WorldWideScience

Sample records for included children ages

  1. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  2. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  3. Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jack M.

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

  4. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  5. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  6. Early Children's Literature and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life's later years. Today's children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children's literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide…

  7. Evidence for extended age dependent maternal immunity in infected children: mother to child transmission of HIV infection and potential interventions including sulfatides of the human fetal adnexa and complementary or alternative medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Huilgol, Vidya; Metri, Kashinath; Sundell, I Birgitta; Tripathi, Satyam; Ramagouda, Nagaratna; Jadhav, Mahesh; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra; Koka, Prasad S

    2012-01-01

    The two neighboring southwestern states of India, Karnataka and Maharashtra, have high incidence of HIV/AIDS and are among the six most high prevalence HIV infected states. In Karnataka state, the northern districts of Bagalkot, Belgaum and Bijapur (the three Bs) and in Maharashtra state, the southern districts of Sangli, Satara, and Solapur (the three Ss) are the areas with the highest incidence of HIV/AIDS. We have evaluated the incidence of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 infection in Belgaum District which is more than 500 kilometers distance by road from the campus in greater Bangalore (Karnataka State). We have obtained the prenatal CD4 counts of HIV infected pregnant mothers. We have also screened the HIV infected children in two orphanages (rehabilitation centres for HIV infected children) in Belgaum District. The clinical conditions of these infected children were assessed for their CD4 counts, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) intake status, outpatient illnesses and body composition. We have observed that there is an influence of the age factor on the CD4 counts of the HIV infected children. Further, in view of the role of our recently found involvement of sulfatide, 3-O- galactosylceramide, in inhibition of HIV-1 replication and enhancement of hematopoiesis which is otherwise inhibited due to such infection, we have discussed the possible role of sulfatides that biologically occur in the fetal adnexa (placentatrophoblasts /amnion/chorion-umbilical cord), in containing HIV infection as a potential safer alternative to the ART regimens currently approved to be clinically practiced. Lastly, we have discussed the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies such as evidence based yoga and ayurveda as add-on to ART in potential elimination of MTCT of HIV infection. Out of a total of 150 children delivered by HIV infected mothers, 13 children were found to be positive as determined by the dried blood smear (DBS) for virological testing

  8. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  9. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such a reading disability Stressors, such as bullying Mental health issues, such as anxiety or depression If you suspect any of these in your child, talk to your child's teacher or health care provider. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Early school-age children should be able to use simple, ...

  10. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  11. Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits and the Global Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Hammond, Matthew D; Mazza, Giulia; Corry, Grace

    2017-11-01

    There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts-specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4-7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  13. The trachea in children with respiratory diseases including children presenting as cot deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    Wailoo, M; Emery, J L

    1980-01-01

    The tracheas of 74 children with respiratory disorders were analysed and compared with the tracheas of children with no respiratory symptoms. The test tracheas showed an increase in the size of the lumen and the length of the cartilage and membrane, the increase in the length of membrane being particularly striking. The relation between age at onset and duration of symptoms was uncertain.

  14. Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed

  15. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  16. BUDESONIDE TREATMENT IN CHILDREN PRESCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma remains disease with wide prevalence in children different age. Inhalation corticosteroids are medications of first line of therapy in children. The article describes the ways of treatment with budesonide (Pulmicort in children preschool age. The data from different studies prove the effectiveness and safety of treatment with as turbuhaler, as nebulizer form of this drug. Key words: children, bronchial asthma, inhalational corticosteroids, budesonide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:76-80

  17. Dental Age Difference in Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Puneet; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Han; Townsend, Janice A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in dental development are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD medications. This retrospective chart review evaluated the dental age of 128 patients between 6 and 16 years of age using the Demirjian method from the following two groups a) children with ADHD b) unaffected children. The ADHD group was further stratified into four groups according to the medication type. The impact of ADHD on dental age difference (the difference between dental age and chronologic age) was analyzed using T-test and the association between medication type and dental age difference was analyzed through one way ANOVA. The mean difference between estimated dental age and chronologic age (dental age difference) for all subjects was 0.80 years. There was no significant dental age difference in subjects with ADHD and the control group (0.78±1.28vs. 0.84 ±1.09 years respectively; P=0.75) and there was no significant difference in dental age difference and type of medication (P=0.84). No significant difference was found between children with ADHD and unaffected children with respect to dental age difference. No significant differences were found in dental age difference in the four medication groups.

  18. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  19. Mansonella, including a Potential New Species, as Common Parasites in Children in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Mourembou

    Full Text Available Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing.DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7% children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%, which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8% and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6. Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤ 5, 6-10 and 11-15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called "DEUX". Mansonella sp. "DEUX" was detected only in febrile children.Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. "DEUX" and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans.

  20. Attachment security and obesity in US preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Whitaker, Robert C

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the association between attachment security in children aged 24 months and their risk for obesity at 4½ years of age. Insecure attachment is associated with unhealthy physiologic and behavioral responses to stress, which could lead to development of obesity. Cohort study. National sample of US children born in 2001. Children and mothers participating in the 2003 and 2005-2006 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics. Our analytic sample included 6650 children (76.0% of children assessed in both waves). Attachment security at 24 months was assessed by trained interviewers during observation in the child's home. Insecure attachment was defined as lowest quartile of attachment security, based on the security score from the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 Item. Obesity at 4½ years of age (sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile for age). The prevalence of obesity was 23.1% in children with insecure attachment and 16.6% in those with secure attachment. For children with insecure attachment, the odds of obesity were 1.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.62) times higher than for children with secure attachment after controlling for the quality of mother-child interaction during play, parenting practices related to obesity, maternal body mass index, and sociodemographic characteristics. Insecure attachment in early childhood may be a risk factor for obesity. Interventions to increase children's attachment security should examine the effects on children's weight.

  1. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  2. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  3. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpkin, Andrew J; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal......). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding......DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental...

  4. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  5. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    no standardisation in the age categorisation of children, there are inconsistencies among the age subgroups in the current literature. To achieve a standard terminology and thus a common language, the World Health Organization age classification criterion was used in the present study. Based on the findings, we can...... suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...... in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...

  6. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  7. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  8. Roentgen study of bone age in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzhijski, A.; Totsev, N.; Petrova, Ch.

    1991-01-01

    The study included 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged from 1 to 18 years with different degree of obesity, classified according to the scheme of Knyazev et al. The bone age was determined by a X-ray method including conventional X-ray study of the left hand at standard conditions. The H. Thiemann - I. Nittz Atlass (1986) was used as a test. It was established that the children with overweight had a change in the bone age which in most cases outstriped the calendar one. It was stated that the determination of the index 'bone age' remained to be a reliable method for studing the obesity effect on the growth and developing of the children' organism. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  9. Quality of Life of siblings of children included in the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Camila Bolivar Martins; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Quality of Life in siblings of children of the autism spectrum through self-response to the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire. Social-demographic data of 77 children included in the autism spectrum, aged 3 to 16 years, were collected. From these information, 21 older siblings, aged 16 to 30 years, were selected to answer said questionnaire, proposed by the World Health Organization Mental Health Program for quality of life evaluation. The data have shown a difference between the Environmental domain and the Physical and Psychological domains. The aspects related to the environment have an important role to the perception of quality of life self-declared by the subjects. However, family individuality, coping behaviors, social support, and assistance received directly interfere on this perception.

  10. Children and adolescents' internal models of food-sharing behavior include complex evaluations of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L

    2003-01-01

    This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.

  11. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  12. Balance in children born prematurely currently aged 6–7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziuba Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Premature birth is one of the major problems of obstetrics, leading to numerous complications that are associated with prematurity, for instance balance disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of premature birth on the ability to maintain balance in children commencing their school education. Material and methods: The study included children aged 6-7 years. The study group consisted of 59 children (31 girls and 28 boys, mean age 6.38 ± SD 0.73 born prematurely between 24 and 35 weeks of gestation. The control group consisted of 61 children (28 girls and 33 boys, mean age 6.42 ± 0.58 born at term. The research utilized standardized test tools - one-leg open-eyed and closed-eyed standing test, one-leg jumping test - and an original questionnaire survey. Results: The children born at term achieved better results in the majority of tests. The comparison of girls and boys born pre­maturely and at term showed no statistically significant difference between them in terms of dynamic balance, static balance or total balance control. The comparison of the tests performed on the right and left lower limb in prematurely born children showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Premature birth affects the ability to maintain body balance. The results of the study indicate the need to develop coordination skills that shape body balance in prematurely born children.

  13. Nutritional status of children under the age five in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rjimati, Arbi; El Menchawy, Imane; Baddou, Issâd; El Kari, Khalid; El Haloui, Noureddine; Aguenaou, Hassan; Rabi, Baha

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In Morocco we live nutritional, demographic and epidemiological transition. These transitions affect the nutritional status of the population, especially that of children under five years of age. They also play a guiding role in the development of strategies to be implemented to improve the situation. Aim: To describe the evolution of the nutritional status of children under five years in Morocco over the past ten years. Methods: Two national surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2011. One of the objectives of these surveys is to assess the nutritional status of children aged less than five years compared to WHO standards. Results: The surveys that included 5737 children under 5 years in 2004 and 7271 in 2011 showed according to WHO standards, at the national level , a prevalence of underweight of 3.1 % ( weight / age 2 SD) 2.6 % of which are obese (BMI for age > 3 SD), whereas the proportion of children with overweight and obesity was 10.4 % in 2004. Discussion/conclusions: These studies show that acute malnutrition almost disappeared in Morocco, however prevalence of stunting remains high, overweight and obesity among children less than five years increased in the country. (author)

  14. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  15. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  16. Household triggers of bronchospasm in children aged less than two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Identified household trigger factors of bronchospasm in children less than two years of age include: insecticide spray, fumes, smoke from stove and firewood, and exposure to cold air. The elimination of these factors from the environment of the affected child would go a long way in preventing the attacks.

  17. Salt intake and eating habits of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuko; Iwayama, Keiko; Suzuki, Hirotoshi; Sakata, Satoko; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwashima, Yoshio; Takata, Akira; Kawano, Yuhei

    2016-11-01

    Salt restriction is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension; however, salt consumption is still high in Japan. Improvements in dietary habits, including salt reduction in childhood, may contribute to the prevention of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate the salt intake of school-aged children and the relationship between their diet diary and actual salt intake. The subjects comprised 580 schoolchildren (471 elementary school pupils and 109 junior high school pupils) who wanted to evaluate their salt intake in Kuji, a northeast coastal area in Japan. We estimated salt intake using spot urine samples and a formula. Lifestyle was assessed using a questionnaire. We also evaluated the salt intake and the lifestyles of 440 parents. The estimated salt intakes of elementary school pupils, junior high school pupils and their parents were 7.1±1.5, 7.6±1.5 and 8.0±1.7 g per day, respectively. The proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. In the multivariate analysis, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children correlated with their age, estimated salt intake of their parents and the menu priorities of the household. The estimated salt intake of the parents was associated with female gender, obesity, age and the habitual consumption of bread and noodles. In conclusion, the estimated salt intake of school-aged children positively correlated with the estimated salt intake of their parents, and the proportion of lower-grade children who achieved the recommended salt intake was low. Guidance on salt restriction for children and their parents may reduce the salt intake of school-aged children.

  18. Food Insecurity in U.S. Households That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan; Parish, Susan L.; Ghosh, Subharati; Igdalsky, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined food insecurity in households including children with disabilities, analyzing data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which included 24,729 households with children, 3,948 of which had children with disabilities. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of…

  19. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  20. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  1. Estimation of Correlation between Chronological Age, Skeletal Age and Dental Age in Children- A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Madhulika; Lamba, Bharti; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Muthineni, Sridhar; Margana, Pratap Gowd Jai Shankar; Chitoori, Prasad

    2017-09-01

    In the modern era, identification and determination of age is imperative for diversity of reasons that include disputed birth records, premature delivery, legal issues and for validation of birth certificate for school admissions, adoption, marriage, job and immigration. Several growth assessment parameters like bone age, dental age and the combination of both have been applied for different population with variable outcomes. It has been well documented that the chronological age does not necessarily correlate with the maturational status of a child. Hence, efforts were made to determine a child's developmental age by using dental age (calcification of teeth) and skeletal age (skeletal maturation). The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age and skeletal age in children from Southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Out of the total 900 screened children, only 100 subjects between age groups of 6-14 years with a mean age of 11.3±2.63 for males and 10.77±2.24 for females were selected for the study. Dental age was calculated by Demirjian method and skeletal age by modified Middle Phalanx of left hand third finger (MP3) method. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were done to estimate the correlation between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among study population. There was a significant positive correlation between chronological age, dental age and all stages of MP3 among males. Similar results were observed in females, except for a non-significant moderate correlation between chronological age and dental age in the H stage of the MP3 region. The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (p<0.05) between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects (48 males and 52 females) and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population.

  2. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  3. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  4. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  5. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Pediatric sports injuries: an age comparison of children versus adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-08-01

    Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery

  7. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  8. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  9. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  10. The health of Inuit children under age 6 in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Janz, Teresa A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that Inuit children experience poor health as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts, although social determinants such as family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors may be at play. The purpose of the current study was to examine the parent-reported health of Inuit children under 6 years of age living in Canada. Data from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey were used to examine measures of Inuit child health as rated by parents including child health, limitations to physical activity, chronic conditions, ear infections, and dental problems. Associations between social determinants of health and parent-rated Inuit child health were also explored. Most Inuit children under age 6 were reported by their parents or guardians to be in excellent or very good health. The most common chronic conditions identified were asthma, speech and language difficulties, allergies, lactose intolerance, and hearing impairment. Several social determinants of health were associated with child health, including parental education, household income, breastfeeding, and perceived housing conditions. The findings show that social determinants of health, including both socio-economic and household characteristics, are associated with Inuit child health.

  11. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  12. Microscopic age determination of human skeletons including an unknown but calculable variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Johan Albert; Tkocz, Izabella; Kristensen, Gustav

    1994-01-01

    estimation, which includes the covariance matrix of four single equation residuals, improves the accuracy of age determination. The standard deviation, however, of age prediction remains 12.58 years. An experimental split of the data was made in order to demonstrate that the use of subgroups gives a false...

  13. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  14. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  15. Malaria Parasitemia in Children Aged less than 5 Years Presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is the commonest manifestation and Children aged less than 5 years are most vulnerable. An appraisal of this disease among these children is important to reducing the impact of the disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify factors affecting malaria parasitemia in febrile children aged less than 5 ...

  16. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  17. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  18. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  19. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What...

  1. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.; Barisic, N.; Baxter, P.; Brankovic-Sreckovic, V.; Calabrò, G. E.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.; de Coo, Ifm; Craiu, D.; Dan, B.; Gburek-Augustat, J.; Kammoun-Feki, F.; Kennedy, C.; Mancini, F.; Mirabelli-Badenier, M.; Nemeth, A.; Newton, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Steinlin, M.; Synofzik, M.; Topcu, M.; Triki, C.; Valente, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo

  2. Different Clinical Features and Lower Scores in Clinical Scoring Systems for Appendicitis in Preschool Children: Comparison with School Age Onset

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chun Woo; Kang, Joon Won; Kim, Jae Young

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the clinical features of appendicitis in preschool children and to explore clinical appendicitis scoring systems in this age group. Methods We retrospectively collected data on 142 children, aged 10 years or younger, with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis based on surgical and pathologic findings. Enrolled subjects were divided into two groups: Group 1 (preschool children aged ≤5 years, n=41) and Group 2 (school children aged >5 to ≤10 years, n=101). Data analyzed include...

  3. Flatfoot in school-age children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Demneh, Ebrahim; Jafarian, Fahimehsadat; Melvin, Jonathan M A; Azadinia, Fatemeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Jafarpishe, Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    Flatfoot has been shown to cause abnormal stresses on the foot and lower extremity. The altered mechanical stresses on these structures can aggravate the foot deformity. Screening of the flatfoot and its associated factors helps detect underlying risks influencing the stresses on the foot. The purpose of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch and investigate its associated factors in students, aged 7 to 14 years. Multistage cluster sampling was used and each cluster included 2 other random sampling levels. A total of 667 Iranian school children were recruited and their feet were bilaterally evaluated using a static footprint while standing in a fully weightbearing position. The footprint, an observational measurement, and a questionnaire were used for the foot assessment. The prevalence of flatfoot was 17.1% in the population studied. There was no gender difference but the prevalence of flatfoot did decrease with age. The significant differences were observed in the prevalence of flatfoot between normal-weight, overweight, and obese groups (P plantar arch in school-age children is influenced by age and weight. Age and weight were the primary predictive factors of flatfoot. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  5. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  6. Characteristics of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Goda, Yuichiro; Tezuka, Fumitake; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sato, Masahiro; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis, a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis in the lumbar spine, is often precipitated by trauma, but there may be a congenital predisposition to this condition. There have been few studies on spondylolysis in young children, despite their suitability for studies on congenital defects. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features of lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children in order to elucidate its pathogenesis. Thirty lumbar spondylolysis patients (23 boys, 7 girls, including a pair of twins; mean age 9.5 years, age range 5-12 years) were studied. Patient data on history of athletic activity, symptoms at first consultation, and radiological findings such as spinal level, stage of the stress fracture, and skeletal age were collected. Among the 30 patients, 27 (21 boys, 6 girls) had L5 spondylolysis (90.0 %). Only 2 patients had no history of athletic activity at the first consultation. All patients, except for 2 whose diagnosis was incidental, complained of low back pain. In the 27 patients with L5 spondylolysis, 17 (63.0 %) had terminal-stage fracture and 25 (92.6 %) had spina bifida occulta (SBO) involving the S1 lamina. Sixteen of the 27 (59.3 %) had SBO involving the affected lamina (L5) and S1 lamina. In contrast, the 3 patients with L3 or L4 spondylolysis had no evidence of SBO. With respect to skeletal age, 23 of the 27 L5 spondylolysis patients (85.2 %) were in the cartilaginous stage while the remaining 4 patients were in the apophyseal stage. Lumbar spondylolysis in elementary school age children was commonly a terminal-stage bone defect at L5, which was not necessarily related to history of athletic activity and was sometimes asymptomatic. It was often associated with SBO, indicating a possible congenital predisposition. These findings may provide further insight into the pathogenesis of lumbar spondylolysis.

  7. Accidental head injuries in children under 5 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Fischer, T.; Chapman, S.; Wilson, B.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the type and nature of head injuries sustained by children under the age of 5 years who present to a busy accident and emergency (A and E) department following an accidental fall. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included all children under the age of 5 years, who over an 8-month period were referred to our A and E Department with head injury following an accidental fall. Data were collected regarding the height of the fall, whether or not stairs were involved, the type of surface that the child landed on and the height of the child. This was correlated with any soft-tissue injury or skull fracture. RESULTS: A total of 72 children (aged 4 months to 4.75 years) fulfilled all the criteria for an accidental fall. The heights of the falls ranged from less than 50 cm to over 3 m, with the majority below 1 m. Of the falls, 49 were onto a hard surface and 23 were onto a soft surface. Of the 72 children, 52 had visible evidence of head injury, 35 (71%) of 49 being the result of falls onto hard surfaces and 17 (74%) of 23 onto soft (carpeted) surfaces. There was no significant difference in the type of surface that resulted in a visible head injury. A visible head injury was seen in all children who fell from a height of over 1.5 m and in 95% of children who fell over 1 m. Of the 72 children, 32 (44%) had skull radiographs performed in accordance with established guidelines and 4 (12.5%) were identified as having a fracture. Of the 3 linear parietal fractures 2 were inflicted by falls of just over 1 m (from a work surface) and 1 by a fall of 80 to 90 cm onto the hard-edged surface of a stone fire surround. The 4th was a fracture of the base of skull following a fall from more than 3 m (from a first-storey window). CONCLUSIONS: In the vast majority of domestic accidents children do not suffer significant harm. Skull fractures are rare and probably occur in less than 5% of cases. To cause a skull fracture the fall needs to be from over 1 m or, if from a

  8. Age-related functional brain changes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Benischek, Alina; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine

    2017-07-15

    Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion. Brain areas within the default mode network and the frontoparietal network, such as the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior cingulate cortex, showed increases in local and global functional features with age. Several brain areas such as the superior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus presented opposite development trajectories of local and global functional features, suggesting a shifting connectivity framework in early childhood. This development of functional connectivity in early childhood likely underlies major advances in cognitive abilities, including language and development of theory of mind. These findings provide important insight into the development patterns of brain function during the preschool years, and lay the foundation for future studies of altered brain development in young children with brain disorders or injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Biomonitoring of Danish school children and mothers including biomarkers of PBDE and glyphosate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Mizrak, Seher

    2017-01-01

    Danish school children aged 6–11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some – but not all – results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed. Methods: The measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and glyphosate...... is assessed to complete the investigation of all 66 chemicals in DEMOCOPHES. The concentrations of PBDEs were measured in plasma samples of 143 mothers and 116 children. Glyphosate was measured in a subsample of 27 urine samples. Previously assessed chemicals were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...... the concentrations of the different environmental chemicals. investigated by correlation analysis. Results: PBDE47 was found in relatively high levels compared with previous Danish results in both mothers and children, with a significantly higher level in the children compared to their mothers. Glyphosate...

  10. Multimodal treatment, including interferon beta, of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehrlen, Martina; Zwaan, Christian Michel; Granzen, Bernd; Lassay, Lisa; Deutz, Peter; Vorwerk, Peter; Staatz, Gundula; Gademann, Günther; Christiansen, Hans; Oldenburger, Foppe; Tamm, Miriam; Mertens, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report preliminary results from a prospective multicenter study (Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma [NPC] 2003 German Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology/German Children's Oncology Group [NPC-2003-GPOH/DCOG]). METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 45 patients (ages 8-20 years),

  11. Aging and physiological changes of the kidneys including changes in glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the structural changes in the kidney associated with aging, physiological changes in renal function are also found in older adults, such as decreased glomerular filtration rate, vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatinine, reduction in sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and diminished renal reserve. These alterations make aged individuals susceptible to the development of clinical conditions in response to usual stimuli that would otherwise be compensated for in younger individuals, including acute kidney injury, volume depletion and overload, disorders of serum sodium and potassium concentration, and toxic reactions to water-soluble drugs excreted by the kidneys. Additionally, the preservation with aging of a normal urinalysis, normal serum urea and creatinine values, erythropoietin synthesis, and normal phosphorus, calcium and magnesium tubular handling distinguishes decreased GFR due to normal aging from that due to chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S. (Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey (United States))

    1992-09-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years.

  13. Prospective validation of criteria, including age, for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.S. Jr.; Wengrovitz, M.A.; DeLong, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred twelve cases of blunt splenic rupture were prospectively entered (October 1987-October 1991) into surgical or nonsurgical management groups using these criteria for the nonsurgical group: hemodynamic stability-age less than 55 years-CT scan appearance of grade I, II, or III injury-absence of concomitant injuries precluding abdominal assessment+absence of other documented abdominal injuries. All ages were included and AAST injury scaling was used. Patients were grouped from the trauma room. The surgical treatment group included 66 patients (49 splenectomies, 17 splenorraphies). These patients were generally older and more severely injured, required more transfused blood, and a longer ICU stay. The nonsurgical group included 46 patients with 33 older than 14 years. There were 3 patients over the age of 55 years inappropriately included in this group, and nonsurgical therapy failed in all three. Statistical analysis (chi 2) showed that more splenic injuries were observed and more spleens were saved with these criteria applied prospectively compared with a previous retrospective series in the same institution. The series had a success rate of 93%, and validates the criteria used for safe, nonsurgical management of the ruptured spleen and adds a new criterion: a maximum age of 55 years

  14. Aging Parents' Daily Support Exchanges With Adult Children Suffering Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meng; Graham, Jamie L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-06-17

    When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood. Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood. Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems. Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  16. Peer Dynamics among Marquesan School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mary

    This research describes an observation study of 100 children, ages 9-13 years, on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia. The children were in a French government boarding school in the main valley of the island. Complex, sophisticated group processes among the Marquesan children were observed. The role structures of the group…

  17. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  18. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  19. CT features of lymphobronchial tuberculosis in children, including complications and associated abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Susan; Andronikou, Savvas [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [Stellenbosch University, Department Paediatrics, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-08-15

    Lymphobronchial tuberculosis (TB) is tuberculous lymphadenopathy involving the airways, which is particularly common in children. To describe CT findings of lymphobronchial TB in children, the parenchymal complications and associated abnormalities. CT scans of children with lymphobronchial TB were reviewed retrospectively. Lymphadenopathy, bronchial narrowing, parenchymal complications and associations were documented. Infants comprised 51% of patients. The commonest site of lymphadenopathy was the subcarinal mediastinum (97% of patients). Bronchial compression was seen in all children (259 bronchi, of these 28% the bronchus intermedius) with severe or complete stenosis in 23% of affected bronchi. Parenchymal complications were present in 94% of patients, including consolidation (88%), breakdown (42%), air trapping (38%), expansile pneumonia (28%), collapse (17%) and bronchiectasis (9%), all predominantly on the right side (63%). Associated abnormalities included ovoid lesions, miliary nodules, pleural disease and intracavitary bodies. Airway compression was more severe in infants and most commonly involved the bronchus intermedius. Numerous parenchymal complications were documented, all showing right-side predominance. (orig.)

  20. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  1. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  2. Determinants Of Under Nutrition Among School Age Children In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. Objective: To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income ...

  3. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  4. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  5. Comparison of bone age in small-for-gestationalage children vs appropriate-for-getational-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionardus Edward

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAbout 10-15% small-for-gestational-age children are in higher risk for having linear growth retardation due to growth hormone-insulin like growth factor 1 axis defect (GH-IGF 1 which causes bone age delay.ObjectivesTo compare bone age in 24-36 month old children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA to that in children born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January to April 2009.Subjects consisted of50 healthy children of 24-36 months old (25 children born at term, SGA, 25 children born at term, AGA. We compared the appropriateness and delay of bone age between the two groups. ResultsMean bone age in the SGA group was 20.8 (SD 7.7 months, and in the AGA group was 25.7 (SD 7.1 months (P=0.022. Mean bone age deficit was -10.5 (6.5 months in the SGA group and -5.5 (SD 5.7 months in the AGA group (P=0.009. The prevalence ratio was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.19–2.62. Bone age delay was found to be higher in children born SGA than that in children of the other group (23 vs 13. On the contrary, appropriate bone age was found more in children born AGA (12 vs 2 (P=0.002.Conclusion Bone age delay in 24-36 months old children born small-for-gestational-age was found to be higher than in those born appropriate-for-gestational-age.

