtopic within the genre of multicultural children's literature: literature including people with disabilities. We chose seven recent texts…

  2. The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC): an observational measure of the intentional communication of children with autism in an unstructured classroom setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Greg; Gordon, Rosanna K; Howlin, Patricia; Charman, Tony

    2008-11-01

    The Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (COSMIC) was devised to provide ecologically valid outcome measures for a communication-focused intervention trial. Ninety-one children with autism spectrum disorder aged 6 years 10 months (SD 16 months) were videoed during their everyday snack, teaching and free play activities. Inter-rater reliability was high and relevant items showed significant associations with comparable items from concurrent Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (Lord et al. 2000, J Autism Dev Disord 30(3):205-223) assessments. In a subsample of 28 children initial differences in rates of initiations, initiated speech/vocalisation and commenting were predictive of language and communication competence 15 months later. Results suggest that the use of observational measures of intentional communication in natural settings is a valuable assessment strategy for research and clinical practice.

  3. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1048. RESONANCE │ November 2011. CLASSROOM. Recall that spheres are smooth and there is no force along the ^z-axis. Therefore viz = v0iz and vjz = v0jz : (6). Using the above equations we can show that v0in = vin1 − e. 2. + vjn. 1 + e. 2. ;. (7) v0jn = vin. 1 + e. 2. + vjn1 − e. 2. : (8). The change in kinetic energy can ...

  4. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. The subscript on S corresponds to the value of n in (4). Various distances are measured. The angle of grazing incidence can be calculated from. 2fJ = tan-1 (OS/PO). (6). Note that () is not pre-decided. The scale is fixed at a certain inclination and () is obtained by measuring OS and PO. The angle d ()n can be ...

  5. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are told to take a pair of bunsen burners and keep them burning at a distance of roughly six ... burners. We were expecting to demonstrate that within the six inch aseptic zone there would be fey.l or no bacteria. To our great surprise, this didn't happen. CLASSROOM .... else can we do if there is no power?). One teacher said ...

  6. Quality of life and self-determination in students with disabilities included in regular classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Miguel Muñoz Cantero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, quality of life and self-determination begin to position itself as a key axis in interventions aimed at students with disabilities, motivating the interest of researchers and professionals to know their general well-being. This article evaluates the quality of life and self-determination of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities enrolled in regular schools. A case study methodology, descriptive-interpretative, is used through mixed data collection methods. The instruments used are Questionnaire for Assessment the Quality of Life in Teen Students (CCVA and ARC-INICO Scale for Assessment Self-Determination (for 14 students and interviews (for four teachers. A descriptive statistical analysis, contextualized by the extracted information from the interviews, was conducted. The results show high scores in different domains of quality of life, apart from emotional well-being, community inclusion and self-determination that are improvable. Adequate perception of students is observed about their ability to make decisions, choices and a good predisposition take control in different areas of their life. It is necessary to continue inquiring about the impact of educational environment, attitude and perception of teachers and the opportunities offered to students to act self-determined and increase their quality of life.

  7. How Are They Really Doing? Observation of Inclusionary Classroom Participation for Children with Mild-to-Moderate Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Christina M.; Barnett, David; Bauer, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observation was utilized to study how 5 children with mild-to-moderate deafness participated within inclusive classroom settings. Responses to practice and prompt opportunities, levels of prompting required to follow classroom directions, and engagement were analyzed across students with mild-to-moderate deafness and were compared to…

  8. Effective Teaching and Student Engagement in the College Classroom: Using the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) as a Tool for Peer Observation and Self-Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzicker, J.; Lukowiak, T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present initial findings from a collaborative self-study exploring student engagement as a measure of teaching effectiveness. Focused on their college classrooms during one semester, the study pilots a peer observation model of the Instructional Practices Inventory (IPI) (Valentine, 2005). Data collection included IPI codes, anecdotal…

  9. Leading a Classroom Discussion: Definition, Supportive Evidence, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Margaret; Sykes, Gary; Bell, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a description and rationale for a performance assessment of a teaching practice--leading a classroom discussion (LCD)--included in the ETS® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. In this assessment, candidates interact with a small class of virtual students represented by avatars in a…

  10. Exploring Researchers in Dialogue: Linguistic and Educational Perspectives on Observational Data from a Sixth Grade Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helg Fottland

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on a collaborative process between two researchers from different backgrounds conducting a joint-venture classroom observation project focusing on language, communication and special education. Focusing on the connection between explorative learning situations and dialogue in relation to children's learning and identity development, the researchers cooperate on all levels in the research process. The article compares findings when approaching data from two different professional traditions, linguistics and education. The main focus is how each of the researchers approaches the data analysis. The combining of approaches in interpreting and writing is also discussed. Narratives and spoken dialogues are vital in this work; transcripts of video material from a primary school classroom are used as illustrations.

  11. Participate or observe? Effects of economic classroom experiments on students’ economic literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.; Vries, B. de

    2017-01-01

    Economic classroom experiments are controlled interactive learning exercises targeting the comprehension of economic concepts in an inductive way. Aiming at increasing students’ knowledge of economic concepts, two types of economic classroom experiments are examined in a sample of 134 secondary

  12. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  13. Twenty Careers and Classroom Experiences for Teaching Science. Includes: Job Descriptions, Teaching Suggestions and Answers, Work Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrake, Greg

    Part 1 of this teacher's guide contains job descriptions, teaching suggestions/answers, and worksheets for twenty careers and classroom experiences which are designed to be used in teaching science. The following twenty careers are covered: meteorologist, geologist, musical instrument maker/repairman, opthalmologist, astronomer, paint chemist,…

  14. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Arvind Kumar. Homi Bhabha Centre for. Science Education ..... Barve and Arvind Kumar. Alternative conceptions in. Galilean relativity: inertial and non-inertial observers. International Journal of. Science Education. 18.615-.

  15. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    same intensity of resolved pterins (Figure2B). This again supports the results interpreted by visual observation. Figure 1. A simple cross performed to functionally study dosage compensation. Figure 2. Dosage compen- sation in Drosophila mela- nogaster. (A) Comparison of F1 prog- eny males and females with. P1 female.

  16. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to lack of experience with observations in a non- inertial frame of reference. In this article is de- scribed a software that can be easily run on a desktop cOlnputer and which acquaints the stu- dent-user with the Newtonian notion of force. Fundamental principles of causality and deter- minism in Newtonian mechanics are ...

  17. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Either examples are not given at all, or if they are given, authors of books as well as teachers mention the case of collision between two vehicles, of equal masses or one light and one .... We drop the bigger ball alone from a height hI and observe the height hz to which it rises after the bounce, and this gives e. Then we drop.

  18. Observing the interactive qualities of L2 instructional practices in ESL and FSL classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zuniga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Discourse features that promote the generation of interactionally modified input and output, such as negotiation for meaning, have been shown to significantly enhance second language acquisition. Research has also identified several characteristics of instructional practices that render them more or less propitious to the generation of these discourse features. While various classroom observation studies have successfully measured the communicative orientation of classroom environments, most of the indicators of interactivity analyzed in those studies were obtained through micro-level discourse analyses and not through macro-level analyses of task-related factors shown to directly influence the interactivity of instructional practices. Such a macro-level scale has potential practical implications for teachers and administrators seeking an efficient tool for assessing and improving the interactivity afforded by a given curriculum. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop macro-level scale to determine the extent to which teachers of French and English as a second language use interaction-friendly instructional practices. Using an observation scheme designed to code data on factors shown to influence interactivity, 63 hours of FSL and ESL classes from secondary schools in the Montreal area were observed and analyzed. Results indicate clear differences between the two groups. While both ESL and FSL classes were less teacher-centered than those observed in previous studies, they were still rated as not-very-interactive. Target language differences showed that the FSL classes were more teacher-centered and characterized by fewer interaction-friendly tasks and activities than the ESL classes. Task characteristics, reasons for ESL and FSL differences and recommendations for improvement are discussed.

  19. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an extremely low-cost experiment of head-on collision of two balls in a vertical direction. The advantages of this phenomenon in the vertical direction are clarified. Some simple estimates are made. A thorough analysis of this simple topic is then made, which includes various special and limiting cases, conditions of collision ...

  20. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of practical applications: A manometer consists of a U- tube containing liquid such as mercury or water [1]. A. U-shaped viscometer is used to determine viscosity of both Newtonian [2] and non-Newtonian fluids, including blood [3,4]. The roll motion of a ship can be stabilized by water inside a pair of tanks (known as the U- ...

  1. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  2. Impact of a Checklist on Principal-Teacher Feedback Conferences Following Classroom Observations. REL 2018-285

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaly, Kata; Schwartz, Heather L.; Opper, Isaac M.; Grimm, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Luis; Mariano, Louis T.

    2018-01-01

    Most states' teacher evaluation systems have changed substantially in the past decade. New evaluation systems typically require school leaders to observe teachers' classrooms two to three times a school year instead of once (Doherty & Jacobs, 2015). The feedback that school leaders provide to teachers after these observations is a key but…

  3. A systematic review of pedagogical approaches that can effectively include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms with a particular focus on peer group interactive approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...

  4. An Observation of Classroom Assessment Practices among Lecturers in Selected Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charanjit Kaur Swaran; Lebar, Othman; Kepol, Napisah; Rahman, Rafiah Abdul; Mukhtar, Kurotol Aini Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed at exploring and analysing the current assessment practices of lecturers in selected Malaysian higher learning institution classrooms. The focus was the different modes of assessment used in the classroom and to make recommendations on using a variety of assessment modes that would be well-aligned with the intended…

  5. The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC): Evaluation of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Hudry, Kristelle; Brown, Laura; Pasco, Greg; Charman, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC) was developed as an ecologically valid measure of social-communication behaviour, delineating forms, functions, and intended partners of children's spontaneous communication acts. Forty-one children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 48-73 months were…

  6. Who Is Granted Authority in the Mathematics Classroom? An Analysis of the Observed and Perceived Distribution of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, Fien; De Corte, Erik; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the way in which authority was established and interpreted by teachers and students in two Flemish sixth-grade mathematics classrooms. Problem-solving lessons during a seven-month observation period were analysed regarding three aspects of teacher-student interactions that explicitly or implicitly reflect who bears…

  7. An imprecise Dirichlet model for Bayesian analysis of failure data including right-censored observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables

  8. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  9. Bringing ocean observations to the classroom - integrating research infrastructure into education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Hoenner, X.; Mancini, S.; Tattersall, K.; Everett, J. D.; Suthers, I. M.; Steinberg, P.; Doblin, M.; Moltmann, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the past 4 years the Sydney Institute of Marine Science, a partnership of four Australian Universities (Macquarie University, the University of NSW, the University of Sydney and the University of Technology Sydney) has been running a Master's degree course called Topics in Australian Marine Science (TAMS). This course is unique in that the core of the course is built around research infrastructure - the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS, established in 2007, is collecting unprecedented volumes of multi-disciplinary oceanographic data in the ocean and on the continental shelf which is made freely available across the web; IMOS frequently runs `data user workshops' throughout Australia to introduce scientists and managers to the wealth of observations available at their fingertips. The Masters course gives students an understanding of how different measurement platforms work and they explore the data that these platforms collect. Students combine attending seminars and lectures with hands on practicals and personal assignments, all built around access to IMOS data and the many tools available to visualise and analyse. The course attracts a diverse class with many mature students (i.e. > 25 years old) from a range of backgrounds who find that the ease of discovering and accessing data, coupled with the available tools, enables them to easily study the marine environment without the need for high level computational skills. Since its inception the popularity of the course has increased with 38 students undertaking the subject in 2014. The consensus from students and lecturers is that integrating `real' observations into the classroom is beneficial to all, and IMOS is seeking to extend this approach to other university campuses. The talk will describe the experiences from the TAMS course and highlight the IMOS approach to data discovery, availability and access through course examples.

  10. Observations of Representational Practices by Indian-Descent Children in a US Preschool Classroom: Connections among People, Spaces and Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined children's experiences with producing and comprehending external representations in a preschool classroom. Data collection and analyses focused on how artifacts, spaces, adult-guided routines, and social conventions shape young children's representational development. Participants included 4- and…

  11. The Science Management Observation Protocol: Using Structured Observations to Improve Teachers' Management of Inquiry-Based Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor

    2004-01-01

    With the publication of the National Science Education Standards and the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, people now have a thorough idea of what an inquiry-based teacher is, and what he or she needs to do within a classroom in order to be successful. However, one major barrier in learning how to become an effective inquiry-based science teacher…

  12. Manifestations of Differential Cultural Capital in a University Classroom: Views from Classroom Observations and Focus Group Discussions in a South African University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mutekwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based predominantly on Pierre Bourdieu’s social and cultural reproduction theory, particularly his notions of cultural capital and symbolic violence, this paper explores how first year post graduate Diploma in Higher Education (PGDHE university students from diverse socio-linguistic backgrounds differ in the levels at which they understand and express themselves in classroom activities. The paper’s thesis is that the diverse nature of South African classrooms presents a number of challenges not only for students but also for educators in terms of the use of English as a medium of instruction or the language for learning and teaching (LOLT. Owing to the fact that the South African Language in Education Policy (LiEP of 1997 empowers both learners and educators in schools to use any of the eleven South African official languages as a LOLT wherever that is reasonably possible, students whose English backgrounds were deficient in enculturating them in the use of English as a learning tool often encounter challenges in expressing their ideas in the classroom, whether in writing or in oral presentations. The discussion is anchored in the data elicited through two data collection methods, lesson observations in a Diploma in Higher Education, Research class composed of students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds and through focus group discussion sessions with 40 multi-ethnic Diploma in Higher Education students from the same classroom. The data management and analysis for this study was done thematically, with views emerging from the observations and focus group discussions being clustered into superordinate themes for convenience of the discussion of the findings. The findings of this study were that students from affluent socio-economic backgrounds who enter university with a rich and relevant English linguistic capital, values and attitudes enjoy an enormous advantage compared to their counterparts whose social class and linguistic

  13. The Modified-Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC): Evaluation of reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Sally; Hudry, Kristelle; Brown, Laura; Pasco, Greg; Charman, Tony; PACT Consortium, X.; PACT Consortium, PACT Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Modified – Classroom Observation Schedule to Measure Intentional Communication (M-COSMIC) was developed as an ecologically valid measure of social-communication behaviour, delineating forms, functions, and intended partners of children’s spontaneous communication acts. Forty one children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 48 to 73 months were filmed within small-group settings at school. Communication behaviours during a five-minute teacher-led activity and a 10-minute free play ses...

  14. Including refugees in disease elimination: challenges observed from a sleeping sickness programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Robert, Okello; Kansiime, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance. Using ethnographic observations of coordination meetings, review of programme data, interviews with sleeping sickness and refugee authorities and group discussions with health staff and refugees (2013-2016), we nevertheless identified some key challenges to equitably integrating refugees into government sleeping sickness surveillance. Despite fears that refugees were at risk of disease and posed a threat to elimination, six months into the response, programme coordinators progressed to a sentinel surveillance strategy in districts hosting the highest concentrations of refugees. This meant that RDTs, the programme's primary surveillance tool, were removed from most refugee-serving facilities, exacerbating existing inequitable access to surveillance and leading refugees to claim that their access to sleeping sickness tests had been better in South Sudan. This was not intentionally done to exclude refugees from care, rather, four key governance challenges made it difficult for the programme to recognise and correct inequities affecting refugees: (a) perceived donor pressure to reduce the sleeping sickness programme's scope without clear international elimination guidance on surveillance quality; (b) a problematic history of programme relations with refugee-hosting districts which strained supervision of surveillance quality; (c) difficulties that

  15. A multimethod investigation including direct observation of 3751 patient visits to 120 dental offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wotman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Wotman1, Catherine A Demko1, Kristin Victoroff1, Joseph J Sudano2, James A Lalumandier11Department of Community Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Center of Health Care Research and Policy, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral categories. Dentist, hygienist, and patient characteristics were gathered by questionnaire. The most common nonprocedure behaviors observed for dentists were chatting, evaluation feedback, history taking, and answering patient questions. Hygienists added preventive counseling. We distinguish between preventive procedures and counseling in actual dental offices that are members of a practice-based research network. Almost a third of the dentist’s and half of the hygienist’s patient contact time is utilized for nonprocedure behaviors during patient encounters. These interactions may be linked to patient and practitioner satisfaction and effectiveness of self-care instruction.Keywords: dental practice, dental practice core activities, direct observation of dental practice, Dental Davis Observation Code, dentist, hygienist patient behaviors

  16. Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur; Fook, Chan Yuen; Kaur, Sarjit

    2010-01-01

    Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits…

  17. Should professional development include analyzing and coaching ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily H.

    2009-12-01

    In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.

  18. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-01-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and…

  19. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  20. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  1. An extended TRANSCAR model including ionospheric convection: simulation of EISCAT observations using inputs from AMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-L. Blelly

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.

  2. Collaboration Between Astronomers at UT Austin and K-12 Teachers: Connecting the Experience of Observing and Research with the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Sneden, Christopher; Hemenway, Mary Kay; Preston, Sandra; EXES Teachers Associate Program

    2015-01-01

    McDonald Observatory has a long history of providing teacher professional development (PD), and recently we have developed a new workshop model for more advanced participants. By choosing a select group of middle and high school teachers from those previously involved in our past PD programs, we have created a joint workshop / observing run program for them. After traveling to the observatory, the teachers participate in an actual observing run with a research astronomer. The teachers are trained first-hand how to take observations, operate the telescope, set up the instrument, and monitor observing conditions. The teachers are fully put in the role of observer. They are also given background information before and during the workshop related to the science and data they are helping to collect. The teachers work in teams to both perform the nightly observations with an astronomer, but to also perform new interactive classroom activities with education staff, and use other telescopes on the mountain. This is a unique experience for teachers since it allows them to take the resources and experiences directly back to their classrooms and students. They can directly relate to their students what skills for specific careers in STEM fields are needed. Evaluation from these workshops shows that there is: increased content knowledge among participants, greater impact that will be passed on to their students, and an authentic research experience that can't be replicated in other PD settings. In addition, not only is this program beneficial to the teachers, but this group is benefit to the education program of McDonald Observatory. Building on an existing PD program (with a 16 year history) we have the opportunity to test out new products and new education endeavors with this devoted group of well-trained teachers before bringing them to wider teacher and student audiences. This program is currently supported by the NSF grant AST-1211585 (PI Sneden).

  3. Differentiation in Classroom Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Martha

    Differentiation in School Practice is an ongoing research project currently being carried out in UCC’s research department by myself and my coworker Christina Jørgensen. The project includes a field study of everyday life in a Danish 5th grade classroom with the aim to observe, describe and analyze...

  4. Improving Classroom Learning by Collaboratively Observing Human Tutoring Videos while Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Collaboratively observing tutoring is a promising method for observational learning (also referred to as vicarious learning). This method was tested in the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center's Physics LearnLab, where students were introduced to physics topics by observing videos while problem solving in Andes, a physics tutoring system.…

  5. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  7. Observations from Secondary School Classrooms in Trinidad and Tobago: Science Teachers' Use of Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj-Sharma, R.; Sharma, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine and interpret how science teachers in Trinidad and Tobago used analogies in their science teaching. A total of 30 lessons taught by five different teachers were observed and analysed using an interpretative research methodology to develop generalized observations. The findings revealed that in general science…

  8. NEW MASER EMISSION FROM NONMETASTABLE AMMONIA IN NGC 7538. II. GREEN BANK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING WATER MASERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [St. Paul' s School, Concord, NH 03301 (United States); Seojin Kim, Stella, E-mail: ihoffman@sps.edu [Current address: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We present new maser emission from {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) in NGC 7538. Our observations include the known spectral features near v{sub LSR} = -60 km s{sup -1} and -57 km s{sup -1} and several more features extending to -46 km s{sup -1}. In three epochs of observation spanning two months we do not detect any variability in the ammonia masers, in contrast to the >10-fold variability observed in other {sup 14}NH{sub 3} (9,6) masers in the Galaxy over comparable timescales. We also present observations of water masers in all three epochs for which emission is observed over the velocity range -105 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -4 km s{sup -1}, including the highest velocity water emission yet observed from NGC 7538. Of the remarkable number of maser species in IRS 1, H{sub 2}O and, now, {sup 14}NH{sub 3} are the only masers known to exhibit emission outside of the velocity range -62 km s{sup -1} < v{sub LSR} < -51 km s{sup -1}. However, we find no significant intensity or velocity correlations between the water emission and ammonia emission. We also present a non-detection in the most sensitive search to date toward any source for emission from the CC{sup 32}S and CC{sup 34}S molecules, indicating an age greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} yr for IRS 1-3. We discuss these findings in the context of embedded stellar cores and recent models of the region.

  9. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of an Observation System to Assess Teachers' Use of Effective Behavior Support Strategies in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew; Gera, Shradha; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matt; Buck, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are one of the most common concerns of early educators, and preschool teachers continue to report feeling unprepared to meet the needs of children displaying challenging behaviors. Overall, traditional standardized classroom assessments have evaluated global classroom quality, but they may not capture the reciprocal and…

  10. Tale of the Tape: International Teaching Assistant Noticing during Videotaped Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.; Case, Rod E.

    2015-01-01

    International teaching assistants face challenges in learning the norms for teaching in American universities. In order to address this learning curve this article describes a qualitative study of twenty international teaching assistants that examined how these participants viewed observations as part of their professional development. The study…

  11. Developing Indicators for a Classroom Observation Tool on Pedagogy and Technology Integration: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmendorf, Douglas C.; Song, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in technology and increased access to technology tools have created new instructional demands and expectations on teachers. Due to the ubiquitous presence of technology in K-12 schools, teachers are being observed on both their pedagogical and technology integration practices. Applying the technological pedagogical and content…

  12. The Effect upon the Behavior and Attitudes of Student Teachers of Training Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers in the Use of Interaction Analysis as a Classroom Observational Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Edmund

    In a 2 1/2-year study of the application of interaction analysis (a method of classroom observation) to preservice teacher education, approximately 40 secondary student teachers were involved in an experiment during each of 3 semesters. A 2 by 2 factorial design made it possible to test the influence of 2 independent variables (student teacher…

  13. Changes in Student Teachers' Agency Beliefs during a Teacher Education Year, and Relationships with Observed Classroom Quality, and Day-to-Day Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Conceptualizations of teachers' agency beliefs converge around domains of support and instruction. Aim: We investigated changes in student teachers' agency beliefs during a 1 year teacher education course, and related these to observed classroom quality and day-to-day experiences in partnership schools during the practicum. Samples:…

  14. Naturalistic Observations of Nonverbal Children with Autism: A Study of Intentional Communicative Acts in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Drain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined evoked and spontaneous communicative acts in six nonverbal children with autism (10–15 years, M = 12.8, SD = 2.1. All participants attended the same special school for children with autism but were in different classes. Each was observed for 30 minutes during a typical school day. An observer coded the presence/absence of an antecedent, the form and function of the communicative act, and the teacher’s response to the child. One hundred and fifty-five communicative acts were observed, 41% were spontaneous and 59% were evoked. The main antecedents to evoked communicative acts were verbal prompts, and most of the evoked communicative acts were physical in nature (i.e., motor acts and gestures. However, verbalizations and the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS were higher for spontaneous communicative acts. The functions of spontaneous communicative acts were primarily requests. Results showed a substantial number of “nonresponses” from teachers, even following evoked communicative acts. These results suggest that teachers may not actively promote intentional communication as much as possible. Therefore, our findings provide information concerning ways in which educators could facilitate intentional communication in non-verbal children with autism.

  15. Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Eed M., E-mail: eeddarwish@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, P.O. Box 30002 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, P.O. Box 6644 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T{sub 11}) and tensor (T{sub 2M}, M=0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  16. PORTAAL: A Classroom Observation Tool Assessing Evidence-Based Teaching Practices for Active Learning in Large Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L; Converse, Mercedes; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that active learning works better than a completely passive lecture. Despite this evidence, adoption of these evidence-based teaching practices remains low. In this paper, we offer one tool to help faculty members implement active learning. This tool identifies 21 readily implemented elements that have been shown to increase student outcomes related to achievement, logic development, or other relevant learning goals with college-age students. Thus, this tool both clarifies the research-supported elements of best practices for instructor implementation of active learning in the classroom setting and measures instructors' alignment with these practices. We describe how we reviewed the discipline-based education research literature to identify best practices in active learning for adult learners in the classroom and used these results to develop an observation tool (Practical Observation Rubric To Assess Active Learning, or PORTAAL) that documents the extent to which instructors incorporate these practices into their classrooms. We then use PORTAAL to explore the classroom practices of 25 introductory biology instructors who employ some form of active learning. Overall, PORTAAL documents how well aligned classrooms are with research-supported best practices for active learning and provides specific feedback and guidance to instructors to allow them to identify what they do well and what could be improved. © 2015 S. L. Eddy et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  18. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Is Serum Hypovitaminosis D Associated with Chronic Widespread Pain Including Fibromyalgia? A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Hung, Chen-Yu; Chang, Ke-Vin; Han, Der-Sheng; Wang, Tyng-Guey

    2015-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a global musculoskeletal disorder leading to disability and a reduced quality of life. Low levels of serum vitamin D has long been proposed to be associated with CWP, but previous research remains inconclusive. To determine whether hypovitaminosis D was independently associated with CWP. Meta-analysis of observational study. Electronic databases were searched for studies published up to November 2014 comparing the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and serum vitamin D levels between participants with and without CWP. The crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of hypovitaminosis D with CWP were calculated. Subgroup analysis according to gender, threshold of hypovitaminosis, and definition of patients was performed, as well as meta-regression to test the linear relationship between crude ORs and the latitude of study locations. Twelve studies were included, comprising 1,854 patients with CWP. The patient group showed a significantly higher risk of hypovitaminosis D than the control group (crude OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.20-2.23). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting confounders, with a pooled adjusted OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.00-2.00). There was an increase in ORs of hypovitaminosis D using a lower diagnostic value of serum vitamin D (8 and 10 ng/mL). The subgroup analysis according to gender and definition of CWP did not reveal significant between-group differences. The meta-regression showed no linear relationship between latitude and the crude ORs. There was a positive crude association between hypovitaminosis D and CWP, and the association was likely to remain after adjusting confounding factors. Use of a cut-off value of hypovitaminosis D (8-10 ng/mL) could better define the population with and without CWP. Further prospective follow-up studies are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and CWP.

  20. Information and Experience: Audio-Visual Observations of Reading Activities in Swedish Comprehensive School Classrooms 1967-1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatkhah, Mats; Hampson Lundh, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates reading activities in Swedish primary school classrooms during the late 1960s. Sound and video recordings of 223 Swedish lessons held between 1967 and 1969 are used to analyse the activity of reading as taught and performed. The results indicate that the practice of informational reading, often based on finding…

  1. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  2. Changes in student teachers' agency beliefs during a teacher education year, and relationships with observed classroom quality, and day-to-day experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Hagger, Hazel

    2009-12-01

    Conceptualizations of teachers' agency beliefs converge around domains of support and instruction. We investigated changes in student teachers' agency beliefs during a 1 year teacher education course, and related these to observed classroom quality and day-to-day experiences in partnership schools during the practicum. Out of a sample of 66 student teachers who had responded to at least two out of four times to a questionnaire (18 men 48 women; mean age 26.4 years), 30 were observed during teaching, and 20 completed a 4-day short form diary. Confirmatory factor analysis validated two agency belief constructs. Multi-level models for change investigated individual differences in change over time. Multi-level path models related observation and diary responses to agency beliefs. Supportive agency belief was high and stable across time. Instructional agency belief increased over time, suggesting a beneficial effect of teacher education. This increase was predicted by observed classroom quality (emotional support and student engagement) and daily positive affect and agency beliefs. Teacher education is successful in creating a context in which student teachers' supportive agency beliefs can be maintained and instructional agency beliefs can increase during the course.