  6. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  7. Family food involvement is related to healthier dietary intake in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Jarick; Fiese, Barbara H

    2018-03-27

    Children in the United States fall far short of meeting federal dietary recommendations. The unhealthy diets common amongst young children are of crucial public health concern, given that they can inhibit healthy development and are predictive of chronic diseases in adulthood. Research investigating behaviors that are related to dietary habits is crucial to allow a better understanding of the causes of unhealthy dietary practices. Involvement in food preparation is known to be associated with healthy dietary behaviors in school-aged children, but little is known about these behaviors and their correlates in younger children. The present study sought to examine the influences and correlates of involvement in family food preparation in children at ages three and four. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 497) completed surveys including information about demographic background, their children's family food involvement, dietary intake, mealtime routines, and problematic eating behaviors. Data were collected when children were three (wave one of the survey) and four years of age (wave two). Findings from this study indicate that family food involvement at age three is predictive of healthier dietary intake at age four (increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreased consumption of fast food). These findings indicate that family food involvement is predictive of healthier dietary behaviors in young children, and that outreach efforts focused on family food involvement in early childhood may improve children's dietary habits. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. Aims To

  9. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  10. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  11. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  12. State of cognitive development in children 5-6 years of age with nutritional iron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechel V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of cognitive functions in children 5-6 years of age with iron deficiency (ID were studied and the relationship of the revealed features of iron deficiency degree was established. After clinical and laboratory examination 205 children aged 5-6 years, pupils of pre-school institutions were included in the study. The core group consisted of 155 children, including 105 children with latent iron deficiency (LID and 50 children with iron deficiency anemia (IDA I degree. The control group consisted of 50 healthy children. To study cognitive function, "Approximate comprehensive program of study of children's readiness for school" was used. A significant decrease of average data of all mental functions (perception, memory, language, thinking, ima¬gination in children 5-6 years old with ID, most pronounced in children with IDA was revealed. Indicators of cognitive functions correspond predominantly to a mild and moderate level of development in children with IDA, the average - in children with LID, good and high - in healthy children. There was a significant direct correlation between the level of cognitive functioning and the level of hemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin. The effect of iron deficiency on the development of indicators of cognitive function toward their reduce in preschool children was established. The level of cognitive functioning depends on the degree of iron deficiency.

  13. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  14. A comparison of emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of school-age children with and without cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durualp, Ender; Altay, Naime

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare the emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of 6- to 12-year-old children with and without cancer. The sample included 20 children with cancer and 20 healthy children of similar ages and gender. Data were collected by using the Child Introduction Form, Children's Depression Inventory, the Human Figure Drawing test, and children's drawings. The results showed that the depressive symptom levels of children with cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy children. Impulsivity, mistrust, and anger were observed significantly more in children with cancer (P .05). The emotional indicators of both groups of children did not have an effect on their depression scores.

  15. A technique of including the effect of aging of passive components in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. The possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. We are developing methods for selecting risk-significant passive components and including them in PRAS. These methods provide effective ways to prioritize passive components for inspection, and where inspection reveals aging damage, mitigation or repair can be employed to reduce the likelihood of component failure. We demonstrated a method by selecting a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system, basing our selection on expert judgement of the likelihood of failure and on an estimate of the consequence of component failure to plant safety. We then modified and used the Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events (PRAISE) computer code to perform a probabilistic structural analysis to calculate the probability that crack growth due to aging would cause the weld to fail. The PRAISE code was modified to include the effects of changing design material properties with age and changing stress cycles. The calculation included the effects of mechanical loads and thermal transients typical of the service loads for this piping design and the effects of thermal cycling caused by a leaking check valve. However, this particular calculation showed little change in low component failure probability and plant risk for 48 years of service. However, sensitivity studies showed that if the probability of component failure is high, the effect on plant risk is significant. The success of this demonstration shows that this method could be applied to nuclear power plants. The demonstration showed the method is too involved (PRAISE takes a long time to perform the calculation and the input information is extensive) for handling a large number of passive components and therefore simpler methods are needed

  16. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  17. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  18. Predictors of Dietary Energy Density among Preschool Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmani N.T. Fernando

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global problem with many contributing factors including dietary energy density (DED. This paper aims to investigate potential predictors of DED among preschool aged children in Victoria, Australia. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data for 209 mother–child pairs from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial was conducted. Data for predictors (maternal child feeding and nutrition knowledge, maternal dietary intake, home food availability, socioeconomic status were obtained through questionnaires completed by first-time mothers when children were aged 4 or 18 months. Three 24-h dietary recalls were completed when children were aged ~3.5 years. DED was calculated utilizing three methods: “food only”, “food and dairy beverages”, and “food and all beverages”. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify associations between predictors and these three measures of children’s DED. Home availability of fruits (β: −0.82; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.29, p = 0.002 for DEDfood; β: −0.42; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.02, p = 0.041 for DEDfood+dairy beverages and non-core snacks (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.20, p = 0.016 for DEDfood; β: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15, p = 0.010 for DEDfood+dairy beverages were significantly associated with two of the three DED measures. Providing fruit at home early in a child’s life may encourage the establishment of healthful eating behaviors that could promote a diet that is lower in energy density later in life. Home availability of non-core snacks is likely to increase the energy density of preschool children’s diets, supporting the proposition that non-core snack availability at home should be limited.

  19. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  20. Hands-On Math: Manipulative Math for Young Children. Ages 3-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet I.

    Provided are 121 mathematics activities for children aged 3 to 6. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (describing how to use the book, how to communication with parents, what materials are needed, and how to begin, and also indicating cross-curriculum areas); (2) "Shapes" (describing 20 activities that provide children with an awareness of…

  1. COMPUTER EYE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN AGED 3 TO 6 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasina P. Valcheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To detect visual disturbances, major symptoms and relationship between them in children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, who spend some time in front of a computer. Material/Methods: In the present study 2823 children attending 23 kindergartens in the city of Pleven, were given inquiry cards. Those with completed questionnaires were examined for visual acuity and convergence. In cases with low vision the children were invited for a detailed eye examination in the Eye Clinic at the University Hospital "Dr George Stranski" - Pleven. Results: A total of 2332 children responded and were examined (1174 girls and 1158 boys. The age of children is from 3 to 6 years. We found 303 children with subjective complaints in a close work, 163 with low vision and 18 with impaired convergence. Regarding the duration of stay in front of a computer – 159 children stay over 3 hours a day in front of video display, 1228 children spend about 1 hour a day in front of a computer and 945 children do not play on a computer. Conclusion: Nowadays more and more children use computers for recreational purposes at home. From our study it became clear that preschool children overuse their stay in front of computer.

  2. Standard bone-age of infant and children in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the developmental status of children and adolescents, bone-age chart based on the radiograph of hand and wrist has been used in many countries. The bone-age reflects not only the functional status of various hormones but also the influence of chronic disease, and it has been used more widely than other indices such as height-weight-age table. As the standard bone-age chart has not been established in Korea, the foreign bone-age chart has been used radiographs in the clinics. To make Korean standard bone-age chart, we took the radiographs of the left hand in about 5400 children covering the whole country, and 3407 radiographs of 1830 boys and 1577 girls ranging from two months to 16 years of age were selected and analyzed for bone maturity scores by TW2-20 method. The range of age were divided into 27 groups, and the radiographs of 50th percentile score were chosen as the standard bone-ages for the median age of each group. The youngest and oldest chronological age which had the same TW2-20 score of the standard bone-age were decided as the range of variation from the median age. We hope that Korean standard bone-age chart be used as the radiological criteria in the evaluation of the developmental status in Korean children and adolescents

  3. Study protocol: Rehabilitation including Social and Physical activity and Education in Children and Teenagers with Cancer (RESPECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Karen Vitting; Christensen, Karl Bang; Hasle, Henrik; Heilmann, Carsten; Hejgaard, Nete; Johansen, Christoffer; Madsen, Marianne; Madsen, Svend Aage; Simovska, Venka; Strange, Birgit; Thing, Lone Friis; Wehner, Peder Skov; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2013-11-14

    During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n=120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n=120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child's schoolteachers and classmates, and the child's parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the

  4. Antiretroviral therapy clinic attendance among children aged 0-14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sarah Matemu

    In assessing perception of caregivers on ART for children, the Likert ... 81%, of the interviewed caregivers were females and about 64% aged above 30 years. ... missing clinic appointments reported by caregivers not incurring travelling costs ...

  5. [Relationship between assertiveness including consideration for others and adjustment in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Megumi; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2012-06-01

    The relationship between assertiveness and internal and external adjustment was investigated. Elementary school children in grades four to six (n=207) and their classroom teachers (n=8) participated in the study. Internal and external adjustments were measured by using self-ratings, and self- and other- ratings respectively. The children responded to a questionnaires inquiring about assertiveness that included two components of assessment: "self expression" and "consideration for others". Then, the children were divided into 4 groups according to their scores on these two components of assertiveness. The results indicated that children scoring high on both components of assertiveness had higher self-rating scores than those scoring low on both components. Moreover, children that scored high on "consideration for others" tended to have high external adjustment. Also, boys that scored low on "self expression" had lower external adjustment as indicated by the negative ratings of teachers. Furthermore, girls that scored high on "consideration for others" had high external adjustment as indicated by positive ratings of teachers and same-sexed classmates.

  6. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Manten, Gwendolyn T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hulscher, Jan

    Objective: We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. Study design: We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands,

  7. Nutritional Status and Cognitive Performance among Children Aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Without adequate nutrition, children cannot develop to their full physical and mental potentials. The nutritional status and the cognitive performance of 500 school children aged 5-12 years from urban and rural areas of Enugu State, Nigeria were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements of heights and weights were ...

  8. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  9. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  10. Effects of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Brain Volumes in Healthy 9 Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; Peper, J.S.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; de Vries, L.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of gestational age and birth weight on brain volumes in a population-based sample of normal developing children at the age of 9 years. Study design: A total of 192 children from twin births were included in the analyses. Data on gestational age and birth weight were

  11. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amblyopia and refractive errors among school-aged children with low socioeconomic status in southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Cingu, Abdullah Kursat; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Dursun, Mehmet Emin; Dag, Umut; Balsak, Selahattin; Alakus, Fuat; Yavuz, Abdullah; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of refractive errors and other eye diseases, incidence and types of amblyopia in school-aged children, and their relation to gender, age, parental education, and socioeconomic factors. A total of 21,062 children 6 to 14 years old were screened. The examination included visual acuity measurements and ocular motility evaluation. Autorefraction under cycloplegia and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus were performed. There were 11,118 females and 9,944 males. The average age was 10.56 ± 3.59 years. When all of the children were evaluated, 3.2% had myopia and 5.9% had hyperopia. Astigmatism 0.50 D or greater was present in 14.3% of children. Myopia was associated with older age, female gender, and higher parental education. Hyperopia was inversely proportional with older age. Spectacles were needed in 4,476 (22.7%) children with refractive errors, and 10.6% of children were unaware of their spectacle needs. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of all children. The most common causes of amblyopia were anisometropia (1.2%) and strabismus (0.9%). Visual impairment is a common disorder in school-aged children. Eye health screening programs are beneficial in early detection and proper treatment of refractive errors. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment.

  14. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  15. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  16. Problematic eating behaviour in Turkish children aged 12-72 months: characteristics of mothers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orün, Emel; Erdil, Zeynep; Cetinkaya, Semra; Tufan, Naile; Yalçin, S Songül

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of problematic eating behaviour (PEB), associated risk factors, feeding practices including place of meal, variety of diet, and habits of consuming junk food, the mothers' perception of the child growth status in comparison to his/ her peers, and the effects on anthropometric measurements. This study was carried out among children aged 12-72 months who attended the outpatient clinic in the Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital between February-June 2007. Three hundred and thirty-one mothers of children were asked to complete an extensive questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and their child's general eating behaviour and feeding practices at mealtimes. Children with PEB were identified based on their mothers' statements. Three hundred and thirty-one cases were 3.32 +/- 1.39 years old. One hundred thirty-five mothers reported having a child with PEB. The mothers described the children's problematic behaviour as: need to walk around with the child during mealtime (45.6%), watching TV during meals (41.9%), picky or fussy eating (39%), vomiting and/or retching (25.7%), retaining food in the mouth for a long time (20.6%), and not eating solid foods (11.8%). In children who had ate neither meat nor vegetables and fruits, took cod-liver oil-containing supplement during the course of the study, and had taken iron supplements in the first year of life, PEB was more frequent than in others. The mean z scores of weight for age (WAZ) were significantly lower in cases with PEB than without PEB. Counselling and supporting of the mother/caregiver could alleviate the effect of inappropriate solutions taken by families. Insistence on composing of the diet variety including especially vegetables, fruits and meat may be promoted by provision of alternative cooking/presentation samples to mothers of children who refuse some foods. Pediatricians should be alerted that lower WAZ values may be a warning indicating a

  17. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  18. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60?years. By comparison, recent data (1999?2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved....

  19. Self-Reported Health Experiences of Children Living with Congenital Heart Defects: Including Patient-Reported Outcomes in a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel Louise; Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Understanding children's views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a 'heart problem'. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10-14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling 'different', whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as 'not a big thing'. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD 'in the past' or experienced a sense of survivorship. Children's reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children's concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to optimising participation. We highlight the potential for informing

  20. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  1. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  2. Relative age effect on success in tennis competition in the older age-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The theory of relative age effect assumes that children and adolescents - athletes born at the beginning of the calendar year in sports competitions are more successful than those who were born in the later months of the same year. This percentage is based on advantage of fitness, morphological and psychological assumptions of the older athletes. AIM: The research objective of the present study was to verify the assumption of competitive success of older players in the elite boys and girls tennis groups in the older school age. METHODOLOGY: The data from groups of 13 year old boys and girls (13 years and 0 months to 13 years and 11 months were included into the analysis. These players were registered in the first one hundred ranking of International Tennis Federation (ITF according to the total number of ranking points in each year during the period 2007-2011 (500 boys, 500 girls. An ANOVA was used for analysis with a total ranking score as an indicator of competitive success with the age factor (12 levels = 12 months of birth (α = .05. The same analysis was used in sub-groups of boys, respectively girls, registered in ITF separately for each year of the period 2007-2011. Dates of birth of children were obtained from official sources of ITF. In the event of the significance factor of age we performed a simple regression analysis depending on the number of ITF points on the month of birth (p < .05. Analyses were processed in SPSS 21 software (IBM, USA. RESULTS: The analysis showed no significance of age, respective of the month of birth on the total number of points in a boys group (n = 500 (p = .624 and girls group (n = 500 (p = .152 from ITF ranking during five-year period. No significance was found in the boys' groups (n = 100, respective girls' groups (n = 100 registered in ITF ranking in each year of the five-year period. The exception was found only in a boys group in 2007 (p = .021, and significant regression relationship

  3. School-age children's fears, anxiety, and human figure drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M K; Ryan-Wenger, N A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the fears of school-age children and determine the relationship between fear and anxiety. A descriptive, correlational, secondary analysis study was conducted using a convenience sample of 90 children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Each child was instructed to complete the Revised Children's Anxiety Scale and then answer questions from a structured interview. On completion, each child was instructed to draw a human figure drawing. Frequency charts and correlational statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that the most significant fears of the boys were in the categories of animals, safety, school, and supernatural phenomena, whereas girls were more fearful of natural phenomena. High correlations existed between anxiety scores and the number of fears and emotional indicators on human figure drawings. Because human figure drawings are reliable tools for assessing anxiety and fears in children, practitioners should incorporate these drawings as part of their routine assessments of fearful children.

  4. Friendships and social interactions of school-aged children with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D

    2008-07-01

    We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.

  5. A Systematic Review of the Probability of Asphyxia in Children Aged Epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Philippa; Kemp, Alison; Carter, Ben; Maguire, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportion of children aged epistaxis in the absence of trauma or medical explanation and to identify the characteristics of the clinical presentation indicative of asphyxiation. An all-language systematic review was conducted by searching 10 databases from 1900 to 2015 and gray literature to identify high-quality studies that included children with epistaxis aged epistaxis were excluded. For each comparative study, the proportion of children presenting with epistaxis that were asphyxiated is reported with 95% CI. Of 2706 studies identified, 100 underwent full review, resulting in 6 included studies representing 30 children with asphyxiation-related epistaxis and 74 children with non-asphyxiation-related epistaxis. The proportion of children presenting with epistaxis that had been asphyxiated, reported by 3 studies, was between 7% and 24%. Features associated with asphyxiation in live children included malaise, altered skin color, respiratory difficulty, and chest radiograph abnormalities. There were no explicit associated features described among those children who were dead on arrival. There is an association between epistaxis and asphyxiation in young children; however, epistaxis does not constitute a diagnosis of asphyxia in itself. In any infant presenting with unexplained epistaxis, a thorough investigation of etiology is always warranted, which must include active exploration of asphyxia as a possible explanation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  7. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  8. Age Differences in Children's Strategies for Influencing Parents' Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Ann; And Others

    The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…

  9. Assessment of anaemia and iron status of school age children (aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -12 years in some rural communities in Nigeria as well as identify factors associated with anemia in the children. A total of 249 school children, 120 males and 129 females aged between 7-12 years were used in the study. Haemomoglobin ...

  10. Clinical Predictors of Hospital Admission in Children Aged 0-24 Months with Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucksheeba Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bronchiolitis is a significant cause of acute morbidity in children less than 2 years old and some children with bronchiolitis are admitted to the hospital. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To identify clinical predictors of hospital admission in children aged 0-24 months with acute bronchiolitis.   METHODS: All children in the age group of 0-24 months presenting with acute bronchiolitis to a dedicated pediatric emergency department of GB pant cantonment children hospital, Govt Medical College Srinagar,   from April 2012-March 2013 were included in the study, provided they met the inclusion criteria. Non-parametric numerical variables were analyzed using Mann Whitney u test. Chi square was used to analyzecategorical variables, p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: 763(552(72.3% male, mean age 8.52+/- 3.59 months children (0-24months presented with acute bronchiolitis during the study period. 435(313 (72% male, mean age 6.69+/-3.8 monthspatients were admitted to the hospital. The eight best predictors of admission (age, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, fever, grunt, dehydration and duration of symptoms were determined. CONCLUSION:This study has identified clinical predictors of admission in children aged 0-24 months with acute bronchiolitis. This information can be used as a guide in deciding whether to admit a child with bronchiolitis.

  11. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  12. Relationship between Social Cognition and Temperament in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBounty, Jennifer; Bosse, Lindsey; Savicki, Stephanie; King, Jaline; Eisenstat, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament and social cognition, including theory of mind and emotion understanding, in 34 preschool-aged children (aged 3-4 years). Theory of mind was measured with a belief-desire reasoning assessment, and emotion understanding was measured with an affective…

  13. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  14. Neonatal health including congenital malformation risk of 1072 children born after vitrified embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Verheyen, G; Van Landuyt, L

    2016-07-01

    Does vitrification of Day 3 and Day 5 embryos adversely affect birth outcomes of singletons and twins in comparison with peers born after fresh embryo transfer? Neonatal health parameters, including the prevalence of congenital malformations, in singletons and twins born after embryo vitrification are similar to or slightly better than after fresh embryo transfer. Although vitrification, rather than slow-freezing, of embryos is routine practice nowadays, convincing evidence regarding the safety for the offspring is sparse. Literature data comprise results from mostly small-sized studies or studies including only Day 3 or only Day 5 vitrified embryo transfers. Overall, better or comparable perinatal outcomes, in terms of higher birthweight and lower risk for small-for-gestational age or for low birthweight, have been reported for singletons born after vitrified embryo transfer compared with fresh embryo transfer. According to the single available study with sufficient sample size, the congenital malformation rate was found to be comparable after vitrified and fresh embryo transfers. Data were collected from 960 cycles after transfer of embryos vitrified on Day 3 (n = 457) or Day 5 (n = 503) and from 1644 cycles after fresh embryo transfer on Day 3 (n = 853) or Day 5 (n = 791), performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the university hospital UZ Brussel. Outcome measures were neonatal health in terms of birthweight, small-for-gestational age, prematurity rate, perinatal death and major/minor/total malformation rate. Perinatal health parameters of 11 stillborns and 1061 live borns (827 singletons and 234 twins) in the vitrified group and of 28 stillborns and 1838 live borns (1374 singletons and 464 twins) in the fresh embryo group are reported. Within 3 months after birth, children in the two study groups were assessed clinically with special attention to congenital malformations by a paediatrician blinded to the type of embryo

  15. AGE-DEPENDENT FEATURES OF EVOLVING HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Toptygina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Age dynamics of humoral immunity was studied in healthy children, i.e., 11 newborns, 33 infants of 4 to 8 months, 32 children of 1 to 2 years old,, 17 children of 4 to 5 years old, 25 children of 6 to 8 years old, 15 children of 9 to 11 years old, and 28 adolescents of 14 to 16 years old. Evaluation of membrane receptors on B cells was performed by means of three-colour fluorescent label and allowed of characterizing B1 subpopulations (CD19+CD5+CD27-, naпve B2 cells (CD19+CD5-CD27-, and B2 memory cells (CD19+CD5-CD27+. B1 cells have been shown to dominate in blood of newborns and younger children (up to 5 years old. By the contrary, B2 memory cells were nearly undetectable in newborns, and exceeded 20% in adolescents (by 15 years old. Meanwhile, it has been revealed that the amounts of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses did progressively increase with age, whereas IgG2 remained decreased to 50% of adult values for a long time, and reached them by 11 years and later. We suggest that the age dynamics of IgG subclasses is connected with age-dependent changes in B cell subpopulations.

  16. MR features of the developing perianterior horn structure including subcallosal fasciculus in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    To describe the changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the perianterior horn structure (PAS) with increasing age, we studied 69 infants and children aged between 3 days and 9.4 years (average: 2.8 years) without any neurological deficits. T1- and T2-weighted images and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) images were obtained in the axial plane. Based on a comparison of the intensity of the PAS with that of the cortex in each sequence (T1-WI/FLAIR/T2-WI), we classified the signal-intensity patterns into four types: I, low/low/high; II, low/high/high; III, iso/high/high; IV, high/low/low. Signal-intensity types I, II, III and IV were seen in 22, 8, 17, and 22 subjects, respectively, with younger subjects showing type I or II intensity patterns and older subjects showing type III or IV. In addition, T1-weighted and FLAIR images of subjects with a type I intensity pattern showed a rim of an isointensity component around the PAS that histologically coincided with migrating glial cells. The low-intensity area on FLAIR and T2-WI images of subjects with a type IV intensity pattern may represent myelinated fibers of the subcallosal fasciculus (ScF). The intensity of the MR signals of the PAS changes with increasing age, and this change may reflect histological features. A better understanding of these characteristics may help us to clarify myelination abnormalities, particularly those related to the ScF in the frontal lobe in infants and children. (orig.)

  17. The nutritional status of school-aged children: why should we care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Cora; Neufingerl, Nicole; van Geel, Laura; van den Briel, Tina; Osendarp, Saskia

    2010-09-01

    The nutritional status of school-aged children impacts their health, cognition, and subsequently their educational achievement. The school is an opportune setting to provide health and nutrition services to disadvantaged children. Yet, school-aged children are not commonly included in health and nutrition surveys. An up-to-date overview of their nutritional status across the world is not available. To provide a summary of the recent data on the nutritional status of school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition and identify issues of public health concern. A review of literature published from 2002 to 2009 on the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 12 years from Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean region was performed. Eligible studies determined the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies or child under- and overnutrition using biochemical markers and internationally accepted growth references. A total of 369 studies from 76 different countries were included. The available data indicate that the nutritional status of school-aged children in the reviewed regions is considerably inadequate. Underweight and thinness were most prominent in populations from South-East Asia and Africa, whereas in Latin America the prevalence of underweight or thinness was generally below 10%. More than half of the studies on anemia reported moderate (> 20%) or severe (> 40%) prevalence of anemia. Prevalences of 20% to 30% were commonly reported for deficiencies of iron, iodine, zinc, and vitamin A. The prevalence of overweight was highest in Latin American countries (20% to 35%). In Africa, Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean, the prevalence of overweight was generally below 15%. The available data indicate that malnutrition is a public health issue in school-aged children in developing countries and countries in transition. However, the available data, especially data on micronutrient status, are limited. These findings emphasize

  18. Self-Perception of Aging and Satisfaction With Children's Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    Those with self-beliefs in negative aging may desire a stronger support network to buffer against potential threats and may hence see their current network as less than adequate. This study investigated whether negative self-perception of aging is associated with increased dissatisfaction with children's support. Six hundred and forty Chinese older adults with at least one child and a total of 2,108 adult children rated the degree of support received from each child individually and the degree to which it met their expectation. Additionally, the participants responded to measures of self-perception of aging (both positive and negative), neuroticism, instrumental activities of daily living, chronic illnesses, financial strain, and living status. The multilevel dataset was analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Individuals who had a more negative self-perception of aging, who were younger, who lived alone, and who had fewer children provided lower support satisfaction ratings after support received from children was controlled for. Positive self-perception of aging was unrelated to support satisfaction. Neuroticism did not account for the relationship between negative self-perception of aging and support satisfaction. A negative self-perception of aging may create vulnerability to intergenerational tension that puts older people at risk of adverse psychological and physical health outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Schools, Schooling, and Children's Support of Their Aging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R

    2009-10-01

    Intergenerational transfers play an important role in individuals' lives across the life course. In this paper I pull together theories on intergenerational transfers and social change to inform our understanding of how changes in the educational context influence children's support of their parents. By examining multiple aspects of a couple's educational context, including husbands' and wives' education and exposure to schools, this paper provides new information on the mechanisms through which changes in social context influence children's support of their parents. Using data from a rural Nepalese area I use multilevel logistic regression to estimate the relationship between schooling, exposure to schools, and the likelihood of couples giving to their parents. I find that both schooling and exposure to schools itself have separate, opposite effects on support of aging parents. Higher levels of schooling for husbands was associated with a higher likelihood of having given support to husbands' parents. On the other hand, increased exposure to schools for husbands and wives was associated with a lower likelihood of having given to wives' parents. Findings constitute evidence that multiple motivations for intergenerational support exist simultaneously and are related to social context through different mechanisms.