  3. A prospective observational study of machine translation software to overcome the challenge of including ethnic diversity in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Crichton, Nicola; Moult, Beki; Gibson, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates whether machine translation could help with the challenge of enabling the inclusion of ethnic diversity in healthcare research. A two phase, prospective observational study. Two machine translators, Google Translate and Babylon 9, were tested. Translation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) from 24 languages into English and translation of an English information sheet into Spanish and Chinese were quality scored. Quality was assessed using the Translation Assessment Quality Tool. Only six of the 48 translations of the SDQ were rated as acceptable, all from Google Translate. The mean number of acceptably translated sentences was higher ( P  = 0·001) for Google Translate 17·1 (sd 7·2) than for Babylon 9 11 (sd 7·9). Translation by Google Translate was better for Spanish and Chinese, although no score was in the acceptable range. Machine translation is not currently sufficiently accurate without editing to provide translation of materials for use in healthcare research.

  4. Chromospheric activity of periodic variable stars (including eclipsing binaries) observed in DR2 LAMOST stellar spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Hongpeng; Han, Xianming L.; Jiang, Linyan; Li, Zhongmu; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Zihuang

    2018-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral survey provides a rich databases for studying stellar spectroscopic properties and chromospheric activity. We cross-matched a total of 105,287 periodic variable stars from several photometric surveys and databases (CSS, LINEAR, Kepler, a recently updated eclipsing star catalogue, ASAS, NSVS, some part of SuperWASP survey, variable stars from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey, and other objects from some new references) with four million stellar spectra published in the LAMOST data release 2 (DR2). We found 15,955 spectra for 11,469 stars (including 5398 eclipsing binaries). We calculated their equivalent widths (EWs) of their Hα, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ and Caii H lines. Using the Hα line EW, we found 447 spectra with emission above continuum for a total of 316 stars (178 eclipsing binaries). We identified 86 active stars (including 44 eclipsing binaries) with repeated LAMOST spectra. A total of 68 stars (including 34 eclipsing binaries) show chromospheric activity variability. We also found LAMOST spectra of 12 cataclysmic variables, five of which show chromospheric activity variability. We also made photometric follow-up studies of three short period targets (DY CVn, HAT-192-0001481, and LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0) using the Xinglong 60-cm telescope and the SARA 90-cm and 1-m telescopes, and obtained new BVRI CCD light curves. We analyzed these light curves and obtained orbital and starspot parameters. We detected the first flare event with a huge brightness increase of more than about 1.5 magnitudes in R filter in LAMOST J164933.24+141255.0.

  5. WHEN SENSING TEACHES MORE THAN TEXT BOOKS: REVITALIZING TEAM, ICT AND OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING TO THRIVE SOCIO-AFFECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Suryani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The flourish of ICT and complexity of today‘s social-cultural and technological issues entails a strong need for a change in education. Today‘s education should be more directed outward by observing what happens in the society instead of just inward by indoctrinating certain perspectives and memorizing facts. Thus, it is not classroomcentred education anymore, but it is now becoming society-centred and being the miniature of society. Today‘s classrooms are expected to facilitate broader and various learning process, dynamic mental process and provide autonomy and creativity for students to construct their own knowledge by observing, sensing and learning from society. Through this process, students can see society as place and source of learning. Learning from society can also trigger social learning. Together, the aspect of observing issues emerging in society and being able to accommodate various perspectives in jointlearning lay the foundation for creating socio-affective conscious learners. This study aims to explore how and what the students can learn by observing, thinking, feeling and proposing problem solving for social, cultural and technological issues in joint-learning and what challenges they encounter during their learning process. The data is grounded on students‘ reflective notes and the result of collaborated problem solving in groups in language classroom. The data shows that the students learn some constellations of socioaffective learning aspects. Those are the exercises of multiple sensory, social learning (awareness, coordination, affinity, sharing, respect, communication, emotional learning (regulation, awareness, positive emotional contagion in group, adaptive. Their sensory, social and affective learning are enhanced by ICT.

  6. Managing Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James D.

    Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

  7. Science Teacher Beliefs and Classroom Practice Related to Constructivism in Different School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Berlin, Donna F.

    2012-02-01

    Science teacher beliefs and classroom practice related to constructivism and factors that may influence classroom practice were examined in this cross-case study. Data from four science teachers in two schools included interviews, demographic questionnaire, Classroom Learning Environment Survey (preferred/perceived), and classroom observations and documents. Using an inductive analytic approach, results suggested that the teachers embraced constructivism, but classroom observations did not confirm implementation of these beliefs for three of the four teachers. The most preferred constructivist components were personal relevance and student negotiation; the most perceived component was critical voice. Shared control was the least preferred, least perceived, and least observed constructivist component. School type, grade, student behavior/ability, curriculum/standardized testing, and parental involvement may influence classroom practice.

  8. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  9. Observation, innovation and triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetmar, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    In the article the focus is on classroom research which aims at offering some evidence-based description of the interplay between the logic of practice in school and schooling on the one hand and the teachers' efforts to realize notions of innovation and change on the other hand. Based on experie......In the article the focus is on classroom research which aims at offering some evidence-based description of the interplay between the logic of practice in school and schooling on the one hand and the teachers' efforts to realize notions of innovation and change on the other hand. Based...... on experiences from a pilot project in three different classrooms methodological possibilities and problems are presented and discussed: 1) educational criticism, including the concepts of positions, perspectives and connoisseurship, 2) classroom observations and 3) triangulation as a methodological tool....

  10. Classroom Observations and Reflections: Using Online Streaming Video as a Tool for Overcoming Barriers and Engaging in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; McCrory, Michael R.; Blessing, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In typical school settings, teachers are not afforded the opportunity to observe the instructional practices of their peers. Time constraints, opportunity, and willingness to participate in observational practices are just three of the factors that may limit teachers' engagement in this type of activity. To provide teachers with opportunities to…

  11. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite......This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...

  12. In the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    History and Social Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Using cartoons and comic strips to teach the concept of social class and newspapers to teach economic principles are suggested classroom activities for elementary and secondary courses. A lesson plan for teaching democratic values is also included. (JR)

  13. (UNEXPLORED CONTEXTS IN THE TEACHING PRACTICUM IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE COURSES: THE PLACE OF CLASSROOM OBSERVATION IN THE REPORTS OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reichert Assunção Tonelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching contexts are essential to establish the relationships between theory and classroom practice. One of the stages in such process consists in observing movements that happens at schools, the actions executed by the teachers and the attitudes and behaviours of the students when contents are taught and the relationships are established. Hence, it was proposed to four pre-service teachers, after they had chosen the teaching context they most identified with and where they would develop their teaching practicum, a moment of reflexion about the role and the importance of previous observation. In this paper we aim at reflecting upon the place of that phase of the teaching practicum considering the chosen contexts: the teaching of English to kindergarteners and to students with special educational needs. Oral texts produced by the pre-service teachers were analyzed based on the theoretical and methodological assumptions of the Sociodiscursive Interactionism, which assumes that all textual production (written and/or oral is part of a socio-cultural-historical context, which determines the context of text production and its use by readers/listeners. Because it is an unexplored performance in English language teaching practicum in the English Language and Literature courses, previous observation of the context was essential for the pre-service teachers decision-making.

  14. Establishing Content Validity of the Quality Indicators for Classrooms Serving Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Cynthia E.; Vasquez, Eleazar, III.; Marino, Matthew T.; Wienke, Wilfred; Donehower, Claire; Gourwitz, Jillian; Rosenberg, Michael S.; Duerr, Sunny R.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide content validation for quality indicators included in an observation instrument developed to evaluate classrooms serving students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A panel of 103 subject-matter experts consisting of a mixture of field personnel (n = 64; 59 classroom teachers, five school administrators)…

  15. Peer-Assisted Learning and Interactions in Inclusive Music Classrooms: Benefits, Research, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, Judith; Brown, Laura; Draper, Ellary

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary music classrooms include a beautiful mosaic of individual children from diverse backgrounds, children who vary considerably in their capabilities, interests, and levels of motivation. Some of the variations we observe are related to social skills and knowledge. The effects of appropriate classroom behavior and positive social…

  16. "Ganchulinas" and "Rainbowli" Colors: Young Multilingual Children Play with Language in Head Start Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Ysaaca

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic case study was to study the language development of 4-year-old emergent bilinguals in a bilingual (Spanish/English) Head Start classroom with flexible language practices. Data were collected throughout the 10-month school year by visiting the classroom 2-3 times per week. Data include: field notes (observations and…

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF FLIPPED CLASSROOM IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. N. Ramakrishnan; Mrs. J. Johnsi Priya

    2016-01-01

    Flipped Classroom is an instructional strategy and a type of blended learning that reverses the traditional learning environment by delivering instructional content, often online, outside of the classroom. It moves activities, including those that may have traditionally been considered homework, into the classroom. In a flipped classroom, students watch online lectures, collaborate in online discussions, or carry out research at home and engage in concepts in the classroom with the guidance o...

  18. Experimental impacts of a teacher professional development program in Chile on preschool classroom quality and child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Leyva, Diana; Snow, Catherine E; Treviño, Ernesto; Barata, M Clara; Weiland, Christina; Gomez, Celia J; Moreno, Lorenzo; Rolla, Andrea; D'Sa, Nikhit; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2015-03-01

    We assessed impacts on classroom quality and on 5 child language and behavioral outcomes of a 2-year teacher professional-development program for publicly funded prekindergarten and kindergarten in Chile. This cluster-randomized trial included 64 schools (child N = 1,876). The program incorporated workshops and in-classroom coaching. We found moderate to large positive impacts on observed emotional and instructional support as well as classroom organization in prekindergarten classrooms after 1 year of the program. After 2 years of the program, moderate positive impacts were observed on emotional support and classroom organization. No significant program impacts on child outcomes were detected at posttest (1 marginal effect, an increase in a composite of self-regulation and low problem behaviors, was observed). Professional development for preschool teachers in Chile can improve classroom quality. More intensive curricular approaches are needed for these improvements to translate into effects on children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Observation and analysis of a classroom teaching and learning practice based on augmented reality and serious games on mobile platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Barma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research is part of a learning effort to better understand how serious games are exploited in a science education context. The research team examined this issue by focusing on augmented reality as a technological innovation imbedded on a tablet. Given the current state of knowledge related to serious games and augmented reality, and given the fact that its use in the context of teaching/learning is not extended, this paper focuses on an initial exploration of how a new teaching practice involving a serious game based on an interactive augmented reality solution would impact on students in a physics class. A Design Based Research methodology was applied in a real‑world context within a college‑level physics class. Two conceptual tests containing ten questions on spatial notions regarding electromagnetic fields were administered to two control groups and two groups using the proposed serious game. The latter groups were administrated a game evaluation questionnaire as well. Thematic interpretation of students written responses to the evaluation questionnaire as well as the lessons and observations we derived from the in-class experimentation are provided and discussed in the paper.

  20. Flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Tobias Kidde; Jørgensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver Flipped Classroom som et didaktisk princip, der kan være med til at organisere og tilrettelægge en undervisning, med fokus på forskellige læringsformer. Det handler om at forstå Flipped Classroom som en opdeling i 2 faser og 3 led, som samlet set skaber en didaktisk organisering....

  1. Consultation in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, H A

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of classroom, playground, and hallway observation are that the diagnosing child and adolescent psychiatrist can directly observe the difficulties the child is having. When the psychiatrist is an employee of the school district, there can be easier access and quicker help for challenging students.

  2. Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained revealed the effective classroom management techniques included among others constant engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, teachers acting as models, monitoring, effective communication, stimulating classroom environment and regular use of ...

  3. Maximizing Learning Potential in the Communicative Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1993-01-01

    A classroom observational study is presented to assess whether a macrostrategies framework will help communicative language teaching teachers to maximize learner potential in the classroom. Analysis of two classroom episodes revealed that one episode was evidently more communicative than the other. (seven references) (VWL)

  4. Pre-Service Teachers and Classroom Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anthony M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classroom practices of five pre-service teachers from three secondary schools in a large southeastern state. Through classroom observations, survey responses, reviews of refection logs, and focus-group interview responses, we centered on the issue of developing classroom authority as a means to effective classroom…

  5. Magnetic resonance arthrography including ABER view in diagnosing partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff: Accuracy, and inter- and intra-observer agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Chun, Ho Jong; Ahn, Myeong Im (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: whjee@catholic.ac.kr; Kim, Yang-Soo (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea))

    2010-03-15

    Background: Partial-thickness tear of the rotator cuff is a common cause of shoulder pain. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been described as a useful measure to diagnose rotator cuff abnormalities. Purpose: To determine the reliability and accuracy of MR arthrography with abduction and external rotation (ABER) view for the diagnosis of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Material and Methods: Among patients who underwent MR arthrographies, 22 patients (12 men, 10 women; mean age 45 years) who had either partial-thickness tear or normal tendon on arthroscopy were included. MR images were independently scored by two observers for partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements for detection of partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff were calculated by using kappa coefficients. The differences in areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed with a univariate Z-score test. Differences in sensitivity and specificity for interpretations based on different imaging series were tested for significance using the McNemar statistic. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each reader on MR imaging without ABER view were 83%, 90%, and 86%, and 83%, 80%, and 82%, respectively, whereas on overall interpretation including ABER view, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each reader were 92%, 70%, and 82%, and 92%, 80%, and 86%, respectively. Including ABER view, interobserver agreement for partial-thickness tear increased from kappa=0.55 to kappa=0.68. Likewise, intraobserver agreements increased from kappa=0.79 and 0.53 to kappa=0.81 and 0.70 for each reader, respectively. The areas under the ROC curves for each reader were 0.96 and 0.90, which were not significantly different. Conclusion: Including ABER view in routine sequences of MR arthrography increases the sensitivity, and inter- and intraobserver agreements for detecting partial-thickness tear of rotator cuff

  6. The development of small, cabled, real-time video based observation systems for near shore coastal marine science including three examples and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Gerry; Okuda, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on the near shore coastal environment including ocean acidification, accelerated erosion, destruction of coral reefs, and damage to marine habitat have highlighted the need for improved equipment to study, monitor, and evaluate these changes [1]. This is especially true where areas of study are remote, large, or beyond depths easily accessible to divers. To this end, we have developed three examples of low cost and easily deployable real-time ocean observation platforms. We followed a scalable design approach adding complexity and capability as familiarity and experience were gained with system components saving both time and money by reducing design mistakes. The purpose of this paper is to provide information for the researcher, technician, or engineer who finds themselves in need of creating or acquiring similar platforms.

  7. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  8. The Flipped Classroom in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…

  9. Classroom Action Research: Penelitian Tindakan Kelas

    OpenAIRE

    Juliandi, Azuar

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide a basic knowledge of classroom action research, systematic proposal and classroom action reporting. The Knowledge is so important because a professional lecturer must be able to understand the problems themselves and their learning environment through classroom action research activities. Various issues in classroom action research, including: planning, process, use of methods, media, resources and learning evaluations and other relevant issues. ...

  10. Computers and Classroom Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Janet Ward

    This book explores the meaning of computer technology in schools. The book is based on data gathered from a two-year observation of more than 30 different classrooms in an urban high school: geometry classes in which students used artificially intelligent tutors; business classes in which students learned word processing; and computer science…

  11. Classroom Social Signal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raca, Mirko; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present our efforts towards building an observational system for measuring classroom activity. The goal is to explore visual cues which can be acquired with a system of video cameras and automatically processed to enrich the teacher's perception of the audience. The paper will give a brief overview of our methodology, explored features, and…

  12. Exploring gender differences in the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Constanza Durán

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactio...

  13. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-04-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of discourse analysis in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed analysis of the function of the discourse used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.

  14. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  15. Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions within 60 s in apneic newborn infants is thought to be essential in preventing progression to circulatory collapse based on experimental cardio-respiratory responses to asphyxia. The objectives were to describe normal transitional respiratory adaption at birth and to assess the importance of initiating basic resuscitation within the first minutes after birth as it relates to neonatal outcome. This is an observational study of neonatal respiratory adaptation at birth in a rural hospital in Tanzania. Research assistants (n=14) monitored every newborn infant delivery and the response of birth attendants to a depressed baby. Time to initiation of spontaneous respirations or time to onset of breathing following stimulation/suctioning, or face mask ventilation (FMV) in apneic infants, and duration of FMV were recorded. 5845 infants were born; 5689 were liveborn, among these 4769(84%) initiated spontaneous respirations; 93% in ≤30 s and 99% in ≤60 s. Basic resuscitation (stimulation, suction, and/or FMV) was attempted in 920/5689(16.0%); of these 459(49.9%) received FMV. Outcomes included normal n=5613(96.0%), neonatal deaths n=56(1.0%), admitted neonatal area n=20(0.3%), and stillbirths n=156(2.7%). The risk for death or prolonged admission increases 16% for every 30 s delay in initiating FMV up to six minutes (p=0.045) and 6% for every minute of applied FMV (p=0.001). The majority of lifeless babies were in primary apnea and responded to stimulation/suctioning and/or FMV. Infants who required FMV were more likely to die particularly when ventilation was delayed or prolonged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a flipped classroom approach to learning introductory epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Stephanie; Kahn, Linda G; Platt, Jonathan; Li, Chihua; Guzman, Jason T; Kornhauser, Zachary G; Keyes, Katherine M; Martins, Silvia S

    2018-04-02

    Although the flipped classroom model has been widely adopted in medical education, reports on its use in graduate-level public health programs are limited. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped classroom redesign of an introductory epidemiology course and compares it to a traditional model. One hundred fifty Masters-level students enrolled in an introductory epidemiology course with a traditional format (in-person lecture and discussion section, at-home assignment; 2015, N = 72) and a flipped classroom format (at-home lecture, in-person discussion section and assignment; 2016, N = 78). Using mixed methods, we compared student characteristics, examination scores, and end-of-course evaluations of the 2016 flipped classroom format and the 2015 traditional format. Data on the flipped classroom format, including pre- and post-course surveys, open-ended questions, self-reports of section leader teaching practices, and classroom observations, were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in examination scores or students' assessment of the course between 2015 (traditional) and 2016 (flipped). In 2016, 57.1% (36) of respondents to the end-of-course evaluation found watching video lectures at home to have a positive impact on their time management. Open-ended survey responses indicated a number of strengths of the flipped classroom approach, including the freedom to watch pre-recorded lectures at any time and the ability of section leaders to clarify targeted concepts. Suggestions for improvement focused on ways to increase regular interaction with lecturers. There was no significant difference in students' performance on quantitative assessments comparing the traditional format to the flipped classroom format. The flipped format did allow for greater flexibility and applied learning opportunities at home and during discussion sections.

  17. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure associated with a triple mutant including kelch13 C580Y in Cambodia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Michele D; Lin, Jessica T; Manning, Jessica E; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Somethy, Sok; Bun, Rathvicheth; Se, Youry; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sia-ngam, Piyaporn; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; Arsanok, Montri; Buathong, Nillawan; Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Gosi, Panita; Ta-aksorn, Winita; Chanarat, Nitima; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Heng, Thay Kheang; Nou, Samon; Teja-isavadharm, Paktiya; Pichyangkul, Sathit; Phann, Sut Thang; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Juliano, Jonathan J; Meshnick, Steven R; Chour, Char Meng; Prom, Satharath; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L

    2015-06-01

    propeller gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistance--a non-synonymous Cys580Tyr substitution in 70 (65%) of 107 participants, an Arg539Thr substitution in 33 (31%), and a wild-type parasite in four (4%). Unlike Arg539Thr, Cys580Tyr was accompanied by two other mutations associated with extended parasite clearance (MAL10:688956 and MAL13:1718319). This combination triple mutation was associated with a 5·4 times greater risk of treatment failure (hazard ratio 5·4 [95% CI 2·4-12]; p<0·0001) and higher piperaquine 50% inhibitory concentration (triple mutant 34 nM [28-41]; non-triple mutant 24 nM [1-27]; p=0·003) than other infections had. The drug was well tolerated, with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common complaints. The dramatic decline in efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine compared with what was observed in a study at the same location in 2010 was strongly associated with a new triple mutation including the kelch13 Cys580Tyr substitution. 3 days of artemisinin as part of an artemisinin combination therapy regimen might be insufficient. Strict regulation and monitoring of antimalarial use, along with non-pharmacological approaches to malaria resistance containment, must be integral parts of the public health response to rapidly accelerating drug resistance in the region. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center/Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Military Infectious Disease Research Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene/Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONSERVATION AND THE CLASSROOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MUSEUM COURSE. The McGregor Museum offered a 'Bring Conservation to the Classroom' course for teachers of all subjects at all levels at the Teachers' Centre in March 1985. As the Museum is both a Cultural and Natural History museum the course included both these aspects of the environment. The aims of the ...

  19. Classroom Contexts for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Kaufman, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Various factors influence the development of creative potential, including everything from individual differences to the kinds of experiences and opportunities that creators experience throughout the lifespan. When it comes to nurturing creativity in the classroom, the learning environment is one of the most important factors--determining, in…

  20. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  1. Animals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  2. Technology Integration in Elementary Classrooms: Teaching Practices of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how and why student teachers integrated technology to enhance instruction in elementary classrooms. The participants were 31 student teachers who completed an assignment of eight weeks. Multiple data sets including observation notes of 347 lessons were obtained from three key groups for data triangulation. Results reveal that…

  3. Transactional Analysis in the Classroom, Staffroom and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Giles

    2015-01-01

    The author considers the application of transactional analysis (TA) in the field of education. Initially, the focus is on the use of TA in reducing conflict in the classroom and staffroom before offering observations about its broader relevance to contemporary UK schooling. Concepts covered include the egostate model of personality, functional…

  4. Using Fungi (the Almost-Forgotten Organisms) in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas are given for including fungi in classroom activities for high school biology students. A discussion on the science of taxonomy leads into a discussion on the position of fungi in the five kingdom classification scheme of organisms. Suggestions are given for observing their growth and development. (SA)

  5. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  6. Classroom climate in Serbia: The perspective of primary school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to gain insight into the classroom climate in schools in Serbia from the perspective of teachers. To realize this goal, we set up two research questions: (1 How do teachers assess the importance of certain aspects of the classroom climate and their own engagement in creating favourable climate, and (2 which factors determine the quality of classroom climate. We considered four dimensions of classroom climate: equality in communication, social relationships between students, respect for students’ feelings and the organizing group work. The sample consisted of primary school teachers in Serbia (N=1441, who completed a questionnaire made for our research needs. The results of factor analysis confirmed the initial assumption that the selected dimensions are related in terms of their belonging to the same construct and sufficiently different to be considered as selfcontained. The obtained results show that teachers in Serbia highly value the importance of all researched aspects of the classroom climate and believe that they are engaged to a large extent in creating a positive classroom climate. Also, it was shown that teachers’ gender and the teaching level are the most important determinants of classroom climate quality. Bearing in mind the limitations of the applied instrument it is concluded that the results should be considered with caution and that future research should include students’ perspective, direct class observation and qualitative methods to gain a more objective and more comprehensive understanding of the classroom climate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in society i br. 47008: Improving the quality and accessibility of education in modernization processes in Serbia

  7. Becoming Galileo in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Galileo's contributions are so familiar as to be taken for granted, obscuring the exploratory process by which his discoveries arose. The wonder that Galileo experienced comes alive for undergraduates and teachers that I teach, when they find themselves taking Galileo's role by means of their own explorations. These classroom journeys include: sighting through picture frames to understand perspective, watching the night sky, experimenting with lenses and motion, and responding to Galileo's story. In teaching, I use critical exploration, the research pedagogy developed by Eleanor Duckworth that arose historically from both the clinical interviewing of Jean Piaget and B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study of the 1960s. During critical explorations, the teacher supports students' investigations by posing provocative experiences while interactively following students' emergent understandings. In the context of Galileo, students learned to observe carefully, trust their observations, notice things they had never noticed before, and extend their understanding in the midst of pervasive confusion. Personal investment moved students to question assumptions that they had never critically evaluated. By becoming Galileo in today's classroom, we found the ordinary world no less intriguing and unsettling to explore, as the historical world of protagonists in Galileo's Dialogue.

  8. Attitudes towards Teachers’ Motivation, and Classroom Strategy, in English Language classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pahlavanpoorfard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers’ motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the students’ motivation.

  9. Attitudes towards Teachers' Motivation, and Classroom Strategy, in English Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavanpoorfard, Samira; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the attitudes of Iranian EFL students towards teachers' motivation and classroom strategy in English classroom. The subjects of the study included a sample of 235 students in their classes. The findings of this study revealed that teachers' motivation and classroom strategy used by teachers have effects on the…

  10. Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Cash, Anne H; O'Brennan, Lindsey; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-04-01

    Although there has been considerable attention to the issue of classroom management and processes in educational reform models, there has been relatively limited research on these factors in high schools. The current study utilized observational data from 1262 classrooms in 52 high schools to examine teacher classroom management strategies and ratings of student compliance, engagement, and social disruption. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to examine specific patterns of classroom-wide student behavior in relation to teachers' use of classroom management strategies and classroom composition. The LPA revealed three distinct classroom behavioral profiles where students consistently met behavioral expectations (71%), inconsistently met expectations (23%), and were noncompliant (6%). Analyses indicated a functional association between patterns of student behavior and teachers' classroom management. In classrooms where students consistently met expectations, teachers provided more opportunities to respond and less disapproval and reactive behavioral management. Classrooms with noncompliant students had teachers who used the most disapproval and reactive behavior management. In addition, classrooms characterized as consistent had fewer males and more White students than classrooms characterized by inconsistent and noncompliant behaviors. These findings highlight the link between student patterns of behavior and teacher classroom management and have important implications for screening and professional development. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Web@classroom project: portables computers and wireless technology in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Jose Luis; Carvalho, Jose Luis; Blasquez, F.; Luengo, R.; Casas, G. L.; Younie, S.; Bryn, H.; Savage, T.; Brendan, T.; Arnedillo, I. S.

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in four European schools (pupils age 9 to13 years old) within four countries (Portugal, Spain, UK and Ireland). The adopted methodology was based in action-research procedures and it included multiple methods and techniques: systematic classroom observation of teachers and pupil work and learning activities; documentary evidence (teachers working sheets, schemes of work) interviews (with selected pupils); questionnaires to all pupils and staff at intervals. This meth...