  20. A holistic approach to age estimation in refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypek, Scott A; Benson, Jill; Spanner, Kate A; Williams, Jan L

    2016-06-01

    Many refugee children arriving in Australia have an inaccurately documented date of birth (DOB). A medical assessment of a child's age is often requested when there is a concern that their documented DOB is incorrect. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy a holistic age assessment tool (AAT) in estimating the age of refugee children newly settled in Australia. A holistic AAT that combines medical and non-medical approaches was used to estimate the ages of 60 refugee children with a known DOB. The tool used four components to assess age: an oral narrative, developmental assessment, anthropometric measures and pubertal assessment. Assessors were blinded to the true age of the child. Correlation coefficients for the actual and estimated age were calculated for the tool overall and individual components. The correlation coefficient between the actual and estimated age from the AAT was very strong at 0.9802 (boys 0.9748, girls 0.9876). The oral narrative component of the tool performed best (R = 0.9603). Overall, 86.7% of age estimates were within 1 year of the true age. The range of differences was -1.43 to 3.92 years with a standard deviation of 0.77 years (9.24 months). The AAT is a holistic, simple and safe instrument that can be used to estimate age in refugee children with results comparable with radiological methods currently used. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Linguistic constraints on children's overt marking of BE by dialect and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Joseph; Oetting, Janna B; Moland, Christy Wynn

    2013-06-01

    Overt marking of BE in nonmainstream adult dialects of English is influenced by a number of linguistic constraints, including the structure's person, number, tense, contractibility, and grammatical function. In the current study, the authors examined the effects of these constraints on overt marking of BE in children as a function of their nonmainstream English dialect and age. The data were language samples from 62 children, ages 4-6 years; 24 children spoke African American English (AAE), and 38 spoke Southern White English (SWE). Analyses included analysis of variance and logistic regression. Rates of overt marking varied by the children's dialect but not their age. Although the person, number, tense, and grammatical function of BE influenced the children's rates of marking, the nature and magnitude of the influence differed by the children's dialect. For AAE-speaking children, contractibility also influenced their marking of BE. Consistent with the adult literature, the current study showed that AAE- and SWE-speaking children marked BE in ways that differed from each other and from what has been documented for child speakers of Mainstream American English. These findings show stability in the use of BE in AAE and SWE that spans different generations and different dialect communities.

  3. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  4. Postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Qian Wen; Taylor, Beverley; Liam, Joanne Lw; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru; He, Hong-Gu

    2013-04-01

    To explore postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children. Ineffective postoperative pain management among children has been commonly reported. School-aged children are able to evaluate how their pain is managed and what their preferred strategies are. Most studies in pain management have adopted quantitative methods and have overlooked children's pain management experiences. This is a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews. Data were collected from 15 school-aged children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore by in-depth interviews conducted between November 2010 and January 2011. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: children's self-directed actions to relieve their postoperative pain (e.g. using cognitive-behavioural methods of distraction and imagery, physical method of positioning, sleeping and drinking, seeking other people's help by informing parents and crying and using pain medications); children's perceptions of actions parents take for their postoperative pain relief (assessing pain, administering pain medications, using various cognitive-behavioural, physical methods and emotional support strategies, assisting in activities and alerting health professionals); children's perception of actions nurses take for their postoperative pain relief (administering medication, using cognitive-behavioural methods, emotional support strategies and helping with activities of daily living) and suggestions for parents (using distraction and presence) and nurses (administering medications, distraction and positioning) for their postoperative pain relief improvement. This study contributed to the existing knowledge about children's postoperative pain management based on their own experiences. Children, their parents and nurses used various strategies, including pain medication and non-pharmacological methods, especially distraction, for children's postoperative pain relief. This study provides evidence

  5. Naps Enhance Executive Attention in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-09-01

    Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Preschool-aged children's television viewing in child care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Garrison, Michelle M

    2009-12-01

    The goal was to quantify television viewing in day care settings and to investigate the characteristics of programs that predict viewing. A telephone survey of licensed child care programs in Michigan, Washington, Florida, and Massachusetts was performed. The frequency and quantity of television viewing for infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children were assessed. With the exception of infants, children in home-based child care programs were exposed to significantly more television on an average day than were children in center-based programs (infants: 0.2 vs 0 hours; toddlers: 1.6 vs 0.1 hours; preschool-aged children: 2.4 vs 0.4 hours). In a regression analysis of daily television time for preschool-aged children in child care, center-based programs were found to have an average of 1.84 fewer hours of television each day, controlling for the other covariates. Significant effect modification was found, in that the impact of home-based versus center-based child care programs differed somewhat depending on educational levels for staff members; having a 2- or 4-year college degree was associated with 1.41 fewer hours of television per day in home-based programs, but no impact of staff education on television use was observed in center-based programs. For many children, previous estimates of screen time significantly underestimated actual amounts. Pediatricians should council parents to minimize screen time in child care settings.

  7. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy and social emotional development in preschool-aged Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suying; Wang, Li; Wang, Yuying; Brouwer, Inge D; Kok, Frans J; Lozoff, Betsy; Chen, Chunming

    2011-04-01

    We aimed to compare affect and behavior of 3 groups of nonanemic 4-year-old children: children with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy whose anemia was not corrected before 24 months (chronic IDA) (n = 27); children with IDA in infancy whose anemia was corrected before 24 months (corrected IDA) (n = 70); and children who were nonanemic in infancy and at 24 months (n = 64). Mother and child dyads were invited to a local clinic room. Children's social referencing, wariness, frustration-tolerance behavior, and affect were observed during a set of situations encountered in the laboratory, including free play, stranger approach, novel toy, and delay of gratification. The whole procedure was videotaped. The children's affective and behavioral displays were coded by using a time-sampling (5-second segments) code scheme. Iron status of children was determined on the basis of hemoglobin concentration measured with the cyanomethemoglobin method in blood samples obtained by fingerstick in infancy and at the ages of 24 months and 4 years. Children who had chronic IDA in infancy displayed less positive affect, less frustration tolerance, more passive behavior, and more physical self-soothing in the stranger approach and delay of gratification. In contrast, the behavior and affect of children whose anemia was corrected before the age of 24 months were comparable to those of children who were nonanemic throughout infancy. The results point to the potential benefits of preventing iron deficiency in infancy and treating it before it becomes chronic or severe.

  8. Heart rates in hospitalized children by age and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; Bonafide, Christopher P; Brady, Patrick W

    2015-05-01

    Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient's severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. We used 60,863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼ 10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  10. Care and supportive measures in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtorv, Lisbeth B; Haugland, Siren; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to substances, including alcohol, opiates, and a number of illicit drugs, may have a negative impact on fetal development. Studies have shown that substance exposure can influence a child's neurodevelopment and the need for care and supportive measures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the care status and the level of supportive measures in school-aged children prenatally exposed to alcohol and other substances. This study included children aged between 6 and 14 years who were referred to Haukeland University Hospital in Norway with developmental impairment and a history of prenatal substance exposure. Participants were classified according to their main prenatal exposure to either alcohol or other substances. Information on care status and supportive measures was obtained from medical records and participants' caregivers. We also compared the use of supportive measures for children placed into foster care before and after 1 year of age. A total of 111 (87% of 128 referrals) eligible children participated in the study. Of these 111 children, 96 (86%) were in foster care, of whom 29 (30%) were placed into foster care during their first year of life and 83 out of 90 (92%) had supportive measures, including reinforced foster care and school or social support. A high proportion of the sample lived in foster care and received supportive measures. Findings may reflect an increased need of care and support in school-aged children with prenatal substance exposure, highlighting the importance of awareness among caregivers and public agencies.

  11. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  12. School-Aged Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Services, Experiences, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Viviane; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Na, Eunjung; Mendonca, Oreen

    2018-01-01

    Following the establishment of newborn hearing screening programs, age of identification and length of time before receiving interventions has been reduced for children, including those with milder degrees of hearing loss who were previously not identified until school age. This population of early-identified children requires new support programs…

  13. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  14. Footwear suitability in Turkish preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Yasin; Sener, Gul; Yakut, Yavuz

    2014-06-01

    Unsuitable footwear worn in childhood may cause some foot problems by interfering normal development of foot. To compare footwear suitability rate of indoor and outdoor footwear at all points in preschool children and investigate factors which could affect footwear suitability. A cross-sectional survey study. A total of 1000 healthy preschool children (4-6 years old) participated in this study. Indoor and outdoor footwear of children were evaluated through Turkish version of Footwear Assessment Score. Effect of factors like age, sex, number of siblings, educational and occupational situation of parents, and behavior of school management about selecting footwear was investigated. Children got better footwear score for outdoor than indoor ones (p footwear score for both indoor and outdoor ones than girls (p footwear score was found in favor of children who were going to schools that gave guidance about selecting footwear for both indoor and outdoor in comparison to children going to other schools (p footwear for their children. Performing education programs and investigation of their effect with comprehensive follow-up studies in future is essential. This study reflects footwear habits of Turkish preschool children and factors affecting this issue. Results may give way to education programs about suitable footwear worn in childhood for healthy foot development. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2013.

  15. [Comparison of neostigmine induced reversal of rocuronium in different age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinzhu; Cheng, Zhaoyu

    2016-03-15

    To compare the effectiveness of neostigmine induced reversal of rocuronium in neonates, infants, young children and children. One hundred and sixty ASA I or II pediatric patients undergoings elective surgical procedures under total intravenous anesthesia were enrolled during July 2014 to April 2015 in Tianjin Children's Hospital. The patients were divided into four groups according to ages: neonate group, infant group, young children group and children group.Then control subgroup and neostigmine reversal subgroup including twenty patients were randomly selected from every different age groups by the method of random number table. After induction of anesthesia, 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium was administered, and 0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required during period of operation. Neuromuscular block was monitored using acceleromyographic train of four (TOF). When T1/control returned to 15%, 0.03 mg/kg neostigmine and 0.01 mg/kg atropine were given to patients of reversal subgroups, and saline 0.1 ml/kg was given to patients of control subgroups. The recovery time of T25, T75, TR0.7, recovery index, blood pressure, heart rate and adverse reactions were observed and recorded. In control subgroups, the recovery time of T75 for neonates, infants, young children and children were (27.10±8.72), (16.70±6.35), (13.05±1.96), (14.40±3.08) min, respectively (F=25.052, P0.05). But the recovery time of T75, TR0.7 and recovery index in neonate group were longer than other age groups (all Procuronium are comparable in infant, young children and children. There are obviously reversal effects in all of age groups when neostigmine is given to antagonize rocuronium. Either spontaneous recovery time or reversal recovery time of neostigmine to rocuronium is longer for neonates than other age's children.

  16. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S A; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D; Ain, Kenneth B; Cooper, David S; Fein, Henry G; Haugen, Bryan R; Ladenson, Paul W; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S; Skarulis, Monica C; Steward, David L; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R; Maxon, Harry R; Sherman, Steven I

    2015-10-01

    Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R(2)). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45-50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50-55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003-0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation.

  17. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  18. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Celano, Mark J; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Wallace, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n=41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n=58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings than did TD children in both the goal-directed and theory of mind (ToM) conditions. Results remained unchanged when the effects of verbal output (i.e., number of clause produced) and verbal IQ were included as covariates in the analyses. Whereas age was highly associated with ToM performance in the TD children, this relationship was not as strong among children with ASDs. These results indicate not only a diminished tendency among high functioning children with ASDs to attribute social meaning and intentionality to ambiguous visual displays of interactive forms but also an aberrant developmental trajectory. That is, children with ASDs may fall further behind their typically developing peers in social attribution abilities as they get older.

  19. TV parenting practices: is the same scale appropriate for parents of children of different ages?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tzu-An; O?Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Frankel, Leslie; Baranowski, Janice; Mendoza, Jason A; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Use multidimensional polytomous item response modeling (MPIRM) to evaluate the psychometric properties of a television (TV) parenting practices (PP) instrument. Perform differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to test whether item parameter estimates differed across education, language, or age groups. Methods Secondary analyses of data from three studies that included 358 children between the ages of 3 and 12?years old in Houston, Texas. TV PP included 15 items with three subscal...

  20. Association of age specific body mass index, dental caries and socioeconomic status of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, P; Singh, D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of BMI-for-age with dental caries and socioeconomic status. A random sample of 2033 school going children aged 6-15 years were selected from ten different schools located in the south of Bangalore city. Height and weight of each child was recorded to obtain BMI-for-age. The socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed based on educational status, profession and annual income of parents. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO criteria. A diet recording sheet was given to each child to record his/her dietary intake of the four basic food groups and snacks for 5 consecutive days including one weekend day. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed that a higher number of children who were overweight and at a risk of overweight were seen in the upper SES and both showed a higher mean dietary intake of all the four food groups and snacks. The mean deft score was significantly higher in underweight children. A significantly higher mean DMFT score was observed in children at risk of overweight and overweight children. Children from the upper classes consumed more food, including snacks and were either at a risk of overweight or overweight. They had more caries in their permanent dentition. Underweight children were seen in the lower class. Although their intake of snacks was less, they had higher caries in their primary dentition.

  1. Swedish parents' activities together with their children and children's health: a study of children aged 2-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Leeni T; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2014-11-01

    Nordic children's health has declined. Studies show that parents' engagement in children's leisure-time activities might provide beneficial health outcomes for children. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between Swedish parents' activities together with their children, the parents' experiences of time pressure and their children's health. Data of 1461 Swedish children aged 2-17 years old that were collected in the NordChild study of 2011 were used. We analyzed physical health, diseases and disabilities, psychosomatic health and well-being, and the parents' experiences of time pressure; and we calculated the associations between parental activity together with the child and health indicators. Activities that were significantly and positively associated with children's health at ages 2-17 years of age were: playing and playing games; going to the cinema, theatre, and sporting events; reading books; playing musical instruments/singing; sports activities; watching TV/video/DVD. Playing video games or computer games, driving child to activities and going for walks were significantly and positively associated at age groups 7-12 years and 13-17 years. Activities that were negatively associated with health were: surfing/blogging on the Internet, going shopping and doing homework. Parents who were not experiencing time pressures had a higher level of activity together with their children. The parental experience of time pressure was associated with work time, with less homework activity and more symptoms in children. The family and home are important settings for the development of children's health we found eight parental activities together with their children that promoted the children's health parents' working time and their time pressure experiences affected their activities with their children there is a need for an increased focus on parental activities that are positively associated with children's health. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of

  2. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Relationship between protein energy malnutrition and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayati Nurhayati; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Ketut G. Suandi

    2006-01-01

    Background Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) affects physical, psychological, and social development. Objective To investigate the relationship between PEM and social maturity in children aged 1-2 years. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at Child Health Outpatient Clinic, Sanglah Hospital, betweenApril-September 2000. We included children living with their parents, with no handicap or chronically ill condition. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires. Nutri...

  4. Developing a Treatment Program for Obesity in Preschool Age Children: Preliminary Data

    OpenAIRE

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Stark, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested the feasibility of a behavioral intervention that utilizes clinic and home visitations to reduce overweight in preschool children above the 95th BMI percentile. Five families of preschool children ages 2 to 5 years with a BMI above the 95th percentile and one overweight parent were enrolled in a 24-week behavioral weight management program. Phase I, Intensive Treatment included 12 weekly sessions, alternating group-based clinic sessions and home settings. Phase II, Mai...

  5. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); D.P. Smidts (Diana); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examined whether very preterm (≤30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50

  6. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under five with acute diarrhea in Bahir Dar town. Ayrikim Adugna1, Mulugeta Kibret1, Bayeh Abera2, Endalkachew Nibret1, Melaku Adal1. 1. Department of Biology, Science College, Bahir Dar University. 2. Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and ...

  7. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  8. An Assessment Of Importance Of Children In Old Age Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the male model, in the female model, only religion established similar relationship. The study concludes that the welfare of the elderly requires the strengthening of social security system. Keywords: Welfare, Value of children, Old age security, Extended famil. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.

  9. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  10. Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.

    1979-01-01

    Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…

  11. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  12. The Prevalence of Reading Difficulties among Children in Scholar Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosita Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.

  13. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  14. Vulnerability of children: More than a question of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, D.

    2010-01-01

    The vulnerability of children in disasters is well-established. Children are at greater risk of the impacts of disasters because of both their age and level of physiological, anatomical, cognitive and emotional development. Frequently overlooked, however, is the influence of other social and health determinants. This article highlights the importance of family and household income in determining the ability of children to withstand the shocks of catastrophic events. Children raised in lower income families are made disadvantaged in multiple ways; by poor living and neighbourhood conditions, less stable home environments, as well as lower levels of education and health care. During disasters, lower income families and children suffer disproportionately, both because they are frequently the hardest hit but also because they have fewer resources with which to cope. The article emphasises not only the importance of understanding the vulnerability of children within a broader family context, but a continuing requirement for public health and emergency planners to integrate more fully the diverse needs of children and families into emergency preparedness policies and plans. (authors)

  15. Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Falster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth.Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW, enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7, with 4,382 children (4.4% born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1% born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32-49, and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%-18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%-24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of

  16. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  17. Tell me your life: including life stories in an adult development and aging course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat; Fabà, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the learning impact of an assignment that consisted of interviewing and analyzing older people's life stories, and to explore how the assignment was evaluated by students. Participants in the study were 122 first-year social education students enrolled in an adult development and aging course. They evaluated the assignment using an eight-adjective questionnaire and were asked about the benefits of the task. Their answers to the questionnaire were then reviewed using content analysis. The results indicated that marks on the life story assignment predicted marks on an exam about basic course concepts. Students considered that the assignment was interesting, useful, and integrated into the course, although most of them also thought that it was very time-consuming. They identified benefits related to the explicit goals of the course (improvement in the learning of developmental concepts, the acquisition of research-related skills, and the deactivation of aging stereotypes) and personal, growth-related benefits. The authors discuss the difficulties posed by the assignment and its usefulness as a complement to more traditional, lecture-based teaching methods in adult development and aging courses.

  18. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3-12 years.

  19. Including Children with Selective Mutism in Mainstream Schools and Kindergartens: Problems and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    There is little research on inclusion of children with selective mutism in school/kindergarten. Moreover, few studies have tried to understand selectively mute children's interactions in the natural surroundings of their home and school/kindergarten. Five children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for selective mutism were video-observed in social…

  20. Sleep architecture in school-aged children with primary snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin; Au, Chun-Ting; Lam, Hugh S; Chan, Ching-Ching K; Ho, Crover; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to examine if sleep architecture was altered in school-aged children with primary snoring (PS). Children ages 6 to 13 years from 13 primary schools were randomly recruited. A validated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) screening questionnaire was completed by their parents. Children at high risk for OSA and a randomly chosen low-risk group were invited to undergo overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical examination. Participants were classified into healthy controls, PS, mild OSA, and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA) groups for comparison. A total of 619 participants underwent PSG (mean age, 10.0 ± 1.8 years; 396 (64.0%) boys; 524 (84.7%) prepubertal). For the cohort as a whole, there were no significant differences in measures of sleep architecture between PS and nonsnoring healthy controls. In the multiple regression model, percentage of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) stage 1 (N1) sleep had a significantly positive association, whereas percentage of slow-wave sleep (SWS) had a significantly negative association with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity after controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI) z score, and pubertal status. In prepubertal children with PS, no significant disruption of sleep architecture was found. However, pubertal adolescent PS participants had significantly higher adjusted percentage of N1 sleep and wake after sleep onset (WASO) compared to healthy controls. PS did not exert significant adverse influences on normal sleep architecture in prepubertal school-aged children. Nevertheless, pubertal adolescents with PS had increased N1 sleep and WASO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of Intrusive Sexual Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F

    2018-04-10

    Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT  = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD  = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with ageAGE  = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.

  2. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Doros, Gabriela; Simina, Iulia Jurca; Gafencu, Mihai; Puiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To provide head circumference references for school-aged children in western Romania, and compare them with references from other European countries. A total of 2742 children, aged 6-19 years, from Timis county, were examined by medical students, between February 2010-June 2011. Head circumference references were constructed by Cole's LMS method with LMSChartMaker software. The Romanian 3rd, 50th and 97th percentiles for head circumference were compared with recent references from Belgium and Germany. Generally, boys show significantly larger head circumference compared to girls at any age. The head circumference increments between 6 and 19 years are Romania to those from Germany and Belgium, we found lower median head circumference in Romanian boys and girls, that could be explained by a taller stature of boys and girls in Germany and Belgium compared to Romania.

  3. Social participation of children age 8-12 with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Audette; Brisson, Jacinthe; Lepage, Céline; Nadeau, Line; Deaudelin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Two objectives are being pursued: (1) to describe the level of social participation of children aged 8-12 presenting a specific language impairment (SLI) and (2) to identify personal and family factors associated with their level of social participation. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 29 children with SLI and one of their parents. Parental stress and family adversity were measured as risk factors. The measure of life habits (LIFE-H) adapted to children aged 5-3 was used to measure social participation. The assumption that social participation of these children is impaired in relation to the communication dimension was generally confirmed. The statements referring to the "communication in the community" and "written communication" are those for which the results are weaker. "Communication at home" is made easier albeit with some difficulties, while "telecommunication" is totally preserved. A high level of parental stress is also confirmed, affecting the willingness of parents to support their child's autonomy. The achievement of a normal lifestyle of children with SLI is upset in many spheres of life. Methods of intervention must better reflect the needs and realities experienced by these children in their various living environments, in order to optimize social participation, and consequently, to improve their well-being and that of their families. The need to develop strategies to develop children's independence and to reduce parental stress must be recognized and all stakeholders need to be engaged in the resolution of this challenge. The realization of life habits of SLI children is compromised at various levels, especially in the domain related to "communication in the community" and "written communication". Speech-language pathologists must consider providing ongoing support throughout the primary years of these children and during adolescence, to promote and facilitate the continued realization of life habits of SLI persons. Providing ongoing

  4. Behavior and neurocognitive performance in children aged 5-10 years who snore compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, S; Lushington, K; Kennedy, D; Martin, J; Dawson, D

    2000-10-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children is a common but largely underdiagnosed problem. It ranges in severity from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Preliminary evidence suggests that children with severe OSAS show reduced neurocognitive performance, however, less is known about children who snore but do not have severe upper airway obstruction. Participants included 16 children referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat/Respiratory departments of a Children's Hospital for evaluation of snoring and 16 non-snoring controls aged 5-10 years. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was carried out in 13 children who snored and 13 controls. The PSG confirmed the presence of primary snoring in seven and very mild OSAS (as evidenced by chest wall paradox) in eight children referred for snoring while controls showed a normal sleep pattern. To test for group differences in neurocognitive functioning and behavior, children underwent one day of testing during which measures of intelligence, memory, attention, social competency, and problematic behavior were collected. Compared to controls, children who snored showed significantly impaired attention and, although within the normal range, lower memory and intelligence scores. No significant group differences were observed for social competency and problematic behavior. These findings suggest that neurocognitive performance is reduced in children who snore but are otherwise healthy and who do not have severe OSAS. They further imply that the impact of mild sleep disordered breathing on daytime functioning may be more significant than previously realized with subsequent implications for successful academic and developmental progress.

  5. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  6. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  7. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  8. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  9. Hypnobehavioral approaches for school-age children with dysphagia and food aversion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, T P; Kajander, R L; Kohen, D P; Reaney, J B

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe hypnobehavioral treatment of five school-age children with maladaptive eating behaviors, including functional dysphagia, food aversion, globus hystericus, and conditioned fear of eating (phagophobia). The unique treatment approach described emphasizes the successful use of self-management techniques, particularly hypnosis, by all five children. Common etiological factors, treatment strategies, and proposed mechanisms of change are discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case series in the mainstream pediatric literature describing the use of a hypnobehavioral approach for children with these maladaptive eating problems.

  10. PACER Performance of Children Aged 11-14 With Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Timothy; Butterfield, Stephen A; Mason, Craig A; Tu, Shihfen; Lehnhard, Robert A; Nightingale, Christopher J

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the performance on the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) test in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) over the course of a school year, and also to investigate the possible influence of age, sex, school sport participation, and body mass index on results. Utilizing a repeated measures design, 892 middle school children aged 11-14 years (mean = 12.25, SD = 0.94) including 55 children with ADHD participated. While controlling for age, sex, sports participation, and body mass index, children were tested on the PACER 3 times during the school year. Procedures specified in the FITNESSGRAM test manual were explicitly followed. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to analyze the data. Children with ADHD performed 8.6 fewer laps at intercept (baseline), than did healthy children without ADHD (t 878  = -6.20, P < .001). However, no significant differences emerged for time (slope). In addition, no significant interactions were found for ADHD with age, sex, sports participation, or body mass index. A diagnosis of ADHD, independent of selected predictor variables, explained lower PACER performance.

  11. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  12. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the World Health Organization reference curves. Food insecurity was defined by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Averages of three indices according to the presence of food insecurity were analyzed, including other variables. Linear regression evaluated the effect of food insecurity on the Z-score of the three nutritional indices. The sample included 4,817 children, out of whom 7% had deficit in height, 7% were overweight and 47% had food insecurity. It was found that the average of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were -0.31, 0.12 and 0.40, respectively, being lower among children with food insecurity. The regression analysis showed that children living with some level of food insecurity have worse rates of height-for-age, even controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors.

  13. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-07-01

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p  0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  14. Determinants of Personality Traits of School-Age Children : Evidence from Japanese Students at Age 12

    OpenAIRE

    Hojo, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    It has been widely recognized among economists that non-cognitive ability, such as self-control, self-esteem, and personality traits, has a great power in predicting social and economic success. Using survey data from students at age 12 and their parents living in Japan, this paper explores the determinants of personality traits of school-age children. Personality traits are measured by students’ answers for questions concerning daily and school life, and we constructed five measures of perso...

  15. Daily interactions with aging parents and adult children: Associations with negative affect and diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Manalel, Jasmine A; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Midlife adults report greater investment in their children than in their parents, and these ties have important implications for well-being. To date, little research has addressed daily experiences in these ties. The present study examines daily experiences (negative and positive) with aging parents and adult children and their associations with daily negative affect and diurnal cortisol rhythms. Participants were middle-aged adults (N = 156; 56% women) from Wave 2 of the Family Exchanges Study, conducted in 2013, who completed a 7-day daily diary study, which included assessments of daily negative and positive social encounters and negative affect, and 4 days of saliva collection, which was collected 3 times a day (upon waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime) and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models revealed that individuals were more likely to have contact with adult children than with parents but more likely to have negative experiences (negative interactions, avoidance, negative thoughts) with parents than with adult children. Nevertheless, contact and negative experiences with adult children were more consistently associated with negative affect and daily cortisol patterns than were interactions with parents. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis, which suggests that individuals have a greater stake in their children than in their parents. Indeed, negative experiences with adult children may be more salient because tensions with adult children occur less frequently than do tensions with parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

    2014-05-01

    Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes.

  17. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  18. Functional Impairments at School Age of Children With Necrotizing Enterocolitis or Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Ta, B.D.; van der Ree, Meike H.; Tanis, Jozien C.; van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome at school age of children who had either necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP). This case-control study included infants with NEC Bell's stage IIA onward, infants with SIP, and matched controls

  19. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  20. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  1. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in West-African HIV-infected children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla

    2014-01-01

    measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4 cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4 cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model...... compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. RESULTS: Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrolled at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4 cell gains compared with children less...... these children, 75% reached immune recovery: 12-month rates were significantly highest in all those aged 2-5 years at ART initiation compared with those less than 2 years. Beyond 12 months on ART, immune recovery was significantly lower in children initiated more than 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69, 95...

  2. Australian children with cleft palate achieve age-appropriate speech by 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Antonia; Parkin, Melissa; Broome, Kate; Purcell, Alison

    2017-12-01

    Children with cleft palate demonstrate atypical speech sound development, which can influence their intelligibility, literacy and learning. There is limited documentation regarding how speech sound errors change over time in cleft palate speech and the effect that these errors have upon mono-versus polysyllabic word production. The objective of this study was to examine the phonetic and phonological speech skills of children with cleft palate at ages 3 and 5. A cross-sectional observational design was used. Eligible participants were aged 3 or 5 years with a repaired cleft palate. The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) Articulation subtest and a non-standardised list of mono- and polysyllabic words were administered once for each child. The Profile of Phonology (PROPH) was used to analyse each child's speech. N = 51 children with cleft palate participated in the study. Three-year-old children with cleft palate produced significantly more speech errors than their typically-developing peers, but no difference was apparent at 5 years. The 5-year-olds demonstrated greater phonetic and phonological accuracy than the 3-year-old children. Polysyllabic words were more affected by errors than monosyllables in the 3-year-old group only. Children with cleft palate are prone to phonetic and phonological speech errors in their preschool years. Most of these speech errors approximate typically-developing children by 5 years. At 3 years, word shape has an influence upon phonological speech accuracy. Speech pathology intervention is indicated to support the intelligibility of these children from their earliest stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity and play in kindergarten age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Margherita; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa; Epifani, Susi

    2011-01-01

    PERISCOPE project assesses factors promoting or preventing obesity development in early age. A specifi c aim is to assess preschool children ’ s physical activity habits in three different European countries. PERISCOPE has been implemented in 1094 children attending kindergartens in Denmark, Italy...... and Poland. The parents ’ and children ’ s physical activity habits and attitudes assessed by a questionnaire fi lled by the parents. Overweight and obesity assessed by Cole ’ s BMI cut-off points. Statistical analysis performed by χ^2 test and the test of proportion. Denmark shows the lowest rate (14...... hour (p active, the Polish are in the middle and the Italians are the least active. The difference in infrastructures (safety of walking streets, access...

  4. Relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children under the age of five

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Leonardo Pozza dos; Gigante,Denise Petrucci

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and nutritional status of Brazilian children. METHODS: The National Demographic and Health Survey 2006 database is available on the worldwide web. Thus, the analyzed variables were obtained in this study, including nutritional indices, food insecurity and other socioeconomic and demographic variables. The height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices were evaluated as the Z-score of the...

  5. Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Douglas; Jobst, Cecilia; Tesan, Graciela; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake

    2014-09-01

    We examined sensorimotor brain activity associated with voluntary movements in preschool children using a customized pediatric magnetoencephalographic system. A videogame-like task was used to generate self-initiated right or left index finger movements in 17 healthy right-handed subjects (8 females, ages 3.2-4.8 years). We successfully identified spatiotemporal patterns of movement-related brain activity in 15/17 children using beamformer source analysis and surrogate MRI spatial normalization. Readiness fields in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex began ∼0.5 s prior to movement onset (motor field, MF), followed by transient movement-evoked fields (MEFs), similar to that observed during self-paced movements in adults, but slightly delayed and with inverted source polarities. We also observed modulation of mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) oscillations in sensorimotor cortex with movement, but with different timing and a stronger frequency band coupling compared to that observed in adults. Adult-like high-frequency (70-80 Hz) gamma bursts were detected at movement onset. All children showed activation of the right superior temporal gyrus that was independent of the side of movement, a response that has not been reported in adults. These results provide new insights into the development of movement-related brain function, for an age group in which no previous data exist. The results show that children under 5 years of age have markedly different patterns of movement-related brain activity in comparison to older children and adults, and indicate that significant maturational changes occur in the sensorimotor system between the preschool years and later childhood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

  7. The influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbaut, Alexis; Chavet, Pascale; Roux, Maxime; Guéguen, Nils; Barbier, Franck; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Athletic children are prone to overuse injuries, especially at the heel and knee. Since footwear is an extrinsic factor of lower limb injury risk, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of shoe aging on children running biomechanics. Fourteen children active in sports participated in a laboratory biomechanical evaluation. A new pair of shoes was provided to each participant at an inclusion visit. Four months later, the participants performed a running task and their kinematics and kinetics were assessed both with their used shoes and with a new pair of shoes identical to the first. Furthermore, mechanical cushioning properties of shoes were evaluated before and after in-vivo aging. After 4months of use, the sole stiffness increased by 16% and the energy loss capacity decreased by 18% (pknee kinematic adjustment was found at foot strike in used shoes but changes were observed later during stance. Running with used shoes produced a higher loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force (+23%, p=0.016), suggesting higher compressive forces under the heel and placing children at risk to experience impact-related injuries. Nevertheless, the decreased peak ankle and knee power absorption in used shoes (-11%, p=0.010 and -12%, p=0.029, respectively) suggests a lower ankle and knee joints loading during the absorption phase that may be beneficial regarding stretch-related injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral penicillin prescribing for children in the UK: a comparison with BNF for Children age-band recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Ismael, Zareen; Murray, Macey L; Barker, Charlotte; Wong, Ian CK; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Background The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) recommends dosing oral penicillins according to age-bands, weight-bands, or weight-based calculations. Because of the rising prevalence of childhood obesity, age-band-based prescribing could lead to subtherapeutic dosing. Aim To investigate actual oral penicillin prescribing by GPs in the UK with reference to the current BNFC age-band recommendations. Design and setting Descriptive analysis of UK prescriptions in the 2010 IMS Disease-Analyzer database (IMS-DA). Method A detailed database analysis was undertaken of oral penicillin prescriptions for 0–18 year olds from the 2010 IMS-DA. The prescription analysis included all available data on formulation, strength (mg), prescription quantity unit, package size, prescribed quantity, and volume. Results Considering amoxicillin alone, no infants (aged penicillins for children in UK primary care, with very few children being prescribed the current national recommended doses. There is an urgent need to review dosing guidelines, in relation to the weights of children today. PMID:24686886

  9. Factors related to accelerometer-derived physical activity in Pacific children aged 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melody; Schluter, Philip J; Schofield, Grant M; Paterson, Janis

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential factors related to Pacific children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A total of 393 Pacific children aged 6 years and their mothers were invited to participate. Participants wore accelerometers over 8 days; height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and mothers reported on individual, social, and perceived environmental factors. Generalized estimation equation models were used to identify associates of children's daily MVPA. In all, 135 children and 91 mothers were included in analyses. Children spent 24% of time in MVPA; 99% of days had ≥60 minutes of MVPA. Higher maternal MVPA, male sex, longer sunlight hours, and rain-free days were associated with children's MVPA. Approaches for improving activity in Pacific children may be most efficacious if strategies for inclement weather and the encouragement of activity in mothers and, in particular, their daughters are included. Also, 60 minutes of daily MVPA may be insufficient to protect Pacific children from increased body size.

  10. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  11. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  12. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  13. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  14. Prosody Perception and Production in Children with Hearing Loss and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathottukaren, Rose Thomas; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine

    2017-04-01

    Auditory development in children with hearing loss, including the perception of prosody, depends on having adequate input from cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Lack of adequate auditory stimulation can lead to delayed speech and language development. Nevertheless, prosody perception and production in people with hearing loss have received less attention than other aspects of language. The perception of auditory information conveyed through prosody using variations in the pitch, amplitude, and duration of speech is not usually evaluated clinically. This study (1) compared prosody perception and production abilities in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing; and (2) investigated the effect of age, hearing level, and musicality on prosody perception. Participants were 16 children with hearing loss and 16 typically developing controls matched for age and gender. Fifteen of the children with hearing loss were tested while using amplification (n = 9 hearing aids, n = 6 cochlear implants). Six receptive subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), the Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2), and Contour and Interval subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) were used. Audio recordings of the children's reading samples were rated using a perceptual prosody rating scale by nine experienced listeners who were blinded to the children's hearing status. Thirty two children, 16 with hearing loss (mean age = 8.71 yr) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children with normal hearing (mean age = 8.87 yr). Assessments were completed in one session lasting 1-2 hours in a quiet room. Test items were presented using a laptop computer through loudspeaker at a comfortable listening level. For children with hearing loss using hearing instruments, all tests were completed with hearing devices set at their everyday listening setting. All PEPS

  15. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  16. Anemia in young children living in the Surinamese interior: the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijlmans CWR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available CWR Zijlmans,1 A Stuursma,2 AJ Roelofs,2 BC Jubitana,3 MS MacDonald-Ottevanger1 1Department of Mother & Child Health Care, Scientific Research Center Suriname, Academic Hospital Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Suriname; 2Faculty of Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Monitoring Evaluation Surveillance & Research, Medical Mission PHCS, Paramaribo, Suriname Purpose: This study investigates the prevalence of anemia in young children living in the interior of Suriname and the influence of the associated factors age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 606 children aged 1–5 years from three different regions of Suriname’s interior were included, and hemoglobin levels and anthropometric measurements were collected. Logistic regression models were computed to examine independent associations between anemic and nonanemic groups and to measure the influence of age, nutritional status and ethnicity. Results: A total of 606 children were included, of whom 330 (55% were aged 1–3 years and 276 were aged 4–5 years. The overall prevalence of anemia was 63%. Younger age was associated with anemia (odds ratio [OR]=1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27–2.51. Anemia was less prevalent in Amerindian than in Maroon children (OR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.34–0.76. Hemoglobin level was not influenced by nutritional status nor by sex. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia in children aged 1–5 years living in Suriname’s interior is high (63% compared to that in similar aged children in Latin America and the Caribbean (4–45%. Children aged 1–3 years were more affected than those aged 4–5 years as were Maroon children compared to Amerindian children. Nutritional status and sex were not of influence. Keywords: Maroon, Amerindian, hemoglobin, malnutrition, stunting, younger age

  17. Age-related changes in humoral and cell-mediated immunity in Down syndrome children living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Singh, V K; Puterman, M L; Godolphin, W J; Sheps, S; Tingle, A J; Wong, F; Quigley, G

    1987-11-01

    Abnormalities of humoral and cell-mediated immunity have been described in Down syndrome but reported findings have been inconsistent. Confounding factors have included age, institutional versus home life, hepatitis B antigenemia, and zinc deficiency. To clarify this problem, we studied 64 children with Down syndrome (DS) compared with an age-matched control group. All children had always lived at home. All the DS children were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen. Serum zinc concentration in the DS group was on average 12 micrograms/dl lower than age-matched control children. They also had significantly lower levels of immunoglobulin M, total lymphocyte count, T and B lymphocytes, and T helper and suppressor cells. In vitro lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A was significantly reduced at all ages in the DS group. Lymphocyte response to pokeweed mitogen increased with age in control children but decreased in the DS children. By 18 yr, the mean response for DS was 60000 cpm lower than controls. The DS group had significantly higher concentrations of immunoglobulins A and G than controls and the difference increased with age. Complement fractions C3 and C4 were also higher in the DS group at all ages. The number of HNK-1 positive cells was higher in the DS group than controls at all ages. When hepatitis and institutionalization are excluded as confounding factors, DS children still differ in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity from an age-matched control group.

  18. Validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimating fat-free mass in children including overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Megumi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Hikihara, Yuki; Masuo, Yoshihisa; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Torii, Suguru; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the validity of segmental bioelectrical impedance (BI) analysis for predicting the fat-free masses (FFMs) of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals. The FFM and impedance (Z) values of arms, trunk, legs, and whole body were determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and segmental BI analyses, respectively, in 149 boys and girls aged 6 to 12 years, who were divided into model-development (n = 74), cross-validation (n = 35), and overweight (n = 40) groups. Simple regression analysis was applied to (length) 2 /Z (BI index) for each of the whole-body and 3 segments to develop the prediction equations of the measured FFM of the related body part. In the model-development group, the BI index of each of the 3 segments and whole body was significantly correlated to the measured FFM (R 2 = 0.867-0.932, standard error of estimation = 0.18-1.44 kg (5.9%-8.7%)). There was no significant difference between the measured and predicted FFM values without systematic error. The application of each equation derived in the model-development group to the cross-validation and overweight groups did not produce significant differences between the measured and predicted FFM values and systematic errors, with an exception that the arm FFM in the overweight group was overestimated. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is useful for predicting the FFM of each of whole-body and body segments in children including overweight individuals, although the application for estimating arm FFM in overweight individuals requires a certain modification.

  19. Age specific aetiological agents of diarrhoea in hospitalized children aged less than five years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrmel Helge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the age-specific aetiologic agents of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. The study also assessed the efficacy of the empiric treatment of childhood diarrhoea using Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI guidelines. Methods This study included 280 children aged less than 5 years, admitted with diarrhoea to any of the four major hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Bacterial pathogens were identified using conventional methods. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and agglutination assay were used to detect viruses and intestinal protozoa, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results At least one of the searched pathogens was detected in 67.1% of the cases, and mixed infections were detected in 20.7% of cases. Overall, bacteria and viruses contributed equally accounting for 33.2% and 32.2% of all the cases, respectively, while parasites were detected in 19.2% patients. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC was the most common enteric pathogen, isolated in 22.9% of patients, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (18.9%, rotavirus (18.1% and norovirus (13.7%. The main cause of diarrhoea in children aged 0 to 6 months were bacteria, predominantly DEC, while viruses predominated in the 7-12 months age group. Vibrio cholerae was isolated mostly in children above two years. Shigella spp, V. cholerae and DEC showed moderate to high rates of resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (56.2-100%. V. cholerae showed full susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (100%, while DEC and Shigella showed high rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole; 90.6% and 93.3% respectively. None of the bacterial pathogens isolated showed resistance to ciprofloxacin which is not recommended for use in children. Cefotaxime resistance was found only in 4.7% of the DEC. Conclusion During the dry season, acute watery diarrhoea is the

  20. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  1. Emergent name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M; Zucker, Tricia A; McGinty, Anita S

    2009-01-01

    The 2 studies reported in this manuscript collectively address 3 aims: (a) to characterize the name-writing abilities of preschool-age children with language impairment (LI), (b) to identify those emergent literacy skills that are concurrently associated with name-writing abilities, and (c) to compare the name-writing abilities of children with LI to those of their typical language (TL) peers. Fifty-nine preschool-age children with LI were administered a battery of emergent literacy and language assessments, including a task in which the children were asked to write their first names. A subset of these children (n=23) was then compared to a TL-matched sample to characterize performance differences. Results showed that the name-writing abilities of preschoolers with LI were associated with skills in alphabet knowledge and print concepts. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that only alphabet knowledge uniquely contributed to the variance in concurrent name-writing abilities. In the matched comparison, the TL group demonstrated significantly more advanced name-writing representations than the LI group. Children with LI lag significantly behind their TL peers in name-writing abilities. Speech-language pathologists are encouraged to address the print-related skills of children with LI within their clinical interventions.

  2. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  3. Effects of antibiotic consumption on children 2-8 years of age developing asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Antibiotic exposure in children is a possible contributor to the increasing asthma prevalence in several countries. The present study aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic exposure and the risk of developing childhood asthma at 2-8 years of age. METHODS A case-control study was undertaken among children aged 2-8 years old between March and September 2010 in the Urmia district in the northwest of Iran. The cases were doctor-diagnosed asthmatic children based on Global Initiative for Asthma criteria (n=207, and the controls were children without respiratory symptoms (n=400 selected by frequency matching by age and gender. Clinical data including antibiotic exposure was collected by a validated and reliable questionnaire, which was completed by interviewing parents/guardians. RESULTS Antibiotic consumption during the first year of life increased the odds ratio [OR] of asthma symptoms at 2-8 years of age (crude OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-3.35; p<0.01, and the strength of association was similar after adjusting for a family history of asthma or atopic disorder, preterm delivery, birth order, and delivery method (adjusted OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.88; p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that antibiotic consumption in children was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, and an additional confirmative study is needed.

  4. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  6. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  7. Correlates of mobile screen media use among children aged 0-8: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Susan; Jancey, Jonine; Subedi, Narayan; Leavy, Justine

    2017-10-24

    This study is a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify the correlates of mobile screen media use among children aged 8 years and less. Home or community-based studies were included in this review while child care or school-based studies were excluded. Children aged 8 years or less were the study population. Studies that included larger age groups without subgroup analysis specific to the 0-8 years category were excluded. Eight electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed English language primary research articles published or in press between January 2009 and March 2017 that have studied correlates of mobile screen media use in this age group. Mobile screen media use was the primary outcome measure. Mobile screen media use refers to children's use of mobile screens, such as mobile phones, electronic tablets, handheld computers or personal digital assistants. Thirteen studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified of which a total of 36 correlates were examined. Older children, children better skilled in using mobile screen media devices, those having greater access to such devices at home and whose parents had high mobile screen media use were more likely to have higher use of mobile screen media devices. No association existed with parent's age, sex and education. Limited research has been undertaken into young children's mobile screen media use and most of the variables have been studied too infrequently for robust conclusions to be reached. Future studies with objective assessment of mobile screen media use and frequent examination of the potential correlates across multiple studies and settings are recommended. This review is registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews (registration number: CRD42015028028). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  8. Effects of Divorce on Children of Different Ages: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The impact of divorce on children seems to vary according to the child's age. Previous studies on the impact of divorce on children have generally focused on pre-schoolers and elementary-age children. Since more long-term marriages are ending in divorce, attention should also be given to adolescent and adult children of divorce. Subjects (N=26)…

  9. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in

  10. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Age at Exposure to Surgery and Anesthesia in Children and Association With Mental Disorder Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Caleb; Sun, Ming; Olfson, Mark; DiMaggio, Charles J; Sun, Lena S; Wall, Melanie M; Li, Guohua

    2017-12-01

    Animals exposed to anesthetics during specific age periods of brain development experience neurotoxicity, with neurodevelopmental changes subsequently observed during adulthood. The corresponding vulnerable age in children, however, is unknown. An observational cohort study was performed using a longitudinal dataset constructed by linking individual-level Medicaid claims from Texas and New York from 1999 to 2010. This dataset was evaluated to determine whether the timing of exposure to anesthesia ≤5 years of age for a single common procedure (pyloromyotomy, inguinal hernia, circumcision outside the perinatal period, or tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy) is associated with increased subsequent risk of diagnoses for any mental disorder, or specifically developmental delay (DD) such as reading and language disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Exposure to anesthesia and surgery was evaluated in 11 separate age at exposure categories: ≤28 days old, >28 days and ≤6 months, >6 months and ≤1 year, and 6-month age intervals between >1 year old and ≤5 years old. For each exposed child, 5 children matched on propensity score calculated using sociodemographic and clinical covariates were selected for comparison. Cox proportional hazards models were used to measure the hazard ratio of a mental disorder diagnosis associated with exposure to surgery and anesthesia. A total of 38,493 children with a single exposure and 192,465 propensity score-matched children unexposed before 5 years of age were included in the analysis. Increased risk of mental disorder diagnosis was observed at all ages at exposure with an overall hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.30), which did not vary significantly with the timing of exposure. Analysis of DD and ADHD showed similar results, with elevated hazard ratios distributed evenly across all ages, and overall hazard ratios of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.20-1.32) for DD and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.25-1.37) for

  12. Moderate Malnutrition in Children Aged 0-5 in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiroski, Igor; Memeti, Shaban

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Undernutrition indicates a lack of the necessary energy, macro or micronutrients in person’s dietary intake. FAO reported that one in seven people in the world do not get enough food to be healthy and lead an active life. The objective of our survey was to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among children aged 0-5 in Macedonia. Methods: Nationally representative household survey was conducted and data for 1376 children under the age of 5 was gathered. The survey included two samples, one for general population and separate one for Roma population living in Roma settlements. Roma children had higher prevalence of undernutrition in previous surveys. The data was gathered in the frames of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster survey in 2011. WHO Child Growth Standards were used to assess the nutritional status. Results: Out of general sample children 4.9% were moderately stunted (between -3 and -2 z-scores of height-for-age index), 5.6% boys and 4.3% girls. The percentage of moderately stunted children was over three times higher in the poorest wealth quintile compared to the richest one (7.2% and 2.0% respectively). In general population of children 1.8% were moderately wasted (between -3 and -2 z-scores of weight-for-height index), 2.2% boys and 1.4% girls. Wasting was also 3 times more prevalent in children from the poorest households compared to the richest ones (3.5% and 0.6% respectively). As for the Roma children, 16.5% of them were moderately stunted (21.1% boys, 12% girls) and 4.5% moderately wasted (4.3% boys, 4.7% girls). Nearly 10 times more moderately stunted Roma children were present in the poorest wealth quintile compared to the richest one (28.7% and 3.5% respectively). Conclusions: The results of the survey indicate low prevalence of undernutrition in the general population of children under 5 years of age in Macedonia which is in acceptable ranges defined by the WHO (<20% for stunting, <5% for wasting). Results for the

  13. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age children born very

  15. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. Regional Cerebral Development at Term Relates to School-Age Social-Emotional Development in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Anderson, Peter J.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Wallendorf, Michael; Treyvaud, Karli; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W.; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at risk for social-emotional difficulties, including autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We assessed the relationship of regional brain development in preterm children, evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term-equivalent postmenstrual age (TEA), to later social-emotional difficulties.…

  17. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  18. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  19. Caries Risk Profiles amongst Preschool Aged Children Living in the Sleman District of Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elastria Widita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the caries risk factors of preschool aged children. Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 85 preschool children and their mothers. An interview, and a clinical and microbiology assessment was included in this study. Clinical examinations were performed to measure the dental caries experience and plaque visibility of the children and mothers. The presence and levels of Mutans Streptococci (MS in the saliva was measured using a commercial kit by Dentocult SM and evaluated using the manufacturer’s chart. Results: Sixty-five children had a high risk of caries (76.5%, 12.9% had a low risk, and 10.6% had a moderate risk of caries. Active cavities were found in more than half of the mothers and children. The majority of the child subjects had a snacking habit between meals (85.9%. High risk scores of 2 and 3, indicating salivary levels of MS, was found in 41.1% of children. Fluoride exposure experienced by the study population was very limited. Conclusion: Results suggest that the majority of the population had a high caries risk. There was a high occurrence of teeth with cavities in children and active carious lesions in the mothers. There was a high frequency in snacking habits, the presence of plaque and bleeding gums, high levels of salivary MS, and low protective factors for the children. Results suggest that management of caries related factors are needed in order to prevent caries in the future. 

  20. CHANGES IN COPING STRATEGY IN THE SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alieva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study: to investigate the changes in preferable coping-strategies during treatment of the school-age children in a TB sanatorium. 77 patients (children and adolescents were enrolled into the study, they all had rehabilitation due to respiratory tuberculosis. All patients were divided into two groups: 8-12 years old (17 boys and 13 girls and 13-17 years old (24 boys and 23 girls. Coping strategies in the school-age children were investigated twice: at admission and discharge from the sanatorium, using a questionnaire adapted by N.A. Sirota and V.N. Yaltonsky and modified by R. M. Granovskaya and I.M. Nikolskaya. Analysis of the structure of the responses identified a group of patients who were oriented in the direction from the problem. This group presented a lower number of scores of the problem solution scale and a higher number of scores in the scales of avoidance, denial, fantasy formation. The other group of patients, focused in the direction towards the problem, characterized by a higher number of scores of the scales of problem solution and communication and a lower number of scores for the scales of denial and fantasy formation. Statistically significant changes were observed in the scale assessing communication (p = 0.03; there was a statistically significant reduction in the scores reflecting avoidance and denial (p < 0.001. There were no significant changes in the other scores. 

  1. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H.Y. Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range age 8.9 (6–15 years, 51% male participated. Median (interquartile range preventer adherence was 30% (17–48% of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence, Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence, living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household, and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis (all p<0.02. In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  2. The Associations of Lens Power With Age and Axial Length in Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Zhang, Bo; Hong, Yuan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between lens power and age as well as the relationship between lens power and axial length (AL) in Chinese children and adolescents. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included AL, cycloplegic refraction, and Pentacam measurements. The crystalline lens power was calculated using Bennett's formula and then compared among the children of different age groups, refractive statuses, and AL categories. The association of lens power and AL was analyzed using multiple regression. A total of 1992 children and adolescents aged 6- to 18-years old were included. The difference in lens power was greater before 10-years old, followed by a relatively smaller difference in children aged 10 to 14 years and the difference in lens power came to a near plateau in adolescents after 14-years old. The negative association between lens power and AL was found to be more evident in nonmyopes than in myopes irrespective of age (younger than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.499, myopes: β = -0.872; older than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.288, myopes: β = -0.390, all P power in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years exhibited three stages. The association between lens power and AL differed between the nonmyopes and myopes. These findings suggested that less reduction in lens power might be associated with both growing age and increasing AL in myopes.

  3. Something for Everyone: Benefits of Mixed-Age Grouping for Children, Parents, and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilheimer, Rachel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of mixed-age grouping for children's social and cognitive development and reservations parents sometimes have about mixed-age groupings. Also discusses issues that teachers need to consider when implementing mixed-age groups: children's personal care routines; furnishings; children's language, motor, creative, and social…

  4. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  5. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  6. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  7. Learning disabilities and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with prenatal cocaine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Connie E; Culbertson, Jan L; Accornero, Veronica H; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C; Bandstra, Emmalee S

    2006-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991) short form, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler, 1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95% CI = 1.05, 7.67; p = .038; IQ >/= 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and caregiver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers.

  8. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  9. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlhatlhedi, Keneilwe; Setlhare, Vincent; Ganiyu, Adewale; Firth, Jacqueline

    2017-01-30

     Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included. The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana. The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana. This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9), a depression screening tool. From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89) than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status. This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition.

  10. [Food preferences and nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Rocío; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco Aurelio

    Childhood is a basic period for the development of habits and their continuation during the course of life. The objective of this study was to identify food preferences and their variations according to the nutritional status in school-age children living in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 1465 school-age children attending eight public elementary schools in Mexico City. Children were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their preferences to 70 selected different foods. Anthropometric measurements were also carried out. Parents of the children provided sociodemographic information. For each food, the preference was evaluated using a Likert scale. Frequencies were calculated for the total sample and for different nutritional status levels. Median age of children was 9 years old. Forty-eight percent of the children were overweight or obese. The most preferred foods were fruits, pizzas, flavored milk, and French fries. The least preferred foods were vegetables, whole-grain cereals, fish, meat, and panela cheese. Plain water (72%) and sugar-sweetened beverages (71%) had a high level of preference. There was no preference variation according to nutritional status. Food preference patterns of school-age children are a risk for unhealthy food consumption as well as for the increase in obesity prevalence in this population. Interventions focused on the promotion of a healthy food environment are necessary, aimed at improving food preferences from early childhood. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal dental age estimation practice in United Arab Emirates' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altalie, Salem; Thevissen, Patrick; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect whether the Willems model, developed on a Belgian reference sample, can be used for age estimations in United Arab Emirates (UAE) children. Furthermore, it was verified that if added third molars development information in children provided more accurate age predictions. On 1900 panoramic radiographs, the development of left mandibular permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) was registered according the Demirjian and the Kohler technique, respectively. The PT data were used to verify the Willems model and to develop a UAE model and to verify it. Multiple regression models with PT, TM, and PT + TM scores as independent and age as dependent factor were developed. Comparing the verified Willems- and the UAE model revealed differences in mean error of -0.01 year, mean absolute error of 0.01 year and root mean squared error of 0.90 year. Neglectable overall decrease in RMSE was detected combining PM and TM developmental information. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  13. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Primary spondylolysis of the axis vertebra (C2) in the children, including one with pyknodysostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, G.; Texas Univ., Dallas, TX

    1989-01-01

    This report describes 3 children with a cleft in the pedicles of the second cervical vertebra of uncertain cause. One of these patients had pyknodysostosis. Previous instances of such defects in the literature are reviewed with some considerations on the possible nature of the lesion. (orig.)