  12. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  13. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  14. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  15. Association between substandard classroom ventilation rates and students' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U; Moschandreas, D J; Shaughnessy, R J

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between classroom ventilation rates and academic achievement. One hundred elementary schools of two school districts in the southwest United States were included in the study. Ventilation rates were estimated from fifth-grade classrooms (one per school) using CO(2) concentrations measured during occupied school days. In addition, standardized test scores and background data related to students in the classrooms studied were obtained from the districts. Of 100 classrooms, 87 had ventilation rates below recommended guidelines based on ASHRAE Standard 62 as of 2004. There is a linear association between classroom ventilation rates and students' academic achievement within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person. For every unit (1 l/s per person) increase in the ventilation rate within that range, the proportion of students passing standardized test (i.e., scoring satisfactory or above) is expected to increase by 2.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.8%) for math and 2.7% (0.5-4.9%) for reading. The linear relationship observed may level off or change direction with higher ventilation rates, but given the limited number of observations, we were unable to test this hypothesis. A larger sample size is needed for estimating the effect of classroom ventilation rates higher than 7.1 l/s per person on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that increasing the ventilation rates toward recommended guideline ventilation rates in classrooms should translate into improved academic achievement of students. More studies are needed to fully understand the relationships between ventilation rate, other indoor environmental quality parameters, and their effects on students' health and achievement. Achieving the recommended guidelines and pursuing better understanding of the underlying relationships would ultimately support both sustainable and productive school environments for students and personnel. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Beyond Lecture and Non-Lecture Classrooms: LA-student interactions in Active Learning Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dayana; Kornreich, Hagit; Rodriguez, Idaykis; Monslave, Camila; Pena-Flores, Norma

    Our expanded multi-site study on active learning classrooms supported by Learning Assistants (LAs) aims to understand the connections between three classroom elements: the activity, student learning, and how LAs support the learning process in the classroom. At FIU, LAs are used in a variety of active learning settings, from large auditorium settings to studio classroom with movable tables. Our study uses the COPUS observation protocol as a way to characterize LAs behaviors in these classrooms. With a focus on LA-student interactions, our analysis of how LAs interact with students during a 'learning session' generated new observational codes for specific new categories of LA roles. Preliminary results show that LAs spend more time interacting with students in some classes, regardless of the classroom setting, while in other classrooms, LA-student interactions are mostly brief. We discuss how LA-student interactions contribute to the dynamics and mechanism of the socially shared learning activity.

  17. Observables of a Test Mass along an Inclined Orbit in a Post-Newtonian-Approximated Kerr Spacetime Including the Linear and Quadratic Spin Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergt, Steven; Shah, Abhay; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    The orbital motion is derived for a nonspinning test mass in the relativistic, gravitational field of a rotationally deformed body not restricted to the equatorial plane or spherical orbit. The gravitational field of the central body is represented by the Kerr metric, expanded to second post-Newtonian order including the linear and quadratic spin terms. The orbital period, the intrinsic periastron advance, and the precession of the orbital plane are derived with the aid of novel canonical variables and action-based methods.

  18. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  19. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners’ writing performance. PMID:24578591

  20. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites.

  2. Uranium potential of southwestern New Mexico (southern Hidalgo County), including observations on crystallization history of lavas and ash tuffs and the release of uranium from them. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, A.W.; Salter, T.L.; Zetterlund, D.

    1980-08-01

    Geological environments present in southwestern New Mexico include thick sequences of sedimentary rock including limestone, conglomerates, sandstone, and shale: igneous intrusions with associated metal deposits; caldera centers, margins, and outflow facies; and basins with marginal faults and thick late Cenozoic sedimentary fillings. Predominant rock types are Paleozoic carbonates, Mesozoic terrigeneous rocks and carbonates, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks and basin-filling terrigeneous rocks. Consideration of information available in Preliminary Reconnaissance Reports and in Hydrogeochemical and Stream Reconnaissance Reports together with 347 new whole rock chemical analyses points to three areas of anomalous uranium abundance in Hidalgo County, New Mexico. The area has experienced three major periods of igneous activity in Phanerozoic time: one associated with the Laramide cycle of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, mid-Tertiary cycle of silicic volcanism with abundant calderas, and a late Tertiary cycle of mafic volcanism. Silicic volcanic rocks are the most common exposed rock type in the area, and the most enriched in uranium (range, 0.4 to 19 ppM). The most likely source for any uranium ore-forming solutions lies with this cycle of volcanism. Solutions might have been introduced during volcanism or formed later by groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks. Results indicate that groundwater leaching of cooled volcanic rocks was not an effective means of mobilizing uranium in the area. Study of several rhyolite lava flows indicates that they were emplaced in supercooled condition and may have crystallized completely at temperatures well below their liquids, or they may have warmed as crystallization released latent heat. Statistical comparison of the uranium concentration revealed no differences between vitrophyres and associated felsites

  3. Temperature and moisture conditions for life in the extreme arid region of the Atacama desert: four years of observations including the El Nino of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gomez-Silva, Benito; Caceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-01-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5 degrees C and 16.6 degrees C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9 degrees C, and the minimum was -5.7 degrees C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m(-2) in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong fohn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s(-1). During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Nino of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  4. Fitting and Phenomenology in Type IA Supernova Cosmology: Generalized Likelihood Analyses for Multiple Evolving Populations and Observations of Near-Infrared Lightcurves Including Host Galaxy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Kara A.

    In the late 1990s, Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) led to the discovery that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate due to dark energy. Since then, many different tracers of acceleration have been used to characterize dark energy, but the source of cosmic acceleration has remained a mystery. To better understand dark energy, future surveys such as the ground-based Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the space-based Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope will collect thousands of SNeIa to use as a primary dark energy probe. These large surveys will be systematics limited, which makes it imperative for our insight regarding systematics to dramatically increase over the next decade for SNeIa to continue to contribute to precision cosmology. I approach this problem by improving statistical methods in the likelihood analysis and collecting near infrared (NIR) SNeIa with their host galaxies to improve the nearby data set and search for additional systematics. Using more statistically robust methods to account for systematics within the likelihood function can increase accuracy in cosmological parameters with a minimal precision loss. Though a sample of at least 10,000 SNeIa is necessary to confirm multiple populations of SNeIa, the bias in cosmology is ˜ 2 sigma with only 2,500 SNeIa. This work focused on an example systematic (host galaxy correlations), but it can be generalized for any systematic that can be represented by a distribution of multiple Gaussians. The SweetSpot survey gathered 114 low-redshift, NIR SNeIa that will act as a crucial anchor sample for the future high redshift surveys. NIR observations are not as affected by dust contamination, which may lead to increased understanding of systematics seen in optical wavelengths. We obtained spatially resolved spectra for 32 SweetSpot host galaxies to test for local host galaxy correlations. For the first time, we probe global host galaxy correlations with NIR brightnesses from the current literature

  5. Understanding why cancer patients accept or turn down psycho-oncological support: a prospective observational study including patients' and clinicians' perspectives on communication about distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Tondorf, Theresa; Rothschild, Sacha; Koller, Michael T; Rochlitz, Christoph; Kiss, Alexander

    2017-05-30

    International standards prioritize introducing routine emotional distress screening in cancer care to accurately identify patients who most need psycho-oncological treatment, and ensure that patients can access appropriate supportive care. However, only a moderate proportion of distressed patients accepts referrals to or uses psycho-oncological support services. Predictors and barriers to psycho-oncological support service utilization are under-studied. We know little about how patients and oncologists perceive the discussions when oncologists assess psychosocial distress with a screening instrument. We aim to 1) assess the barriers and predictors of uptake of in-house psycho-oncological support along the distress screening pathway in cancer patients treated at a University Oncology Outpatient Clinic and, 2) determine how patients and clinicians perceive communication about psychosocial distress after screening with the Distress Thermometer. This is a quantitative prospective observational study with qualitative aspects. We will examine medical and demographic variables, cancer patient self-reports of various psychological measures, and aspects of the patient-clinician communication as variables that potentially predict uptake of psycho-oncological support service. We will also assess the patients' reasons for accepting or refusing psycho-oncological support services. We assess at three points in time, based on paper-and-pencil questionnaires and two patient interviews during the study period. We will monitor outcomes (psycho-oncology service uptake) four months after study entry. The study will improve our understanding of characteristics of patients who accept or refuse psycho-oncological support, and help us understand how patients' and oncologists perceive communication about psychosocial distress, and referral to a psycho-oncologist. We believe this is the first study to focus on factors that affect uptake or rejection of psycho-oncological support services

  6. The Classroom Animal: Crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests using crickets for classroom activities, providing background information on their anatomy and reproduction and tips on keeping individual organisms or a breeding colony in the classroom. (JN)

  7. Classroom Management in Elementary Mainstreaming Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Walter R.; Ascione, Frank R.

    1982-01-01

    This research was aimed at adapting the Utah State University Classroom Management Program for use in elementary mainstreaming classrooms and evaluating the program's effectiveness in changing teacher and pupil behavior. The program appears to be powerful in changing teacher behavior and an effective classroom management training tool. (Author/AL)

  8. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom into Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Maria Potes Santa-Clara

    2006-01-01

    This paper is part of a larger project in the area of research. The main purpose of this mediated discourse was to implement, observe and analyse experiences of teachers in a training project developed for two different settings in the classroom. The first was between international classrooms through cyberspace and the second was a cyberspace…

  9. Effective Factors in Interactions within Japanese EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoon, Parviz; Ziafar, Meisam

    2013-01-01

    Classroom interactional patterns depend on some contextual, cultural and local factors in addition to the methodologies employed in the classroom. In order to delineate such factors, the focus of classroom interaction research needs to shift from the observables to the unobservables like teachers' and learners' psychological states and cultural…

  10. Discouraging Students’ Academic Dishonesty in Flipped Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Nino Widiasmoro Dewati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Flipped Classroom presents teaching process at home through videos, handouts and listening passages before the class session. While in-class time is mostly devoted for questions and answers session, exercises, projects and discussion. The reason flipped classroom is needed for teachers in this era, simply because at the time students do the assignments inside the classroom, teachers would have the opportunities to observe students’ interaction, activities, improvement and even to solve students’ problem such as academic dishonesty. Thus, the question would be: to what extent is the urgency of implementing flipped classroom as one solution to discourage students’ academic dishonesty in writing classes? The study is conducted by employing Action Research. The findings confirm that performing Flipped Classroom is essential in order to discourage students’ academic dishonesty while assisting the teacher to observe students’ development in writing classes. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2017.200103

  11. Movement and Dance in the Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoning, Stacey N.

    2008-01-01

    Benefits to using creative movement and dance as teaching tools in the classroom include increased student understanding of content, improved classroom behavior, and the development of new forms of assessment. Integration of these activities within the instructional day will meet the needs of a variety of learners, especially kinesthetic learners,…

  12. Gender Equity in the Classroom: An Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne; Hart, Betty L.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that sexist communication (including gender doublespeak and sex role stereotyping) perpetuates social and educational injustices. Discusses classroom communication patterns, how to remove sexist language, and how to become aware of classroom prejudices. Offers techniques to help improve communication skills. (PRA)

  13. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  14. Teaching Strategies for the Multicultural Journalism Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Points out that journalism teachers must address issues of diversity in the multicultural classroom. Considers strategies for the multicultural classroom, including (1) using cross-cultural materials and explaining why such materials are being used; (2) making assignments that allow students to pursue culture-specific knowledge; and (3) permitting…

  15. Looking for attributes of powerful teaching for numeracy in tasmanian K-7 classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Swabey, Karen; Andrew, Rob

    2008-04-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of a classroom observation reflection tool designed to measure the extent to which pedagogies acknowledged in the literature as contributing to effective teaching of mathematics for numeracy are present in classrooms. The observation schedule was used in conjunction with a record of classroom activity to examine numeracy pedagogies in a sample of Tasmanian classrooms from Kindergarten to Year 7. Low levels of intellectual challenge in highly socially supportive classrooms were typical.

  16. The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Curby, Tim W; Grimm, Kevin J; Nathanson, Lori; Brock, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which children's self-regulation upon kindergarten entrance and classroom quality in kindergarten contributed to children's adaptive classroom behavior. Children's self-regulation was assessed using a direct assessment upon entrance into kindergarten. Classroom quality was measured on the basis of multiple classroom observations during the kindergarten year. Children's adaptive classroom behavior in kindergarten was assessed through teacher report and classroom observations: Teachers rated children's cognitive and behavioral self-control and work habits during the spring of the kindergarten year; observers rated children's engagement and measured off-task behavior at 2-month intervals from November to May. Hierarchical linear models revealed that children's self-regulation upon school entry in a direct assessment related to teachers' report of behavioral self-control, cognitive self-control, and work habits in the spring of the kindergarten year. Classroom quality, particularly teachers' effective classroom management, was linked to children's greater behavioral and cognitive self-control, children's higher behavioral engagement, and less time spent off-task in the classroom. Classroom quality did not moderate the relation between children's self-regulation upon school entry and children's adaptive classroom behaviors in kindergarten. The discussion considers the implications of classroom management for supporting children's early development of behavioral skills that are important in school settings.

  17. Discipline and Rules in Four Hong Kong Kindergarten Classrooms: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joyce; Grieshaber, Susan Jane; Walsh, Kerryann

    2017-01-01

    Classroom discipline is a topic of international interest and teachers are bombarded with advice regarding how to and why they should manage children's behaviour in their classrooms. This paper draws on data related to classroom discipline gathered from a detailed classroom observation schedule, teacher interviews, and field notes with four…

  18. The Effects of Clinical Experiences on the Understanding of Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Carey Anne Aycock; Kempy, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For teacher educators, classroom management education is one of the least researched aspects of the profession. The purpose of this study was to determine if classroom management was most effectively learned through textbook analysis coupled with classroom discussion, or the experience of observing and practicing classroom management in the…

  19. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  20. Pervasive technology in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses learning potentials of pervasive technology when used in the classroom setting. Explicitly this paper uses the research and development project “Octopus” as its point of departure and as the foundation for reflections on how learning takes place in intelligent contexts. We...... learning not only from the individual pupils point of view, but also as to how the Octopus can focus or align the entire classroom towards learning – exploring this observation we will touch on the value of social micro domains as places of articulation and on the importance of a close connection between...

  1. Calories in the classroom: celebration foods offered and consumed during classroom parties at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K; Dalton, Sharron

    2012-08-01

    The school food environment is an important area of exploration in investigating the potential for schoolchildren to consume foods and beverages containing excess calories on school grounds. Several venues offer schoolchildren access to lownutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. Classroom celebrations offer such a venue; however, little is known about current practices during these events. Trained observers recorded foods and beverages offered, activities engaged in, and goody bag distribution during six separate classroom celebrations. Additionally, foods and beverages consumed by 24 individual students were recorded in detail for calorie estimation. The majority of food items offered during classroom celebrations were low-nutrient, calorie-dense items. The mean caloric contribution for all 24 students was 444 ± 221 calories, with a range of 130–905 calories, and a median intake of 386 calories. Mean total estimated calorie intake per grade level was 225 ± 90, 286 ± 105, and 550 ± 212 calories for students in prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade, respectively. Only one-third of all the parties observed included activities other than eating. Our observations reveal that food items offered during classroom celebrations offer children opportunities to consume low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages on the school campus. More research is needed to support these findings, and to identify the best practice to implement for effective school wellness policies aimed at regulating classroom celebrations.

  2. A preliminary analysis of a behavioral classrooms needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Leaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today many special education classrooms implement procedures based upon the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA to establish educationally relevant skills and decrease aberrant behaviors. However, it is difficult for school staff and consultants to evaluate the implementation of various components of ABA and general classroom set up. In the present study we developed the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment as a tool to measure the quality of implementation of principles derived from ABA, teaching, and classroom set up in special education classrooms. Experiment 1 evaluated the reliability of two observers using the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment during 128 different observations across 68 different special education classrooms. An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Cronbach Alpha Analysis were utilized to determine reliability, and the results showed a high f of reliability across the 40 questions of the assessment. Experiment 2 compared the quality of intervention using the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment in five classrooms who received behavioral consultation and five classrooms that did not receive behavioral consultation. The results showed an improvement in the scores on the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment for those classrooms in which consultation occurred.

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of a Behavioral Classrooms Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. LEAF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today many special education classrooms implement procedures based upon the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA to establish educationally relevant skills and decrease aberrant behaviors. However, it is difficult for school staff and consultants to evaluate the implementation of various components of ABA and general classroom set up. In the present study we developed the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment as a tool to measure the quality of implementation of principles derived from ABA, teaching, and classroom set up in special education classrooms. Experiment 1 evaluated the reliability of two observers using the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment during 128 different observations across 68 different special education classrooms. An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Cronbach Alpha Analysis were utilized to determine reliability, and the results showed a high f of reliability across the 40 questions of the assessment. Experiment 2 compared the quality of intervention using the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment in five classrooms who received behavioral consultation and five classrooms that did not receive behavioral consultation. The results showed an improvement in the scores on the Behavioral Classroom Needs Assessment for those classrooms in which consultation occurred.

  4. Undesirable Behaviors Elementary School Classroom Teachers Encounter in the Classroom and Their Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Balcik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine how often elementary school teachers encounter undesirable behaviors in the classroom and what their thoughts regarding possible reasons of these behaviors are. The teachers’ opininon about the prevalence of these behaviors and their possible reasons were evaluated according to gender, marital status, level of class being taught, size of class being taught and it was tried to be determined if there were significant differences between variables. The measurement tool was applied to a total of 54 teachers at 5 schools in Gölcük district of the Kocaeli province. The data collection tool is composed of three sections. The first section is for establishing teachers’ personal information. In this study, as a data collection tool, a questionnaire was used. When preparing questions for the questionnaire, following the examination of resources available, the questionnaire prepared by Aksoy (1999 and used in the thesis study entitled “Classroom Management and Student Discipline in Elementary Schools of Ankara” and also used in the thesis study by Boyraz (2007 entitled “Discipline Problems that Candidate Teachers Servicing at Elementary Schools Encounter in the Classroom” was employed. Although the validity and reliability of the questionnaire was tested by Aksoy (1999 and Boyraz (2007, the reliability study for the questionnaire was retested and found to be 0,9. The questionnaire include 42 items. 19 of them are related to the reasons of undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom and 23 of them are related to undesirable behaviors observed in the classroom.

  5. Purposeful interaction and the professional development of content teachers : Observations of small-group teaching and learning in the international classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Valcke, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a model of ‘purposeful interaction’, which can be used as a framework of reference when supporting the work of content teachers in ‘international classrooms’ in higher education. This model has been developed during observations of the work of content

  6. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  7. Measuring Quality in Inclusive Preschool Classrooms: Development and Validation of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukakou, Elena P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to assess classroom quality in inclusive preschool programs, the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP). Developing the rating scale entailed systematic fieldwork in inclusive settings and review of the literature on preschool inclusion. Results from the validation…

  8. Streaming Seismograms into Earth-Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Seismograms are the fundamental observations upon which seismology is based; they are central to any course in seismology and important for any discussion of earthquake-related phenomena based on seismic observations. Advances in the collection and distribution of seismic data have made the use of research-quality seismograms in any network capable classroom feasible. The development of large, deep seismogram archives place an unprecedented quantity of high-quality data within reach of the modern classroom environment. I describe and discuss several computer tools and classroom activities that I use in introductory (general education) and advanced undergraduate courses that present near real-time research-quality seismic observations in the classroom. The Earth Motion Monitor Application (EMMA), is a MacOS application that presents a visually clear seismogram display that can be projected in classrooms with internet access. Seismic signals from thousands of station are available from the IRIS data center and the bandwidth can be tailored to the particular type of signal of interest (large event, low frequencies; small event, high frequencies). In introductory classes for non-science students, the near realtime display routinely shows magnitude 4.0-5.0 earthquake-generated signals, demonstrating to students the frequency of earthquake occurrence. Over the next few minutes as the waves travel through and across the planet, their arrival on the seismogram display provides some basic data for a qualitative estimate of the event's general location. When a major or great earthquake occurs, a broad-band display of signals from nearby stations can dramatically and dynamically illuminate the frequent activity associated with the aftershock sequence. Routine use of the display (while continuing the traditional classroom activities) provides students with a significant dose of seismogram study. Students generally find all the signals, including variations in seismic

  9. Classroom Management with Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Diane; Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George

    2017-01-01

    Effective and engaging instruction is the cornerstone of any well-managed classroom. Even the best behavior support practices will not lead to academic achievement if the academic instruction is ineffective. Specific teacher practices associated with improved student behavior include high rates of opportunities to respond, direct instruction, and…

  10. Using Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Stephanie Reeve

    2011-01-01

    The author describes how she has come to use technology in her classroom over the years. Her main topics include using the internet, experiencing podcasts, using technology for assessment, and recording results from science research. (Contains 3 online resources and 5 figures.)

  11. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  12. Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaravadivelu, B.

    1999-01-01

    Conceptualizes a framework for conducting critical classroom-discourse analysis. Critiques the scope and method of current models of classroom-interaction analysis and classroom-discourse analysis and advocates using poststructuralist and postcolonialist understandings of discourse to develop a critical framework for understanding what actually…

  13. Teaching and Learning Classroom Action Research at a Distance in an Indonesian Urban Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    [None] Sandra S.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This action research project aims to understand whether teachers are mastering the knowledge and skills necessary to conduct classroom action research through two courses, Classroom Action Research (CAR and Enhancing Teaching Professional Skills (PKP: Pemantapan Kemampuan Profesional, offered via distance education to Indonesian teachers and to identify areas for possible improvement of both courses. The research was conducted in two urban study centers located in the cities of Bogor and Tangerang in the Indonesian provinces of West Java and Banten. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, questionnaires, and focus group discussions. All data were analyzed for patterns that might offer insight into the problems tutors and teacher-learners were facing as they worked through the Classroom Action Research (PTK: Penelitian Tindakan Kelas module and tutorial. The research team from Indonesia Open University (UT: Universitas Terbuka identified several problematic aspects of each course, including excessive lag time between the first and second courses, insufficient examples of model classroom action research projects, a lack of supervised practice of action research techniques, variability of tutorial quality, and a mismatch between course assessments and the content and purpose of the courses. While the findings of this study focus primarily on two distance courses offered by UT, they offer insight into the challenges of providing in-service teacher development via distance education in the Indonesian context. Key Words: Distance Learning, Classroom Action Research, Teacher Professional Skill

  14. Classroom Assessment in Web-Based Instructional Environment: Instructors' Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available While a great deal has been written on the advantage and benefits of online teaching, little is known on how..assessment is implemented in online classrooms to monitor and inform performance and progress. The..purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of WebCT classroom assessment by analyzing the..perceptions and experience of the instructors. Grounded theory method was employed to generate a - process..theory- . The study included 10 faculties who taught WebCT classes, and 216 students in the College of..Education in an urban university in the Mid west. Interviews and classroom observations were undertaken..on line. The findings indicated that, performance-based assessment, writing skills, interactive assessment..and learner autonomy were major assessment aspects to inform teaching and enhance learning. If one of..the major roles of online instruction is to increase self-directed learning, as part of the pedagogical..mechanism, web-based classroom assessment should be designed and practiced to impact learner autonomy.

  15. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  16. Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

  17. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  18. Mistake management in a foreign language classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to design general recomendations on mistake management in a foreign language classroom which would meet both teachers' and learners' requirements and methods of mistake management in a foreign language classroom which would contribute to development of learners' communicative competence. The following methods were used in the research: analysis of literature on pedagogy, psychology and methodology of foreign language teaching, interview, questionnaire and observation....

  19. Design activism in the HCI classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Sabrina; Desjardins, Audrey; Wakkary, Ron

    2013-01-01

    In HCI, design activism has been practiced but has not been well articulated or discussed. There are examples of activism in the HCI classroom, opening a new avenue of discussion and investigation for the role of design activism in HCI. We present two case studies that show design activism in the classroom as examples from which to learn. We highlight themes and observations to encourage future articulation and practice of design activism in HCI and HCI education.

  20. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  1. The Lions Quest Program in Turkey: Teachers' Views and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol-Guven, Mine

    2016-01-01

    This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program…

  2. Evaluating Classroom Interaction with the iPad®: An Updated Stalling's Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory; Schep, Lourens; Borden, Lisa Lunney; Murray-Orr, Anne; Orr, Jeff; MacKinnon, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A large study of classrooms in the Caribbean context necessitated the use of a validated classroom observation tool. In practice, the paper-version Stalling's instrument (Stallings & Kaskowitz 1974) presented specific challenges with respect to (a) facile data collection and (b) qualitative observations of classrooms. In response to these…

  3. Professional Vision of Classroom Management and Learning Support in Science Classrooms--Does Professional Vision Differ across General and Content-Specific Classroom Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensky, Mirjam; Gold, Bernadette; Holdynski, Manfred; Möller, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the internal structure of professional vision of in-service teachers and student teachers with respect to classroom management and learning support in primary science lessons. Classroom management (including monitoring, managing momentum, and rules and routines) and learning support (including cognitive activation…

  4. Social Inclusion: Teachers as Facilitators in Peer Acceptance of Students with Disabilities in Regular Classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ruffina; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of classroom teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education, teachers' self-efficacy and classroom practices on the social status of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Tamil Nadu, India. Questionnaires, interviews and classroom observations were employed to gather data. The data analysis included…

  5. ICT as a tool for collaboration in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data and results from a study on collaboration and self-directed learning in two second year-classes in a Danish school. Learners at ages eight and nine use interactive screens as a learning tool, and more than 150 hours of video data have been collected from the classrooms ov...... and communicative skills require careful pre-teaching planning and classroom-observations by the teachers in charge....... factors in the successful employment of this specific learning design. This paper presents examples of detailed analyses of parts of the data material. Among other things, findings include that collaboration between learners have gender issues, and that addressing topics such as collaborative...

  6. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  7. Considering the Chalkless Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Monaghan, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    This article shares some personal reflections on several years of integrating educational technology into mathematics courses while retaining the direct interaction strengths of the traditional classroom.

  8. Flipped Classroom Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezile Ozdamli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flipped classroom is an active, student-centered approach that was formed to increase the quality of period within class. Generally this approach whose applications are done mostly in Physical Sciences, also attracts the attention of educators and researchers in different disciplines recently. Flipped classroom learning which wide-spreads rapidly in the world, is not well recognized in our country. That is why the aim of study is to attract attention to its potential in education field and provide to make it recognize more by educators and researchers. With this aim, in the study what flipped classroom approach is, flipped classroom technology models, its advantages and limitations were explained.

  9. An Investigation of Teacher Candidates' Perceptions About Physical Dimension of Classroom Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ozsezer, M. Sencer Bulut; Saban, Ayten Iflazoglu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teacher candidates’ perceptions about the physical dimension of classroom management. A hundred two 3rd year students at the Primary School Education Department of a state university were instructed to visit a primary school and to observe a classroom in terms of its physical dimensions. The students were guided both to tell about the actual classroom they observed and to tell about their dream classroom. Thus, this study aims to discover student...