  15. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  16. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  17. Maternal attitudes towards tooth decay in children aged 12-18 months in Pelotas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, E R; Dos Santos Costa, F; Azevedo, M S; Romano, A R; Cenci, M S

    2015-10-01

    This was to assess mothers' attitudes towards dental caries in children aged 12-18 months. This study targeted mothers of children aged 12-18 months. Data about demographic and socioeconomic status were collected by interviews with each mother. In addition, the mother was asked about her attitudes regarding caries in her child's primary teeth. A dental examination of each child was also conducted. Chi-square, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 262 mother-child pairs were included, and 18.7 % of the children had dental caries. If a child presented with dental caries in their primary teeth, 93.5 % of the mothers reported that they would take the child to a dentist. Mothers who had only one child and those who had children with dental caries were more likely to report that they did not expect primary dental caries treatment by the dentist. Most mothers reported that they would take their children to a dentist when they presented with dental caries. Despite this positive result, educational measures should continue to be emphasised, especially among mothers of children at a higher risk of caries and among first-time mothers.

  18. Lung function and functional capacity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana S da Silva Dias de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Six-minute walk test (TC6’ and peak expiratory flow (PEF can be influenced by variables like gender, age and body mass index (BMI. In the school context, these tests can identify losses caused by sedentary habits and/or manifestation of overweight/obesity. Nevertheless, although widely studied in the adult context, they have not been properly clarified in the child public. Objective: To assess the PEF and TC6’ between students in the public and private network and to correlate them with factors like age, gender and BMI. Methods: 39 male and female children between eight and ten years of age were selected for the study. The TC6’ was held at a sports court. The child was instructed to walk at maximum speed for six minutes and the PEF test took place in accordance to the recommendations by Pereira et al (1. Results: No significant correlation was found between the BMI and the PEF and TC6’ scores. No significant correlation was found between sex and PEF, with measures within normal parameters for the entire sample. The EPF measures did not influence the distance walked in the TC6’. A significant correlation was found between sex and distance walked in the TC6’ only among male children attending public schools. Conclusion: Both sex and BMI did not influence the PEF measures which, in turn, does not seem to have influenced the distance the sample walked in the TC6’. Also concerning the TC6’, only the children from public school reached the normal scores proposed in the literature.

  19. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gender labelling of toys in children of preschool age

    OpenAIRE

    Knapeková, Lívia

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with preschool children's play in the context of gender. The theoretical part is divided into three main chapters. The first one is devoted to the essence of play and its function for the child, the second one describes the main areas of child development at preschool age and the last chapter is devoted mainly to gender socialization and role of play in it. The practical part has the form of semi- structured interviews, which aimed to find out the extent of gender de...

  1. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from.......4-1.6), respectively. Emotional disorders were found in 2.9% (95%CI: 1.9-40). More boys were diagnosed with PDD, behavioural disorders and tics. No gender differences were found in hyperactivity disorders (HD) and emotional disorders. Co-morbidity was frequent, in particular between HD and PDD, but also between HD...

  2. [The causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years hospitalized in the year 2006-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Kroczka, Sławomir; Kaciński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy can be one of symptoms of the damage to CNS in children with neurodevelopmental deficits, it is more difficult however to diagnose seizures if they are the first symptom of severe brain damage. This retrospective research was conducted to study causes of symptomatic epilepsy in children aged 3-18 year hospitalized between 2006 and 2007 year in the Department of Pediatric Neurology. 156 children with symptomatic epilepsy occurred after 2 years of life were included. The diagnosis of symptomatic epilepsy was established including clinical picture, neuro-radiological tests and EEG. The information from parents was helpful to analyze the type of seizures. The clinical state of children was analyzed, especially psychomotor development, focal deficits, as well as results of CT and/or MRI, in some children psychological testing was performed, molecular or serological. 156 children with epilepsy were hospitalized, within encephalopathy was diagnosed in 61 children. In 42 children static encephalopathy was associated with birth trauma, in 7 progressive encephalopathy was diagnosed, in 1 child CO intoxication caused encephalopathy, and in 11 cases the cause was not identified. Malformations of nervous system were associated with epilepsy in 37 children, geneticaly determined syndromes in 6, and the head trauma in other 6 children. Disorders of vascular origin caused epilepsy in 16 children, and neuroinfections in 9 children. In 2 children epilepsy was associated with ADEM, and in 11 children nonspecific de/dysmyelination was detected. The brain tumor was detected in 6 children with symptomatic epilepsy. The most common disorder leading to epilepsy in children aged 3-18 years was encephalopathy, within hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The other in sequence were malformations of nervous system and vascular diseases.

  3. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  4. Risk Factors in Preschool Children for Predicting Asthma During the Preschool Age and the Early School Age: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yixia; Chen, Zhimin; Liu, Enmei; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Deyu; Hong, Jianguo

    2017-11-18

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of asthma among children asthma during the preschool age and early school age (≤ 10 years of age). MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until June 30, 2017. Prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies were included. Studies had to have evaluated risk factors or a predictive model for developing asthma in children ≤ 6 years of age or persistent asthma in early school age. A total of 17 studies were included in the analysis. Factors associated with developing asthma in children ≤ 10 years of age (both pre-school and early school age) included male gender (pooled OR = 1.70, P asthma (pooled OR = 2.20, P asthma in early school age (pooled OR = 1.51, P = 0.030 and pooled OR = 2.59, P asthma predictive models (e.g., API, PIAMA, PAPS) had relatively low sensitivity (range, 21% to 71.4%) but high specificity (range, 69% to 98%). The study found that male gender, exposure to smoke, atopic dermatitis, family history of asthma, history of wheezing, and serum IgE level ≥ 60 kU/l or having specific IgE were significantly associated with developing asthma by either preschool or early school age. Asthma predictive models can be developed by those risk factors.

  5. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1 h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Teachers' assessments of children aged eight predict life satisfaction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Meri; Meri, Honkanen; Hurtig, Tuula; Tuula, Hurtig; Taanila, Anja; Anja, Taanila; Moilanen, Irma; Irma, Moilanen; Koponen, Hannu; Hannu, Koponen; Mäki, Pirjo; Pirjo, Mäki; Veijola, Juha; Juha, Veijola; Puustjärvi, Anita; Anita, Puustjärvi; Ebeling, Hanna; Hanna, Ebeling; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Heli, Koivumaa-Honkanen

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to investigate how teachers' assessments of children predict life satisfaction in adolescence. This is a prospective cohort study on the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 8,959). Information was gathered from parents, teachers and adolescents using questionnaires at the age of 7, 8 and 15. Response rates were 80-90%. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed with Rutter Children's Behavioural Questionnaires for teachers (RB2) and parents (RA2) during the first grade at age 8. At adolescence, self-reported life satisfaction was measured with a question including five response alternatives. According to teachers' assessments, 13.9% of the children had high emotional or behavioural problems (RB2 ≥9). These assessments predicted life dissatisfaction in adolescence (OR(crude) = 1.77; 95% CI 1.43-2.20) in several models including also health behaviour and use of psychotropic medicine. However, introducing all the significant variables in the same model, RB2 lost its significance (OR = 1.28; 0.96-1.70), but good school achievement assessed by teachers was still a significant predictor. Life satisfaction in adolescence was associated with a variety of favourable concurrent factors. In conclusion teachers' assessments of children during the first school year predicted life satisfaction in adolescence. In mental health promotion, teachers' early assessments should be utilized for the benefit of children.

  7. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolot, Meda; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Horoz, Duygu; Borlu, Arda; Altunay, Canan; Balcı, Elcin; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Understanding risk factors that may vary culturally can help improve preventive strategies for obesity. This is the first cross-sectional study aimed to determine the risk factors for overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years in a central Anatolian city in Turkey. A total of 1582 children (1351 healthy, 231 overweight/obese) aged 2-6 years were included from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years database. Age, gender, birth weight, birth order, mother's age, mother's body mass index (BMI), weight gain of mothers during pregnancy, presence of gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, history of formula feeding, mother's and father's education, mother's job, monthly income, smoking at home and physical activity, sleep duration and duration of television (TV) watching of the children were evaluated as independent risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors for overweight/obesity. Having a high family income compared to bad [odds ratio (OR)=1.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.237-3.106], increased the time of watching TV during the weekend (OR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.032-1.159), and similar physical activity level according to their peers compared to less (OR=2.957; 95% CI: 1.056-8.282) were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in children aged 2-6 years old. The early childhood period seems to be important in the establishment of healthy behavioral patterns, especially limitation of TV watching and encouragement of physical activity. Obesogenic environment in families with high incomes need to be revealed.

  8. Informed consent instead of assent is appropriate in children from the age of twelve: Policy implications of new findings on children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; De Vries, Martine C; Troost, Pieter W; Meynen, Gerben; Van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-11-09

    For many decades, the debate on children's competence to give informed consent in medical settings concentrated on ethical and legal aspects, with little empirical underpinnings. Recently, data from empirical research became available to advance the discussion. It was shown that children's competence to consent to clinical research could be accurately assessed by the modified MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Age limits for children to be deemed competent to decide on research participation have been studied: generally children of 11.2 years and above were decision-making competent, while children of 9.6 years and younger were not. Age was pointed out to be the key determining factor in children's competence. In this article we reflect on policy implications of these findings, considering legal, ethical, developmental and clinical perspectives. Although assessment of children's competence has a normative character, ethics, law and clinical practice can benefit from research data. The findings may help to do justice to the capacities children possess and challenges they may face when deciding about treatment and research options. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of standardized competence assessment in children on a case-by-case basis compared to application of a fixed age limit, and conclude that a selective implementation of case-by-case competence assessment in specific populations is preferable. We recommend the implementation of age limits based on empirical evidence. Furthermore, we elaborate on a suitable model for informed consent involving children and parents that would do justice to developmental aspects of children and the specific characteristics of the parent-child dyad. Previous research outcomes showed that children's medical decision-making capacities could be operationalized into a standardized assessment instrument. Recommendations for policies include a dual consent procedure, including both child as well as parents

  9. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  10. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of children under 6 years of age treated for early childhood caries in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nadia; Barnes, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective survey highlighted the characteristics of children less than six years of age presenting with early childhood caries (ECC) who had two or more teeth extracted under intravenous sedation at the Tygerberg Oral Health Centre in Cape Town, South Africa. This survey was carried out in order to plan a community-appropriate intervention strategy. Records of 140 patients kept by the pediatric Dentistry Division met the inclusion criteria and were included in this survey. Most of the patients originate from economically disadvantaged areas. Diet, feeding and oral hygiene habits were shown to be the most significant factors that contributed to the development of ECC in these patients. All the children were either breast- or bottle-fed past one year of age. 93.6% of the children went to sleep with the bottle or while on the breast and 90% of them were fed on demand during the night. On average, breastfeeding was stopped at 9 months of age compared to bottle-feeding that, on average, was stopped at a much later mean age of 23 months. Where oral hygiene practices were concerned, 52.6% of children brushed their own teeth without supervision. Frequency of brushing varied between subjects. The results of this study have demonstrated that there is a need for culturally appropriate education campaigns to inform parents (especially those in disadvantaged communities) about the importance of oral health and the prevention of oral disease.

  12. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-06-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  13. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  14. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children.Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and...

  15. A study of personality in children aged 8-12 years: Comparing self- and partents' ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, V.; Rossier, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate personality development with children aged 8 to 12. For this purpose, Children's self-perceptions were compared to parent's ratings. 506 children and their parents completed a selection of 38 questions from the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC). Results showed an age-related increase in the structural congruence of children's ratings compared to parents' ratings and a highly significant increase in the reliabilities of both parents'...

  16. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children aged Fiji, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Graham D; Morrison, Melinda K; Silink, Martin; Taito, Rigamoto S

    2016-05-01

    Determine the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children Fiji. Data on all new cases from 2001 to 2012 was collected from the three paediatric diabetes services through the International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. There was no formal secondary ascertainment source, however the medical community is small and all known cases are believed to be included. Forty-two children aged Fiji is very low. Furthermore, its occurrence is markedly more frequent in Indo-Fijians than in native Fijians. Type 2 and neonatal diabetes also occur. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. HEMORRHAGE EXPRESS-DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY IN CHILDREN 0-6 MONTHS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svirin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic conditions are associated with severe health problems and an increase in mortality rate among children. Quick and adequate reaction of a doctor who was the first to appear beside such a patient is necessary to save the child’s life; mistakes may lead to severe complications, including fatal outcome. The article formulates methodological recommendations on diagnosing and rendering help to children of the first months of age with developing hemorrhagic manifestations in the environment of neonatal and newborn centers taking into account their laboratorial and therapeutic capabilities.

  18. Normative values for physical fitness in children aged 11-17 in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha Milaim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aim: In the present study, the purpose was to determine the normative values for physical and biomotoric characteristics of children aged 11-17 in Kosovo. Material and Methods: 742 students who were selected according to the Random Sampling Method from 24 schools determined in the cities and rural areas in all regions were included in the study (n = 347 girls, n = 395 - boys. Volunteering students who did not have any acute or chronic disease that might avoid testing were included in the study after the permissions were received from the Ministry of National Education, Principals of the Schools, and the support of the parents. The declarations of Helsinki were taken into consideration in the study. Results: The results of each test were given as the norm values according to gender and age together with 20% groups, which is considered as the Canadian Standard. The data on the physical and biomotoric characteristics of the children living in Kosovo were compared with the data of the World Health Organization and the literature data of other countries. Conclusions: While the children living in Kosovo showed higher performances in the tests that were affected by anthropometric properties like height and body fat percentage and by genetic properties like the speed of the movements of the arms when compared with the children from other countries from the same age group; they had lower performances in the tests that were affected by life style and physical activity levels like endurance, long jump, and flexibility.

  19. Kundalini yoga as mutual recovery: a feasibility study including children in care and their carers

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Elvira; Ball, Mark; Brown, Poppy; Crepaz-Keay, David; Haslam-Jones, Emily; Crawford, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed-methods feasibility study to test whether incorporating a 20-week Kundalini yoga program into a children’s home community improves wellbeing outcomes. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment and retention rates as well as participants’ self-report perceptions on social inclusion, mental health, wellbeing and semi-structured interviews on the benefits of the study. Mutual recovery entailed that children in care (CiC), youth practitioners, and management participated togeth...

  20. Relationship between breakfast and obesity among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocandio, A M; Ansotegui, L; Arroyo, M

    2000-08-01

    Breakfast models among children are an issue of public health concern given the association between breakfast and school performance and its potential relationship with obesity. Food intake, energy, and nutrients in the breakfast of 32 school aged children (11-years olds) and its relationship with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) were examined. The analysis was made by means of anthropometric measurements and a record of weekly food intake using the accurate weighed amount method. The percentage of studied children with overweight/obesity reached 46.9 (weight for height > 90 percentile). The proportional calorie intake in breakfast was lower than that recommended (16.6%). The association observed between caloric percentage of breakfast regarding daily energy and BMI was not significant. Nevertheless, significant correlations were found between fruit group (Pearson r = 0.6286) and protein foods (Pearson r = -0.7653) with BMI. The amount of total lipids (34.4%) and saturated lipids (19.4% in breakfast exceed the recommendations. Further studies are necessary to confirm these data and serve as basis for the design of nutritional education programs.

  1. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisabetta; Di Dio, Cinzia; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Marchetti, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children's socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification - given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits - and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  2. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL CONDITION OF HEALTHY SCHOOLCHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS AT THE AGE OF 11–17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Muradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative characteristics of emotional condition of healthy schoolchildren and children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old was performed with Spielberg-Hanin questionnaire on the basis of computer psychophysiological complex CPPC-99 «Psichomat».One hundred seventy-five healthy schoolchildren and 46 children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old were included to the study. No significant difference in reactive anxiety between children with pollinosis and healthy children was found. It was shown, that pollinosis (in 35% significantly and concomitant diseases, such as bronchial asthma (in 57 significant influence on personality anxiety, in comparison with healthy children (significant personality anxiety was found in 3% of cases. It was revealed, that all children from control group with high anxiety rate (3% were 17-year-old adolescents.

  3. Arch index and running biomechanics in children aged 10-14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Karsten; Stebbins, Julie; Albertsen, Inke Marie; Hamacher, Daniel; Babin, Kornelia; Hacke, Claudia; Zech, Astrid

    2018-03-01

    While altered foot arch characteristics (high or low) are frequently assumed to influence lower limb biomechanics and are suspected to be a contributing factor for injuries, the association between arch characteristics and lower limb running biomechanics in children is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between a dynamically measured arch index and running biomechanics in healthy children. One hundred and one children aged 10-14 years were included in this study and underwent a biomechanical investigation. Plantar distribution (Novel, Emed) was used to determine the dynamic arch index and 3D motion capture (Vicon) to measure running biomechanics. Linear mixed models were established to determine the association between dynamic arch index and foot strike patterns, running kinematics, kinetics and temporal-spatial outcomes. No association was found between dynamic arch index and rate of rearfoot strikes (p = 0.072). Of all secondary outcomes, only the foot progression angle was associated with the dynamic arch index (p = 0.032) with greater external rotation in lower arched children. Overall, we found only few associations between arch characteristics and running biomechanics in children. However, altered foot arch characteristics are of clinical interest. Future studies should focus on detailed foot biomechanics and include clinically diagnosed high and low arched children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  5. Vitamin D provision in children of different age groups during the winter season

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    S. V. Maltsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an update on the biological role of vitamin D in the human body, its metabolic pathways, and potential abnormalities resulting in reduced provision.Objective: to determine vitamin D provision in the children of Kazan during the winter season.Examinations were made in 309 children, including 171 infants aged 1 month to 3 years and 138 children 6 to 18 years of age. Serum 25(OHD levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay at the EFiS Research Center (Moscow. In infants under 3 years of age, the mean 25(OHD values were 18,2±1,0 ng/ml, while only 14,8% of the patients were found to have normal 25(OH D values of (more than 30 ng/ml and the rest had vitamin D metabolite insufficiency or deficiency. The winter vitamin D level was consistent with the normal ones in 11,2% of the schoolers, lower in 122 (88,8% children; the provision of vitamin D was at its deficiency level (less than 10 ng/ml in 33 (24% children. The findings suggest that it is necessary to prescribe vitamin D for all children under the age of 18 during winter and autumn. It is best to determine the initial level of the metabolite and to use its dose corresponding to that of vitamin D. 

  6. IDENTITY FORMATION AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES

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    V. G. Bulygina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary school age is a stage of significant personal changes of a child, including the identity formation as a result of a major restructuring of the system of relations of the child within the family. Background: The aim is to study the influence of a dysfunctional family system on the identity formation of primary school-aged children. Methods: There were examined seven-year-old children, secondary school pupils from families with signs of dysfunctionality (n =42. To assess interfamilial relations there were used proprietary methodologies and standardized tests diagnosing a role structure of the family, emotional sphere of children, peculiarities of the child identification with family members, signs of the family dysfunctionality. Results: It is revealed that the process of identity formation in primary school-aged children in dysfunctional families is characterized by expressed difficulties in identifying himself with family members. In 33% of cases the low hierarchical position and the typical female role characteristics are ascribed to father. To the contrary, the male social role position in 47% of cases is attributed to mother. The ambivalence of the child’s self-relation and his relation to family members is revealed. Therewith, 38% of girls’ profiles coincide either with the set of characteristics of fathers, or equally with sets of characteristics of both parents. The negative emotional state is diagnosed in 62% of children. Conclusion: It is established that in dysfunctional families the interfamilial relations and role structure have specific features, negatively influencing on the child development and the formation of his personality.Key words: children, primary school age, dysfunctional family, identity formation.

  7. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Mark L.; Lamont, Anthony C.; Stillwell, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  8. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  9. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

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    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  10. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  11. A prospective study of the prevalence of tuberculosis and bacteraemia in Bangladeshi children with severe malnutrition and pneumonia including an evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay.

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    Mohammod Jobayer Chisti

    Full Text Available Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain.We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital.405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4% children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396 of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16% additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24-94 and 92% (95% CI: 87-95 respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital.TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes.

  12. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  13. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Munck, Petriina; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  14. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Lehtonen, Liisa; Munck, Petriina; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2011-08-01

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children.

  15. Associations between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and development at 2 years of age in preterm children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Annika [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Parkkola, Riitta [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Turku PET Center, PO Box 52, Turku (Finland); Lehtonen, Liisa; Maunu, Jonna; Lapinleimu, Helena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); Munck, Petriina [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    Altered brain volumes and associations between volumes and developmental outcomes have been reported in prematurely born children. To assess which regional brain volumes are different in very low birth weight (VLBW) children without neurodevelopmental impairments ([NDI] cerebral palsy, hearing loss, blindness and significantly delayed cognitive performance) compared with VLBW children with NDI, and to evaluate the association between regional brain volumes at term-equivalent age and cognitive development and neurological performance at a corrected age of 2 years. The study group consisted of a regional cohort of 164 VLBW children, divided into one group of children without NDI (n = 148) and one group of children with NDI (n = 16). Brain (MRI) was performed at term-equivalent age, from which brain volumes were manually analysed. Cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II), and neurological performance with the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination at the corrected age of 2 years. The volumes of total brain tissue, cerebrum, frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalami, and cerebellum were significantly smaller, and the volume of the ventricles significantly larger, in the children with NDI than in those without NDI. Even in children without NDI, a smaller cerebellar volume was significantly correlated with poor neurological performance at 2 years of corrected age. Volumetric analysis at brain MRI can provide an additional parameter for early prediction of outcome in VLBW children. (orig.)

  16. Low-level lead exposure and autistic behaviors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    The association between lead exposure and autism spectrum disorder is inconclusive. We hypothesized an association between higher blood lead concentrations and more autistic behaviors, including impaired social interactions and communication, stereotypical behaviors, and restricted interests, among school-age children. Data from 2473 Korean children aged 7-8years who had no prior history of developmental disorders were analyzed. Two follow-up surveys were conducted biennially until the children reached 11-12years of age. Blood lead concentrations were measured at every survey, and autistic behaviors were evaluated at 11-12years of age using the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The associations of blood lead concentration with ASSQ and SRS scores were analyzed using negative binomial, logistic, and linear regression models. Blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age (geometric mean: 1.64μg/dL), but not at 9-10 and 11-12years of age, were associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, according to the ASSQ (β=0.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.061, 0.242) and SRS (β=2.489; 95% CI: 1.378, 3.600). SRS subscale analysis also revealed associations between blood lead concentrations and social awareness, cognition, communication, motivation, and mannerisms. Even low blood lead concentrations at 7-8years of age are associated with more autistic behaviors at 11-12years of age, underscoring the need for continued efforts to reduce lead exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  18. Overweight and obesity in school children aged 5 to 11 years participating in food assistance programs in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Monterrubio, Eric A; Morales-Ruan, María del Carmen; Moreno-Macías, Lidia B

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between overweight and obesity among Mexican school-aged children and participation in the Liconsa milk and the School Breakfast food assistance programs. Data from 15 003 school-aged children included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) were analyzed. Information on body mass index (BMI) and participation in food assistance programs was obtained. Descriptive analyses were conducted and logistic regression models were adjusted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% and 9%, respectively. No significant association between overweight and obesity and participation in Liconsa was found. Among school-aged children in the middle socioeconomic status quintile, those enrolled in the School Breakfast program were more likely to be overweight than those not enrolled (OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.3). We found no association between the Liconsa and the School Breakfast programs and overweight or obesity in school-aged children.

  19. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  20. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  2. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  3. Therapeutic techniques and their use for children with disabilities at school age

    OpenAIRE

    KOLÁŘOVÁ, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis are therapheutical techniques and the way they are used in helping school-age children with disabilities. The theoretical part of this thesis defines the terms "therapy", "therapist" and ?comprehensive rehabilitation system?. Comprehensive rehabilitation system comprises not only occupational, social and pedagogical resources, but primarily also therapeutic resources that include (but are not limited to) therapies (e.g. ergotherapy, animal-assisted therapy, m...

  4. Influence of hearing age and understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing age is defined as a period of using any amplification. Most researches indicate that hearing age influences the developmental rate of auditory and speech-language abilities in deaf children, especially when cochlear implantation was performed before the age of three. This research is aimed at analyzing the influence of hearing age on understanding verbal instructions in children with cochlear implants. The sample consists of 23 children with cochlear implants and 21 children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 10. Hearing age of children with cochlear implants was between 2 and 7 years. Token Test with toys, adapted for children with hearing impairments, was used to analyze understanding verbal instructions. The results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing, aged between 4 and 7, on all subtests and the total score regardless of the hearing age (sub1 p<0.001, sub2 p<0.000, sub3 p<0.001, total score p<0.000. No statistically significant differences were determined on any of the subtests in children aged between 7.1 and 10, regardless of the hearing age. Comparative results analysis within the experimental group of children with different hearing age indicates that the difference in understanding verbal instructions between these two groups is not statistically significant.

  5. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  6. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  7. Do Social Attribution Skills Improve with Age in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Elgiz; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Celano, Mark J.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N.; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related changes in social attribution skills were assessed using the "Triangles Playing Tricks" task in 7-17 year old high functioning children with ASDs (n = 41) and in typically developing (TD) children (n = 58) matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Children with ASDs gave responses that received lower intentionality and appropriateness ratings…

  8. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564…

  9. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  10. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  11. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  12. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  13. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  14. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-05-03

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  15. Exploring pathways from television viewing to academic achievement in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Nary

    2004-12-01

    The author's purpose in this study was to test 4 hypotheses that proposed different paths for the influences of children's television viewing on their academic achievement. Data were drawn from the 1997 Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). The population for this study included 1,203 children between the ages of 6 and 13 years from the CDS-PSID data set. The author used structural equation modeling to test pathways from children's television viewing to their academic achievement. The author assumed that children's television viewing hindered their academic achievement by reducing certain traits that related to academic achievement. Results showed that 3 hypothetical models fit the data--the time-displacement hypothesis, the mental effort-passivity hypothesis, and the attention-arousal hypothesis. A 4th hypothetical model, the learning-information hypothesis, which proposed that children's television viewing practices stimulate their academic achievement, was not supported. In sum, children who watched more television tended to spend less time doing homework, studying, and reading for leisure. In addition, their behaviors became more impulsive, which resulted in an eventual decrease in their academic achievement.