  10. Exploring gender differences in the EFL classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Constanza Durán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe a case study which explores teacher and students` conceptions about gender in an EFL setting and the way they are manifested in their discourse patterns. This exploratory case study was carried out with a group of eleventh grade students and an English teacher at Liceo de la Universidad Católica high school in Bogotá Colombia. The data collected included direct observation of classroom interaction, audio and video recording of the teacher and students` interactions and interviews on the teacher’s and students` discourse. The analysis of the data revealed that in fact there are imbalances in relation to boys` and girls` participation during interaction, made manifest by verbal and nonverbal attitudes. There is also sound evidence of girls’ low self esteem in response to the lack of value and respect granted to their opinions by their male peers. Stereotypes are part of teachers’ and students’ conceptions regarding gender and thus they are maintained to a great extent. The teacher’s attitude in the classroom with respect to boys and girls also appeared to show inequality that favoured boys. The girls showed evidence of awareness of the teacher’s conscious or unconscious indifference towards them, which seemed to affect their autonomy and confidence as English language learners.

  11. Examining two Turkish teachers' questioning patterns in secondary school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikmaz, Ali

    This study examined low and high level teachers' questioning patterns and classroom implementations within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, which addresses issues on negotiation, argumentation, learning, and teaching. The level of the teachers was determined by the students' writing scores. This study was conducted in Turkey with seven teacher for preliminary study. Because scoring writing samples examines the students' negotiation level with the different sources and students learn scientific process, as negotiation, which they may transfer into their writing, in classroom, two teachers were selected to represent low and high level teachers. Data collection involved classroom observation through video recordings. The comparative qualitative method was employed throughout the data analysis process with including quantitative results. The research questions that guided the present study were: (1) How are low and high level teachers, determined according to their students' writing scores, questioning patterns different from each other during classroom discourse? (2) Is there a relationship between students' writings and teachers' questioning styles in the classroom? Analysis of Qualitative data showed that teachers' classroom implementations reveal big differences based on argumentation patterns. The high level teacher, whose students had high scores in writing samples, asked more questions and the cognitive levels of questions were higher than the low level teacher. Questions promote an argumentative environment and improve critical thinking skills by discussing different ideas and claims. Asking more questions of teacher influences students to initiate (ask questions) more and to learn the scientific process with science concepts. Implicitly, this learning may improve students' comparison in their writing. Moreover, high level teacher had a more structured and organized classroom than low level teacher.

  12. Classroom -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    raised in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to teaching and learning science. Proving a Result in Combinatorics using Equations.

  13. Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamli, Fezile; Asiksoy, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Flipped classroom is an active, student-centered approach that was formed to increase the quality of period within class. Generally this approach whose applications are done mostly in Physical Sciences, also attracts the attention of educators and researchers in different disciplines recently. Flipped classroom learning which wide-spreads rapidly…

  14. Classroom -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a classroom situation. We may suggest strategies for dealing with them, or invite responses, or both. "Classroom" is equally a forum for raising broader issues and sharing personal experiences and viewpoints on matters related to· teaching and learning science. Logarithm and agM. In [1] we had discussed the evaluation.

  15. Teachers' scientific knowledge, teaching practice, and students' learning activities: Cases of three elementary classroom teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinho

    The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and

  16. Teacher coaching supported by formative assessment for improving classroom practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M

    2018-04-09

    The present study is a wait-list controlled, randomized study investigating a teacher coaching approach that emphasizes formative assessment and visual performance feedback to enhance elementary school teachers' classroom practices. The coaching model targeted instructional and behavioral management practices as measured by the Classroom Strategies Assessment System (CSAS) Observer and Teacher Forms. The sample included 89 general education teachers, stratified by grade level, and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) immediate coaching, or (b) waitlist control. Results indicated that, relative to the waitlist control, teachers in immediate coaching demonstrated significantly greater improvements in observations of behavior management strategy use but not for observations of instructional strategy use. Observer- and teacher-completed ratings of behavioral management strategy use at postassessment were significantly improved by both raters; ratings of instructional strategy use were significantly improved for teacher but not observer ratings. A brief coaching intervention improved teachers' use of observed behavior management strategies and self-reported use of behavior management and instructional strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Literacy learning in secondary school science classrooms: A cross-case analysis of three qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Deborah R.; O'Brien, David G.; Moje, Elizabeth B.; Stewart, Roger A.

    The purpose of this cross-case analysis is to illustrate how and why literacy was incorporated into science teaching and learning in three secondary classrooms. Research questions guiding the analysis include: (a) How were literacy events shaped by the teachers' philosophies about teaching science content and teaching students? and (b) How was literacy (reading, writing, and oral language) structured by the teachers and manifested in science lessons? The methodology of ethnography and the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism were employed in the three studies on which the cross-case analysis was based. The researchers assumed the role of participant observers, collecting data over the period of 1 year in each of the three classrooms. Data, in the form of fieldnotes, interviews, and artifacts, were collected. In each study, data were analyzed using the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to determine patterns in the teachers' beliefs about learning and how these influenced their choice of literacy activities. The cross-case analysis was conducted to determine patterns across the three teachers and their classrooms. The findings from this analysis are used to compare how the teachers' philosophies of teaching science and their beliefs about how students learn influenced their use of literacy practices during lessons. Specifically, each teacher's use of literacy activities varied based on his or her beliefs about teaching science concepts. Furthermore, reading, writing, and oral language were important vehicles to learning science concepts within daily classroom activities in the three classrooms.Received: 1 April 1993; Revised: 30 August 1993;

  18. Classroom risks and resources: Teacher burnout, classroom quality and children's adjustment in high needs elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Wendy L G; Klingle, Kirsten E; Hosan, Naheed E

    2015-10-01

    The current paper presents two related sets of findings on the classroom context in high needs elementary schools. First, we investigated change over one school term in teacher burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and classroom quality (emotional and instructional support, organization) and assessed the degree to which burnout and classroom quality co-varied over the term with each other and with aggregate externalizing behaviors (average child externalizing behaviors in the classroom). These analyses describe the classroom context in which the children are nested. Second, we examined change over one school term in children's social adjustment (relationship quality with teachers and friends) and academic adjustment (school engagement, literacy skills) and assessed how adjustment co-varied over time with child externalizing behaviors and was predicted by teacher burnout, classroom quality and aggregate externalizing behaviors. These models were tested with a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse children in kindergarten to grade 3 and their teachers. The children and teachers were assessed three times over one school term. Personal accomplishment co-varied positively with overall classroom quality. Reciprocally, classroom organization co-varied positively with overall teacher burnout. Aggregate externalizing behaviors co-varied positively with depersonalization and negatively with personal accomplishment and overall classroom quality, including emotional support and organization. In turn, teacher burnout interacted with aggregate externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. Alternatively, classroom quality interacted with aggregate and child externalizing behaviors to predict change in child social and academic adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Behavior Game for the Reduction of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Dana R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A group-contingency behavior game significantly decreased disruptive classroom behavior after five weeks. The classroom observers gradually phased themselves out of the program, while training the teacher to continue the game unaided. Further analysis of the relative influences of peer pressure and competition v social reinforcement is needed. (CP)

  20. Language to Language: Nurturing Writing Development in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagoury, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The author spent four years embedded in a multilingual kindergarten classroom in which children spoke six different languages and several more years observing multilingual Head Start classrooms. She shares numerous examples of young dual language learners actively figuring out the way written language works in their first and second languages.…

  1. StRoBe: A Classroom-on-Task Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    Researchers as well as others evaluating teachers or programs are often interested in the verbal and non-verbal behaviors related to the learning of students in classrooms. The Student Record of Behavior (StRoBe) is a classroom observation instrument designed to provide simple low inference information concerning student behaviors related to…

  2. Reproducing (and Disrupting) Heteronormativity: Gendered Sexual Socialization in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansen, Heidi M.

    2017-01-01

    Using ethnographic data from 10 months of observations in nine preschool classrooms, I examine gendered sexual socialization children receive from teachers' practices and reproduce through peer interactions. I find heteronormativity permeates preschool classrooms, where teachers construct (and occasionally disrupt) gendered sexuality in a number…

  3. Understanding Children's Self-Regulation within Different Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette; Corter, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In this study, children's self-regulation was observed, along with other social and academic activities in kindergarten classrooms during whole group, small group, transition and play contexts. We examined how children's self-regulation and engagement differed among classroom grouping, play and transition contexts. Results showed that students…

  4. Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Diana Zdravkova; Schledermann, Kathrine Marie; Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    2018-01-01

    Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order to determ......Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order...

  5. Classroom Management and the Librarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…

  6. Implementing Digital Interactive Textbooks in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gary R.

    Digital interactive textbooks represent a major step forward in the quest to integrate technology into instructional methodology. Because this technology is new, virtually no research has been done as to the response of teachers to this innovation. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of change in relation to implementing these digital interactive textbooks in science classrooms at the high school level. The conceptual framework was based on Senge's theory of organizational change, Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, and Davis' research regarding factors involved in technology acceptance. Participants included 7 science teachers and 2 administrators who were members of a professional learning community at a Title I high school in the southeastern region of the United States. A case study design was used to collect data from teacher and administrator interviews and observations of instructional activities in the classroom and professional learning community meetings. Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed for common themes. Results indicated that the digital interactive textbook was met with teacher apprehension and anxiety regarding the transition from teacher-led to student-led instruction, and this apprehension manifested in resistance. During the course of the study, educators found that the digital interactive textbook engaged students and was demonstrated to be a successful tool of instruction. The study is important because educators will develop a better understanding of how to implement technology innovations in the classroom that minimize teacher resistance to instructional change.

  7. Flipping the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2012-11-01

    A recent trend in education is the ``flipped'' or ``reversed'' classroom. In this educational model, students view videos of the lectures as their homework and class time is used for activities and solving problems that might have been assigned as homework in a traditional classroom. Although far from an expert on flipping the classroom, I can see some merit in the idea. When students watch the videos at home, they can start and restart the lecture as often as they like. The lectures are also available for review before the exam. Class time can be used for higher-order questioning, experiments, and problem solving.

  8. Mobile Phone Application Development for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P.; Oostra, D.; Crecelius, S.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-08-01

    With smartphone sales currently surpassing laptop sales, it is hard not to think that these devices will have a place in the classroom. More specifically, with little to no monetary investment, classroom-centric mobile applications have the ability to suit the needs of teachers. Previously, programming such an item was a daunting task to the classroom teacher. But now, through the use of online visual tools, anyone has the ability to generate a mobile application to suit individual classroom needs. The "MY NASA DATA" (MND) project has begun work on such an application. Using online tools that are directed at the non-programmer, the team has developed two usable mobile applications ("apps") that fit right into the science classroom. The two apps generated include a cloud dichotomous key for cloud identification in the field, and an atmospheric science glossary to help with standardized testing key vocabulary and classroom assignments. Through the use of free online tools, teachers and students now have the ability to customize mobile applications to meet their individual needs. As an extension of the mobile applications, the MND team is planning web-based application programming interfaces (API's) that will be generated from data that is currently included in the MND Live Access Server. This will allow teachers and students to choose data sets that they want to include in the mobile application without having to populate the API themselves. Through the use of easy to understand online mobile app tutorials and MND data sets, teachers will have the ability to generate unit-specific mobile applications to further engage and empower students in the science classroom.

  9. Learning to write in science: A study of English language learners' writing experience in sixth-grade science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    Writing is a predictor of academic achievement and is essential for student success in content area learning. Despite its importance, many students, including English language learners (ELLs), struggle with writing. There is thus a need to study students' writing experience in content area classrooms. Informed by systemic functional linguistics, this study examined 11 ELL students' writing experience in two sixth grade science classrooms in a southeastern state of the United States, including what they wrote, how they wrote, and why they wrote in the way they did. The written products produced by these students over one semester were collected. Also collected were teacher interviews, field notes from classroom observations, and classroom artifacts. Student writing samples were first categorized into extended and nonextended writing categories, and each extended essay was then analyzed with respect to its schematic structure and grammatical features. Teacher interviews and classroom observation notes were analyzed thematically to identify teacher expectations, beliefs, and practices regarding writing instruction for ELLs. It was found that the sixth-grade ELLs engaged in mostly non-extended writing in the science classroom, with extended writing (defined as writing a paragraph or longer) constituting roughly 11% of all writing assignments. Linguistic analysis of extended writing shows that the students (a) conveyed information through nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbial groups and prepositional phrases; (b) constructed interpersonal context through choices of mood, modality, and verb tense; and (c) structured text through thematic choices and conjunctions. The appropriateness of these lexicogrammatical choices for particular writing tasks was related to the students' English language proficiency levels. The linguistic analysis also uncovered several grammatical problems in the students' writing, including a limited range of word choices, inappropriate use of mood

  10. Teaching and Learning Science in Authoritative Classrooms: Teachers' Power and Students' Approval in Korean Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-A.; Kim, Chan-Jong

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to understand interactions in Korean elementary science classrooms, which are heavily influenced by Confucianism. Ethnographic observations of two elementary science teachers' classrooms in Korea are provided. Their classes are fairly traditional teaching, which mean teacher-centered interactions are dominant. To understand the power and approval in science classroom discourse, we have adopted Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). Based on CDA, form and function analysis was adopted. After the form and function analysis, all episodes were analyzed in terms of social distance. The results showed that both teachers exercised their power while teaching. However, their classes were quite different in terms of getting approval by students. When a teacher got students' approval, he could conduct the science lesson more effectively. This study highlights the importance of getting approval by students in Korean science classrooms.

  11. An introduction to observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallaway, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Observational Astrophysics follows the general outline of an astrophysics undergraduate curriculum targeting practical observing information to what will be covered at the university level. This includes the basics of optics and coordinate systems to the technical details of CCD imaging, photometry, spectography and radio astronomy.  General enough to be used by students at a variety of institutions and advanced enough to be far more useful than observing guides targeted at amateurs, the author provides a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of observational astrophysics at undergraduate level to be used with a university’s teaching telescope.  The practical approach takes the reader from basic first year techniques to those required for a final year project. Using this textbook as a resource, students can easily become conversant in the practical aspects of astrophysics in the field as opposed to the classroom.

  12. Boardgames in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the program at Wellesley (Massachusetts) High School's Academic Resource Center, a program in which game-playing is used to improve the academic functioning of special needs students in preparation for reintegration into the regular classroom. (SBH)

  13. Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  14. Critters in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Fleisher, Paul

    1984-01-01

    The use of invertebrates as classroom "pets" can develop students' skills in scientific inquiry and instill respect for science. Few materials are needed for projects involving invertebrates. Suggested activities using snails, crickets, earthworms, crayfish, and guppies are offered. (DF)

  15. Student Responsibility and Classroom Discipline in Australia, China, and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Katz, Yaacov J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' classroom discipline techniques and students' individual and communal responsibility in Australian, Chinese, and Israeli classrooms. The sample comprised 5521 students in grades 7-12 and 748 teachers. The participating Australian, Chinese, and Israeli schools included both…

  16. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  17. The Use and Effectiveness of Computers in the Elementary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Tonja

    Practical issues that should be considered in placing a classroom computer for use with elementary students include where to locate computer equipment in relation to electrical sockets, windows, and chalkboards; the program sound; who will be able to see the screen; and classroom traffic patterns. Decisions must be made regarding the size of…

  18. Using a Virtual Classroom to Teach Online Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to share the author's experience of using the virtual classroom when teaching online mathematics course. Various softwares including MyMathLab and Wimba are introduced and the teaching methods and tips are provided and analyzed. Results show that the use of the virtual classroom enhance the communication in the online…

  19. Removing Supplementary Materials from Montessori Classrooms Changed Child Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S.; Heise, Megan J.

    2016-01-01

    Montessori classrooms vary in the degree to which they adhere to Maria Montessori's model, including in the provision of materials. Specifically, some classrooms use only Montessori materials, whereas others supplement the Montessori materials with commercially available materials like puzzles and games. A prior study suggested such…

  20. Effectiveness of Breakfast in the Classroom in Five Exemplary Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Alice Jo; King, Amber D.; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: A national trend to improve school breakfast participation is the integration of breakfast within the school day. Breakfast in the classroom programs increase student access to school breakfast. Service models include "grab and go," distribution of breakfasts to each classroom, and mobile breakfast carts in hallways.…

  1. Baddies in the Classroom: Media Education and Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Rebekah

    2005-01-01

    When teachers allow students to write stories that include elements of popular media, we must ask what to do with these media elements once they have entered the classroom. This article relates findings from a classroom study focusing on children's media-based story writing. The study looks at children as producers of new media texts and describes…

  2. Classroom Emotional Climate, Teacher Affiliation, and Student Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria Regina; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-method, multi-level approach, this study examined the link between classroom emotional climate and student conduct, including as a mediator the role of teacher affiliation, i.e., students' perceptions of their relationships with their teachers. Data were collected from 90 fifth- and sixth-grade classrooms (n = 2,000 students) and…

  3. Functional Language Intervention in the Classroom: Avoiding the Tutoring Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Janet A.

    1997-01-01

    This article urges speech language pathologists (SLPs) to avoid the tutoring role in the effort to provide individualized services to children in regular classroom settings. Suggested alternatives to the tutoring role include acting in a consultative role to help modify classroom practices early in the year and later on providing direct services…

  4. Interactions Between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-03-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using the Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol, which is designed, among other things, to measure observable aspects of student cognitive engagement and discourse factors during science instruction. Results from these observations indicate positive correlations between students' cognitive engagement and the following aspects of classroom discourse: questioning level, complexity of questions, questioning ecology, communication patterns, and classroom interactions. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design provides a detailed look at each aspect of classroom discourse which showed a positive effect on student cognitive level during science instruction. Implications for classroom practice, teacher education, and professional development are discussed.

  5. A Model for Online Support in Classroom Management: Perceptions of Beginning Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Credence; Gentry, James; Larmer, William

    2016-01-01

    Classroom management is a challenge for beginning teachers. To address this challenge, a model to provide support for beginning teachers was developed, consisting of a one-day workshop on classroom management, followed with online support extending over eight weeks. Specific classroom management strategies included (a) developing a foundation…

  6. A Theoretical Understanding of the Literature on Student Voice in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Background: Incorporating student voice into the science classroom has the potential to positively impact science teaching and learning. However, students are rarely consulted on school and classroom matters. This literature review examines the effects of including student voice in the science classroom. Purpose: The purpose of this literature…

  7. Classroom Management through the Eyes of Elementary Teachers in Turkey: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Sibel; Yildirim, Ali; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore Turkish elementary teachers' (1) perceptions of classroom management, (2) classroom management problems they experience, (3) factors causing these problems, and (4) their classroom management practices. The study employed phenomenological research design in the qualitative tradition. The participants included 15…

  8. Supporting students' strategic competence: a case of a sixth-grade mathematics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Elif Yetkin; Pape, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    Mathematics education research has documented several classroom practices that might influence student self-regulation. We know little, however, about the ways these classroom practices could be structured in real classroom settings. In this exploratory case study, we purposefully selected a sixth-grade mathematics teacher who had participated in a professional development program focussed on NCTM standards and SRL in the mathematics classroom for extensive classroom observation. The purpose was to explore how and to what extend she structured classroom practices to support strategic competence in her students. Four features of classroom practices were found as evidence for how strategic competence was potentially supported in this classroom: (a) allowing autonomy and shared responsibility during the early stages of learning, (b) focusing on student understanding, (c) creating contexts for students to learn about strategic learning and to exercise strategic behaviour, and (d) helping students to personalise strategies by recognising their ideas and strategic behaviours.

  9. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  10. Situated Motivation: A Framework for how EFL Learners are Motivated in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Sa Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In arguing, that defining and categorizing motivation are less practical and applicable to language teaching than examining how learners are motivated in their class, this study investigated sources of motivation of 10 learners studying English as a compulsory subject at IUH University in Vietnam in 2013. The study aimed at answering the two main research questions- a how are the EFL learners motivated in class? and b what is the most applicable framework of motivation to classroom language teaching? Classroom Observation and Stimulated Interview were adopted as data collection techniques. Twelve different lessons were video-taped in about 21 hours in total and over 30 hours of interviews were recorded. Content Analysis procedure was used to code motivational sources. The five groups of coded motivational sources included- the teacher, the classmates, the syllabus, classroom activities, and mood or tone of each lesson. It was observed that the learners’ motivation is closely situated in the classroom context, and therefore, Situated Motivation should be adopted as a framework to bridge the gap between motive frameworks and motivational strategies in language teaching, and for teachers to consider while planning and executing their lessons.

  11. Oral Language Usage in Prekindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Nancy; Carroll, Kimberly; Savage-Davis, Emma; Costner, Richard; Jones, Cathy; Pritchard, Nicholas; Hunt, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    Providing young children with appropriate language models is crucial when developing a high quality learning environment. This article shares findings from an observational study designed to gain insight into how teachers and paraprofessionals modeled language in federally funded prekindergarten classrooms and how the four-year-old students…

  12. Hydrogen and Palladium Foil: Two Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In these two classroom demonstrations, students observe the reaction between H[subscript 2] gas and Pd foil. In the first demonstration, hydrogen and palladium combine within one minute at 1 atm and room temperature to yield the non-stoichiometric, interstitial hydride with formula close to the maximum known value, PdH[subscript 0.7]. In the…

  13. The PLAN Classroom. A Guide for Consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    This document is a guide for consultants observing teacher behavior, its effects on students, and learning environment conditions in a PLAN (Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs) classroom. (Appended are a series of 27 questions and answers which describe PLAN, an individualized, computer-assisted instructional system initially operating…

  14. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  15. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  16. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify

  17. Factors Influencing Fluid Milk Waste in a Breakfast in the Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Cash, Sean B; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2018-02-06

    To determine predictors of fluid milk waste in a Breakfast in the Classroom School Breakfast Program. Cross-sectional with 3 repeated measures/classroom. Elementary schools in a medium-sized, low-income, urban school district. Twenty third- through fourth-grade classrooms across 6 schools. Dependent variables include percentage of total and served milk wasted. Independent variables included observed daily menu offerings, program factors, and teacher and student behavior. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize variables across classrooms and schools. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to test associations between predictors and outcomes of interest. P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. Total milk waste increased 12% when juice was offered and 3% for each additional carton of unserved milk. Teacher encouragement to take and/or consume breakfast was associated with a 5% and 9% increase in total and served milk waste, respectively. When students were engaged in other activities in addition to eating breakfast, total milk waste decreased 10%. Beverage offerings were predictive of greater total milk waste. Teacher and student behavior also appeared to influence milk consumption. Findings suggest that specific changes to School Breakfast Program implementation policies and practices could have an important role in waste mitigation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Modern Scientific Literacy: A Case Study of Multiliteracies and Scientific Practices in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Goldston, M. Jenice

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the convergence of multiliteracies and scientific practices in a fifth grade classroom. As students' lives become increasingly multimodal, diverse, and globalized, the traditional notions of literacy must be revisited (New London Group 1996). With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013a) in many states, either in their entirety or in adapted forms, it becomes useful to explore the interconnectedness multiliteracies and scientific practices and the resulting implications for scientific literacy. The case study included a fifth grade classroom, including the students and teacher. In order to create a rich description of the cases involved, data were collected and triangulated through teacher interviews, student interviews and focus groups, and classroom observations. Findings reveal that as science activities were enriched with multiliteracies and scientific practices, students were engaged in developing skills and knowledge central to being scientifically literate. Furthermore, this study establishes that characteristics of scientific literacy, by its intent and purpose, are a form of multiliteracies in elementary classrooms. Therefore, the teaching and learning of science and its practices for scientific literacy are in turn reinforcing the development of broader multiliteracies.

  19. Mealworms in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which the life-cycle of an insect is studied. Provides information on the purchase and care of the animal and directions for student observations. Questions and activities are included. (RT)

  20. Promoting Health Literacy in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe

    2017-01-01

    school pupils develop health literacy related to physical activity. It discusses curriculum-integrated health education’s contribution to promoting health literacy. Design: Qualitative classroom observation. Setting: IMOVE was implemented in 12 school classes (grades 5–7) in four public schools......Objective: Research has shown that developing health literacy in early life is critical to reducing lifestyle-related diseases, with schools being identified as central settings for this purpose. This paper examines how one classroom-based health educational programme, IMOVE, helped Danish primary...... and teachers could change their daily practices. Only a limited number of discussions supported the development of critical health literacy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that educators can successfully integrate health literacy development into classroom-based curriculum teaching, with pupils’ own step...

  1. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, October 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Newtown, PA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of October 2000, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: Chinese authorities detain Falun Gong protesters on Tiananmen Square…

  2. Stuttering: The Role of the Classroom Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, Gary R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Information about children who stutter is provided, including the characteristics of stutterers and techniques that preschool and elementary teachers can use in the classroom to help these students. Suggestions focus on ways to provide a good speech model, improve the child's self-esteem, and create a good speech environment. (DB)

  3. Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Lee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first four issues of a serial publication, "Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!" The volumes focus on: (1) "A Sampling of Renaissance Instruments," which includes: information on Christopher Columbus, Leondardo da Vinci, and William Shakespeare, a timeline from the middle ages through the renaissance, Queen…

  4. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  5. Classroom Critters and the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneidel, Sally

    This resource book presents 37 behavioral experiments that can be performed with commonly-found classroom animals including hamsters, gerbils, mice, goldfish, guppies, anolis lizards, kittens, and puppies. Each experiment explores the five steps of the scientific method: (1) Question; (2) Hypothesis; (3) Methods; (4) Result; and (5) Conclusion.…

  6. Superconductors in the High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the behavior of high-temperature superconductors and how to demonstrate them safely and effectively in the high school or introductory physics classroom. Included here is a discussion of the most relevant physics topics that can be demonstrated, some safety tips, and a bit of the history of superconductors. In an effort…

  7. Academically Productive Talk in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Whitt, Kate Cook

    2017-01-01

    The classic image of a college classroom often includes a professor standing at the front of a room or hall, often standing near a chalkboard or projector screen, lecturing to a room full of 30 to 100 students diligently taking notes. This model of instruction, often referred to as direct instruction, however, is grounded in somewhat-outdated…

  8. Demonstrating the Curie Temperature in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David; Banks, Octavia; Eichmeyer, Livia; Wu, Cherrin

    2018-01-01

    Recent GCSE and IGCSE specifications include reference to both permanent and induced magnetism, giving the opportunity for novel classroom demonstrations based on ferromagnetism and paramagnetism, and the transition between these phases. Ferromagnetic materials lose their magnetism if raised above their Curie Temperature, a specific temperature…

  9. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  10. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, June 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of June 2002, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Major topics covered include: the Kashmir conflict; the Pakistan and the Kazahkstan Summit;…

  11. Library Databases as Unexamined Classroom Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faix, Allison

    2014-01-01

    In their 1994 article, "The Politics of the Interface: Power and its Exercise in Electronic Contact Zones," compositionists Cynthia Selfe and Richard Selfe give examples of how certain features of word processing software and other programs used in writing classrooms (including their icons, clip art, interfaces, and file structures) can…

  12. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, July 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of July 2000, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: Mexican voters go to polls in a landmark election (July 3); Mexico's…

  13. Visible Disability in the College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Investigates how disability is discovered, constructed, and performed in a certain type of cultural practice, that is, in a postmodern, undergraduate college classroom. Argues that the implementation of an autobiographical pedagogy must extend beyond the dimensions of race, gender, and sexuality and must include disabled persons in these…

  14. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  15. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September 2001 provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: shark attacks ignite controversy in some Florida communities,…

  16. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, July 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of July 2001 provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Top stories include: Slobodan Milosevic prepares to go before the U.N. war crimes tribunal,…

  17. Using Concept Mapping in the Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward P.

    Concept mapping, a technique based on David Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning, involves the organization of concepts into an hierarchical arrangement. Suggestions for incorporating this learning strategy into the biology classroom are presented and discussed. Steps in concept mapping include: (1) identifying important concepts in the study…

  18. General Equilibrium Models: Improving the Microeconomics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Westhoff, Frank

    2009-01-01

    General equilibrium models now play important roles in many fields of economics including tax policy, environmental regulation, international trade, and economic development. The intermediate microeconomics classroom has not kept pace with these trends, however. Microeconomics textbooks primarily focus on the insights that can be drawn from the…

  19. Coin Counter: Gamification for Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John; Harris, Ranida; Harris, Ken

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, gamification has been utilized in a number of different contexts, including educational applications. This paper describes a unique application of coin-based gamification classroom management system in undergraduate programming classes. The coin-based gamification allowed students to earn and spend coins as a form of classroom…

  20. Integrating Facebook in the Classroom: Pedagogical Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Jesse Perez; Le, Ky; De La Cruz, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook remain prolific on college campuses across the country and touches on various aspects of collegiate life, including the classroom. This case study examines student usage of Facebook, its potential impact on faculty interaction, and institutional policy. After providing a literature review and context…

  1. Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

  2. The Global Classroom Video Conferencing Model and First Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2013-01-01

    pedagogical innovativeness, including collaborative and technological issues. The research is based on the Global Classroom Model as it is implemented and used at an adult learning center in Denmark (VUC Storstrøm). VUC Storstrøms (VUC) Global Classroom Model is an approach to video conferencing and e...... are present on campus in the classroom, while other students are participating simultaneously from their home using laptops. Although the Global Classroom Model is pedagogically flexible, the students are required to attend according to regulations from the Ministry of Children and Education to pass....... All these matters need to be taken into consideration when implementing the Global Classroom Model. Through the start-up period of a PhD study and through a research-based competence development project with senior researchers, we have gained knowledge about the experiences, challenges, and potentials...