  16. AGE AND REASONS OF THE FIRST DENTAL VISIT OF CHILDREN IN LEBANON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Maha H; Eden, Ece; El Osta, Nada

    2016-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry have recommended that the child's first dental visit should be during the child's first year of life for dental disease prevention and to decrease the invasive restorative interventions. In Lebanon, no study has been conducted to determine the age and the reasons of the first dental visit of children and who requested the first dental screening. To assess at what age occurred the first dental visit in a group of Lebanese children visiting a private pediatric dental clinic and to explore the reasons for their first dental consultation. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted. During a five-year period, all children visiting the pediatric clinic were invited to participate in the study. Parents were asked about the general health status of their child, the use of antibiotics before the age of 2 years. Parents were also requested to give the dental reasons for their initial visit to a pedodontist. Two hundred and twenty children (mean age 4.24 ± 1.35 years) visited the pedodontic care office for the first time and were included in the study. All participants had visited a pediatrician before the age of 1 year. Fifty-seven (25.9%) children were referred by a dentist and 163 (74.1%) came with their parents without referral. All participants had at least one reason for the first consultation; the most common were the presence of decayed teeth (50.9%) and a dental pain perception (29.5%). All participants had visited a pediatrician at an earlier age but none was referred to a pedodontist by a pediatrician for check-up or prevention. Children came upon the decision of their parents. A dental problem was the major reason which triggered the first visit. Therefore, pediatricians in Lebanon need to keep themselves updated on recommendations regarding children oral health and be encouraged to play an important role in prompting oral health and first dental visits.

  17. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the

  19. Association of malodorous urine with urinary tract infection in children aged 1 to 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marie; Gouin, Serge; Phan, Véronique; Gravel, Jocelyn

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether parental reporting of malodorous urine is associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. We conducted a prospective consecutive cohort study in the emergency department of a pediatric hospital from July 31, 2009 to April 30, 2011. All children aged between 1 and 36 months for whom a urine culture was prescribed for suspected UTI (ie, unexplained fever, irritability, or vomiting) were assessed for eligibility. A standardized questionnaire was administered to the parents by a research assistant. The primary outcome measure was a UTI. Three hundred ninety-six children were initially enrolled, but 65 were excluded a posteriori either because a urine culture, although prescribed, was not done (11), was collected by bag (39), and/or showed gross contamination (25). Therefore, 331 children were included in the final analysis. Their median age was 12 months (range, 1-36). Criteria for UTI were fulfilled in 51 (15%). A malodorous urine was reported by parents in 57% of children with UTI and in 32% of children without UTI. On logistic regression, malodorous urine was associated with UTI (odds ratio 2.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.20). This association remained statistically significant when adjusted for gender and the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (odds ratio 2.73, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-5.08). Parental reporting of malodorous urine increases the probability of UTI among young children being evaluated for suspected UTI. However, this association is not strong enough to definitely rule in or out a diagnosis of UTI.

  20. [Chronic malnutrition among children under five years of age in the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aké-Tano, Odile; Tiembré, Issaka; Konan, Yao Eugène; Donnen, Philippe; Dagnan, Simplice N'cho; Dramaix, Michelle; Koffi, Kouamé; Diarra-Nama, Alimata Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The malnutrition of children under five years of age constitutes a major public health problem in most developing countries. A cross-section study was carried in 2003 in the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire to determine the prevalence of chronic malnutrition and to identify risk factors among children under five years of age living in urban and rural areas of the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 292 and 268 children under five years of age residing respectively in urban and rural areas were included in the study. Their median age was 24 months. Chronic malnutrition was more frequent in children from rural areas (39.9%) than in those living in urban areas (16.7%). Malnutrition was significantly associated with the type of food consumed by children under two years of age in urban areas, and it was strongly linked to emaciation of the mother and presence of childhood fever in rural areas. In light of these results, we advocate a healthy diet and adequate health status for the mother and child to improve the nutritional status of children. Moreover, these results need to be completed and complemented by further studies for more detailed information to contribute to a better definition of actions to fight efficiently against malnutrition among children of the northern part of Côte d'Ivoire.

  1. [Behaviour problems of children with Down syndrome in preschool-age - Results from the Heidelberg Down syndrome study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We report on the frequency and the correlations of behaviour problems among children with Down syndrome in preschool-age. As part of a longitudinal study 48 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed the German version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” (SDQ-D) and the Parenting Stress Inventory (PSI). The mothers were asked to fill out the questionnaires when the children had a mean age of five years. The results were compared to norms from children with typical development. Thirty per cent of the children with Down syndrome were rated as abnormal. Specifically, mean scores indicating problems with children of the same age and hyperactivity were elevated. A regression analysis predicting the total problem score of the SDQ-D revealed maternal educational level, optimistic attitude, and subjective parental stress at the age of one year and the degree of behavioural abnormalities at the age of three years as significant influential factors. Early intervention for Down syndrome children should include supporting parenting competence and coping skills in order to prevent behaviour problems.

  2. [Research on the social determinants of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, S Lm; Guo, Y

    2016-06-18

    To understand the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants among children under the age of 5 in China, and to provide evidence and useful information to help policy makers develop social policies to improve child nutritional status. Information of 2 434 children aged 0-5 was extracted from year 1991 to 2011 longitudinal survey data in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was extracted for analysis. Child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting were defined using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. Weight-for-age values, height-for-age values or weight-for-height values below 2 standard deviations were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting. World Health Organization igrowup software was used to calculate the prevalence of child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants (household income, parents' educational level, living regions, and communities' urbanization level). The prevalence of child underweight and child stunting were decreased by 64.8% and 67.8%, respectively from 1991 to 2011, while the prevalence of child wasting had remained at a relatively low level (below 5%). The problem of child underweight and stunting had been significantly resolved in China. Female children had better outcomes than male children on improving nutritional status. Among all the non-socio-economic determinants of child malnutrition, children with low height mother and children had inadequate protein intake were both risk factors of malnutrition. The social determinants significantly associated to child malnutrition included: living in the western regions and central regions, living in low level urbanization communities, with low household incomes, and low maternal educational levels. In order to further decrease the prevalence of child

  3. Intention, Damage, and Age of Transgressor as Determinants of Children's Moral Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suls, Jerry; Kalle, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined kindergarten, first, third, and fifth graders' reactions to the moral transgressions of children and adults. The stories presented to the children varied in terms of intention, damage, and age of transgressor. (BD)

  4. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV13) and Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV23) For children Administer PCV13 ...

  5. Influence of physical activity on the posture of school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laštro Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper posture is an indicator of good health, proper growth and development, which is why it is important to start learning about posture from the earliest age using various forms of physical activity. To establish the impact of physical activity on aspects of posture components of children of school age. The study included 120 subjects aged 10-16 years who were grouped into three groups, which was stratified equal number of boys and girls. The first group consisted of 40 children who are actively practice sports. The second group consisted of 40 children who are not actively practice sport a third group of 40 children with deformity of the spine. For research purposes, we used: test for assessing the degree of physical activity and test for the assessment of body posture. By applying multiple regression analysis, we found that there is an influence of different predictors on the dependent variables in all three categorically defined pattern. The strongest positive correlation was found in the first sample categorically defined between predictors warming up exercises in the training and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = 0.43. The strongest negative correlations were established also at first categorically defined pattern between predictors time spent at the computer and position keeping the legs, and the amount of connections is β = -0.35. It was found that there is a difference in the level of physical activity between the three categorically defined sample (F = 95.687, p = 0.01, and also the difference in posture between the three categorically defined sample (F = 10.93, p = 0.01. The results show the necessity of promotion of various forms of physical activity of children school age in order of their proper growth and development.

  6. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  7. Children's moral judgments and moral emotions following exclusion of children with disabilities: relations with inclusive education, age, and contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-03-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N=351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about social exclusion of children with disabilities. Children also reported on their level of sympathy towards children with disabilities and their contact intensity with children with disabilities. Overall, children condemned disability-based exclusion, attributed few positive emotions to excluder targets, and expressed high sympathy for children with disabilities, independent of age and educational setting. However, younger children from inclusive classrooms exhibited more moral judgments and moral emotions than younger children from noninclusive classrooms. Moreover, children who expressed high sympathy towards children with disabilities were more likely to report frequent contact with children with disabilities. The findings extend existing research on social exclusion by examining disability-based exclusion and are discussed with respect to developmental research on social and moral judgments and emotions following children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance of the Spot Vision Screener in Children Younger Than 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcina, Blake D; Peterseim, M Millicent; Wilson, M Edward; Cheeseman, Edward W; Feldman, Samuel; Marzolf, Amanda L; Wolf, Bethany J; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the use of the Spot Vision Screener (Spot; Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, New York, USA) for detection of amblyopia risk factors in children aged 6 months to 3 years, as defined by the 2013 guidelines of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Reliability analysis. In this study, children seen from June 1, 2012, to April 30, 2016 were tested with the Spot during a routine visit. Enrolled children underwent a comprehensive eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and sensorimotor testing within 6 months of the testing date by a pediatric ophthalmologist masked to the Spot results. A total of 184 children were included. The Spot successfully obtained readings in 89.7% of patients. Compared with the ophthalmologist's examination, the Spot had an overall sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 70.4%. The Spot achieved good sensitivity and specificity for detection of amblyopia risk factors in this young cohort, particularly in the older subgroup. Our data offer support for automated vision screening in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Should mean arterial pressure be included in the definition of ambulatory hypertension in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suláková, Terezie; Feber, Janusz

    2013-07-01

    The diagnosis of hypertension (HTN)/normotension (NT) on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is usually based on systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The goal of this study was to analyze whether inclusion of mean arterial pressure (MAP) improves the detection of HTN on ABPM. We retrospectively studied ABPM records in 229 children (116 boys, median age = 15.3 years) who were referred for evaluation of HTN. A diagnosis of HTN was made if: (A) MAP or SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile); (B) SBP or DBP was ≥ 1.65 SDS (95th percentile), during 24-h or daytime or night-time in both definitions. Using definition A, 46/229 patients had HTN compared to definition B by which only 37/229 patients had HTN (p = 0.001). The level of agreement between the two definitions was very good (kappa = 0.86 ± 0.04), however nine patients (19.5 %) were missed by not using MAP in the definition of HTN. These nine patients had only mild HTN with a median Z score of 1.69. The inclusion of MAP in the definition of ambulatory HTN significantly increased the number of hypertensive patients. MAP may be very helpful in detecting mild HTN in patients with normal/borderline SBP and DBP.

  10. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Assessment of skeletal age using MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs and its correlation with dental and chronological ages in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, M; Pathak, A; Jain, R L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess skeletal age using MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs and to find the correlation amongst the skeletal, dental and chronological ages. One hundred and sixty North-Indian healthy children in the age group 8-14 years, comprising equal number of males and females were included in the study. The children were radiographed for middle phalanx of third finger (MP3) and hand-wrist of the right hand and intra oral periapical X-ray for right permanent maxillary canine. Skeletal age was assessed from MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs according to the standards of Greulich and Pyle. The dental age was assessed from IOPA radiographs of right permanent maxillary canine based on Nolla's calcification stages. Skeletal age from MP3 and hand-wrist radiographs shows high correlation in all the age groups for both sexes. Females were advanced in skeletal maturation than males. Skeletal age showed high correlation with dental age in 12-14 years age group. Chronological age showed inconsistent correlation with dental and skeletal ages.

  12. Physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years

    OpenAIRE

    Ronghe, Dr. Rashmi N; Gotmare, Dr. Neha A; Kawishwar, Dr. Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess physical activity level of school children of age 10-13 years.Objectives: To assess and grade physical activity level in children of age 10-13 years using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) classified into: Light Physical activity; Moderate Physical activity; Moderate to vigorous Physical activity and High Physical activity.Methodology: This is Questionnaire based survey study which was conducted on 100 school going children of 10-13 years who were present on ...

  13. A prospective study of children aged children and are associated with restraint misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen, Marianne; Naess, Paal Aksel; Hansen, Trond Boye; Gaarder, Christine; Lereim, Inggard; Stray-Pedersen, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of the compulsory wearing of seat belts (SBs) for children and improvements in child restraint systems have reduced the number of deaths and severe injuries among children involved in motor vehicle (MV) collisions (MVCs). Establishing the characteristics predictive of such injuries may provide the basis for targeted safety campaigns and lead to a further reduction in mortality and morbidity among children involved in MVCs. This study performed a multidisciplinary investigation among child occupants involved in MVCs to elucidate injury mechanisms, evaluate the safety measures used and determine the characteristics that are predictive of injury. A prospective study was conducted of all child occupants aged interior of the MVs were investigated and the injured children were medically examined. Supplementary information was obtained from witnesses, the crash victims, police reports, medical records and reconstructions. Each case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to assess the mechanism of injury. In total, 158 child occupants involved in 100 MVCs were investigated, of which 27 (17%) exhibited Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 2+ injuries and 15 (9%) exhibited AIS 3+ injuries. None of the children died. Of those with AIS 2+ injuries (n=27), 89% (n=24) were involved in frontal impact collisions and 11% (3/27) were involved in side impacts. Multivariate analysis revealed that restraint misuse, age, the prevailing lighting conditions and ΔV were all independently correlated with AIS 2+ injuries. Safety errors were found in 74% (20/27) of those with AIS 2+ injuries and 93% (14/15) of those with AIS 3+ injuries. The most common safety error was misuse of restraints, and in particular loose and/or improperly positioned SBs. The risk of injury among child occupants is significantly higher when the child occupants are exposed to safety errors within the interior of the vehicle. Future campaigns should focus on the prevention of restraint misuse

  14. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  15. Risk factors of severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5 years. In Kenya, it is the second leading cause of mortality, accounting for greater than 30,000 deaths in this age group annually. This study sought to identify risk factors for severe pneumonia in children under the age of five years.

  16. The effect of leukemia and its treatment on self-esteem of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, R L; Mullis, A K; Kerchoff, N F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the self-esteem of school-age children with leukemia in a clinic setting and to compare it to the self-esteem of healthy children. Thirteen chronically ill children, 6 to 11 years old, who were patients at a midwestern clinic and children's hospital, and 50 school-age children without chronic illness participated in the study. Children were administered the Kinetic Family Drawing-Revised (Spinetta, McLaren, Fox, & Sparta, 1981) to measure their self-image in relation to their family. Children's self-esteem was measured by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) (Coopersmith, 1981). The results indicated that children with leukemia did not differ in self-esteem from healthy children except on one subscale of the SEI. However, children with and without leukemia did differ on components of the self-image measure, a dimension of self-esteem. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  18. Parental Predictors of Children's Shame and Guilt at Age 6 in a Multimethod, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-01-01

    Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.

  19. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  1. Children with Down Syndrome: oral development and morphology after use of palatal plates between 6 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, B; Grevér-Sjölander, A-C; Holm, A-K; Johansson, I

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe oral development and morphology in 18-month-old children with Down syndrome (DS) treated with palatal plates in combination with structured communication and speech training. The aim is further to describe the design of the palatal plates, compliance in their use and to give a brief report of their effect on oral motor function and speech. Forty-two children with DS were followed from language intervention, and oral motor and sensory stimulation provided by speech therapists for all children with DS in Sweden, palatal plates provided by dentists are included in the training programme. In the evaluation, the children in the project were compared with two control groups of children matched for age; one group of children with DS who had not been treated with palatal plates, and one group of children with normal development. Compared to the children with normal development, both groups of children with DS had fewer teeth erupted and a lower prevalence of sucking habits. Deviant morphology of the tongue in the form of diastase, lingua plicata or a sulcus in the anterior third of the tongue was only seen in children with DS. All children with normal development had positive values for overjet compared to 53% of the children with DS. The palatal plates were used 2-3 times daily for a total mean time of 15 min. Compliance in use of the plates decreased with age, mainly due to eruption of teeth and subsequent loss of retention. Evaluation of oral motor function and speech show that the children with DS in the project had better motor prerequisites for articulation than the control children with DS. Palatal plate therapy did not affect oral parameters, i.e., eruption of teeth, types and prevalence of sucking habits, tongue morphology and symptoms of hypotonia. In combination with oral motor and sensory stimulation, palatal plate therapy had a positive effect on oral motor performance and prerequisites for articulation.

  2. Age and Electromyographic Frequency Alterations during Walking in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lauer, Richard T.; Pierce, Samuel R.; Tucker, Carole A.; Barbe, Mary F.; Prosser, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded during ambulation has provided valuable insight into motor development and changes with age in the pediatric population. However, no studies have reported sEMG differences with age in the children with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, data from 50 children were divided retrospectively into four groups, representing either an older (above the age of 7 years) or younger (below the age of 7 years) age group with either typical development (T...

  3. [Prevalence of vitamin a deficiency and anemia in children under five years of age in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Jaime; Miranda, Marianella; Zamora, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and nutritional anemia (NA) in children under five in Peru. Cross-sectional study with a stratified and multi-staged probabilistic sample conducted between November 2007 and April 2010.2,736 children were included for NA and 1,465 children for VAD. NA was defined as Hb<11 g/dL.VAD was identified by serum retinol levels <20 µg/dL. Sociodemographic variables related to the child and the mother were studied in addition to their participation in growth control and development programs, integrated nutrition program and supplementation with iron and vitamin A. Analysis of complex samples was performed, descriptive statistics and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals and a significance level of p<0.05 were calculated. The prevalence of VAD was 11.7% (95% CI: 9.4 to 14.4). The highest prevalences were in children under five months (44.6%) and those living in rural areas (19.5%). The prevalence of NA was 33% (95% CI: 29.9 to 36.1) and was higher in children under 11 months (68.2%) and children of mothers aged 13-19 years old (55.4 %). VAD is a public health problem that remains, with the most affected children living in rural areas and in the jungle. The prevalence of NA shows a slight improvement. It is necessary to improve the efficiency and impact of programs that include supplementation of vitamin A and iron.

  4. The Effects of the Parenting Styles on Social Skills of Children Aged 5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Suat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…

  5. Perinatal Risk Factors for Feeding and Eating Disorders in Children Aged 0 to 3 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Carolina; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Koch, Susanne Vinkel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national...... in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering....

  6. Feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for ametropia in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the feasibility of microcoria optometry in screening for children ametropia. METHODS: Totally 217 school-age children were selected, included 94 first-grade students(6~8 years oldand 123 fourth-grade students(9~12 years old. Refractive diopter was measured with automatic refractor RM-8000 to evaluate the accuracy of micocoria optometry in screening ametropia. RESULTS: After cycloplegia, both the mean sphere diopter and cylinder diopter in grade one students changed significantly(PPP>0.05in grade four students. Different refractive type: before and after mydriasis spherical myopia, spherical equivalent difference was 0.263±0.618 and 0.216±0.653D, with statistical significance(PP=0.000. The lenticular difference between the two groups were not statistically different(P>0.05. Choosing small pupil computer optometry for ≤-1.00D, ≥-0.50D child myopia or hyperopia could get more accurate value of diagnostic cutoffs, Youden index was 0.672 and 0.580.CONCLUSION: Microcoria optometry can be as a effective method of screening of children with ametropia, but if for optometry, school-age children must accept mydriasis.

  7. Serve sizes and frequency of food consumption in Australian children aged 14 and 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Chelsea; Magarey, Anthea; Byrne, Rebecca; Daniels, Lynne

    2017-02-01

    To describe the dietary intake of a sample of Australian children. Three days (1×24 hour recall, 2×24 hour records) of dietary intake data were collected from 409 and 363 mother-child dyads (resident in Brisbane and South Australia) at 14 (T2) and 24 (T3) months of age respectively as part of the NOURISH and SAIDI studies. Data presented include foods consumed by ≥10% of children, number of consumers and median serve size. Thirteen of 25 vegetables consumed by more than 10% of children at T2 were consumed by a lower proportion at T3 (9:1-5% less consumers; 4: 10-16% less). Eleven discretionary foods were consumed by greater than 10% of children at T2, and by T3, this number had almost doubled. Increased exposure to discretionary food and decreased exposure to vegetables is occurring in the transition toward family food, during a time of increasing independence and emerging neophobia. Implications for Public Health: The age-related decline in dietary quality is of concern, with potential concurrent impact on nutritional adequacy, development of food preferences and later eating patterns. Serve size data could be used to inform serve sizes for toddlers in future editions of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemenkov Yu.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate age and sex influence on formation of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic gastroduodenitis. Material and Methods. Features of acidity in esophagus and cardial part of stomach was studied in 175 children aged 4 to 17 years with chronic gastroduodenitis by pH-monitoring. pH-monitoring was carried by «Gastroscan-24». Age and sex characteristics have been identified on examination results. Results. Children of preschool age experience the most unfavorable reflux from the stomach to the esophagus. Boys experience the pathological reflux more severely. Conclusions: Effectiveness of esophageal clearance is lower in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux progresses are more favorably in a standing position, especially in children of preschool age. Pathological reflux occurs more often in the supine position and has a longer and more aggressive course in preschool age boys.

  9. Clinical Implications of Diffuse Excessive High Signal Intensity (DEHSI on Neonatal MRI in School Age Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Broström

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain carried out during the neonatal period shows that 55-80% of extremely preterm infants display white matter diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI. Our aim was to study differences in developmental outcome at the age of 6.5 years in children born extremely preterm with and without DEHSI.This was a prospective cohort study of 83 children who were born in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2004 and 2007, born at gestational age of < 27 weeks + 0 days and who underwent an MRI scan of their brain at term equivalent age. The outcome measures at 6.5 years included testing 66 children with the modified Touwen neurology examination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Beery Visual-motor Integration test-Sixth Edition, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Group-wise comparisons were done between children with and without DEHSI using Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Chi square test and regression analysis.DEHSI was detected in 39 (59% of the 66 children who were assessed at 6.5 years. The presence of DEHSI was not associated with mild neurological dysfunction, scores on M-ABC assessment, cognition, visual-motor integration, or behavior at 6.5 years.The presence of qualitatively defined DEHSI on neonatal MRI did not prove to be a useful predictor of long-term impairment in children born extremely preterm.

  10. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  11. Indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children. Can age younger than 2 years be a risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Seo, Yoshinobu; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    The indications of CT scan after minor head trauma in children are often discussed, including risks of radiation-induced malignancy. Our aim is to identify whether children younger than 2 years have greater risk of traumatic brain injury compared to older children. We enrolled and analysed 1,830 patients younger than 7 years who underwent CT scans after head trauma in our institute. Patients without any symptoms (n=916) were defined as Group A (age<2: n=391, age 2-6: n=525). Patients with extracranial traumatic findings such as scalp hematoma or laceration, and without any neurological symptoms (n=600) were defined as Group B (age<2: n=163, age 2-6: n=437). In order to analyze whether children younger than 2 years have risks of abnormal CT findings due to head trauma, we used the chi-square test in both Group A and Group B. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In Group A, there was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal CT findings between the younger and older groups (p=0.526). In Group B, however, there was a significant difference between those groups (p=0.0186). We suggest that, based on our findings, children younger than 2 years without any symptoms don't have a greater risk of brain injury compared to older children after minor head trauma. This study might contribute to save those children from receiving unnecessary radiation. (author)

  12. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  13. The interaction between parenting and children's cortisol reactivity at age 3 predicts increases in children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Chelsey S; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N; Dougherty, Lea R

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the role of stress reactivity in the emergence of psychopathology across early childhood. In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that child cortisol reactivity at age 3 moderates associations between early parenting and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. One hundred and sixty children were assessed at age 3, and 135 children were reassessed at age 6. At age 3, we exposed children to stress-inducing laboratory tasks, during which we obtained four salivary cortisol samples, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. At ages 3 and 6, child psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a clinical interview with parents. The results indicated that the combination of high child cortisol reactivity and high observed parental hostility at age 3 was associated with greater concurrent externalizing symptoms at age 3 and predicted increases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. Findings highlight that increased stress reactivity, within the context of hostile parenting, plays a role in the emergence of psychopathology from preschool to school entry.

  14. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  15. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  16. [A study of relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in school-aged children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, S

    1989-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in Japanese school-aged children. In Study 1, the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale for children developed by Kazdin, French, Unis, Esveldt-Dawsan, and Sherick (1983) was constructed. Seventeen original items were translated into Japanese and they were administrated to 405 fifth- and sixth-graders. All of the items could be included to the Japanese edition of hopelessness scale. The reliability and validity was examined. In Study 2, the relation between hopelessness and causal attribution in children were investigated. The causal attribution questionnaire developed by Higuchi, Kambare, and Otsuka (1983) and the hopelessness scale developed by Study 1 were administered to 188 sixth-graders. Children with high scores in hopelessness scale significantly attributed negative events to much more effort factor than children with low scores. It supports neither the reformulated learned helplessness model nor the causal attribution theory of achievement motivation. It was explained mainly from points of self-serving attribution, cultural difference, and social desirability. Some questions were discussed for developing studies on depression and causal attribution in Japan.

  17. Risk factors and possibilities of preventing gastroesophageal reflux disease in school-age children

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    O.Yu. Belousova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The article presents the main problems of early diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in school-age children, which leads to late detection and initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to identify the main risk factors that may predispose the development of this disease, as well as triggers that provoke GERD in school-age children. Knowledge of risk factors can help prevent the formation of GERD in children, and, with timely diagnosis of therapy, reduce the severity of the disease and improve quality of life. Materials and methods. Open comparative study included 98 school-age children (31 girls, 67 boys aged 6 to 18 years (mean age 14.2 years. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease was conducted in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated January 29, 2013, No. 59 “On Approval of Unified Clinical Protocols for Medical Care of Children with Digestive Disorders”. During the comprehensive examination, the identification of possible risk factors was made, for which a detailed history collection was performed: the nature of the child’s nutrition and the regularity of the meal were evaluated, as well as the mode of the day, the presence and intensity of physical activity, the presence of chronic stress (psycho-traumatic situations, sleep duration, bad habits, false eating habits. Past medical history also revealed the duration of breastfeeding and the time of supplementary food introduction. Physical examination was also aimed at the detection of so-called symptoms of anxiety — “red flags” that may indicate the presence of complications or organic pathology. Results. In both age groups, boys were dominant; besides, there were significantly more children aged 13–17 years in the group with GERD. Early administration of supplements was revealed in both groups, as well as early artificial/mixed feeding. More than 85 % of children had signs of autonomic dysregulation and

  18. [Selected nutritional habits children and teenagers aged 10-15 years].