  3. The Mapping of On-Line Learning to Flipped Classroom: Small Private Online Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muqiang Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study uses an integrated pedagogical tool for knowledge learning as an on-line tool for flipped classroom activities and as an off-line capability training tool. Theoretically, the Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC plays a critical role in promoting students learning effectiveness and performance. However, a dearth of research has applied M-learning and flipped classroom in combination with the ELC stages such as concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation to examine the knowledge and ability learning outcomes for students. This study integrates the On line to Off line (O2O classroom development and usage derived from the four stages of ELC based on on-line knowledge learning and off-line ability training in Microeconomics courses. The results revealed significant improvements in students learning outcomes after O2O mode was implemented. In comparison with traditional teaching methods, not only does O2O teaching significantly improve the students’ learning result of professional knowledge, but O2O teaching also significantly enhanced the capabilities of the students. Furthermore, this study reports the findings from major activities of each ELC stage in O2O classroom practice along with the mapping of on-line learning and off-line training included in the aforementioned stages. Finally, the study provides pedagogical implications and future research directions.

  4. Does the Flipped Classroom Improve Learning in Graduate Medical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Jeff; Jhun, Paul; Fung, Cha-Chi; Comes, James; Sawtelle, Stacy; Tabatabai, Ramin; Joseph, Daniel; Shoenberger, Jan; Chen, Esther; Fee, Christopher; Swadron, Stuart P

    2017-08-01

    The flipped classroom model for didactic education has recently gained popularity in medical education; however, there is a paucity of performance data showing its effectiveness for knowledge gain in graduate medical education. We assessed whether a flipped classroom module improves knowledge gain compared with a standard lecture. We conducted a randomized crossover study in 3 emergency medicine residency programs. Participants were randomized to receive a 50-minute lecture from an expert educator on one subject and a flipped classroom module on the other. The flipped classroom included a 20-minute at-home video and 30 minutes of in-class case discussion. The 2 subjects addressed were headache and acute low back pain. A pretest, immediate posttest, and 90-day retention test were given for each subject. Of 82 eligible residents, 73 completed both modules. For the low back pain module, mean test scores were not significantly different between the lecture and flipped classroom formats. For the headache module, there were significant differences in performance for a given test date between the flipped classroom and the lecture format. However, differences between groups were less than 1 of 10 examination items, making it difficult to assign educational importance to the differences. In this crossover study comparing a single flipped classroom module with a standard lecture, we found mixed statistical results for performance measured by multiple-choice questions. As the differences were small, the flipped classroom and lecture were essentially equivalent.

  5. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. LDAR observations of a developing thunderstorm correlated with field mill, ground strike location, and weather radar data including the first report of the design and capabilities of a new, time-of-arrival Ground-strike Location System (GSLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to observe and measure a thunderstorm prior to, during, and after its development over the Kennedy Space Center was successful. Correlated measurements of airborne field strength, ground-based field strength, LDAR lightning discharge location in the clouds, weather radar percipitation echoes, plus ground strike location with the new KSC Ground Strike Location System (GSLS) were gathered, and reported. This test marks the first operational use of the GSLS System, and this report contains the first report of its design and capabilities.

  7. A Visit from Pythagoras--Using Costumes in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lawrence H.

    2000-01-01

    Presents ways of making mathematics come alive for students including inviting historical mathematicians into the classroom. Suggests that costumes and drama add special appeal to looking at the history of mathematics. (KHR)

  8. Biofouling Organisms in the Field and for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.

    1983-01-01

    Biofouling organisms are marine organisms that affix themselves to navigational buoys, floating docks, and pilings. Techniques for collecting these organisms for classroom use are described. General background information on the organisms and a list of common species are included. (JN)

  9. Classroom Management and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Jere E.

    1982-01-01

    Survey results show that planning and constant vigilance are the price of effective teaching. Effective classroom management involves awareness, good organizational skills, preparation, letting students know what is expected of them and following through, and the ability to diagnose student problems. (CT)

  10. My Classroom: Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Cerise

    2017-01-01

    In his first teaching assignment, as a fifth-grade English teacher, Edgar Manaran had only 20 desks for 48 students. Yet he was able to apply productive classroom strategies throughout his 25-hour teaching week. Some of his students sat on plastic chairs due to the shortage of desks, but that did not change the dynamic of Mr. Manaran's classes. He…

  11. My Classroom: Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Yulia Bulatkulova discovered her passion for English language teaching at a young age as a result of the example set by an esteemed childhood English teacher, Elvira Kuyanova. This article discusses how Ms. Bulatkulova's interactions with her students, both inside and outside the classroom, demonstrate that she has followed in the footsteps of her…

  12. Tips from the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  13. Bibliotherapy for Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenman, Gordon; Harper, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The focus and goal of classroom management should be first and foremost learning. When trying to prevent interruptions to learning, or dealing with interruptions to learning when they occur, teachers need to move beyond simply imposing a consequence and assuming students have learned from the interaction. Students need to be taught the skills and…

  14. Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  15. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  16. Flipping the Classroom Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2013-02-01

    I received many emails following the first column on flipping the classroom. Many of my local colleagues also approached me at our physics alliance, Physics Northwest. Teachers are very interested in this new pedagogy. As I result, I wanted to share some more videos to inspire you.

  17. "Frankenstein" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veidemanis, Gladys V.

    1986-01-01

    Presents five reasons for classroom study of Mary Shelley's gothic work: (1)intriguing style and subject matter, brevity and novelty; (2)narrative versatility; (3)representation of the Romantic Era in English literature; (4)female authorship; (5)significance of the central theme of "scientific aims pursued in reckless disregard of human…

  18. Classroom Teacher's Idea Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Norv; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Offers activities for high school and middle school classrooms. First activity deals with war crimes by projecting fictitious Soviet fighting in Afghanistan into the story of William Calley in Vietnam. Second activity uses the Underground Railroad during the U.S. Civil War in an interdisciplinary approach. Third activity is a self-discovery…

  19. When classroom becomes school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Vibeke Røn

    & Perrenoud, 2006). In Denmark alone changes have been made numerously times in the last two decades. Concurrently, a considerable amount of studies has been published focusing on the nursing education, stressing a call for transformation. Division of learning contexts into clinical and classroom settings...

  20. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  1. Artists in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stephen R., Ed.; Place, Richard, Ed.

    Since 1970, the Connecticut Commission on the Arts has sponsored educational programs in which artists participate actively in the classroom with students and teachers. This book contains eight case studies showing the effects of visiting artists in eight Connecticut schools. Topics of these studies are song writing, dance movement in suburbia,…

  2. The flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    communication and information sharing in such classrooms. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for supporting out-of-class instruction in the flipped model by using quizzes and feedback in Moodle, and comments on the potential to follow student use of resources by using Moodle reports. This paper concludes...

  3. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  4. A Comparison of Self-Monitoring with and without Reinforcement to Improve On-Task Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Dacus, Sharon; Bankhead, Jenna; Haupert, Megan; Fuentes, Lisa; Zoch, Tamara; Kang, Soyeon; Attai, Shanna; Lang, Russell

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a self-monitoring and self-monitoring plus reinforcement intervention on classroom behavior. A typically-developing high school student demonstrating difficulty staying on-task during classroom instruction was observed in three classroom settings associated with high levels of off-task behavior. During…

  5. Multicultural science education in Lesotho high school biology classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthathakane, Malefu Christina

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated how Basotho high school biology students responded to a multicultural science education (MCSE) approach. Students' home language---Sesotho---and cultural experiences were integrated into the teaching of a unit on alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse. The focus was on students whose cultural background is African and who are English second language users. The study was conducted in three high school biology classrooms in Lesotho where the ATOD unit was taught using MCSE. A fourth biology classroom was observed for comparison purposes. In this classroom the regular biology teacher taught ATOD using typical instructional strategies. The study was framed by the general question: How does a multicultural science education approach affect Basotho high school biology students? More specifically: How does the use of Sesotho (or code-switching between Sesotho and English) and integration of Basotho students' cultural knowledge and experiences with respect to ATOD affect students' learning? In particular how does the approach affect students' participation and academic performance? A qualitative research method was used in this study. Data were drawn from a number of different sources and analyzed inductively. The data sources included field-notes, transcripts of ATOD lessons, research assistant lesson observation notes and interviews, regular biology teachers' interviews and notes from observing a few of their lessons, students' interviews and pre and posttest scripts, and other school documents that recorded students' performance throughout the year. Using the students' home language---Sesotho---was beneficial in that it enabled them to share ideas, communicate better and understand each other, the teacher and the material that was taught. Integrating students' cultural and everyday experiences was beneficial because it enabled students to anchor the new ATOD ideas in what was familiar and helped them find the relevance of the unit by

  6. The formation and design of 'The Acute Admission Database'- a database including a prospective, observational cohort of 6279 patients triaged in the Emergency Department in a larger Danish hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Charlotte; Lauritzen, Marlene Mp; Danker, Jakob K

    2012-01-01

    (range 1-123). The proportion of patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit was 1.6% (95% CI 1.2-2.0), 1.8% (95% CI 1.5-2.2) died within 7 days, and 4.2% (95% CI 3.7-4.7) died within 28 days after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges of data registration, we succeeded in creating a database...... outcome. A likely explanation is the difficulty in retrieving all relevant information from one database. The objective of this article was 1) to describe the formation and design of the 'Acute Admission Database', and 2) to characterize the cohort included. METHODS: All adult patients triaged...

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Photographs and Classroom Response Systems in Middle School Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan

    2015-08-01

    In spite of being readily available, photographs have played a minor and passive role in science classes. In our study, we present an active way of using photographs in classroom discussions with the use of a classroom response system (CRS) in middle school astronomy classes to teach the concepts of day-night and seasonal change. In this new pedagogical method, students observe objects or phenomena in photographs and use the information to develop understanding of the scientific concepts. They share their ideas in classroom discussion with the assistance of the CRS. Pre- and posttest results showed that the new pedagogy helped students overcome primitive conceptions and enhanced their understanding of the concepts. The observation of the rich details of photographs played three pedagogical roles in classroom discussion: easing students' anxiety about learning a new scientific concept; continuous stimulus of learning; and as evidence or data.

  9. The 2005 annular eclipse: a classroom activity at EPLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgaira, H.

    2006-08-01

    In 2005, the 3rd of October, an annular solar eclipse was seen in part of Spain, including the city of Valencia and its surroundings. Last time something similar happened in Valencia was just a century ago. These unusual astronomical events are an excellent opportunity for students to learn astronomy, as they live it and feel part of it. In our school, "Colegio EPLA" at Godella, it was an incomparable opportunity as the annular eclipse happened during playtime. Therefore, for two weeks the school prepared several activities using the eclipse as a central theme (what is called in the Spanish educational model a "transverse subject"), explaining to the students about the eclipse (adapted to their levels), and preparing the pupils for secure eclipse observation: i.e., the children fabricated during class time their own eclipse glasses with black polymer; and for the little ones, the window of a classroom was covered with black polymer for secure observation of the phenomena.

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. Temperature and Moisture Conditions for Life in the Extreme Arid Region of the Atacama Desert: Four Years of Observations Including the El Niño of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Friedmann, E. Imre; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Cáceres-Villanueva, Luis; Andersen, Dale T.; Landheim, Ragnhild

    2003-06-01

    The Atacama along the Pacific Coast of Chile and Peru is one of the driest and possibly oldest deserts in the world. It represents an extreme habitat for life on Earth and is an analog for life in dry conditions on Mars. We report on four years (September 1994-October 1998) of climate and moisture data from the extreme arid region of the Atacama. Our data are focused on understanding moisture sources and their role in creating suitable environments for photosynthetic microorganisms in the desert surface. The average air temperature was 16.5°C and 16.6°C in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The maximum air temperature recorded was 37.9°C, and the minimum was -5.7°C. Annual average sunlight was 336 and 335 W m-2 in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Winds averaged a few meters per second, with strong föhn winds coming from the west exceeding 12 m s-1. During our 4 years of observation there was only one significant rain event of 2.3 mm, which occurred near midnight local time. We suggest that this event was a rainout of a heavy fog. It is of interest that the strong El Niño of 1997-1998 brought heavy rainfall to the deserts of Peru, but did not bring significant rain to the central Atacama in Chile. Dew occurred at our station frequently following high nighttime relative humidity, but is not a significant source of moisture in the soil or under stones. Groundwater also does not contribute to surface moisture. Only the one rain event of 2.3 mm resulted in liquid water in the soil and beneath stones for a total of only 65-85 h over 4 years. The paucity of liquid water under stones is consistent with the apparent absence of hypolithic (under-stone) cyanobacteria, the only known primary producers in such extreme deserts.

  12. Deaf History in K-12 DHH Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Allison H

    2015-01-01

    Deaf children, like all children, deserve a quality education; one that includes the history of their own culture and people. Unfortunately, Deaf history curriculum for Deaf students is seriously lacking in availability. The goal of this thesis is simple; to provide D/deaf students with a quality Deaf history curriculum, from which they can learn about themselves, thus helping them to develop their Deaf identities.The curriculum included in Deaf History in K-12 Classrooms consists of two unit...

  13. New Zealand's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Including the Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The New Zealand Government is committed to playing its part in the global response to climate change. This Fourth National Communication provides a snapshot of New Zealand's progress with implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This document covers the period from the submission of the Third National Communication in January 2002 through to the end of December 2005. This document also contains New Zealand's Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol. New Zealand's response to climate change has evolved substantially since the Third National Communication was submitted. On 19 December 2002, New Zealand became the 101st nation to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In 2002, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Climate Change Response Act. This Act established a New Zealand climate change registry and corresponding institutional arrangements in accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements. Other achievements are detailed throughout this Fourth National Communication. When the Government introduced its climate change policy package in 2002, it anticipated there would be three reviews of the package not later than 2005, 2007 and 2010. The reviews would be necessary to monitor progress with emissions reductions, assess the effectiveness of policies, and confirm that New Zealand was positioned to meet its commitments. The first of these reviews was commissioned by the Government in mid-2005 and completed by November 2005. The review concluded that some elements of the Government's 2002 climate change policy package should be modified to better position New Zealand to respond to the longer-term challenges of climate change. A key outcome of the policy review was the announcement by the newly elected Government in December 2005 that the previously announced carbon tax would not proceed. In addition, a suite of future work programmes would be required to inform Government

  14. Effect of Active Videogames on Underserved Children's Classroom Behaviors, Effort, and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Jung Eun; Pope, Zachary; Zhang, Dachao

    2016-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active videogames (AVGs) on underserved minority children's on-task classroom behavior, academic effort, and fitness. A one group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was used. In Fall 2013, 95 fourth grade children (57 boys, 38 girls; 96% of minority) from three classes at an underserved urban elementary school participated in teacher-supervised AVG activities (e.g., Wii Sports, Xbox Just Dance). Specifically, students participated in a 50-minute weekly AVG program at school for 6 weeks. Children's academic effort was evaluated by classroom teachers using a validated scale that assessed activity, attention, conduct, and social/emotional behavior. Moreover, children's classroom behavior was observed immediately before and after each AVG session by trained researchers. Finally, cardiovascular fitness was also measured. A paired t-test was used to assess teacher-rated student effort, while one-way (gender) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was performed to analyze children's on-task classroom behavior. There was a significant effect on children's effort between the first (mean = 3.24, SD = 0.75) and last week (mean = 3.41, SD = 0.73) assessments, t = 2.42, P = 0.02. In addition, there was a significant effect on classroom behavior, F = 33.103, P < 0.01. In detail, children scored significantly higher on on-task behavior during the post-AVG observation (mean = 81.4, SD = 12.3) than seen during the pre-AVG observation (mean = 69.8, SD = 14.9). However, no main effect was indicated for gender, F = 0.39, P = 0.54. No significant improvement in cardiovascular fitness was observed, although slight improvements were seen. Offering an AVG program at school could improve underserved minority children's classroom on-task behavior and academic effort. Future studies may include a control group to further confirm the effectiveness of AVG

  15. Characterizing Teaching in Introductory Geology Courses: Measuring Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, D. A.; van der Hoeven Kraft, K. J.; McConnell, D. A.; Vislova, T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research about reformed teaching practices in the college science classroom is based on instructor self-report. This research describes what is happening in some introductory geology courses at multiple institutions across the country using external observers. These observations are quantified using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol…

  16. Communication Strategies Used by High School English Language Learners in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In this study, twenty-five high school English language learners were observed in their classrooms in a New York City public school while they worked in small groups. All observations were video recorded or done by the researcher while in the classrooms. The videos were then transcribed. Communication strategies that the participants used were…

  17. Capturing Communication Supporting Classrooms: The Development of a Tool and Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Bakopoulou, Ioanna; Law, James; Spencer, Sarah; Lindsay, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing emphasis on supporting the oral language needs of children in the classroom. A variety of different measures have been developed to assist this process but few have been derived systematically from the available research evidence. A Communication Supporting Classrooms Observation Tool (CsC Observation Tool) for children aged…

  18. Methods of Analysis and Overall Mathematics Teaching Quality in At-Risk Prekindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick R.; Kinzie, Mable; Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study analyzed the quality of teacher-child interactions across 10 videotaped observations drawn from 5 different prekindergarten classrooms delivering the same mathematics curriculum: "MyTeachingPartner-Math." Interactions were coded using 2 observational measures: (a) a general measure, the Classroom Assessment…

  19. The Complexities of an Urban Classroom; An Analysis Toward a General Theory of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis M.; Geoffrey, William

    In attempting to discover how a middle-class teacher copes with lower-class children in an urban school, the authors of this study (one an "outside" observer who sat at the side of the classroom, the other the teacher or "inside" observer) recorded the classroom actions and behavior of the teacher and his seventh grade pupils all day every day for…

  20. LIVE AUTHORITY IN THE CLASSROOM IN VIDEO CONFERENCE-BASED SYNCHRONOUS DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Teaching Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARAL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the role of the assistant in a classroom environment where students are taught using video conference-based synchronous distance education. Qualitative research approach was adopted and, among purposeful sampling methods, criterion sampling method was preferred in the scope of the study. The study was carried out during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. A teaching assistant and a total of 9 sophomore or senior students from the Department of City and Regional Development, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, participated as subjects. The students included in the study sampling were taking lessons from the Middle East Technical University on the basis of synchronous distance education. Among the qualitative research methods, case study method was used and the study data were obtained from the semi-structured interview and observation results. Study data were analyzed with descriptive analysis methods. Data obtained at the end of the study were found to support the suggestion that there should be an authority in the video conference-based synchronous distance education. Findings obtained during the interviews made with the students revealed that some of the teacher’s classroom management related responsibilities are transferred to the assistant present in the classroom during the synchronous distance education. It was concluded at the end of the interviews that a teaching assistant’s presence should be obligatory in the undergraduate synchronous distance classroom environment. However, it was also concluded that there may not be any need for an authority in the classroom environment at the postgraduate education level due to the profile and expectations of the student, which differ from those of students at lower educational levels.

  1. CLASSROOM CULTURE OF PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FĂT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained during an enquiry based on a questionnaire about the classroom culture. This concept it is understood as a micro-society with its own characteristics derived from the dynamic of socialization and training process. This research aims to investigate certain specific aspects of micro-sociology and emphasis on classroom culture. A relatively new concept is reflected by the normative consensus or the integrated system of values that belongs to the teachers, pupils and school, as a social entity. The integrative ensemble of values, class cohesion degree and training strategies are only a few of the aspects described by 62 pupils aged 17-18 years old, from a very prestigious school in Bucharest. The perception of pupils regarding our concept is the effect of the relational practices and training used constantly by the teachers. Those practices reflect the school’s focus mostly on cognitive performance.

  2. Revisiting Classroom Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    2016-01-01

    Most co-teachers agree that there just isn't enough time for co-teachers to appropriately and effectively preplan every aspect of every activity in every lesson. This lack of time leads co-teachers to turn to models that fail to maximize the benefits of a two-teacher classroom. Wilson suggests that if co-teachers use their limited planning time to…

  3. Classroom social climate

    OpenAIRE

    Sivevska, Despina

    2015-01-01

    One of the important factors which effects the educational process is the climate that reigns in the school. School climate is defined as the sum of all the circumstances in which the educational process is realized, as a network of relationships which exist between participants in the educational process. Social climate is part of school climate created in the classroom through general atmosphere in school, in the manner that overall work organization in a school functions and the way tea...

  4. Controlling Multiple Virtual Machines in Computer Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A management of computer classroom is undoubtedly a difficult task for the administrator which has to prepare virtual operating systems for education. It is quite common that lectors need to edit the particular machine during the semester, and that is the case where the main problems can appear. The process of changes deployment is not just very time-consuming but during it a virtual machine inconsistency can appear. The main part of this paper focuses on system process diagrams and its pseudocode. At first, the machine is created on the remote server by lector or administrator. After a proper approval, the machine is able to be deployed. The lector then specifies the details about date, time and destinations of the virtual machine deployment. Once these details are approved, the virtual machine will be automatically deployed at the specified time. The automatic deployment includes also an initial configuration of the virtual machine at remote desktop and its post-install configuration (hostname, MAC address, etc.. Once all steps are completed, the process will be marked as succeed. We present an automatized solution which provides a possibility how to easily manage computer classroom with virtual operating systems. The proposed solution should deliver a greater flexibility, more reliability and faster deployment in comparison with the current solution used in our computer classroom. The proposal is also able to manipulate with already deployed machines for easy changes (e.g. software updates. The main advantage is the improvement of classroom management process automation.

  5. The Relation of Work Environment and Stress in Classroom Management among Preschool Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Said Ambotang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to observe how far preschool teachers endure stress in carrying out their job which is influenced by the work climate including the management of classroom. This research is carried out by choosing a group of 55 preschool teachers as respondents in the district of Keningau Sabah. Data is analyzed using descriptive method (mean, inferential (T-test Statistic, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Result showed that there were high positive relationships between the work climate with stress level among the teachers. (r = 0.807, p<0.01 and classroom management with level of stress (r = 0.770, p< 0.01. It is hoped that with the information obtained by this research will assist the Malaysian Ministry of Education in planning and designing a suitable programme to overcome the stress problem faced by teachers especially preschool teachers towards improving the teaching profession quality in the near future.

  6. Real-world experiences of nuclear science in the classroom - What an individual can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Experience is showing that the public has yet to learn about the natural world, radiation, risk analysis, and energy, as well as other issues. This has occurred during a time in which the quality of education has declined in the US. As a former college professor who is married to a schoolteacher, the author realized that the two observations are linked. A communications gap has developed between science and the schools. Scientists perceive that once scientific advancements have taken place, new curriculum materials for schools automatically adapt to include these advancements. Teachers' schedules are typically so filled during and after school that new curriculum material is slowed in being introduced in the classroom. Thus, the question becomes, how do we bridge the gulf between scientists and the classroom? Scientists can be helpful to teachers in many ways. This paper is a summary of some of the activities and lessons learned in strengthening teacher-scientist relationships

  7. Teaching English to a Student with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Regular Classroom in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Padmadewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of students with special needs has been increasing significantly in Indonesia recently and the better understanding as well as supportive school programs is urgently needed. It was found out that schools and teachers in Indonesia had very limited preparedness either in teaching skills or material development to meet the actual needs of the students. This study then aimed at investigating appropriate strategies of teaching English to a student with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD included in a regular classroom. This research was in the form of a case study conducted in North Bali Bilingual School. The data were collected through observations and interviews. The findings show that the Individual Education Plan (IEP provided with visual media through co-teaching, differentiated instruction and also through a “buddy program” are found appropriate to help the student learn English as a foreign language. These strategies are effective to be implemented in an inclusive classroom program.

  8. Girls Doing Science: A Case Study of Science Literacy in All-Female Middle Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Susan Elisabeth

    In the face of low adolescent literacy rates (NCES, 2012), concerns about the nation's prospects of remaining competitive in science and technology (Hill, Corbett, & St. Rose, 2010), a persistent gender gap in science (NCES, 2012; Reilly, 2012), and the continued rollout of college- and career-ready standards, there is a need to focus on adolescent girls' science literacy. Such science literacy involves not only general knowledge about science, but also the ability to engage in the advanced reading and writing practices fundamental to doing science (Norris & Phillips, 2003). In this thesis, I present three articles with findings that respond to this need. They are the results of a multiple-case embedded (Yin, 2009) study that I conducted over the course of 7 months in four science classrooms (grades 5 through 8; 50 students) taught by a single teacher in a small all-female middle school. I collected in-depth data focused on science literacy from multiple sources, including (a) fieldnotes (Emerson, Fretz & Shaw, 2011), (b) videorecorded classroom observations (102 classes, 113 hours, recorded on 29 days), (c) a survey of all students, (d) semi-structured interviews with the subsample of 12 focal students (ranging from 18 to 37 minutes) and (e) photographs of classroom artifacts and student work. In the first article, I provide a window into standard literacy practices in science classrooms by examining the reading and writing genres to which students are exposed. In the second article, I examine how a teacher's language and instructional practices within her classrooms, and popular images of science from the world beyond their classrooms might shape adolescent girls' science identities. Finally, in the third article, I explore different aspects of science identity using the words of three case study students. Taken together, these studies fill gaps in the literature by investigating science literacy in an understudied context, all-female classrooms. In addition

  9. Do Lessons in Nature Boost Subsequent Classroom Engagement? Refueling Students in Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers wishing to offer lessons in nature may hold back for fear of leaving students keyed up and unable to concentrate in subsequent, indoor lessons. This study tested the hypothesis that lessons in nature have positive—not negative—aftereffects on subsequent classroom engagement. Using carefully matched pairs of lessons (one in a relatively natural outdoor setting and one indoors, we observed subsequent classroom engagement during an indoor instructional period, replicating these comparisons over 10 different topics and weeks in the school year, in each of two third grade classrooms. Pairs were roughly balanced in how often the outdoor lesson preceded or followed the classroom lesson. Classroom engagement was significantly better after lessons in nature than after their matched counterparts for four of the five measures developed for this study: teacher ratings; third-party tallies of “redirects” (the number of times the teacher stopped instruction to direct student attention back onto the task at hand; independent, photo-based ratings made blind to condition; and a composite index each showed a nature advantage; student ratings did not. This nature advantage held across different teachers and held equally over the initial and final 5 weeks of lessons. And the magnitude of the advantage was large. In 48 out of 100 paired comparisons, the nature lesson was a full standard deviation better than its classroom counterpart; in 20 of the 48, the nature lesson was over two standard deviations better. The rate of “redirects” was cut almost in half after a lesson in nature, allowing teachers to teach for longer periods uninterrupted. Because the pairs of lessons were matched on teacher, class (students and classroom, topic, teaching style, week of the semester, and time of day, the advantage of the nature-based lessons could not be attributed to any of these factors. It appears that, far from leaving students too keyed up to concentrate

  10. Broadcasting simulation case studies to the didactic classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Cunningham, Helene; Lamoureux, Erin T; Ahmed, Elshaymaa M

    2010-01-01

    To explore the potential of using simulation in new ways, it is time to think "outside the lab." To do this, the authors expanded the use of case-study simulations by broadcasting them to classrooms where didactic content could be reinforced with simulation content. Advantages included students' active classroom engagement, simultaneously sharing simulations with many students, modeling students' thinking in clinical situations, and connecting theory to practice.

  11. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  12. Validation of an observation instrument for measuring student engagement in health professions settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Moran, Betty Jeanne; Haidet, Paul; Seidel, Charles L; Schneider, Virginia; Morgan, Robert O; Kelly, P Adam; Richards, Boyd

    2003-03-01

    Documenting student engagement has received increased emphasis in medical schools, as teaching strategies are changing to include more student-to-student interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a measure of student engagement completed by independent observers that would not interfere with student learning time. Data from 3,182 observations completed by nine observers in 32 educational classroom settings with 23 different instructors were used to evaluate the interobserver reliability and gather validity evidence for our observational instrument, named the STROBE. Results indicated that interobserver agreement was good to excellent when observations were conducted simultaneously on randomly selected students in the same classroom (84% average agreement and 0.79 average kappa coefficient) and when observations were conducted on different randomly selected students (79% average agreement). Results also provided strong evidence for validity. Overall, findings indicate that the STROBE demonstrates promise for educational research and evaluation by documenting student engagement in medical education settings.

  13. Gendered Teacher–Student Interactions in English Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Hassaskhah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Being and becoming is the ultimate objective of any educational enterprise, including language teaching. However, research results indicate seemingly unjustified differences between how females and males are treated by EFL (English as a Foreign Language teachers. The overall aim of this study is to illustrate, analyze, and discuss aspects of gender bias and gender awareness in teacher–student interaction in the Iranian college context. To this end, teacher–student interactions of 20 English teachers and 500 students were investigated from the perspective of gender theory. The data were obtained via classroom observations, a seating chart and the audio-recording of all classroom interactions during the study. The findings, obtained from the quantitative descriptive statistics and chi-square methods, as well as the qualitative analysis by way of open and selective coding, uncovered that there were significant differences in the quantity and quality of the interaction for females and males in almost all categories of interaction. The study also revealed teachers’ perception of “gender,” the problems they associate with gender, and the attitudes they have to gender issues. Apparently, while positive incentives are able to facilitate learner growth, the presence of any negative barrier such as gender bias is likely to hinder development. This has implications for teachers, and faculty members who favor healthy and gender-neutral educational climate.

  14. Technology in the Montessori Classroom: Teachers’ Beliefs and Technology Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jolly Jones

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As technology becomes ubiquitous in society, there is increasing momentum to incorporate it into education. Montessori education is not immune to this push for technology integration. This qualitative study investigates four Upper Elementary Montessori teachers’ attitudes toward technology and technology integration in a public school setting. Interviews and observations were used to understand the teachers’ thoughts and actions regarding technology in the classroom. Both the school context and teacher background played important roles in teachers’ beliefs and actions. Teachers in this study expressed positive views of technology in general, exhibiting high technology efficacy and valuing the development of technology skills in their students. However, all four teachers struggled to include instructional technology in ways that are consistent with a Montessori paradigm. Although individual student use of adaptive tutoring software was the most common use of technology, the teachers varied greatly in both the amount of student time spent on computers and the roles that technology played in their classrooms.

  15. Observations on Neobarya, including new species and new combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candoussau, F.; Boqueras, M.; Gómez-Bolea, A.

    2007-01-01

     Technical abstract:  New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs...... from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.     ...

  16. Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).

  17. Global Classroom - videokonference i undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efter fem år med videokonference gør VUC Storstrøm status for udvikling og implementering. Visionen peger i retning af yderligere digitalisering og satsning på kvalitetsudviklin og fleksibilitet via investeringer i teknologi og kompetenceudvikling. I 2011 kon en ny avanceret teknologisk platform til, som giver studerende mulighed for at vælge frit mellem fysisk tilstedeværelse og tilstedeværelse via individuel videokonference hjemmefra eller en andet ekstern lokation. I artiklen redegøres for baggrund og formål, forudsætninger for indførelse af fleksibel videokonference, samt for udbyttet for de studerende og underviserne. Artiklen er baseret på interne evalueringer, en artikel fra forskere på Aalborg Universitet, indtryk fra 2 specialer fra hhv. Århus Universitet og IT-U / Aalborg Universitet, samt forfatterens egne i agttagelser som projektleder i organisationen. English abstract After five years of using videoconferencing in teaching the Adult Education Centre Storstroem (VUC Storstroem looks back on the development and implementation of the new ICT based learning platform. The vision suggests further digitization and focus on quality and flexibility through investment in technology and skills. Since 2011 VUC Storstroem has used a didactic organization called Global Classroom which gives students the opportunity to choose freely between physical presence and presence through individual video conference from home or another remote site. This article explains the background and purpose and the preconditions for the introduction of flexible video conferencing in classroom teaching, as well as the benefits for the students and teachers. The article is based on internal evaluations, two articles from researchers at Aalborg University, impressions from a thesis from the IT-U / Aalborg University, and author's own observations as a project manager in the organization.

  18. Global Classroom - videokonference i undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Efter fem år med videokonference gør VUC Storstrøm status for udvikling og implementering. Visionen peger i retning af yderligere digitalisering og satsning på kvalitetsudviklin og fleksibilitet via investeringer i teknologi og kompetenceudvikling. I 2011 kon en ny avanceret teknologisk platform til, som giver studerende mulighed for at vælge frit mellem fysisk tilstedeværelse og tilstedeværelse via individuel videokonference hjemmefra eller en andet ekstern lokation. I artiklen redegøres for baggrund og formål, forudsætninger for indførelse af fleksibel videokonference, samt for udbyttet for de studerende og underviserne. Artiklen er baseret på interne evalueringer, en artikel fra forskere på Aalborg Universitet, indtryk fra 2 specialer fra hhv. Århus Universitet og IT-U / Aalborg Universitet, samt forfatterens egne i agttagelser som projektleder i organisationen. English abstract After five years of using videoconferencing in teaching the Adult Education Centre Storstroem (VUC Storstroem looks back on the development and implementation of the new ICT based learning platform. The vision suggests further digitization and focus on quality and flexibility through investment in technology and skills. Since 2011 VUC Storstroem has used a didactic organization called Global Classroom which gives students the opportunity to choose freely between physical presence and presence through individual video conference from home or another remote site. This article explains the background and purpose and the preconditions for the introduction of flexible video conferencing in classroom teaching, as well as the benefits for the students and teachers. The article is based on internal evaluations, two articles from researchers at Aalborg University, impressions from a thesis from the IT-U / Aalborg University, and author's own observations as a project manager in the organization.

  19. The Lions Quest Program in Turkey: Teachers’ Views and Classroom Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Gol-Guven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a pilot study to explore the classroom implementation of the Lions Quest Program in Turkey. Teachers of first through eighth grades at two elementary schools who applied the program were interviewed about the program and their classroom practices while they were also observed and their classrooms were also observed. Considerable program implementation differences were found within and between the schools. Three main issues were raised in the interviews, namely that the teachers were not clear about whether social emotional learning (SEL skills should be taught to students as a separate lesson or not; they seemed to doubt whether school personnel should be responsible for SEL implementation; and although they had positive views of the implementation, they underlined that students’ social and emotional wellbeing is dependent on family background and the developing maturity of the child. In conclusion, the teachers expressed positive views about the Lions Quest Program, yet lacked strong opinions about when, where, and by whom the program needed to be included in the curriculum. Limitations, implementation challenges, and implications for SEL in the Turkish context were also identified.

  20. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  1. 34 CFR 300.310 - Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (including the regular classroom setting) to document the child's academic performance and behavior in the... of the child's academic performance in the regular classroom after the child has been referred for an... instruction and monitoring of the child's performance that was done before the child was referred for an...

  2. Exploring the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptop Computers in Higher Education Classrooms: A Formative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin H. Kay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of decreased prices, increased convenience, and wireless access, an increasing number of college and university students are using laptop computers in their classrooms. This recent trend has forced instructors to address the educational consequences of using these mobile devices. The purpose of the current study was to analyze and assess beneficial and challenging laptop behaviours in higher education classrooms. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 177 undergraduate university students (89 males, 88 females. Key benefits observed include note-taking activities, in-class laptop-based academic tasks, collaboration, increased focus, improved organization and efficiency, and addressing special needs. Key challenges noted include other student’s distracting laptop behaviours, instant messaging, surfing the web, playing games, watching movies, and decreased focus. Nearly three-quarters of the students claimed that laptops were useful in supporting their academic experience. Twice as many benefits were reported compared to challenges. It is speculated that the integration of meaningful laptop activities is a critical determinant of benefits and challenges experienced in higher education classrooms.

  3. Measuring and Modeling Sound Interference and Reverberation Time in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumina, Kaitlyn; Martell, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Research shows that children, even those without hearing difficulties, are affected by poor classroom acoustics, especially children with hearing loss, learning disabilities, speech delay, and attention problems. Poor acoustics can come in a variety of forms, including destructive interference causing ``dead spots'' and extended Reverberation Times (RT), where echoes persist too long, interfering with further speech. In this research, I measured sound intensity at locations throughout three different types of classrooms at frequencies commonly associated with human speech to see what effect seating position has on intensity. I also used a program called Wave Cloud to model the time necessary for intensity to decrease by 60 decibels (RT50), both in idealized classrooms and in classrooms modeled on the ones I studied.

  4. HTML5 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This training package - complete with full-color book and instructional video - is the easiest way to learn HTML5!HTML5 boasts extensive new features that allow you to create dynamic web pages and present users with amazing multimedia experiences, and this one-of-a-kind training package is your guide to creating websites that wow! HTML5 Digital Classroom provides step-by-step instruction to help you gain the essential HTML5 knowledge you need to master the latest HTML5 specifications. This book-and-video package will have you creating web pages and web applications using HTML5, styling using

  5. Incivility in the Accounting Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Laurie; Elder, Bruce; Seaton, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Classroom incivility is any action that interferes with a harmonious and cooperative learning atmosphere in the classroom (Feldman, 2001). We compared the perceptions of accounting faculty to the perceptions of cross-disciplinary faculty relating to both the definition of student actions as incivility and the occurrence of incivility. We also…

  6. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  7. Inverting an Introductory Statistics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Gertrud L.

    2015-01-01

    The inverted classroom allows more in-class time for inquiry-based learning and for working through more advanced problem-solving activities than does the traditional lecture class. The skills acquired in this learning environment offer benefits far beyond the statistics classroom. This paper discusses four ways that can make the inverted…

  8. Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Ronald A., Ed.; Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom" is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative…

  9. Classroom Management: Implications for Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Gonzalo

    Classroom management may be the most fundamental and most difficult task the teacher performs. A search of the literature reveals at least five rather different definitions of classroom management that represent particular philosophical approaches: 1) the authoritarian approach, 2) the permissive approach, 3) the behavior modification approach, 4)…

  10. Classroom Furniture: The Mod Squad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    This is the first article in a six-part series on the elements of a collaborative classroom: furniture, social media, video/web conferencing tools, collaborative software, interactive devices, and mobile devices. With most universities facing tight budgets, convincing administrators to invest in expensive new classrooms is a challenge. Many higher…

  11. Improving Technology in Agriscience Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Teachers must make persistent efforts in integrating technology in the classroom. In Georgia agriscience curriculum, no data are available regarding the type and amount of technology integration used in the classrooms. Some teachers integrate actively while others incorporate very little technology in their teaching. The purpose of this…

  12. Technology and At-Risk Young Readers and Their Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Bates, Ann; Berne, Jennifer; Bridgman, Teresa; Chaney, Jeanne; Perney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ways in which 18 first-grade teachers and their students in 11 high-risk urban schools began to use literacy-focused technology. The goal of the study was to observe the technology in use by the students, to observe the classroom dynamics and teachers' instructional choices centered around technology use, to look at student…

  13. Remote Observational Techniques in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Mayo, L.

    2002-09-01

    The ability to observe celestial objects remotely is making a major impact into classroom access to astronomical instrumentation previously impossible to encorporate into curriculum. Two programs, Radio Jove and Telescopes In Education have made important contributions in this field. Radio JOVE is an interactive, hands-on, educational activity for learning the scientific method through the medium of radio observations of Jupiter, the Sun, and the galactic radio background. Students build radio receivers from relatively inexpensive non-profit kits (about \\$125 plus shipping) and use them to record data, analyze the data, and share the results with others. Alternatively, for no cost, the students can record and analyze data from remote radio receivers connected to the web. The projects are useful adjuncts to activities in optical observing since students should recognize that we learn about the universe through more than just the optical spectrum. The projects are mini-electronics courses and also teach about charged particles and magnetic fields. The Radio JOVE web site (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) should be consulted for further information. The NASA-sponsored Telescopes In Education (TIE) network (http://tie.jpl.nasa.gov) has been wildly successful in engaging the K-12 education community in real-time, hands-on, interactive astronomy activities. Hundreds of schools in the US, Australia, Canada, England, and Japan have participated in the TIE program, remotely controlling the 24-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory from their classrooms. In recent years, several (approximately 20 to date) other telescopes have been, or are in the process of being, outfitted for remote use as TIE affiliates. These telescopesare integrated seamlessly into one virtual observatory providing the services required to operate this facility, including a scheduling service, tools for data manipulation, an online proposal review environment, an online "Virtual TIE Student Ap J

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Classroom-Wide Interventions to Build Social Skills: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, Alicia M.; Casey, Rita J.; Paulson, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes of 28 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1981 and 2007 were evaluated quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of classroom-wide interventions for the improvement of social skills. All interventions included in the study were implemented with intact classrooms that included both socially competent children and those with…

  15. The flipped classroom, putting learning back into the hands of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, Virginia

    Flipping the classroom is a new style of teaching that puts learning back into the hands of the student and allows the teacher to facilitate each child's learning based on their individual needs. Three units of Chemistry were flipped to give the researcher experience and skill in this new ideology. Technology was used to create podcasts for student's to watch outside of the classroom. Student's used classroom time for problem-solving, activities, discussions and labs. From this experience as well as conferences, classroom observations of the flipping process in action and discussions with other teachers also using this new style of teaching, a handbook was written.

  16. Preliminary Evidence on the Efficacy of Mindfulness Combined with Traditional Classroom Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, Erin M; Wilson, Alyssa N

    2017-09-01

    The current case study combined mindfulness-based strategies with a classroom behavior management treatment package, to assist teachers with managing 3rd grade student behaviors. Two teachers (Classroom teacher and Specials teacher) and six students within the same classroom were observed using a 5-min momentary time sampling procedure. A delayed multiple baseline across settings (e.g., Classroom teacher, Specials teacher) design was used to assess student behaviors across baseline (A), classroom behavior management treatment package (CBM) (B), CBM plus mindfulness (C), and CBM plus mindfulness and self-monitoring (D). Behavioral treatment alone increased on-task behaviors for four of six (66%) students compared to baseline; however, five of six (83%) students increased and sustained high rates of on-task behaviors when mindfulness exercises were added to the behavior analytic techniques. These preliminary results support the combination of mindfulness-based strategies with traditional behavior analytic interventions for increasing student on-task behaviors in classroom settings.

  17. Classroom Interaction in Teaching English as Foreign Language at Lower Secondary Schools in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sundari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a deep understanding of interaction in language classroom in foreign language context. Interviews, as major instrument, to twenty experienced English language teachers from eight lower secondary schools (SMP were conducted in Jakarta, completed by focus group discussions and class observation/recordings. The gathered data was analyzed according to systematic design of grounded theory analysis method through 3-phase coding. A model of classroom interaction was formulated defining several dimensions in interaction. Classroom interaction can be more comprehended under the background of interrelated factors: interaction practices, teacher and student factors, learning objectives, materials, classroom contexts, and outer contexts surrounding the interaction practices. The developed model of interaction for language classroom is notably to give deep descriptions on how interaction substantially occurs and what factors affect it in foreign language classrooms at lower secondary schools from teachers’ perspectives.

  18. Young Scientist in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    Bringing space exploration recent results and future challenges and opportunities to the knowledge of students has been a preoccupation of educators and space agencies for quite some time. The will to foster student’s interest and reawaken their interest for science topics and in particular research is something occupying the minds of educators in all corners of the globe. But the challenge is growing literally at the speed of light. We are in the age of “Big Data”. Information is available, opportunities to build smart algorithms flourishing. The problem at hand is how we are going to make use of all this possibilities. How can we prepare students to the challenges already upon them? How can we create a scientifically literate and conscious new generation? They are the future of mankind and therefore this is a priority and should quickly be recognized as such. Empowering teachers for this challenge is the key to face the challenges and hold the opportunities. Teachers and students need to learn how to establish fruitful collaboration in the pursuit of meaningful teaching and learning experiences. Teachers need to embrace the opportunities this ICT world is offering and accompany student’s path as tutors and not as explorers themselves. In this training session we intend to explore tools and repositories that bring real cutting edge science to the hands of educators and their students. A full space exploration will be revealed. Planetarium Software - Some tools tailored to prepare an observing session or to explore space mission’s results will be presented in this topic. Participants will also have the opportunity to learn how to plan an observing session. This reveals to be an excellent tool to teach about celestial movements and give students a sense of what it means to explore for instance the Solar System. Robotic Telescopes and Radio Antennas - Having planned an observing session the participants will be introduced to the use of robotic telescopes, a

  19. Mathematics and Science Learning Opportunities in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Miller, Heather Lynnine

    2014-01-01

    Research findings The present study observed and coded instruction in 65 preschool classrooms to examine (a) overall amounts and (b) types of mathematics and science learning opportunities experienced by preschool children as well as (c) the extent to which these opportunities were associated with classroom and program characteristics. Results indicated that children were afforded an average of 24 and 26 minutes of mathematics and science learning opportunities, respectively, corresponding to spending approximately 25% of total instructional time in each domain. Considerable variability existed, however, in the amounts and types of mathematics and science opportunities provided to children in their classrooms; to some extent, this variability was associated with teachers’ years of experience, teachers’ levels of education, and the socioeconomic status of children served in the program. Practice/policy Although results suggest greater integration of mathematics and science in preschool classrooms than previously established, there was considerable diversity in the amounts and types of learning opportunities provided in preschool classrooms. Affording mathematics and science experiences to all preschool children, as outlined in professional and state standards, may require additional professional development aimed at increasing preschool teachers’ understanding and implementation of learning opportunities in these two domains in their classrooms. PMID:25489205

  20. Influence of teacher-directed scientific inquiry on students' primal inquiries in two science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian Andrew

    Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for

  1. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Mendelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together®, for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: “long-term” (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1, n=14 or “short-term” (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2, n=17. Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  2. Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE): Enhancing Scientific Communication by Bringing STEM Research into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, D.; Radencic, S.; Funderburk, W. K.; Walker, R. M.; Jackson, B. S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Schmitz, D.; Bruce, L. M.; McNeal, K.

    2014-12-01

    INSPIRE, a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three local school districts, is designed to strengthen the communication skills of graduate Fellows in geosciences, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and engineering as they incorporate their research into inquiry-based lessons in 7th - 12th grade science and math classrooms. All lesson plans designed and taught by the graduate Fellows must include one or more connections to their research, and these connections must be demonstrated to the students during the lessons. International research partnerships with Australia, the Bahamas, England, and Poland provide valuable opportunities for graduate Fellows to conduct field work abroad and allow our partner teachers to have authentic research experiences that they can bring back to their classrooms. Program effectiveness has been examined using pre- and post-year attitudinal surveys, formal lesson plan documents, Fellow and teacher journals, focus group meetings with a project evaluator, and direct observation of Fellow-led classroom activities. Analyses of data gathered during the past four years of the partnership will be presented that examine the diversity in approaches taken by Fellows to communicate big ideas, changes in the ability of Fellows to find connections between their research and classroom lessons while keeping them aligned with state and national standards, and the quality of the mentorship provided to the Fellows by our partner teachers. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation (Award No. DGE-0947419).

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of a Specialized Music Therapy Model for Children with Disabilities Delivered in a Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna; White, Yasmine; Hans, Laura; Adebari, Richard; Schmid, Lorrie; Riggsbee, Jan; Goldsmith, Ali; Ozler, Burcu; Buehne, Kristen; Jones, Sarah; Shapleton, Jennifer; Dawson, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining popularity as an intervention strategy for children with developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was a pilot investigation of a classroom-based music-based intervention, Voices Together® , for improving communication skills in children with ASD and children with intellectual disabilities. Four local public elementary school special education classrooms, serving 5 children with a classification of autistic disorder and 32 children with intellectual disability without autism, were randomly selected to receive one of two levels of exposure to Voices Together music therapy: "long-term" (15 weeks beginning in January 2015 (Time 1), n = 14) or "short-term" (7 weeks beginning 7 weeks later in February (Time 2), n = 17). Using observational ratings, investigators reliably scored participants live in terms of their level of verbal responsiveness to prompts during three songs featured each week of the program. Both groups demonstrated increases in verbal responses over time; however, only the long-term group demonstrated significant within-group increases. Preliminary findings suggest that music therapy delivered in a classroom in 45-minute weekly sessions for 15 weeks can promote improvements in verbal responsiveness among individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. Findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy of classroom-based music therapy programs.

  4. Toward the virtual classroom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlman, M.; Dirks, D.H.

    1990-01-03

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) encourages its employees to remotely attend classes given by Stanford University, University of California at Davis, and the National Technological University (NTU). To improve the quality of education for LLNL employees, we are cooperating with Stanford University in upgrading the Stanford Instructional Television Network (SITN). A dedicated high-speed communication link (Tl) between Stanford and LLNL will be used for enhanced services such as videoconferencing, real time classnotes distribution, and electronic distribution of homework assignments. The new network will also allow students to take classes from their offices with the ability to ask the professor questions via an automatically dialed telephone call. As part of this upgrade, we have also proposed a new videoconferencing based classroom environment where students taking remote classes would feel as though they are attending the live class. All paperwork would be available in near real time and students may converse normally with, and see, other remote students as though they were all in the same physical location. We call this the Virtual Classroom.'' 1 ref., 6 figs.

  5. Factors Affecting Learners' Attention to Teacher Talk in Nine ESL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing

    2015-01-01

    With classroom observation and stimulated recall interviews as research instruments, the present study investigated some of the factors that affected learners' attention to teacher talk in nine English as a Second Language (ESL) classrooms. The results revealed five such factors, namely, learners' self evaluation of their language knowledge, the…

  6. Learning to Estimate Slide Comprehension in Classrooms with Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanasri, N.; Mukunoki, M.; Minoh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension assessment is an essential tool in classroom learning. However, the judgment often relies on experience of an instructor who makes observation of students' behavior during the lessons. We argue that students should report their own comprehension explicitly in a classroom. With students' comprehension made available at the slide…

  7. The Emergence of Student Creativity in Classroom Settings: A Case Study of Elementary Schools in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Younsoon; Chung, Hye Young; Choi, Kyoulee; Seo, Choyoung; Baek, Eunjoo

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the emergence of student creativity in classroom settings, specifically within two content areas: science and social studies. Fourteen classrooms in three elementary schools in Korea were observed, and the teachers and students were interviewed. The three types of student creativity emerging in the teaching and learning…

  8. An Investigation of Teacher Candidates' Perceptions about Physical Dimension of Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut Ozsezer, M. Sencer; Iflazoglu Saban, Ayten

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teacher candidates' perceptions about the physical dimension of classroom management. A hundred two 3rd year students at the Primary School Education Department of a state university were instructed to visit a primary school and to observe a classroom in terms of its physical dimensions. The students…

  9. Classroom Interactions around Problem Contexts and Task Authenticity in Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Jamie L. W.

    2017-01-01

    It has been theorized that contextual tasks support student engagement and sense making. Yet, contradictory ideas exist about the role of these tasks in lessons, and further research is needed to explore how classroom interactions can help achieve their intended purposes. Through video observation of lessons in three eighth-grade classrooms using…

  10. Classroom Assessment Preference of Indonesian Junior High School Teachers in English as Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saefurrohman

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted using a mix method design with 24 Indonesian junior high school English teachers as respondents who completed the questionnaire on classroom assessment practices. Six respondents participated in an interview and observation to further clarify their practices on classroom assessment. The study found that an Indonesian…

  11. Culture Clash: Interactions between Afrocultural and Mainstream Cultural Styles in Classrooms Serving African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, Karmen; Matthews, Jamaal S.; Byrd, Christy M.; Meyer, Rika M. L.; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between classroom cultural and achievement-related characteristics and their influence on social outcomes in a sample of 74 fifth grade African American youth (41 girls; 33 boys) ages 10-13 years. Trained observers rated classrooms according to Boykin's (Boykin, Tyler, & Miller, 2005) definition of mainstream…

  12. High School Students' Attitudes and Experiences in EFL Classrooms Equipped with Interactive Whiteboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Okatan, Semih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ninth grade EFL students' experiences and attitudes towards classrooms equipped with interactive whiteboards (IWB). The data were collected with a questionnaire about attitudes towards IWB use in EFL classes, and observations from three different classrooms in three different high schools. The study…

  13. Weekly physical activity of children in an education outside the classroom intervention segmented into day types and domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Schipperijn, Jasper; Nielsen, Glen

    Background: Implementation of education outside the classroom (EOtC) practice in a single or a few school classes has resulted in increased physical activity (PA) during school huors. As such, EOtC is a potential movement integration (MI) strategy within the traditional classroom school setting...... that can increase children’s PA. This study aims to investigate the associations between EOtC practice and 9-13 year old school children’s PA during a school week segmented into specific day types and domains. Methods: In a class-clustered parallel class observational design, 33 classes (17 EOtC classes......, or having incomplete accelerometer data, 361 (54.4% compliance, 10.9±1.0 years, 61.2% girls) children were included in a day type segmented analysis. Sixteen of the 33 classes provided additional information on their school activities and 194 children in these classes were included in a domain...