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    Stefańiska, Ewa; Falkowska, Agnieszka; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of chosen nutritional habits in group of children and teenagers attending elementary schools and junior high schools in Bialystok. All together there were examined 1829 children aged 10 to 15 (884 children from primary school and 945 students ofjunior high school). Body height and weight were measured to assess Body Mass Index. The results were interpreted with the use of the centile charts for the children recommended by The Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. Nutritional habits of children and teenagers were assessed based on the questionnaire form (designed in the Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok). The questionnaire contained questions regarding the number and type commonly consumed meals, the regularity of consumption, the frequency of additional eating between meals, and the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products. In the study group of 1829 children the proper body weight was observed in more than 66% of the examined population. By analyzing the number of consumed meals it was stated that nearly half of all examined children consumed 4 meals a day. Among meals consumed most frequently were dinner, breakfast and supper. It was revealed that in comparison to boys girls of both younger and older group considerably more frequently included in their rations consumption of lunch. Eating between meals was rather common occurrence among all of the examined children. In all of compared groups low consumption of porridge, whole meal bread, milk, curd cheese, fishes, leguminous plants and raw fruits. At the same time it was shown that both older and younger boys considerably more often consumed meat and its preserves. Opposite tendency was noted in case of consumption of raw fruits. The majority of examined children and teenagers independently of gender groups declared excessive intake of sweets, which may have an unfavourable impact on their further

  19. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

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    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Prevalence of Anxiety and its related Factors among School-age Children in South West of Iran

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    Zeinab Banaeipour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is one of the most common childhood disorders, so it is necessary to explore extend and its related factors in the students. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of anxiety and the related factors of anxiety among the children aged 9-12 years. Materials and Methods At a descriptive-analytic study 623 children aged 9-12 year- old who were studying in the fourth to sixth grade of elementary school in Dezful city, were selected through multistage random sampling.  The data were collected using demographic profile questionnaire and School Anxiety Scale (SAS using SPSS-16. Results Of total 623 students, 36.3% were girls. 232 (37.2% students had mild anxiety, 304 students (48.8% had moderate anxiety and 87 students (14% had severe anxiety. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of children anxiety and the number of children in family (P0.0.5. Conclusion This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety was higher in boyes, children who were single children, children who had a family history of hereditary disease, and children who experienced corporal punishment at home. It is recommended arranging programs including training, counseling, and psychotherapy ones for these children and their families.

  1. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies in children: hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis

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    Se Young Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection. At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis.

  2. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

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    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  3. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  4. Examining construct validity of a new naturalistic observational assessment of hand skills for preschool- and school-age children.

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    Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted; McDonald, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is a new assessment that utilises a naturalistic observational method to capture children's real-life hand skill performance when engaged at various types of daily activities in everyday living contexts. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is designed for use with 2- to 12-year-old children with a range of disabilities or health conditions. The study aimed to investigate construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in Australian children. Rasch analysis was used to examine internal construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in a mixed sample of 53 children with disabilities (including autism spectrum disorder, developmental/genetic disorders and physical disabilities) and 85 typically developing children. External construct validity was examined by correlating with three questionnaires evaluating daily living skills and hand skills. Rasch goodness-of-fit analysis suggested that all 22 activity items and 19 of 20 hand skill items in the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills measured a single construct. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills items were placed in a clinically meaningful hierarchy from easy to hard, and the difficulty range of the items also matched the majority of children with disabilities and typically developing preschool-aged children. Moderate to high correlations (0.59 ≤ Spearman's ρ coefficients ≤ 0.89, P assessments of daily living and fine motor skills. This study provided preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills for its clinical application in assessing children's real-life hand skill performance in Australian contexts. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  6. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  7. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

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    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Age- and weight-based differences in haemodialysis prescription and delivery in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotta, Verena; Marsenic, Olivera; Pfister, Marc

    2018-04-18

    Limited systematic data are available on prescription and dosing of haemodialysis (HD) in children and adolescents compared with adults. We aimed to characterize age- and weight-based differences in HD delivery in children, adolescents and young adults. This is a retrospective observational study including 1852 patients aged 1-18 years; weight range 8.3-168 kg). Median individual prescriptions per year were calculated and overall 50% (IQR) and 90% distribution ranges over age and weight were derived. Repeated measurements analysis of variance assessed differences between age and weight groups. Prescriptions significantly differed among age and weight groups (P range, IQR) weight-normalized blood flow rate (highest in 100 kg: QB/kg = 3.1-4.0 mL/min/kg, spKt/V = 1.22-1.47, respectively). Adolescents had significantly lower QB/kg, KD/kg and spKt/V (1.34-1.71) compared with adults (1.45-1.79) and children range of 25th percentiles: 1.37-1.44). Dialytic clearance derived from a mechanistic equation underpredicted KD in children but not in young adults. Significant growth retardation was observed, with the proportion of patients age) decreasing from 71% (1-2 years) to 15% (>18 years). Delivered HD treatment varies with age and weight and is more intensified in children aged young adults, who appear to be at highest risk of receiving suboptimal treatment. Still, delivery of target or higher spKt/V values did not result in appropriate growth in these children, questioning the value of spKt/V as a measure of HD adequacy in children. Provided ranges of outpatient HD prescription can help clinicians and researchers in personalizing and optimizing delivery of dialysis treatment.

  9. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

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    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  10. VSNL1 Co-expression networks in aging include calcium signaling, synaptic plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease pathways

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    C W Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.

  11. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  12. Intellectual impairment in school-age children exposed to manganese from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien; Barbeau, Benoit; Legrand, Melissa; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Bouffard, Thérèse; Limoges, Elyse; Bellinger, David C; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Manganese is an essential nutrient, but in excess it can be a potent neurotoxicant. Despite the common occurrence of manganese in groundwater, the risks associated with this source of exposure are largely unknown. Our first aim was to assess the relations between exposure to manganese from drinking water and children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Second, we examined the relations between manganese exposures from water consumption and from the diet with children's hair manganese concentration. This cross-sectional study included 362 children 6-13 years of age living in communities supplied by groundwater. Manganese concentration was measured in home tap water (MnW) and children's hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion and the diet using a food frequency questionnaire and assessed IQ with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. The median MnW in children's home tap water was 34 µg/L (range, 1-2,700 µg/L). MnH increased with manganese intake from water consumption, but not with dietary manganese intake. Higher MnW and MnH were significantly associated with lower IQ scores. A 10-fold increase in MnW was associated with a decrease of 2.4 IQ points (95% confidence interval: -3.9 to -0.9; p < 0.01), adjusting for maternal intelligence, family income, and other potential confounders. There was a 6.2-point difference in IQ between children in the lowest and highest MnW quintiles. MnW was more strongly associated with Performance IQ than Verbal IQ. The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that exposure to manganese at levels common in groundwater is associated with intellectual impairment in children.

  13. Predictors of Language Gains Among School-Age Children With Language Impairment in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Jiang, Hui; Logan, Jessica A; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2017-06-10

    This study aimed to identify child-level characteristics that predict gains in language skills for children with language impairment who were receiving therapy within the public schools. The therapy provided represented business-as-usual speech/language treatment provided by speech-language pathologists in the public schools. The sample included 272 kindergartners and first-graders with language impairment who participated in a larger study titled "Speech-Therapy Experiences in the Public Schools." Multilevel regression analyses were applied to examine the extent to which select child-level characteristics, including age, nonverbal cognition, memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary, behavior problems, and self-regulation, predicted children's language gains over an academic year. Pratt indices were computed to establish the relative importance of the predictors of interest. Phonological awareness and vocabulary skill related to greater gains in language skills, and together they accounted for nearly 70% of the explained variance, or 10% of total variance at child level. Externalizing behavior, nonverbal cognition, and age were also potentially important predictors of language gains. This study significantly advances our understanding of the characteristics of children that may contribute to their language gains while receiving therapy in the public schools. Researchers can explore how these characteristics may serve to moderate treatment outcomes, whereas clinicians can assess how these characteristics may factor into understanding treatment responses.

  14. [Immunization coverage of children aged 0 to 5 years in Libreville (Gabon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ategbo, Simon; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Koko, Jean; Vierin, Yolande; Zang Ndong, Carine Eyi; Moussavou Mouyama, André

    2010-01-01

    monitoring. Parents were asked to explain the reasons for any delays in or absences of vaccinations. EPI vaccines administered to children aged 0 to 11 months include: BCG (Calmette-Guérin bacillus); DPT3 (3rd combination dose for Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis); Hib3 (3rdd dose of Haemophilus influenza b); OPV3 (3rd dose of oral polio vaccine); IPV3 (3rd dose of injectable polio vaccine, often in combination); HEB3 (3rd dose of Hepatitis B); yellow fever vaccine; and measles vaccine. The non-EPV vaccines for children aged 12 to 59 months included: HiB4; DPT4; HEB4; IPV4; MMR (combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella); meningococcal vaccine A and C; Typhim Vi (typhoid polysaccharide vaccine); and Pneumo 23 (pneumococcal vaccine.) The study included 1001 children: 533 boys (53.2%) and 468 girls (46.8%), for a sex ratio of 1.1. The mean age of the sample was 12.0 ± 13.1 months, distributed as follows: 64.5% aged 0 to 11 months; 20.1% aged 12 to 24 months; and 15.4% aged 25 to 59 months. In all, 175 children (17.5%) came from the private sector, and 826 children (82.5%) from the public sector. Both parents lived with 696 children (69.5%), while the remaining 305 children (30.5%) lived with their mother. The mothers' mean age was 26 years (min/max: 15/49 years); 61.3% had completed secondary education, 19.1% superior level, 10.6% primary level and 9.0% had no education at all. Almost 37% of mothers had some sort of paid employment. Household income was distributed as follows: low income for 18.6%, average income for 47.2%, and high income for 34.3% of the families interviewed. The average number of children under the age of 15 in a household was 3 (±2). Among children aged 0 to 11 months, the EPI antigens had the highest vaccination coverage rates, and these rates were higher in the private sector (more than 80% to 99% for some). Overall, the BCG scar was seen in 98.5% of all children; in the private sector 90.2% had received the third dose of the DTC/VPO-IPV vaccine, and in the

  15. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

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    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking. Keywords: Psychology, Education

  16. A controlled clinical evaluation of the Parents Plus Children's Programme for parents of children aged 6-12 with mild intellectual disability in a school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ailish; Raghallaigh, Ciara Ní; Cuppage, Jennifer; Coyle, Sadhbh; Sharry, John

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the parent training, Parents Plus Children's Programme (PPCP) as an intervention for parents of children with mild intellectual disabilities. Participants were parents of children, aged six to 12, attending a special school for children with mild general learning disability (n = 29). Minor programme adaptations were made. Pre and post-assessment included the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Parenting Stress Index, the Kansas Parent Satisfaction Scale and parent identified personal and child-related goals. A significant reduction in clinical range scores for treatment group participants (n = 16) was observed. Conversely, clinical range scores for control group participants (n = 13) increased, or remained elevated. These preliminary results suggest that PPCP may be successfully delivered as a routine community-based intervention and aid to prevent and reduce behavioural problems, reduce parent stress and increase parent confidence and satisfaction. Further investigation of programme effectiveness for parents of children with developmental disability is warranted.

  17. The Effects of Early Language on Age at Diagnosis and Functioning at School Age in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Anthony; Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that toddlers with no language delay (NLD) should have better outcomes than those with language delay (LD). However, the predictive utility of language milestones relative to co-varying factors such as age at diagnosis, IQ, and ASD symptomatology is unclear. This study compared school-aged children with ASD and NLD (n = 59) to a…

  18. Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, A.M.; Brooks, J.T.; Adcock, P.M.; Garrett, V.; Eberhard, M.; Rosen, D.H.; Ayisi, J.G.; Ochieng, J.B.; Kumar, L.; Gentsch, J.R.; Nahlen, B.L.; Mintz, E.D.; Slutsker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency and etiology of diarrhea in children aged less than 2 years with known HIV status. Methods: This was a nested cohort study, whereby children were followed during monthly routine and unscheduled visits. The HIV status of children was determined with PCR. A stool

  19. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  20. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children With Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal

  1. Behavior Problems in School-Aged Physically Abused and Neglected Children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…

  2. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  3. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia is a problem affecting a large group of school children in sub-Saharan Africa, contributing to morbidity in this region. In Cape Verde the magnitude of anemia in school-age children is unknown. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among children in Cape Verde. The data are ...

  4. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  5. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  6. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  7. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  8. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  9. Young Children's Initiation into Family Literacy Practices in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Hannon, Peter; Lewis, Margaret; Ritchie, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a study that explored young children's digital literacy in the home. The aim of the study was to identify the range of digital literacy practices in which children are engaged in the home and to explore how these are embedded into family life and involve family members. Four children, two girls and two boys aged between 2 and…

  10. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  11. The Home Literacy Environment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2018-01-01

    For typically developing (TD) children, the home literacy environment (HLE) impacts reading competence, yet few studies have explored the HLE of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We collected information about the HLE of children aged 7-13 with ASD and their TD peers via a parental questionnaire and examined whether there were any…

  12. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  13. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  14. Psychiatric Outcomes at Age Seven for Very Preterm Children: Rates and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…

  15. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  16. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  17. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  20. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  1. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    disorders were more in school age children who had suffered parental corporal punishment. Based on the results of this study, educating parents and families about results of corporal punishment in young children is suggested. Public health actions including training programs on alternative methods of discipline are also suggested.

  2. Unmet Needs of Families of School-Aged Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan; Kelley, Elizabeth; Cobigo, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making regarding the allocation of limited resources, information is needed on the perceived unmet needs of parents of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 101 Canadian families of school-aged children with an autism spectrum disorder.…

  3. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  4. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  5. Creating a Simple Electric Circuit with Children between the Ages of Five and Six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, Vasiliki; Ravanis, Kostantinos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of how preschool-aged children go about creating and operating a simple electric circuit (wires, light bulb, and battery), and how they view the elements that comprise it, particularly how they view the role of the battery. The research involved 108 children aged between five and six, who were individually interviewed.…

  6. Neurological outcome in school-age children after in utero exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL

    The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a

  7. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  8. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  9. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  10. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  11. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  12. Factors associated with dental behaviour management problems in children aged 2-8 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Wang, Chun-Li; Ge, Li-Hong

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the prevalence of children's dental behaviour management problems (BMP) in our clinic, investigated the influence of non-dental and dental background variables on BMP, and analysed the predictive power of these variables. The study group included 209 children aged 2-8 years who received dental treatment. Interviews were conducted with accompanying guardians. Children's dental behaviour was rated by a modified Venham's clinical anxiety scale and a cooperative behaviour rating scale. Regression models were used to analyse behavioural and interview data and to calculate the power of background variables to predict children's dental behaviour. During the first treatment, 29.7% of children displayed BMP. Four variables were found to predict BMP in 87.9% of cases. The risk factors for BMP were younger age, negative guardian expectations of the child's behaviour during treatment, anxiety or shyness around strangers, and presence of toothache. Children aged 2.5-3.5 years who attended kindergarten showed better dental behaviour than those who did not. This study is the first to report BMP prevalence in mainland China. Our results indicate that a simple pre-treatment interview could provide data allowing the dentist to identify children with special dental behavioural needs. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Profile of intestinal parasitosis among school-aged children in Kiliba (eastern DR Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyambikwa Bisangamo, C; Jabari Mutwa, P; Mulongo Mbarambara, P

    2017-06-01

    This study of feces sought to determine the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the Kiliba area of the eastern DR Congo. Feces of 602 school children aged from 9 to 20 years were collected from April to June 2014 and examined. Direct analyses were supplemented with the Kato and Ritchie methods. The global prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in school-aged children in the Kiliba area was 91.4 % [95 % CI: 87.6-94.3%]. The frequency of helminthiasis was high at 73.8 % (95 % CI: 68.4-78.6%) and that of protozoa reached 32.9 % (95 % CI: 27.7-38.6%). Girls were infected more often than boys. The group aged 17-20 years had the highest infection rate (97.7 %), but no statistically significant difference was observed among the age groups studied. The most frequent parasite species were: Schistosoma mansoni (30.6 %), Strongyloides stercolaris (21.3 %), Entamoeba histolytica (17.6 %), Trichomonas intestinalis (14.6 %), Ankylostoma duodenale (13.6 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.6 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.0 %), Taenia saginata (6.6 %), and Giardia intestinalis (5.0 %). This investigation demonstrated the extreme frequency of these fecal infections. Preventive measures, including water distribution, sanitary installations, and hygiene education, should be implemented.

  14. Validation of the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for children aged 4 to 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Do Kyun; Jung, Jae Yun; Chang, Ikwan; Kwon, Hyuksool; Shin, Jonghwan; Paek, So Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Kwak, Young Ho

    2018-04-01

    Pain scales using faces are commonly used tools for assessing pain in children capable of communicating. However, some children require other types of pain scales because they have difficulties in understanding faces pain scales. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for 4- to 7-year-old children. This was a multicenter prospective observational study in the emergency department. Psychometric properties (convergent validity, discriminative validity, responsivity, and reliability) were compared between the "Pain Block" pain scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) to assess the validity of the "Pain Block" scale. A total of 163 children (mean age, 5.5 years) were included in this study. The correlation coefficient between the FPS-R and the Pain Block scale was 0.82 for all participants which increased with age. Agreement between the 2 pain scales was acceptable, with 95.0% of the values within the predetermined limit. The differences in mean scores between the painful group and nonpainful group were 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-4.1) and 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.6) for FPR-S and Pain Block, respectively. The pain scores for both pain scales were significantly decreased when analgesics or pain-relieving procedures were administered (difference in Pain Block, 2.4 [1.4-3.3]; and difference in FPS-R, 2.3 [1.3-3.3]). The Pain Block pain scale could be used to assess pain in 4- to 7-year-old children capable of understanding and counting up to the number 5, even if they do not understand the FPS-R pain scale.

  15. [Nutritional state associated with social determinants in Arhuaco children aged less than 5 years-old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mónica; Tarazona, María C; Lamus, Francisco; Granados, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Misinformation concerning indigenous communities is an obstacle to ascertaining their healthcare status; however, the role of malnutrition concerning their morbidity and mortality is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to ascertain food security levels and identify social determinants and their association with the nutritional status of children aged less than five years-old. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study of an Arhuaco population which used non-probability sampling for convenience. Anthropometry included analyzing weight, length and head circumference based on WHO 2006 references for nutritional diagnosis. Social determinants were obtained using an instrument adapted from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Relevant ethical considerations were taken into account. 169 children were evaluated and 132 surveys conducted. Growth delay regarding size was less frequent in children aged less than 6 months (p=0.03)and acute malnutrition was higher in those who went to see a traditional doctor first (p=0.01) and whose mothers had no formal schooling (p=0.05); the latter association was also found regarding obesity (p=0.00) and in those having risk factors concerning neurodevelopment too (p=0.00). Nutritional transition was higher in males (p=0.03), in children lacking complete vaccination (p=0.03) and in those whose mothers had 4 or fewer children (p=0.00). Strategies aimed at taking action regarding acute malnutrition and being overweight must be formulated, plans for monitoring growth in this population must be promoted and communication between traditional and Western medicine must be optimized, involving mothers as the main actors.

  16. MR imaging of capitellar ossification: a study in children of different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fader, Lauren M.; Laor, Tal; Eismann, Emily A.; Cornwall, Roger; Little, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The capitellar ossification center is used routinely to evaluate elbow alignment on radiography. However, whether capitellar ossification is central and concentric to support this practice is unknown. To define the pattern of capitellar ossification at different ages of childhood. This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. MR imaging examinations from 81 children (ages 1-13 years, at least 3 boys and 3 girls in each age group) were included. We determined the center points of the ossified capitellum and the cartilaginous capitellum on the sagittal and coronal sequences that best showed differentiation between cartilage and bone. Percentage offset of the center of the ossified capitellum from the center of the cartilaginous capitellum was calculated in anterior-posterior, proximal-distal and medial-lateral dimensions, and compared across age groups and between genders. Linear regressions were used to ascertain the effect of age on percentage offset for all patients and for each gender. Capitellar ossification begins eccentrically with sagittal anterior proximal offset and coronal medial offset. With age, ossification proceeds posteriorly, distally and laterally. Percentage offset gradually diminishes with age. The ossified capitellum centralizes in the sagittal plane by 12-13 years. In the coronal plane, the capitellum ossifies medially beyond the proximal radioulnar joint and remains eccentric at 12-13 years. Centralization in boys lags in the anterior-posterior dimension. Capitellar ossification is an eccentric process, with lag in anterior-posterior centralization in boys. Medial offset persists at 12-13 years. Recognition of this eccentric ossification may allow for more accurate assessment of elbow alignment on radiographs, especially in younger children. (orig.)

  17. MR imaging of capitellar ossification: a study in children of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fader, Lauren M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Eismann, Emily A.; Cornwall, Roger; Little, Kevin J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The capitellar ossification center is used routinely to evaluate elbow alignment on radiography. However, whether capitellar ossification is central and concentric to support this practice is unknown. To define the pattern of capitellar ossification at different ages of childhood. This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. MR imaging examinations from 81 children (ages 1-13 years, at least 3 boys and 3 girls in each age group) were included. We determined the center points of the ossified capitellum and the cartilaginous capitellum on the sagittal and coronal sequences that best showed differentiation between cartilage and bone. Percentage offset of the center of the ossified capitellum from the center of the cartilaginous capitellum was calculated in anterior-posterior, proximal-distal and medial-lateral dimensions, and compared across age groups and between genders. Linear regressions were used to ascertain the effect of age on percentage offset for all patients and for each gender. Capitellar ossification begins eccentrically with sagittal anterior proximal offset and coronal medial offset. With age, ossification proceeds posteriorly, distally and laterally. Percentage offset gradually diminishes with age. The ossified capitellum centralizes in the sagittal plane by 12-13 years. In the coronal plane, the capitellum ossifies medially beyond the proximal radioulnar joint and remains eccentric at 12-13 years. Centralization in boys lags in the anterior-posterior dimension. Capitellar ossification is an eccentric process, with lag in anterior-posterior centralization in boys. Medial offset persists at 12-13 years. Recognition of this eccentric ossification may allow for more accurate assessment of elbow alignment on radiographs, especially in younger children. (orig.)

  18. The importance of stimulation of sensory perception by preschool-aged children with visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    NOHAVOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...

  19. Emotional Understanding and Color-Emotion Associations in Children Aged 7-8 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Debbie J.; Butler, Hannah; Qualter, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the development of emotional knowledge can help us determine how children perceive and interpret their surroundings and color-emotion associations are one measure of the expression of a child’s emotional interpretations. Emotional understanding and color-emotion associations were examined in a sample of UK school children, aged 7-8 years. Forty primary school children (mean age = 7.38; SD = 0.49) were administered color assessment and emotional understanding tasks, and...

  20. Age and sex-specific relationships between phthalate exposures and obesity in Chinese children at puberty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhui Zhang

    Full Text Available To examine the age and sex-specific associations of urine levels of six mono-phthalates with body size and fat distribution in Chinese children at puberty.Four hundred and ninety-three school-aged children (247 boys, 246 girls were recruited. Obesity related anthropometric indices were measured and body fat proportion (BF% was calculated. Spot urine samples were collected and phthalate monoesters were detected by an API 2000 electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS. Associations between phthalate exposure and overweight/obesity measures and their trends were examined by multiple linear regression and Logistic regression analyses, respectively.Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP metabolites and monobutyl phthalate (MBP were found to be the most detectable chemicals. In 8-10 years (yrs group, concentrations of MEHP and MBP were significantly higher in girls than those in boys. However, concentrations of all phthalate monoesters, except for MEP and MEHP, in 11-13 yrs boys were significantly higher than those in girls. After adjusting for confounders including puberty onset, urinary concentrations of MBP and sum of low molecular-weight phthalate metabolites (∑LMP were positively associated with boys' obesity in a concentration-effect manner, while concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP and sum of DEHP metabolites (∑MEHP were negatively associated with girls' obesity. Associations between phthalate exposure levels and BMI z-score changes were age- and sex-specific in school-age children.There are age and sex-specific concentration-effect associations between phthalate exposure and fat distribution in Chinese children. Urinary phthalate levels in 11-13 yrs boys were about 30 percent higher than those in girls, and ∑MEHP levels in younger boys (10 yrs. Associations were positive for MBP and ∑LMP with both BMI z-score and fat distribution in boys >10 years of age, and negative for ∑MEHP with fat distribution in girls <10 years of age.

  1. Cognitive development in children up to age 11 years born after ART-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuscia, Anna; Mills, Melinda C

    2017-07-01

    How does the cognitive development of children conceived after ART (IVF and ICSI) - measured as cognitive skills at age 3, 5, 7 and 11 years - differ over time from those born after natural conception (NC)? Improved measures of cognitive development up to age 5 years were recorded in children conceived with ART compared to NC, which attenuates by 11 years, with ART children still scoring slightly better than NC children. Results on the cognitive outcomes of children conceived after ART have been highly contradictory. Some have shown that ART children have an impaired behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive development and higher risk of mental disorders. Others have reported no increased risk or difference. Cognitive development has not been previously examined using latent growth curve models from ages 3 to 11 years, also including appropriate attention to confounding parental characteristics. Longitudinal data for the first five waves (2000-2012) of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used, which is a two-stage sample of all infants born in 2000-2001 and resident in the UK at 9 months of age, drawn from the Department of Social Security Child Benefit Registers. A final sample of N = 15 218 children (125 IVF and 61 ICSI), from 14 816 families was used. Information was available for all waves for 8298 children. Four additional follow-up surveys were conducted in 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2012. Our sample includes children born within a union (married or cohabiting parents) and where information on cognitive scores was available for at least two measurement points. Cognitive development was assessed with the British Ability Scales. At age 3 and 5 years (wave 2 and 3), children completed the naming vocabulary component, which measures expressive verbal ability. At age 7 years (wave 4), verbal cognitive abilities were assessed through the word reading test, and at age 11 years (wave 5) through a verbal similarity test. Two-tailed Student's t-tests examined differences

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale for Children Aged 4 to 17 Years With Acute Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsze, Daniel S; von Baeyer, Carl L; Pahalyants, Vartan; Dayan, Peter S

    2018-06-01

    The Verbal Numerical Rating Scale is the most commonly used self-report measure of pain intensity. It is unclear how the validity and reliability of the scale scores vary across children's ages. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the scale for children presenting to the emergency department across a comprehensive spectrum of age. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 4 to 17 years. Children self-reported their pain intensity, using the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised at 2 serial assessments. We evaluated convergent validity (strong validity defined as correlation coefficient ≥0.60), agreement (difference between concurrent Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised scores), known-groups validity (difference in score between children with painful versus nonpainful conditions), responsivity (decrease in score after analgesic administration), and reliability (test-retest at 2 serial assessments) in the total sample and subgroups based on age. We enrolled 760 children; 27 did not understand the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and were removed. Of the remainder, Pearson correlations were strong to very strong (0.62 to 0.96) in all years of age except 4 and 5 years, and agreement was strong for children aged 8 and older. Known-groups validity and responsivity were strong in all years of age. Reliability was strong in all age subgroups, including each year of age from 4 to 7 years. Convergent validity, known-groups validity, responsivity, and reliability of the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale were strong for children aged 6 to 17 years. Convergent validity was not strong for children aged 4 and 5 years. Our findings support the use of the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale for most children aged 6 years and older, but not for those aged 4 and 5 years. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was e...