  14. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  15. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a partici......Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...... as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation....

  16. Examining the Flipped Classroom through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chung Kwan

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using a flipped classroom format in day-to-day teaching. Direct computer-based individual instruction outside the classroom and interactive group learning activities inside the classroom are the two essential components of the flipped classroom model. By watching instructional videos, students can work through some…

  17. Classroom Management: What Does Research Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postholm, May Britt

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews studies that focus on classroom management. The aim of classroom management is twofold. The first is to establish a quiet and calm environment in the classroom so that the pupils can take part in meaningful learning in a subject. The second aim is that classroom management contributes to the pupils' social and moral…

  18. The Effectiveness of Classroom Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Maire B.; Burns, Colleen E.; Mitch, Nathan; Gomez, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of classroom capture systems (systems that capture audio and video footage of a lecture and attempt to replicate a classroom experience) is becoming increasingly popular at the university level. However, research on the effectiveness of classroom capture systems in the university classroom has been limited due to the recent development and…

  19. Trout in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Trout in the Classroom (TIC) is a conservation-oriented environmental education program for elementary, middle, and high school students. During the year each teacher tailors the program to fit his or her curricular needs. Therefore, each TIC program is unique. TIC has interdisciplinary applications in science, social studies, mathematics, language arts, fine arts, and physical education. In the program, students and teachers raise trout from fertilized eggs supplied by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VGIF) hatcheries, in aquariums equipped with special chillers designed to keep the water near 50 degrees F. The students make daily temperature measurements, and monitor pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and ammonia levels. They record their data, plot trends, and make sure that the water quality is sufficient to support trout development. The fingerlings, which hatch in late October, are almost an inch and a half long by mid-January. And towards the end of the school year, students will release the fry into VGIF approved watersheds. TIC programs have been in place all across the country for more than 20 years, and are the result of numerous collaborations between teachers, volunteers, government agencies, and local organizations like Trout Unlimited. The programs were designed specifically for teachers who wanted to incorporate more environmental education into their curriculum. While the immediate goal of Trout in the Classroom is to increase student knowledge of water quality and cold water conservation, its long-term goal is to reconnect an increasingly urbanized population of youth to the system of streams, rivers, and watersheds that sustain them. Successful programs have helped: connect students to their local environments and their local watersheds; teach about watershed health and water quality, and; get students to care about fish and the environment. In Virginia, the TIC program is now in its 8th year. Over the past year, the program

  20. Association between classroom ventilation mode and learning outcome in Danish schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Wargocki, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    opening. Also, the carbon dioxide concentration was lower in classrooms with balanced mechanical ventilation. There was no consistent association between the achievement indicators and the person specific room volume, construction/renovation year, or the occupancy. Measurements of carbon dioxide...... concentrations and temperatures in 820 classrooms in 389 schools were available. In 56% and 66% of the classrooms included in the two studies, the measured CO2 concentration was higher than 1000ppm. The findings of this study add to the growing evidence that insufficient classroom ventilation have impacts...

  1. The implementation of flipped classroom model in CIE in the environment of non-target language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Renfei; Mustofa, Ali; Zhang, Fang; Su, Xiaoxue

    2018-01-01

    This paper sets a theoretical framework that it’s both feasible and indispensable of flipping classroom in Chinese International Education (CIE) in the non-target language environments. There are mainly three sections included: 1) what is flipped classroom and why it becomes inevitable existence; 2) why should we flip the classroom in CIE environments, especially in non-target language environments; 3) take Pusat Bahasa Mandarin Universitas Negeri Surabaya as an instance to discuss the application of flipped classroom in non-target language environments.

  2. Visual, Critical, and Scientific Thinking Dispositions in a 3rd Grade Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Stacy

    Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.

  3. Nursing instructors' and male nursing students' perceptions of undergraduate, classroom nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Jeff M; Oliffe, John; Phinney, Alison; Garrett, Bernie

    2009-08-01

    Attrition rates of male nursing students exceed those of females yet the experiences of male students in nursing school are poorly understood. This interpretive ethnographic study explored the experiences of male nursing students and female nursing instructors in the context of classroom education. Data collection consisted of participant observation of classroom teaching sessions followed by interviews with six male nursing students who were participants in the classes and six female nursing instructors who taught the classes. Themes resulting from data analysis addressed men's roles in the nursing classroom and the culture of nursing education. The theme of "nursing like a real man" was characterized by men's reliance on roles and behaviours associated with traditional masculinities including leadership, assertiveness and risk-taking. The theme of "masculinities in a feminine place" captured the gendered culture of nursing education which manifested in stereotypes and a sexualized identity, where men saw themselves as accommodated but not integrated. "Diversity between masculine and feminine" communicated the incongruity between men's educational preferences and the techniques that predominate in nursing education. These findings suggest that nursing instructors need to consider gender in their teaching practice, avoid parody or stereotypes of masculinities, and reject assumptions that male students are homogeneous.

  4. The Social Network Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  5. The current practice of using multiple representations in year 4 science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenmanee, Chanoknat; Thathong, Kongsak

    2018-01-01

    Multiple representations have been widely used as a reasoning tool for understanding complex scientific concepts. Thus this study attempted to investigate the current practice of using multiple representations on Year 4 science classrooms in terms of modes and levels which appear in curriculum documents, teaching plans, tasks and assessments, teaching practices, and students' behaviors. Indeed, documentary analysis, classroom observation, and interview were used as the data collection methods. First of all, Year 4 science documents were analyzed. Then classroom observation was used as a collecting method to seek what actually happen in the classroom. Finally, in-depth interviews were used to gather more information and obtain meaningful data. The finding reveals that many modes of verbal, visual, and tactile representations within three levels of representations are posed in Year 4 documents. Moreover, according to classroom observations and interviews, there are three main points of applying multiple representations into classrooms. First of all, various modes of representations were used, however, a huge number of them did not come together with the levels. The levels of representations, secondly, macroscopic and cellular levels were introduced into all classrooms while symbolic level was provided only in some classrooms. Finally, the connection of modes and levels pointed out that modes of representations were used without the considerations on the levels of them. So, it seems to be that teaching practice did not meet the aims of curriculum. Therefore, these issues were being considered in order to organize and design the further science lessons.

  6. Ethnographic case study of a high school science classroom: Strategies in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Lucinda N.

    Historically, science education research has promoted that learning science occurs through direct physical experiences. In recent years, the need for best practices and student motivation have been highlighted in STEM research findings. In response to the instructional challenges in STEM education, the National Research Council has provided guidelines for improving STEM literacy through best practices in science and mathematics instruction. A baseline qualitative ethnographic case study of the effect of instructional practices on a science classroom was an opportunity to understand how a teacher and students work together to learn in an International Baccalaureate life science course. This study was approached through an interpretivist lens with the assumption that learning science is socially constructed. The following were the research questions: 1.) How does the teacher implement science instruction strategies in the classroom? 2.) In what ways are students engaged in the classroom? 3.) How are science concepts communicated in the classroom? The total 35 participants included a high school science teacher and two classes of 11th grade students in the International Baccalaureate program. Using exploratory qualitative methods of research, data was collected from field notes and transcripts from a series of classroom observations, a single one-on-one interview with the teacher and two focus groups with students from each of the two classes. Three themes emerged from text coded using initial and process coding with the computer assisted qualitative data analysis software, MAXQDA. The themes were: 1.) Physical Forms of Communication Play Key Role in Instructional Strategy, 2.) Science Learning Occurs in Casual Environment Full of Distractions, and 3.) Teacher Persona Plays Vital Role in Classroom Culture. The findings provided insight into the teacher's role on students' motivation to learn science. The recommendation for STEM programs and new curriculum is a

  7. Examining the Latest Threat to the Teaching of Evolution in our Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchmoor, J.

    2001-05-01

    Evolution is not just a theory; it is fundamental to our understanding of life and its history. Evolution is good science, not a belief system. It requires conclusive evidence that can be subjected to the tests of observation and objective reasoning. As defined within the National Science Education Standards, scientific inquiry is a set of interrelated processes by which scientists and students pose questions about the natural world. This definition must guide what is taught in science classrooms. In February, 2001 the Kansas Board of Education reversed a controversial 1999 decision and approved a new set of science standards. This action included a definition of science that focuses on the natural world and returned the teaching of evolution to the classroom, including the origin of the universe and the age of the earth. The vote was 7-3 in favor of the new standards and against an amendment put forth to accept revisions suggested by the local Intelligent Design Network (IDN). Following this decision, John Calvert, a managing director of the IDN, said that he was disappointed but not surprised, and that his group plans to take its case to school boards across the country. This threat should not be taken lightly. School boards ultimately influence or decide what is taught in classrooms. The events in Kansas were instrumental in waking up a lethargic educational and scientific community, but we cannot afford to rest easy now that evolution has been returned to Kansas science standards. The presence of evolution in science standards does not guarantee the teaching of evolution in science classrooms. Nor does it guarantee that teachers are prepared for the new anti-evolution strategies employed by the IDN. These tactics include claims of censorship and demands for the presentation of alternative scientific theories. They also include challenges based upon religion and philosophy, not science, and they place the teacher in the role of debater instead of educator. In

  8. Adobe Photoshop CS6 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A complete training package on the newest version of Photoshop! The Digital Classroom series combines a full-color book with a full-featured DVD, resulting in a complete training package written by expert instructors. Photoshop is the industry standard for image editing, and this guide gets photographers, commercial designers, web developers, fine artists, and serious hobbyists up to speed on the newest version. It includes 13 self-paced lessons that allow you to progress at your own speed, with complete lesson files and tutorials on the DVD. Topics include Camera RAW, masks and la

  9. Superconductors in the high school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we discuss the behavior of high-temperature superconductors and how to demonstrate them safely and effectively in the high school or introductory physics classroom. Included here is a discussion of the most relevant physics topics that can be demonstrated, some safety tips, and a bit of the history of superconductors. In an effort to include first-year physics students in the world of modern physics, a topic as engaging as superconductivity should not be missed. It is an opportunity to inspire students to study physics through the myriad of possible applications that high temperature superconductors hold for the future.

  10. Bringing Polar Science to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruccoli, A.; Madsen, J. M.; Porter, M.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF sponsored IceCube (OPP-0236449) and Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) projects have developed a model for engaging K-12 teachers in a variety of scientific disciplines using polar science as a unifying theme. An intensive workshop, Science in the Ice, provided teachers with background content knowledge and seed ideas for activities aligned with national teaching standards. These activities were used to support the introduction of authentic science investigations related to current polar research in the classroom. The pilot workshop, sponsored by the NSF supported Math-Science Partnership SCALE (0227016), demonstrated the viability of this approach for involving a continuum of teachers from novice to master in a meaningful professional development model that can lead to sustainable classroom changes. This model for teacher professional development is based on the premise that the most robust educational outreach efforts involve teachers that are prepared, supported, and connected to a network of researchers and educators. This network can also serve to both stimulate interest in polar research and as a vehicle for delivering classroom materials related to the International Polar Year. An overview of Science in the Ice will be provided to show how the natural fascination with extreme environments can be used to introduce on-going research to the classroom from multiple disciplines---glaciology, geology, and astrophysics---with a common thread of polar science. The case for involving teachers now to fully capitalize on the potential of the International Polar Year, by providing professional development opportunities including field experiences with researchers, will be made.

  11. A Review of Classroom Management Studies of Teachers’ Teaching and Students’ Learning about Classroom Rules

    OpenAIRE

    笹屋, 孝允

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed classroom management studies of teachers ’ teaching and students ’ learning about classroom rules since 1990s. Teachers decide classroom rules and teach them to students in class in the beginning time of the school year. Classroom rules divide students into students in primary adjustment and students in secondary adjustment. Misbehavior of Students in secondary adjustment provides opportunities to learn classroom rules, to negotiate modification of classroom rules with a t...

  12. Classroom Teachers: Interacting with Stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindzola, Rebekah H.

    1986-01-01

    Stuttering has the potential of being an educationally, socially, and vocationally handicapping condition. This article provides information to allow teachers to recognize stutterers and to provide an appropriate classroom environment. (MT)

  13. Concussion Management in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Danielle M; Caperell, Kerry S

    2016-12-01

    There is a new emphasis on the team approach to pediatric concussion management, particularly in the classroom. However, it is expected that educators are unfamiliar with the "Returning to Learning" recommendations. The authors' primary objective was to assess and improve high school educators' knowledge regarding concussions and management interventions using an online education tool. A total of 247 high school educators completed a 12 question pretest to assess core knowledge of concussions and classroom management followed by a 20-minute online literature-based education module. Participants then completed an identical posttest. The improvement in core knowledge was statistically significant (P classroom management also showed a statistically significant increase in scores (P classroom management as well as the significant improvement after an online educational module. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Rap Music in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)

  15. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  16. Don Quixote in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Article states that learning, like all aspects of human development, results from interaction with others. The role of the teacher in establishing communication in the classroom and providing an example of openness and involvement is emphasized. (RW)

  17. Beginning Continuous Fluid Motion in the Music Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Todd G.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on how to include movement education into the music classroom. Discusses the techniques developed by three movement specialists: (1) Edwin Gordon's Continuous Fluid Motion (CFM); (2) Rudolf von Laban's effort/flow elements; and (3) Phyllis Weikart's taxonomy of movement. Includes a bibliography of resources. (CMK)

  18. Communicative Competence in Audio Classrooms: A Position Paper for the CADE 1991 Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Liz

    Classroom practitioners need to move their attention away from the technological and logistical competencies required for audio conferencing (AC) to the required communicative competencies in order to advance their skills in handling the psychodynamics of audio virtual classrooms which include audio alone and audio with graphics. While the…

  19. Integrating Technology in Today's Undergraduate Classrooms: A Look at Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Kimberly C.; Salmun, Haydee

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a small-scale study of student opinions drawn from an anonymous and voluntary survey in an undergraduate science classroom. The survey questions focused on the use of basic tools in a college classroom. The tools included in the survey were PowerPoint, overhead projectors/chalkboards, personal response units,…

  20. Communicative Use of Newspaper Texts in Classroom Reading: The Read-Ask-and-Tell Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnryb, Ruth

    1988-01-01

    Describes a method of using newspaper articles in the English-language classroom called Read-Ask-and-Tell. The place of authentic materials in the classroom, including some of the pitfalls, are discussed. The Reading, Asking, and Telling components are outlined, and activities for consolidation and reinforcement of skills are suggested. Appendices…

  1. Explaining Technology Integration in K-12 Classrooms: A Multilevel Path Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Dawson, Kara; Barron, Ann E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to design and test a model of classroom technology integration in the context of K-12 schools. The proposed multilevel path analysis model includes teacher, contextual, and school related variables on a teacher's use of technology and confidence and comfort using technology as mediators of classroom technology…

  2. Educational Technology and the Restructuring Movement: Lessons from Research on Computers in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Diane; And Others

    This paper presents findings from a recently completed study of the use of computers in primary classrooms as one source of evidence concerning the role technology can play in school restructuring efforts. The sites for the study were selected by Apple Computer, Inc. in the spring of 1988 and included 43 classrooms in 10 schools in 6 large, mostly…

  3. The Caterpillar Game: A SW-PBIS Aligned Classroom Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Margaret T.; Jacoby, Amber L.

    2017-01-01

    The Caterpillar Game is a classroom management system that is aligned with School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports standards. A single-case, multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Caterpillar Game on disruptive student behavior and teacher praise. Three classrooms were included in the study (preschool,…

  4. Comparing Interaction and Use of Space in Traditional and Innovative Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura; Long, Avizia Y.; Solon, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Despite myriad changes to language teaching methods over time, university-level classroom spaces have largely remained the same--until now. Recent innovations in classroom space design center on technological advances, include movable furniture and coffee-shop style rooms, and are believed to facilitate language learning in several ways.…

  5. Meeting Students Where They Are: Advancing a Theory and Practice of Archives in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidy, Christina; Hannah, Mark; Sura, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article uses theories of technical communication and archives to advance a pedagogy that includes archival production in the technical communication classroom. By developing and maintaining local classroom archives, students directly engage in valuable processes of appraisal, selection, collaboration, and retention. The anticipated outcomes…

  6. Teaching about Love and Practicing Feminist Pedagogy in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Hui, You

    2014-01-01

    Being a feminist teacher, working on gender equity education, including teaching, reading, writing, and doing research on this topic, has become a commitment for me. I have frequently reflected my teaching practices and occasionally found new teaching strategies in the classroom. I always try to bring new topics or issues into the classroom in…

  7. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  8. The Physical Placement of Classroom Technology and Its Influences on Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondeur, J.; De Bruyne, E.; Van Den Driessche, M.; McKenney, S.; Zandvliet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain deeper insights into how technology restructures the classroom as a spatial setting and how the positioning of these technologies can be associated with educational practices. The research includes a photographic and schematic representation of 115 classrooms in 12 primary schools in Belgium, resulting in a…

  9. The physical placement of classroom technology and its influences on educational practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tondeur, J.; de Bruyne, E.; van den Driessche, M.; McKenney, Susan; Zandvliet, D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain deeper insights into how technology restructures the classroom as a spatial setting and how the positioning of these technologies can be associated with educational practices. The research includes a photographic and schematic representation of 115 classrooms in

  10. The physical placement of classroom technology and its influences on educational practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tondeur, Jo; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van den Driessche, Maarten; McKenney, Susan; Zandvliet, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain deeper insights into how technology restructures the classroom as a spatial setting and how the positioning of these technologies can be associated with educational practices. The research includes a photographic and schematic representation of 115 classrooms

  11. Predicting Academic Success from Academic Motivation and Learning Approaches in Classroom Teaching Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether learning approaches and academic motivation together predict academic success of classroom teaching students. The sample of the study included 536 students (386 female, 150 male) studying at the Classroom Teaching Division of Canakkale 18 Mart University. Our research was designed as a prediction study. Data was…

  12. Planning and Enacting Mathematical Tasks of High Cognitive Demand in the Primary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgius, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This study offers an examination of two primary-grades teachers as they learn to transfer knowledge from professional development into their classrooms. I engaged in planning sessions with each teacher to help plan tasks of high cognitive demand, including anticipating and planning for classroom discourse that would occur around the task. A…

  13. Developing a "Conjecturing Atmosphere" in the Classroom through Task Design and Enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on algebraic reasoning in primary school classrooms. This includes introducing students to the mathematical practices of making conjectures, justifying and generalising. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper explores one teacher's journey in shifting her task design and…

  14. Sense of Classroom Community and Team Development Process in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Aydin, Irem; Gumus, Salih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between Turkish online learners' sense of classroom community, perceptions of success in team development process and their preferences of studying in teams. A survey instrument included the Sense of Classroom Community Scale, Tuckman's Teamwork Questionnaire and some other…

  15. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  16. THE USE OF MOTHER TONGUE IN EFL CLASSROOMS WITH YOUNG ENGLISH LEARNERS IN KORÇA, ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorela KAÇAUNI KONOMI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show to what extent English teachers speak the MT (Albanian in the EFL classrooms when they teach Young English Learners in a public school in Korça, Albania. To achieve this, the researcher analyzed the data collected from four classroom observations in grades 3 up to 6. Three English teachers were interviewed and compared to show how much they used Albanian and reasons why they used it. The data obtained from the classroom observations and interviews showed that all the teachers used Albanian in the EFL classrooms in different extents and for different reasons.

  17. Designing User Centred Intelligent Classroom Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Diana Zdravkova; Schledermann, Kathrine Marie; Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring

    2018-01-01

    Through a case study, this paper presents a new way of designing intelligent classroom lighting to meet the users’ needs. A mix of ethnographic methods (field observations and interviews) were used to investigate the everyday learning activities at a middle school in Copenhagen in order...... to determine how lighting can support the learning environment. Based on the investigations, lighting design criteria and three predefined lighting scenes are proposed as a new design for meeting the needs of students and teachers during three types of activities. The scenes focus on smartboard visibility...

  18. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  19. Folksong in the Classroom. A Network of Teachers of History, Literature, Music, and the Humanities, A Newsletter. Volume XII, Fall-Spring 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W., Ed.; Seidman, Laurence, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    "Folksong in the Classroom" is a newsletter of a network of teachers of history, literature, music, and the humanities. Each issue contains songs, background information, classroom activities, and ideas for teachers to use in integrating folksongs into their teaching. Three issues of "Folksong in the Classroom" are included in…

  20. Shifting more than the goal posts: developing classroom norms of inquiry-based learning in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Katie; Fielding-Wells, Jill

    2018-03-01

    The 3-year study described in this paper aims to create new knowledge about inquiry norms in primary mathematics classrooms. Mathematical inquiry addresses complex problems that contain ambiguities, yet classroom environments often do not adopt norms that promote curiosity, risk-taking and negotiation needed to productively engage with complex problems. Little is known about how teachers and students initiate, develop and maintain norms of mathematical inquiry in primary classrooms. The research question guiding this study is, "How do classroom norms develop that facilitate student learning in primary classrooms which practice mathematical inquiry?" The project will (1) analyse a video archive of inquiry lessons to identify signature practices that enhance productive classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and facilitate learning, (2) engage expert inquiry teachers to collaborate to identify and design strategies for assisting teachers to develop and sustain norms over time that are conducive to mathematical inquiry and (3) support and study teachers new to mathematical inquiry adopting these practices in their classrooms. Anticipated outcomes include identification and illustration of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry, signature practices linked to these norms and case studies of primary teachers' progressive development of classroom norms of mathematical inquiry and how they facilitate learning.

  1. Mapping Science in Discourse-based Inquiry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeneayhu, Demeke Gesesse

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate how discourse-based inquiry science lessons provided opportunities for students to develop a network of semantic relations among core ideas and concepts in science. It was a naturalistic inquiry classroom lessons observation study on three science teachers--- a middle school science teacher and two high school physics teachers in an urban school district located in the Western New York region. Discourse and thematic analysis drawn from the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics were utilized as guiding framework and analysis tools. Analysis of the pre-observation and post-observation interviews of the participant teachers revealed that all of the three teachers participated in at least one inquiry-based science teaching teacher professional development program and they all thought their classroom teaching practice was inquiry-based. Analysis of their classroom lesson videos that each participant teacher taught on a specific science topic revealed that the middle school teacher was found to be a traditional teacher-dominated classroom whereas the two high school physics teachers' classroom teaching approach was found to be discourse-based inquiry. One of the physics teachers who taught on a topic of Magnetic Interaction used relatively structured and guided-inquiry classroom investigations. The other physics teacher who taught on a topic of Color Mixing utilized open-ended classroom investigations where the students planned and executed the series of classroom science investigations with minimal guidance from the teacher. The traditional teacher-based classroom communicative pattern was found to be dominated by Triadic Dialogue and most of the science thematics were jointly developed by the teacher and the students, but the students' role was limited to providing responses to the teacher's series questions. In the guided-inquiry classroom, the common communicative pattern was found to be True Dialogue and most

  2. Effects of Physical Classroom Environment on the Literacy Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Teaching Writing Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal; Mehmood Ul Hassan; Muhammad Qasim Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical classroom environment plays a fundamental role in the academic success or failure of students and serves as a means to build the necessary basic skills for literacy development among students in a deliberate and intensive way. Physical classroom environment includes: a broad range of educational facilities, including: reading and writing materials, various types of equipment, physical settings, and instructional components. Many students come to classroom with exposure to literacy. S...

  3. Genre-Based Teaching and Assessment in Secondary English Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how genre can be used as an organisational principle to interweave teaching and assessment in the L2 school context. Relying on data from interviews and lesson observations gathered from two Secondary 1 (that is, Grade 7) Hong Kong classrooms, the study sought to discover how teachers implemented genre-based teaching and…

  4. A Classroom Research Study on Oral Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study has the main objective to present the findings of a small-scale classroom research carried out to collect data about my spoken error correction behaviors by means of self-observation. With this study, I aimed to analyze how and which spoken errors I corrected during a specific activity in a beginner's class. I used Lyster and Ranta's…

  5. A Chinese EFL Teacher's Classroom Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of how an experienced EFL teacher assessed her students in her oral English course at a university in China. Data were collected over one semester through document analysis, classroom observation and recording, interviews, and student journals. Analysis revealed that the teacher assessed her students through…

  6. Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…

  7. Critique and Process: Signature Pedagogies in the Graphic Design Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Like many disciplines in design and the visual fine arts, critique is a signature pedagogy in the graphic design classroom. It serves as both a formative and summative assessment while also giving students the opportunity to practice the habits of graphic design. Critiques help students become keen observers of relevant disciplinary criteria;…

  8. I Have a Banana Tree in My Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    When the banana is growing, the broadest part of the banana is located at the bottom, while the tapered end points upward. It appears upside down, however, from the banana tree's perspective, it is growing right side up. The author observes that the students in her classroom labeled by society as "at risk," are also, in a sense, "upside down."…

  9. Developing Intentionality and L2 Classroom Task-Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelma, Juup

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends work on "intentionality", from philosophy, psychology and education to an exploration of learners' meaning-making in L2 classroom task-engagement. The paper draws on both phenomenological and folk-psychological perspectives on intentionality, and employs John R. Searle's intrinsic (mental) and derived (observable)…

  10. Backyard Botany: Using GPS Technology in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology can be used to connect students to the natural world and improve their skills in observation, identification, and classification. Using GPS devices in the classroom increases student interest in science, encourages team-building skills, and improves biology content knowledge. Additionally, it helps…

  11. Living Classrooms: Learning Guide for Famous & Historic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Forest Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides information to create and care for a Famous and Historic Trees Living Classroom in which students learn American history and culture in the context of environmental change. The booklet contains 10 hands-on activities that emphasize observation, critical thinking, and teamwork. Worksheets and illustrations provide students with…

  12. Teacher Perceptions of Classroom Assessment: A Focus Group Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun

    2015-01-01

    This study used a focus group interview to examine teacher perceptions of classroom assessment. The interview took place in a school where the researcher had visited and observed classes taught by the majority of the teachers interviewed for the study. The majority of the interviewees seemed to embrace the notion of assessment for learning.…

  13. Language practices in school-based Grade R classrooms | Lenyai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation on language practices aimed at establishing how the language of learning policy formulated by the Department of Education in South Africa was interpreted at classroom level. The study focused on language activities in schoolbased Grade R classes to observe how learners' home language was used as ...

  14. Japanese Lesson Study Sustaining Teacher Learning in the Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, Crystal Corle

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this action research study were first to explore teacher perceptions of Japanese lesson study as a method of professional development, and second to take teachers through an action research process as they observed the implementation of a literacy lesson in the classroom. Situated Learning Theory, particularly related to teacher…

  15. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  16. Arts Integration: What Is Really Happening in the Elementary Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Researching how Arts Integration is practiced in a primary school, this article explores how elementary teachers understand, implement, and experience Arts Integration. Weaving together personal experiences, teacher interviews, focus group sessions, classroom observations, and written texts, I investigate how the arts are often devalued in Arts…

  17. Role Set Determinants of Teacher Reports of Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Edward F.; And Others

    A discrepancy exists between teacher self-appraisal and reports of students and outside observers. Based on role theory this study explored some social correlates of teacher reports of classroom behavior. Data were collected from two sessions (88 teachers) at a staff development center. Teachers reported: (1) occurrence frequencies of nine…

  18. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  19. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  20. Second graders’ collaborative learning around touchscreens in their classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob

    In “Second graders’ collaborative learning around touchscreens in their classroom”, Jacob Davidsen explores, analyses and discusses how eight- and nine-year-old children’s embodied collaborative interactions around touchscreens unfold in classroom settings. Having conducted micro...... and ethnographic observations, all from a year-long study of naturally occurring activities in two second grade classrooms at a public school in Denmark. The way of seeing and making visible children’s collaboration around touchscreens presented in this thesis is informed by CSCL, ethnomethodology and embodied...

  1. An Investigation into Student Engagement in Higher Education Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Witkowski, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a one-year research project that used peer coaching and collaboration between two reading professors to study the effects of collaborative classroom activities on student engagement. In order to address professors’ concerns about student participation, two undergraduate reading-methods classes were revised through the inclusion of more collaborative learning activities. Classroom observations were conducted to take notes on both pedagogical methods and student response to these methods. Students were also asked to self-assess their engagement in behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains. The results of this research were then used to revise pedagogical techniques in these and other classes.

  2. GLOBE at Night: Scientific Research outside of the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.; Walker, C. E.; Geary, E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the traditional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. GLOBE at Night is a new event within The GLOBE Program that provides a mechanism for a nontraditional learning activity involving teachers, students, and their families taking observations of the night sky around the world and reporting their observations via a central data base for analysis. To support activities centered on authentic research experiences such as GLOBE at Night, The GLOBE Program has changed its approach to professional development (PD). The new focus of GLOBE PD efforts is centered on teachers being able to facilitate student research in and out of the classroom reflective of authentic scientific research experiences. It has been recognized that there is a critical need for effective teacher professional development programs that support teacher involvement in meaningful scientific research that encourages partnerships between scientists, teachers, and students. Partnerships promoting scientific research for K-12 audiences provides the foundation for The GLOBE Program, an international inquiry-based program designed to engage teachers with their students in partnership with research scientists to better understand the environment at local, regional, and global scales. GLOBE is an ongoing international science and education program that unites students, teachers, and scientists in the study of the Earth System. Students participating in GLOBE engage in hands-on activities, including the collection, analysis, and sharing of research quality scientific data with their peers around the world. Students interact with members of the science community who use the data collected from locations around the world in their research - data that would often not be available otherwise. As of September 2005, over 30,000 teachers representing over 16,000 schools worldwide have

  3. A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioral, emotional, and motivational outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, Hanke; Harms, Truus; de Boer, Hester; van Kuijk, Mechteld; Doolaard, Simone

    This meta-analysis examined which classroom management strategies and programs enhanced students’ academic, behavioral, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes in primary education. The analysis included 54 random and nonrandom controlled intervention studies published in the past decade

  4. Evaluating the benefit of recorded early reflections from a classroom for speech intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeffery B.

    Recent standards for classrooms acoustics recommend achieving low levels of reverberation to provide suitable conditions for speech communication (ANSI, 2002; ASHA, 1995). Another viewpoint recommends optimizing classroom acoustics to emphasize early reflections and reduce later arriving reflections (Boothroyd, 2004; Bradley, Sato, & Picard, 2003). The idea of emphasizing early reflections is based in the useful-to-detrimental ratio (UDR) model of speech intelligibility in rooms (Lochner & Burger, 1964). The UDR model predicts that listeners integrate energy from early reflections to improve the signal-to-noise (SNR) of the direct speech signal. However, both early and more recent studies of early reflections and speech intelligibility have used simulated reflections that may not accurately represent the effects of real early reflections on the speech intelligibility of listeners. Is speech intelligibility performance enhanced by the presence of real early reflections in noisy classroom environments? The effect of actual early reflections on speech intelligibility was evaluated by recording a binaural impulse response (BRIR) with a K.E.M.A.R. in a college classroom. From the BRIR, five listening conditions were created with varying amounts of early reflections. Young-adult listeners with normal hearing participated in a fixed SNR word intelligibility task and a variable SNR task to test if speech intelligibility was improved in competing noise when recorded early reflections were present as compared to direct speech alone. Mean speech intelligibility performance gains or SNR benefits were not observed with recorded early reflections. When simulated early reflections were included, improved speech understanding was observed for simulated reflections but for with real reflections. Spectral, temporal, and phonemic analyses were performed to investigate acoustic differences in recorded and simulated reflections. Spectral distortions in the recorded reflections may have

  5. Facilitating cultural border crossing in urban secondary science classrooms: A study of inservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Anna Karina

    Research acknowledges that if students are to be successful science, they must learn to navigate and cross cultural borders that exist between their own cultures and the subculture of science. This dissertation utilized a mixed methods approach to explore how inservice science teachers working in urban schools construct their ideas of and apply the concepts about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as relevant to the teaching and learning of science. The study used the lenses of cultural capital, social constructivism, and cultural congruency in the design and analysis of each of the three phases of data collection. Phase I identified the perspectives of six inservice science teachers on science culture, cultural border crossing, and which border crossing methods, if any, they used during science teaching. Phase II took a dialectical approach as the teachers read about science culture and cultural border crossing during three informal professional learning community meetings. This phase explored how teachers constructed their understanding of cultural border crossing and how the concept applied to the teaching and learning of science. Phase III evaluated how teachers' perspectives changed from Phase I. In addition, classroom observations were used to determine whether teachers' practices in their science classrooms changed from Phase I to Phase III. All three phases collected data through qualitative (i.e., interviews, classroom observations, and surveys) and quantitative (Likert items) means. The findings indicated that teachers found great value in learning about the culture of science and cultural border crossing as it pertained to their teaching methods. This was not only evidenced by their interviews and surveys, but also in the methods they used in their classrooms. Final conclusions included how the use of student capital resources (prior experiences, understandings and knowledge, ideas an interests, and personal beliefs), if supported by

  6. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of power to the engagement of student with subject matter. Two classroom sessions were observed and teacher-student interactions audio recorded. Data were transcribed and a method was developed for analyzing teacher-student interactions, power dynamics, and types of questions asked. Results revealed that teacher talk was twice as frequent as students' talk; questions were primarily closed-ended and task-oriented; and students asked few questions. The teacher exercised power by keeping activities organized and conventional, and utilizing subject matter. The developed methods showed us the complexity of question and power dynamics in classroom discourse and have implications for professional development and research.

  7. Integration of Engineering Education by High School Teachers to Meet Standards in the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Jennifer Anna

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in engineering education at the K-12 level, which has resulted in states adopting engineering standards as a part of their academic science standards. From a national perspective, the basis for research into engineering education at the K-12 level is the belief that it is of benefit to student learning, including to "improve student learning and achievement in science and mathematics; increase awareness of engineering and the work of engineers; boost youth interest in pursuing engineering as a career; and increase the technological literacy of all students" (National Research Council, 2009a, p. 1). The above has led to a need to understand how teachers are currently implementing engineering education in their classrooms. High school physics teachers have a history of implementing engineering design projects in their classrooms, thus providing an appropriate setting to look for evidence of quality engineering education at the high school level. Understanding the characteristics of quality engineering integration can inform curricular and professional development efforts for teachers asked to implement engineering in their classrooms. Thus, the question that guided this study is: How, and to what extent, do physics teachers represent quality engineering in a physics unit focused on engineering? A case study research design was implemented for this project. Three high school physics teachers were participants in this study focused on the integration of engineering education into the physics classroom. The data collected included observations, interviews, and classroom documents that were analyzed using the Framework for Quality K-12 Engineering Education (Moore, Glancy et al., 2013). The results provided information about the areas of the K-12 engineering framework addressed during these engineering design projects, and detailed the quality of these lesson components. The results indicate that all of the design

  8. Successful White teachers of Black students: Teaching across racial lines in urban middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Bobbie

    The majority of urban minority students, particularly Black students, continue to perform below proficiency on standardized state and national testing in all areas that seriously impact economically advanced career options, especially in areas involving science. If education is viewed as a way out of poverty, there is a need to identify pedagogical methodologies that assist Black students in achieving higher levels of success in science, and in school in general. The purpose of this study was to explore White teachers' and Black students' perceptions about the teaching strategies used in their low socioeconomic status (LSES) urban science classrooms, that led to academic success for Black students. Participants included three urban middle school White teachers thought to be the best science teachers in the school, and five randomly selected Black students from each of their classrooms. Methods of inquiry involving tenets of grounded theory were used to examine strategies teachers used to inspire Black students into academic success. Data collection included teacher and student interviews, field notes from classroom observations, group discussions, and questionaires. Data were analyzed using open, axial, and selective coding. The teachers' perceptions indicated that their prior belief systems, effective academic and personal communication, caring and nurturing strategies, using relevant and meaningful hands-on activities in small learner-centered groups, enhanced the learning capabilities of all students in their classrooms, especially the Black students. Black students' perceptions indicated that their academic success was attributable to what teachers personally thought about them, demonstrated that they cared, communicated with them on a personal and academic level, gave affirmative feedback, simplified, and explained content matter. Black students labeled teachers who had these attributes as "nice" teachers. The nurturing and caring behaviors of "nice" teachers

  9. Thinking through children's literature in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Torres, Agustín; Soler-Pardo, Betlem

    2014-01-01

    This book is the result of understanding literature as a central part of children's education. Fiction and nonfiction literary works constitute a source to open young minds and to help them understand how and why people - themselves included - live as they do, or to question through critical lenses whether they could live otherwise. By integrating philological, cultural, and pedagogical inquiries, Thinking through Children's Literature in the Classroom approaches the use of literature as a crucial factor to motivate students not only to improve their literacy skills, but also to develop their

  10. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  11. Graduate students teaching elementary earth science through interactive classroom lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, T. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Jawin, E. R.; Robinson, F.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2005, graduate students in the Brown University Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Studies have volunteered to teach science to second-grade students at Vartan Gregorian Elementary School in Providence, RI. Initially developed to bring science into classrooms where it was not explicitly included in the curriculum, the graduate student-run program today incorporates the Providence Public Schools Grade 2 science curriculum into weekly, interactive sessions that engage the students in hypothesis-driven science. We will describe the program structure, its integration into the Providence Public Schools curriculum, and 3 example lessons relevant to geology. Lessons are structured to develop the students' ability to share and incorporate others' ideas through written and oral communication. The volunteers explain the basics of the topic and engage the students with introductory questions. The students use this knowledge to develop a hypothesis about the upcoming experiment, recording it in their "Science Notebooks." The students record their observations during the demonstration and discuss the results as a group. The process culminates in the students using their own words to summarize what they learned. Activities of particular interest to educators in geoscience are called "Volcanoes!", "The "Liquid Race," and "Phases of the Moon." The "Volcanoes!" lesson explores explosive vs. effusive volcanism using two simulated volcanoes: one explosive, using Mentos and Diet Coke, and one effusive, using vinegar and baking soda (in model volcanoes that the students construct in teams). In "Liquid Race," which explores viscosity and can be integrated into the "Volcanoes!" lesson, the students connect viscosity to flow speed by racing liquids down a ramp. "Phases of the Moon" teaches the students why the Moon has phases, using ball and stick models, and the terminology of the lunar phases using cream-filled cookies (e.g., Oreos). These lessons, among many others

  12. Evaluating Earth and Space Sciences STEM Research Communication in 7th-12th Grade Rural Mississippi Classrooms and Resulting Student Attitudinal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.

    2013-05-01

    Observation and evaluation of STEM graduate students from Mississippi State University communicating their research of the Earth and Space Sciences in rural 7th-12th grade classrooms participating in the Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) NSF GK-12 project. The methods they utilize to communicate their STEM research includes introducing new technologies and inquiry based learning experiences. These communication experiences have been observed and evaluated using two observational systems, the Mathematics Science Classroom Observational Profile System (M-SCOPS) and the Presentation Skills Protocol (PSP). M-SCOPS has been used over the first three years of the project to evaluate what Earth and Space research the STEM graduate students communicate in classroom activities along with how they are introducing STEM research through a variety of communication methods and levels of understanding. PSP, which INSPIRE began using this year, evaluates and provides feedback to the STEM graduate students on their communication during these classroom experiences using a rubric covering a range of skills for successful communication. PSP also allows the participating INSPIRE teacher partners to provide feedback to the STEM graduate students about development of their communication skills over the course of the year. In addition to feedback from the INSPIRE project and participating teachers, the STEM graduate students have the opportunity to evaluate their personal communication skills through video documentation to determine specific skills they would like to improve. Another area of research to be discussed is how the STEM graduate students communicating Earth and Space sciences research in the participating classrooms is impacting student attitudes about science and mathematics over the last three years. Student Attitudinal Surveys (SAS) are administered as a pre-evaluation tool in the fall when the STEM graduate students first enter into their

  13. 21st CENTURY LEARNING: IS ICT REALLY INTEGRATED IN EFL CLASSROOM OR MERELY SEGREGATED OUTSIDE THE CLASSROOM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Ovilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 21st century, along with the rapid development of technology, the teachers begin to involve Information and Communication Technology (ICT in EFL learning. However, the case arises whether the use of ICT is really integrated or merely segregated outside the classroom. This study was a case study which attempted to see the practice of integrating ICT in EFL classroom, particularly in Charis School?a private Junior High School in Malang, and to investigate the students� and teacher�s perceptions toward the learning process. The instruments were interview guide, observation sheet, and questionnaire. The results of this study showed that the teacher was aware to integrate ICT in EFL classroom and the students showed positive attitudes in the learning process.

  14. Out of Classroom Instruction in the Flipped Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics...... workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and in depth explanations, and can engage the learner. However, students stated that they miss just......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...

  15. Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-08-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The financial maths task asked students to decide on the best fundraising option for the school. We used the theory of practice architectures to analyse the interactions in the classroom in order to understand what may have enabled and constrained classroom practices. We found that classroom practices such as engaging with peers through positive and collaborative learning opportunities, making ethical, social and mathematical connections of the task, and considering the impact of financial decisions on others may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education.

  16. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bringing Classroom-Based Assessment into the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Finch

    2012-01-01

      This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers can bring reliable, valid, user-friendly assessment into their classrooms, and thus improve the quality of learning that occurs there. Based on the experience of the author as a an EFL teacher and teacher-trainer, it is suggested that the promotion and development of autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and self-esteem that takes place in a Classroom-Based Assessment (CBA) environment facilitates an holistic approach to langu...

  18. Classroom peer relationships and behavioral engagement in elementary school: the role of social network equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R

    2013-12-01

    Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools.

  19. Exploring teachers' learning: A teacher's experiences integrating scientific modeling in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Maza, Mirta Elizabeth

    This study, a narrative inquiry into the teaching of models and modeling in an elementary science classroom, explores a teacher's growth in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) as she implemented a novel curriculum adapted from the MoDeLS (Modeling Designs for the Learning of Science) project. The purpose of the study was to explore, from the teacher's point of view, the pedagogical and conceptual changes she underwent while implementing a model-based approach in her classroom. The study summarizes the teacher's experiences, her decisions about teaching, her understanding of how her choices and practices influenced her content knowledge (CK), her PCK, and her motivations for changing her teaching. During the three years of the project I collected data from four science units (Astronomy, Animal Science, Electricity, and Light). Each of the units were observed and videotaped and Ms. Delaney (pseudonym), the classroom teacher, audio-recorded her practices every day. I observed and analyzed classroom videotapes in order to explore how Ms. Delaney's modeling practices unfolded and changed in her classroom and how her PCK on modeling developed. I analyzed professional development activities and informal interviews conducted during and after the units. Subsequently I interviewed Ms. Delaney about these issues using open-ended questions and video clips of her classroom practices. Three aspects of models and modeling expressed in the MoDeLS project were taken into account as I developed categories of analysis: a) models have purpose; b) models have limitations; and c) models change. These categories and the codes proposed were revised and refined while analyzing the data. The findings from the interview analyses and the classroom practices showed that Ms. Delaney developed new CK around models and modeling throughout the three years she was involved in the project. She adapted some of the proposed strategies from the MoDeLS project and adopted them in her curriculum in ways

  20. Classroom interventions for children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F.; Tucha, Lara I.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In a typical classroom, children are instructed to remain seated, perform independent seatwork and follow teachers’ instructions. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find these classroom demands particularly difficult to adhere to because, by definition, children with

  1. Have You Considered Gamifying Your Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Graham

    2018-01-01

    New classroom practices can be brought into the classroom that engage students through their enjoyment of games, while building their confidence and bolstering their understanding that mistakes are valuable stops along the journey to understanding.

  2. Teacher classroom practices and Mathematics performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mathematics teacher questionnaire, administered as part of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, comprised questions pertaining to the classroom practices of Teacher Clarity, Classroom Discussion, Feedback, Formative Assessment, Problem Solving and Metacognitive Strategies, ...

  3. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  4. Evaluation of indoor environmental quality conditions in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Olawale Fadeyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents findings of indoor environmental quality (IEQ investigations conducted in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Average TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle concentrations measured in the classrooms were 815 µg/m3, 1605 ppm, 0.05 ppm, 1.16 ppm, and 1730 µg/m3, respectively. Whereas, local authority known as Dubai Municipality recommended 300 µg/m3, 800 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 9 ppm, and 150–300 µg/m3 for TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle, respectively. Dubai Municipality recommended temperature and relative humidity (RH levels of 22.5 °C to 25.5 °C and 30%–60%, respectively. Average temperature and RH levels measured in the classrooms were 24.5 °C and 40.4%, respectively. Average sound level in the classrooms was 24 dB greater than recommended sound level limit of 35 dB. Six (6 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 400–800 lux. Two (2 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 100–200 lux. The remaining classrooms had lux levels around the recommended 300 lux. High occupancy density was observed in majority of the studied classrooms. Observations during walkthrough investigations could be used to explain measured IEQ data. Poor IEQ conditions in the studied classrooms highlight the need for further research investigation to understand how poor classrooms׳ IEQ condition could influence students׳ health, comfort, attendance rate, and academic performance.

  5. Flipped Classroom Research: From “Black Box” to “White Box” Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stöhr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The flipped (or inverted classroom model has gained increasing interest among university teachers in recent years. In the flipped classroom approach, students are encouraged to watch short video lectures as preparation for class, and classroom time is dedicated to more active forms of learning. In this editorial, we provide a thumbnail sketch of the origins and concept of the flipped classroom followed by a summary of the contributions to this special issue, which highlight the importance of considering a range of individual as well as contextual factors when implementing and evaluating the flipped classroom approach. Based on this observation, we propose and briefly discuss realist evaluation as a promising approach to evaluating educational interventions and for advancing our theoretical understanding of the flipped classroom. We argue that realist evaluation provides an analytical framework for posing the next generation of questions about the flipped classroom and we encourage scholars to address the questions: “How or why does the flipped classroom work, for whom, and in what circumstances?”

  6. Understanding Orbital Uncertainty and Assessing Impact Risk in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Andrew W.; Rector, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    We present a software toolkit enabling the assessment of asteroid impact risk in the undergraduate classroom. This is part of an NSF-funded CCLI grant to develop Research Based Science Education (RBSE) curricula for undergraduate non-majors. These curricula include six projects covering astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic techniques, which are being tested at multiple schools of varying sizes around the country. The toolkit begins with a Java plugin we have developed for the public-domain image-processor ImageJ. Students perform both astrometry and aperture photometry on research-grade astronomical images, producing output suitable for submission to the Minor Planet Center. They then feed this astrometric record into the freeware orbit-determination software Find_Orb, which computes elements for hundreds of possible orbits by the method of observational Monte Carlo. After format conversion with an online utility we have written, this custom orbit database is fed into the Starry Night planetarium program. Students are then able to visualize the uncertainty region from any desired perspective, and to observe how that region changes with time and/or additional data. Alternatively, the output from the ImageJ plugin can be used directly to measure the lightcurves of minor planets, leading to an improved understanding of their shapes. The recent near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroid 2007 WD5 presents an ideal scenario for testing this toolkit. All observations fall within 90 days of its 2008 Jan 30 close approach with Mars, and the 1-in-25 impact probability resulting from the inclusion of SDSS precovery observations is sufficiently large to be replicated with a relatively small number of "clone” orbits. Our plugin is the first FITS reader to produce correct time-stamps for minor planet observations found in the SDSS, which observes in drift-scan mode. We report on the first test of this project with undergraduate students at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

  7. Nurturing creativity in the classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, James C

    2010-01-01

    Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom is a groundbreaking collection of essays by leading scholars, who examine and respond to the tension that many educators face in valuing student creativity but believing that they cannot support it given the curricular constraints of the classroom. Is it possible for teachers to nurture creative development and expression without drifting into curricular chaos? Do curricular constraints necessarily lead to choosing conformity over creativity? This book combines the perspectives of top educators and psychologists to generate practical advice for considering and addressing the challenges of supporting creativity within the classroom. It is unique in its balance of practical recommendations for nurturing creativity and thoughtful appreciation of curricular constraints. This approach helps ensure that the insights and advice found in this collection will take root in educators’ practice, rather than being construed as yet another demand placed on their overflowing plate of ...

  8. Google Tools in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, E. M.; Koons, P. O.; Schauffler, M.; Zhu, Y.; Segee, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Maine Learning Technology Initiative provides every seventh and eighth grade student in the state with MacBook laptop computers. Limitless education possibilities exist with the inclusion of Google Tools and laptops as learning tools in our modern classrooms. Google Applications allow students to create documents, spreadsheets, charts, graphs, forms, and presentations and easily allows the sharing of information with their fellow classmates and teachers. These applications invite the use of inquiry and critical thinking skills, collaboration among peers, and subject integration to teach students crucial concepts. The benefits for teachers extend into the realm of using Google sites to easily create a teacher website and blog to upload classroom information and create a communication connection for parents and students as well as collaborations between the teachers and University researchers and educators. Google Applications further enhances the possibilities for learning, sharing a wealth of information, and enhancing communication inside and outside of the classroom.

  9. SOCIAL MEDIA AND CLASSROOM ENGAGEMENT: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malissa Maria Mahmud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the last 15 years or so, social media have shown many facets—from connecting people on a global-scale, to penetrating aspects of lives which otherwise might have remained private or limited to a small audience. In the realm of education, social media have also begun to infiltrate the academic world by influencing and shaping students’ perceptions and influencing learning engagement. With millions of students and teachers simultaneously active on social networks, it is significant to observe how the media could influence student-teacher classroom interactions as well as their online communications. Some studies have documented that teachers who disclosed information about themselves on social media were perceived as more credible by students because they were regarded as more relatable. Moreover, students’ stereotyping beliefs and attitudes towards teachers also come into play when formulating perceptions about teachers on social media. For instance, their communications with teachers are often formal and impersonal on social media, as teachers are viewed as authoritative figures. Consequently, students’ perceptions towards teachers would have a significant repercussion on their interpersonal relationships, which in turn impacts students’ motivation and learning engagement. Thus, this research was conducted to establish preliminary findings whether social media shape students’ perceptions and whether these ramifications would result in positive or negative learning engagement. Consequently, the results indicate that students are more susceptible towards teachers who are active on social media because they are perceived as being more akin to a “real person” who can easily be reached for immediate classroom information and instructions. Such accessibilities via social media enable learning processes to be less contrived by just the physical classroom settings.

  10. Revisiting Technology in the Classroom: Critical Reflections of a Multiculturalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, James Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author's review of the literature uncovers six potentially negative effects of technology in the classroom. These include: 1) Limiting pedagogy in teaching for cultural competence; 2) Reinforcing the Digital Divide; 3) Constraining the potential for holistic, humanistic education; 4) Privileging one style of communication while…

  11. Teaching "Islam and Human Rights" in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muedini, Fait A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses my approach to teaching a course on Islam and human rights. I begin by examining the attention Islam has received in the media and classroom. Then, I discuss how I structure lectures on Islam and human rights, the various readings associated with the lectures, as well as common themes discussed in class that include but are…

  12. Defining Writing Ability for Classroom Writing Assessment in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jyi-yeon

    2009-01-01

    Given that nowadays writing skill is included in main standardised tests worldwide as well as nationwide, as writing assessment is employed as a part of performance assessment in classroom testing at high school level in Korea, English teachers are first expected to establish the construct of writing ability explicitly prior to devising other…

  13. Interrogating Your Wisdom of Practice to Improve Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a heuristic for language teachers to articulate and explore their fundamental theories of and philosophical stances towards language, language learning, and language teaching. It includes tools with which teachers can interrogate those theories, weighing them up against their actual classroom practices. Through presenting…

  14. English Language Classroom Practices: Bangladeshi Primary School Children's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prithvi Narayan

    2013-01-01

    English language teaching (ELT) has been investigated from various angles including how English language teachers perceive what happens in an ELT classroom. How primary school English language learners perceive their experiences of ELT is rarely reported in the published literature, particularly from developing countries such as Bangladesh. This…

  15. Specifications for Supplementary Classroom Units, Stressed Skin Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Robert B.; And Others

    Complete outline specifications are given for the construction of supplementary classroom units using stressed skin panels. Sections included are--(1) concrete and related work, (2) masonry, (3) structural and miscellaneous metal, (4) curtain walls and metal windows, (5) carpentry and related work, (6) roofing, sheet metal, and related work, (7)…

  16. Promoting Creativity in the Middle Grades Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Middle level educators around the country aim to create a classroom environment and a way of teaching that is developmentally responsive, challenging, empowering, and equitable for every student. One way to ensure this is to include instruction that promotes creativity. This article offers guiding principles and shares instructional lessons that…

  17. A New Learning Approach: Flipped Classroom and Its Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present opinions of undergraduate students towards Flipped Classroom (FC) practices and to determine their different aspects then traditional learning approaches. The case study approach is preferred to conduct the study. In this context, 34 volunteered students were included in the study group by purposive sampling…

  18. Ethical Values in the Classroom: How College Students Responded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbarger, Michele; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to understand the ethical values of college students because they will be the leaders of the future. As part of an undergraduate honors project, a survey was developed that consisted of eight cases depicting ethical dilemmas in the classroom. Each case included a choice of four actions ranging from most ethical to least ethical.…

  19. Implementing Concepts of Pharmaceutical Engineering into High School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Howard; Hirsch, Linda S.; Simon, Laurent; Burr-Alexander, Levelle; Dave, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The Research Experience for Teachers was designed to help high school science teachers develop skills and knowledge in research, science and engineering with a focus on the area of pharmaceutical particulate and composite systems. The experience included time for the development of instructional modules for classroom teaching. Results of the…

  20. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…