  4. A novel tool for evaluating children's musical abilities across age and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Isabelle; Gosselin, Nathalie; Nan, Yun; Caron-Caplette, Emilie; Trehub, Sandra E.; B?land, Ren?e

    2013-01-01

    The present study introduces a novel tool for assessing musical abilities in children: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA). The battery, which comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, was administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1), and an abbreviated version was administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min; Experiment 2). All children were 6–8 years of age. Their performance indica...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. Maggi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers.

  7. Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette

    The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…

  8. Preterm children have unfavorable motor, cognitive, and functional performance when compared to term children of preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Eliane F; Magalhães, Lívia C; Campos, Alexandre F; Bouzada, Maria Cândida F

    2014-01-01

    to compare the motor coordination, cognitive, and functional development of preterm and term children at the age of 4 years. this was a cross-sectional study of 124 four-year-old children, distributed in two different groups, according to gestational age and birth weight, paired by gender, age, and socioeconomic level. All children were evaluated by the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition (MABC-2), the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS). preterm children had worse performance in all tests, and 29.1% of the preterm and 6.5% of term groups had scores on the MABC-2 indicative of motor coordination disorder (p=0.002). In the CMMS (p=0.034), the median of the standardized score for the preterm group was 99.0 (± 13.75) and 103.0 (± 12.25) for the term group; on the PEDI, preterm children showed more limited skill repertoire (p=0.001) and required more assistance from the caregiver (p=0.010) than term children. this study reinforced the evidence that preterm children from different socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have motor, cognitive, and functional development impairment, detectable before school age, than their term peers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Children's Moral Judgments and Moral Emotions Following Exclusion of Children with Disabilities: Relations with Inclusive Education, Age, and Contact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between children's moral judgments and moral emotions following disability-based exclusion and inclusive education, age, and contact intensity. Nine- and 12-year-old Swiss children (N = 351) from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms provided moral judgments and moral emotion attributions following six vignettes about…

  10. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  11. Academic and Behavioral Outcomes in School-Age South African Children Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K. Dollman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children who have sustained severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs demonstrate a range of post-injury neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae, which may have adverse effects on their academic and behavioral outcomes and interfere with school re-entry, educational progress, and quality of life. These post-TBI sequelae are exacerbated within the context of a resource-poor country like South Africa (SA where the education system is in a somewhat precarious state especially for those from disadvantaged backgrounds.Objectives: To describe behavioral and academic outcomes of a group of school-aged SA children following severe TBI.Methods: The sample included 27 school-age children who were admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH, SA, between 2006 and 2011 for closed severe TBI and who received intracranial monitoring. We collected behavioral data using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF and academic information sourced from the BRIEF, CBCL, medical folders, and caregivers. Analyses include descriptive statistics and bivariate correlation matrices.Results: The descriptive results show that (1 more than half of the participants experienced clinically-significant behavioral problems across the CBCL scales, (2 the working memory BRIEF subscale appeared to be the most problematic subdomain, (3 two thirds of the sample were receiving some form of, or were in the process of being placed in, special needs education, (4 there was a three-fold increase in the use of special education services from pre- to post-injury, and (5 more than half (n = 16 of the sample repeated at least one grade after returning to school post-injury. Correlation analyses results suggest that children with increased externalizing behavioral problems and executive dysfunction are more likely to repeat a grade post-injury; and that children with executive dysfunction post-TBI are more likely

  12. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  13. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Schittenhelm, Jan; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  14. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  15. Dietary Calcium Intake in Sample of School Age Children in City of Rabat, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Bouziani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral playing a vital role to maintain bone health. Calcium intake is considered as one of the most important determinants to assess the calcium status and to evaluate the calcium deficiency in the human body. Our study aims at estimating calcium intake in a sample of children and adolescent to be used in the global strategy to reduce calcium deficiency disorders in Morocco. Thus, 131 children and adolescents were recruited from public schools at Rabat and its regions in the framework of a descriptive cross-sectional study. For each participant, anthropometric parameters were measured. Calcium status was assessed by 24 h dietary recall. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate children’s nutritional habits and to assess the consumption of calcium-rich food. Overall, the mean calcium intake was 522.0 ± 297.0 mg/day, and 85.5% of subjects highlighted calcium deficiency, with no significant difference between boys and girls. Calcium intake was significantly different according to age groups, and high consumption of calcium was found in subjects aged from 14 to 18 years (776.86 ±290.07 mg/day, giving evidence of the low calcium status of the studied population. Daily food intake and food frequency analysis showed that bread, vegetables, and fruits are the most consumed food and the main source of daily calcium intake. Consumption of dairy products, considered as the best source of calcium, is lower and represents only 14% of total calcium intake. Our study clearly showed that calcium status is very lower in Moroccan children and adolescents and a large proportion of this population have inadequate calcium intake. Hence, there’s an urgent need of specific strategies, including children sensitisation and nutritional education, to increase calcium intake and therefore reduce calcium deficiency disorders impacting the whole body during childhood and in adult age.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  17. Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Dental Caries Management in Children and Adolescents, Including Those with Special Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Yasmi O; Marghalani, Abdullah A; Ureles, Steven D; Wright, John Timothy; Sulyanto, Rosalyn; Divaris, Kimon; Fontana, Margherita; Graham, Laurel

    2017-09-15

    This manuscript presents evidence-based guidance on the use of 38 percent silver diamine fluoride (SDF) for dental caries management in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. A guideline workgroup formed by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry developed guidance and an evidence-based recommendation regarding the application of 38 percent SDF to arrest cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth. The basis of the guideline's recommendation is evidence from an existing systematic review "Clinical trials of silver diamine fluoride in arresting caries among children: A systematic review." (JDR Clin Transl Res 2016;1[3]:201-10). A systematic search was conducted in PubMed®/MEDLINE, Embase®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and gray literature databases to identify randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews reporting on the effect of silver diamine fluoride and address peripheral issues such as adverse effects and cost. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the evidence-to-decision framework was employed to formulate a recommendation. The panel made a conditional recommendation regarding the use of 38 percent SDF for the arrest of cavitated caries lesions in primary teeth as part of a comprehensive caries management program. After taking into consideration the low cost of the treatment and the disease burden of caries, panel members were confident that the benefits of SDF application in the target populations outweigh its possible undesirable effects. Per GRADE, this is a conditional recommendation based on low-quality evidence. Conclusions and practical implications: The guideline intends to inform the clinical practices involving the application of 38 percent SDF to enhance dental caries management outcomes in children and adolescents, including those with special health care needs. These recommended

  18. Minimally verbal school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder: the neglected end of the spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kasari, Connie

    2013-12-01

    It is currently estimated that about 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder remain minimally verbal, even after receiving years of interventions and a range of educational opportunities. Very little is known about the individuals at this end of the autism spectrum, in part because this is a highly variable population with no single set of defining characteristics or patterns of skills or deficits, and in part because it is extremely challenging to provide reliable or valid assessments of their developmental functioning. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge based on research including minimally verbal children. We review promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school-aged children, including eye-tracking and brain-imaging methods that do not require overt responses. We then review what is known about interventions that may be effective in improving language and communication skills, including discussion of both nonaugmentative and augmentative methods. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the gaps in the literature and needs for future research. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanyan [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wu, Wei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Liu, Shuyun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Li, Mei [Hanyang Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ye, Linxiang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Wang, Qi, E-mail: lwq95@126.com [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yikai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  20. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  1. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61–84 months old in central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%–93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%–41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61–84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source. - Highlights: • The first time to fit and discuss the IEUBK model in China based on comprehensive local children exposure parameters. • Two different exposure scenarios to apply the IEUBK model in different conditions. • The first time to report the ventilation rate in Chinese children aged 61 to 84 months. • Highlight the role of dietary to lead intake for Chinese children.

  2. Evaluation of the Seroprevalence of Hepatit A and Vaccination Status in Children Aged Two and Sixteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan KOLANCALI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study; the aim was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV in 2-16 year age group, and the rate of hepatitis A vaccination. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 400 children aged between 2 and 16 years with no chronic diseases who attended the pediatrics outpatient clinic in Health Sciences University, Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, blood samples were taken for investigating serological markers for hepatitis A in the microbiology laboratory using the ELISA method. The parents were asked whether or not their children had been vaccinated against hepatitis A. Results: In this study 44.3% of the participants included were girls and 55.8% were boys. The mean age of the children was 10.8±4.18 years. 27.3% of patients were anti-HAV IgG-positive, and 11% had been vaccinated against hepatitis A. When we compared preschool and school age patients, anti-HAV IgG positivity was detected in all children who were vaccinated in the preschool group; while 5.9% of unvaccinated children were anti-HAV IgG-positive and 94.1% were negative. It was found that school age children were unvaccinated, and anti-HAV IgG was positive in 19.6% of the children and negative in 80.4% of the children. Conclusion: In our study, although the prevalence of hepatitis A was found to be low compared to the eastern and southeastern cities of our country, it is still higher than in the developed countries. In order to prevent hepatitis A infection, it is necessary to improve the socio-economic conditions of the country, to create better sanitary conditions and hygienic practices, and raise awareness of the infection.

  3. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  4. What drives young children to over-imitate? Investigating the effects of age, context, action type, and transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Zanna; Over, Harriet; Tennie, Claudio

    2018-02-01

    Imitation underlies many traits thought to characterize our species, which includes the transmission and acquisition of language, material culture, norms, rituals, and conventions. From early childhood, humans show an intriguing willingness to imitate behaviors, even those that have no obvious function. This phenomenon, known as "over-imitation," is thought to explain some of the key differences between human cultures as compared with those of nonhuman animals. Here, we used a single integrative paradigm to simultaneously investigate several key factors proposed to shape children's over-imitation: age, context, transitivity, and action type. We compared typically developing children aged 4-6years in a task involving actions verbally framed as being instrumental, normative, or communicative in function. Within these contexts, we explored whether children were more likely to over-imitate transitive versus intransitive actions and manual versus body part actions. Results showed an interaction between age and context; as children got older, they were more likely to imitate within a normative context, whereas younger children were more likely to imitate in instrumental contexts. Younger children were more likely to imitate transitive actions (actions on objects) than intransitive actions compared with older children. Our results show that children are highly sensitive to even minimal cues to perceived context and flexibly adapt their imitation accordingly. As they get older, children's imitation appears to become less object bound, less focused on instrumental outcomes, and more sensitive to normative cues. This shift is consistent with the proposal that over-imitation becomes increasingly social in its function as children move through childhood and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  6. Parental break-ups and stress: roles of age & family structure in 44 509 pre-adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Agnete S; Dich, Nadya; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja H

    2017-10-01

    Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children's well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child's age at break-up. Children living in a new family with stepparents (OR = 1.63, 95%CI:1.38;1.92), or shared between the parents (OR = 1.48, 95%CI:1.26;1.75) reported higher stress than children of intact families. Single parent families reported markedly higher stress levels than children in intact families (OR = 2.18, 95%CI:1.90;2.50) and all other family types. Children who were satisfied with their living arrangements post-break-up reported the same stress level as children living in intact families (OR = 1.01, 95%CI:0.86;1.18). Children who experience parental break-up have higher stress levels, also many years after the break-up, and those living in a single parent household post break-up seem to be most vulnerable. Living arrangements post-breakup should be further investigated as a potential protective factor. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms in school-age children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, Tinka; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Background: Very preterm (VP) children face a broad range of neurodevelopmental sequelae, including behavioral problems. Aim: To investigate prevalence, pervasiveness and co-occurrence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school-age

  8. Environmental Awareness of Children Aged 6—10 Years from the Standpoint of Dialectical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidskaya E.V.,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of an empirical research of cognitive, affective (emotional and behavioral components of ecological consciousness in 323 children of preschool and primary school age (6—10 years.It was found that preschool age children underestimate the impact of nature on man, but at the same time overestimate the human impact on nature. Children of this age attributed greater importance to being emotionally close with nature than children of primary school age. When choosing between the industrial, social or natural environment, children of both age groups give preference to the natural environment, leaving the industrial one the least preferred. The outcomes of this research were used to analyze the development of dialectical thinking (actions of transformation and association in children of these age groups. As it was revealed, dialectical thinking in children of preschool age is predominantly visual. In primary school children, the visual form is replaced by conceptual and symbolic thinking, although still in an underdeveloped form. The article concludes that the first two years of school education have little influence on the development of dialectical thinking in the part that concerns actions of transformation.

  9. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  12. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  13. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier N. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents (RTA and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods: Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results: In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06. Conclusions: This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support.

  14. Moderate Acute Malnutrition Treatment among Children 6-23 Months and 24-59 Months Aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahamadou, Tanimoune; Traore, Modibo; Fainke, Kamayera; Magagi, Saidou

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The prevalence of acute malnutrition in Mali has slightly decreased between 2012 and 2013 in southern areas from 8.9 to 8.6 percent.The youngest children 6-23 months are seriously affected as 12.6% according the SMART nutrition survey in 2013. The aim of this study was to show how seasonality impacts relapse rates among youngest moderately malnourished children aged 6-23 month compare to 24-59 months. The World Food Programme in Mali set up Targeted Supplementary Feeding Programme (TSFP) in 1032 community health facilities to address the burden of MAM. This TSFP includes treatment of MAM with 92g of Plumpy’SupTM per days during 60 days. The entry criteria according to national protocol was Mid Upper Arm Circumference less than 125mm (MUAC = 125 mm or WHZ > = -1.5 during two consecutives visits. In addition, the programme is accompanied with community based activities such as active screening and culinary demonstration for women groups and sensitization. As a result, after 10 months of implementation, 41604 children 6-23 months aged have been admitted for MAM treatment. This represents 82% of total estimated caseload in this group (50666). During the same period, only 14% (14473) of total estimated caseload (101333) in children 24-59 months aged group have been admitted and treated. Although 74% (41604) of total admission (56077 children 6-59 months) was 6-23 months aged ,the programme performance indicators show that children 24-59 respond better to the treatment compared to 6-23 months: Average recovery rate 88% vs 87%; death rate 0.55% vs 1.07% none response 0.21% vs 0.50%. Only, the defaulter rate was higher in 24-59, 10.21% vs 7.5%. Nevertheless, compared two Sphere performance norms and threshold, the programme is fully satisfactory in all categories. The seasonal analysis shows that the highest admission in MAM programme was registered between April and September in all categories. 79% of the total caseload has been admitted during this period

  15. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (plevels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (pcortisol levels (p=0.069) was noted. SGA-born children were shorter (plevels (plevels (p=0.085) and increased fT4 levels (pobese children and twice more metabolic abnormalities were present in SGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  16. Exploration of the Influence of Factors Identified in the Literature on School-aged Children's Emotional Responses to Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Verónica García

    Approximately 6.3 million US children suffer from asthma. The purpose of this study was to explore factors on school-aged children's emotional responses to asthma, N=85, ages 6-12. Correlations included Asthma related child emotional functioning QOL and (a) asthma severity, r=-0.30, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.26, pchild externalizing behaviors r=-0.43, pasthma severity, r=-0.39, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.22, pchild externalizing behaviors, r=-0.25; pasthma severity and child externalizing problems accounted for 26% of the variance in asthma related child emotional functioning QOL, F (4, 79)=7.051, pasthma severity, β=-0.31, pchild externalizing problem behaviors, β=-0.43, pasthma research should consider problem behaviors of school-aged children when addressing asthma related emotional functioning QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianju Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to report our successful use of frontalis muscle flap suspension for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children. METHODS: This retrospective study included 61 early age children (41 boys, 20 girls with an average age of 6 years (range, 3-10 years with congenital blepharoptosis who received surgery during the period from March 2007 to January 2011. There were 39 cases of unilateral blepharoptosis and 22 cases of bilateral blepharoptosis, thus a total of 83 eyes were affected. If patient had bilateral blepharoptosis, both eyes were operated on in the same surgery. Patients were followed for 3 months to 5 years. The procedure was performed without complications in all cases. RESULTS: The postoperative healing grade was good in 81 eyes (97.6%; the correction of blepharoptosis was satisfactory, the double eyelid folds were natural and aesthetic, the eyelid position and the curvature were ideal, and the eyes were bilaterally symmetrical. The postoperative healing grade was fair in 2 eyes (2.4%; blepharoptosis was improved compared with that before surgery. At discharge, lagophthalmos was noted in 10 eyes of which 4 cases resolved by the last follow-up. The remaining 6 cases were mild. Eleven eyes received reoperation for residual ptosis after the first surgery. The curvature of the palpebral margin was not natural in 4 eyes. These unnatural curvature possibly was caused by an excessively low lateral fixation point or postoperative avulsion. CONCLUSION: Frontalis muscle flap suspension under general anesthesia for the correction of congenital blepharoptosis in early age children can achieve good surgical results.

  18. The Predictors of Diet Quality among Australian Children Aged 3.5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Laura J; Lacy, Kathleen E; Campbell, Karen J; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    It is critical to promote healthy eating early in life. The aim of this study was to examine diet quality and its predictors among Australian preschool-aged children. Diet was assessed at age 3.5 years using multiple 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was assessed using an adapted version of the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). Potential predictors of diet quality were from questionnaires at age 3, 9, and 18 months and informed by the ecologic model of childhood overweight. Potential predictors included child's sex, age of introduction to solid foods, breastfeeding status, food acceptance, maternal nutrition knowledge, modeling of healthy eating, self-efficacy, education, and home food availability. Data from 244 children participating in the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity, and Nutrition Trial in 2008-2010 and follow-up data collection in 2011-2013 were examined. Diet quality at age 3.5 years. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between diet quality and each predictor. A multivariable logistic regression model accounting for influences of covariates, treatment arm, and clustering by group tested associations between diet quality and significant predictors from bivariate analyses. RC-DQI scores had a mean±standard deviation score of 62.8±8.3 points out of a maximum of 85 points. Breastfeeding status (odds ratio [OR] 2.34, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.10) and maternal modeling of healthy eating (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.03) were positively associated with RC-DQI scores. Both breastfeeding status (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.63 to 5.85) and modeling (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.88) remained positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for child age, body mass index z score, energy intake, treatment arm, and clustering. Breastfeeding status and modeling of healthy eating were independently associated with children's diet quality. Early intervention could assist mothers to practice these behaviors to provide support for improving

  19. Bisphenol A exposure and asthma development in school-age children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Nam Kim

    Full Text Available Although the effect of bisphenol A on various health outcomes has been extensively examined, few studies have investigated its effect on asthma.We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenol A in school-age children was associated with wheezing and asthma.Participants included 127 children aged 7-8 years without a previous asthma diagnosis in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Three surveys were conducted, each 2 years apart. Bisphenol A concentration was measured at the baseline survey, and PC20, which is defined as the methacholine concentration that induces a decrease in FEV1 of 20% from baseline, was measured at every survey. Associations between bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years of age and wheezing, asthma, and PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years were examined using generalized estimating equations, a marginal Cox regression model, and a linear mixed model.The log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years was positively associated with wheezing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.31; P = .02 and asthma (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.00; P<.001 at ages up to 11-12 years. Bisphenol A was also negatively associated with PC20 (ß = -2.33; P = .02. When stratified by sex, the association between bisphenol A and asthma remained significant only in girls (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-2.76; P<.001.Increased urinary bisphenol A concentrations at 7-8 years old were positively associated with wheezing and asthma and negatively associated with PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years.

  20. Tone, rhythm, and timbre perception in school-age children using cochlear implants and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy P; Storey, Christine M; Blamey, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Children with hearing impairments, especially those using hearing devices such as the cochlear implant (CI) or hearing aid (HA), are sometimes not encouraged to attend music classes, as they or their parents and teachers may be unsure whether the child can perform basic musical tasks. The objective of the current study was to provide a baseline for the performance of children using CIs and HAs on standardized tests of rhythm and pitch perception as well as an instrument timbre identification task. An additional aim was to determine the effect of structured music training on these measures during the course of a school year. The Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) Tonal and Rhythmic subtests were administered four times, with 6 wk between tests. All children in the study were also enrolled in "Music Club" teaching sessions. Measures were compared between groups and across the four testing sessions. Twenty children from a single school in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited. Eleven (four girls) had impaired hearing, including six with a unilateral CI or CI and HA together (two girls) and five with bilateral HAs (two girls). Nine were normally hearing, selected to match the age and gender of the hearing-impaired children. Ages ranged from 9-13 yr. All children participated in a weekly Music Club--a 45 min session of musical activities based around vocal play and the integration of aural, visual, and kinesthetic modes of learning. Audiological data were collected from clinical files. IMMA scores were converted to percentile ranks using published norms. Between-group differences were tested using repeated-measures analysis of variance, and between-session differences were tested using a linear mixed model. Linear regression was used to model the effect of hearing loss on the test scores. In the first session, normally hearing children had a mean percentile rank of ∼50 in both the Tonal and Rhythmic subtests of the IMMA. Children using CIs showed trends

  1. The Effect of Drama on the Creative Imagination of Children in Different Age Groups

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞAN, AYSUN; ARI, MEZİYET; GÖNEN, MÜBECCEL

    2013-01-01

    Imagination is necessary for creative ideas to emerge. The creative imagination can be developed by suitable education programs especially by drama programs with suitable activities. This article presents findings on whether the effect of drama on the creative imagination of children in different age groups differentiate or not. The experiment group of this research is comprised of 60 children (30 from the age group of 10, 30 from the age group of 13) from a regular primary school and the con...

  2. Dental Anomalies and Dental Age Assessment in Treated Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Khojastepour, L; Zareifar, S; Ebrahimi, M

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross sectional study was performed to evaluate dental ages and incidence of dental anomalies in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods and materials A total of 25 ALL patient who passed at least 2 years of chemotherapy and 25 healthy sex and age matched children were evaluated. Dental age as well as dental anomalies in shape, size, number, and structure was recorded based on their panoramic radiographies which were taken for dental purposes. Results ...

  3. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms in school-aged Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ponniah, Kathryn; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Chan, Yiong Huak; Fung, Daniel; Woo, Bernardine

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined anxiety and depression experiences of primary (middle) school-aged children from ethnically diverse backgrounds, and most have relied on parents or others as informants. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported anxiety and depression symptoms in Singaporean primary school-aged children. Age, gender, and ethnic differences and interactions were explored as well as similarities and differences between Singaporean children and US norms. A large representative community sample of 1655 8- to 12-year-old Singaporean children (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) as part of a larger epidemiological study of mental health in Singaporean children. Rates of clinically elevated symptoms of anxiety and depression were 9.3% and 16.9% on the MASC and the CDI, respectively. Separation and social anxieties were most common. Evidence of a gender difference in levels of emotional symptoms was most evident in Indian children, with girls reporting more symptoms than boys. The relationship between age and internalizing problems was weak. A substantial minority of primary school-aged Singaporean children reported elevated anxious and depressive symptoms. Better understanding of the factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of these problems can help the development of culture-specific interventions and facilitate the planning of community-tailored services and initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The relation of age to the severity of Type I diabetes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between the age and severity of Type 1 diabetes in children 0 - 5 years and more than 5 years of age admitted to Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia over a 7-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of children less than 13 years of age with Type 1 diabetes admitted to the Pediatric Department, between 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2006. Results: A total of 181 children with Type1 diabetes were admitted to the hospital during this period. Of these, 27.6% were children 5 years or less, while 72.4% were more than 5 years of age. The duration of symptoms was longer in younger children compared to older patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 31.4% of the younger children, and in 15.3% of the children more than 5 years old. Hospital stay was also longer in children less than 5 years of age. Most significant differences were in the younger children′s group and affected the biochemical test results. Conclusion: The present study showed that more younger children present to the hospital late, and in a state of diabetic ketoacidosis compared to older patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the knowledge and skills of the primary health care personnel to be able to diagnose and refer these cases earlier.

  6. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  7. The roles of gender, age and cognitive development in children's pedestrian route selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B

    2012-03-01

    Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2015-12-15

    Shigellosis is recognized as a major global public health problem especially in developing countries particularly in children under-5 years of age. Therefore; the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diarrheic children under-5 years of age from March to May, 2012. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling technique. Shigella was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 241 study participants were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Shigella in this study was 13.3% (32/241). High prevalence of Shigella (22.6%) was revealed from the age group of 12-23 months. No Shigella was isolated from the age group of 0-5 months. Majority of the isolates of Shigella were from bloody and mucoid diarrhea. There was high prevalence of Shigella infection in this study. Children among the age group of 12-23 months were highly affected. Therefore; responsible bodies should work hard on preventive measures to reduce or eradicate the problem occurred due to shigellosis.

  9. Elevated manganese exposure and school-aged children's behavior: a gender-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Filho, José A; de Carvalho-Vivas, Chrissie F; Viana, Gustavo F S; Ferreira, Junia R D; Nunes, Lorena S; Mergler, Donna; Abreu, Neander

    2014-12-01

    High levels of waterborne manganese have been associated with problematic behavior in school-aged children, however to date this has not been reported for children exposed to airborne manganese. The objective of the present study was to examine behavioral traits among children with exposure to airborne manganese from a ferro-manganese alloy plant, located in the metropolitan region of Salvador, Brazil. The study included 34 boys and 36 girls, aged 7-12 years, living in two communities within a 3-km radius from the plant. For each child, hair manganese levels (MnH) and blood lead (PbB) levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Children's Behavior Check List (CBCL) (Portuguese version validated in Brazil) was administered to parents or caregivers, providing scale scores of internalizing (withdrawn, somatic complaints, and anxious/depressed scales), externalizing (disruptive and aggressive) behaviors and a separate scale for attention problems. Median and range for MnH and PbB were 11.48 μg/g (range: 0.52-55.74); 1.1 μg/dL (range: 0.5-6.1), respectively. Spearman correlation analyses showed that several behavioral indices were significantly correlated with MnH levels for girls, but not for boys: total externalizing behavior (rho=0.484 vs rho=0.041) and attention problem scores (rho=0.542 vs rho=0.003) coefficients were significantly at pMnH stratified by sex, adjusting for age and maternal IQ. Total externalizing behaviors and attention problem scores were significantly associated with girls' MnH levels but not with boys'. Adjusting for maternal IQ, the β-coefficients for LogMnH associations with total externalizing and attention problems are 8.85 (95%CI 2.44-15.24) and 4.03 (95%CI 1.50-6.56) for girls. For boys, after adjusting for age, the β-coefficients are 0.08 (95%CI 11.51-11.66) and -0.05 (95%CI 4.34-4.25), respectively. The findings of this study suggest a positive association between elevated Mn exposure and externalizing

  10. A Prospective Study of Age-dependent Changes in Propofol-induced Electroencephalogram Oscillations in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johanna M; Akeju, Oluwaseun; Terzakis, Kristina; Pavone, Kara J; Deng, Hao; Houle, Timothy T; Firth, Paul G; Shank, Erik S; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2017-08-01

    In adults, frontal electroencephalogram patterns observed during propofol-induced unconsciousness consist of slow oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) and coherent alpha oscillations (8 to 13 Hz). Given that the nervous system undergoes significant changes during development, anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations in children may differ from those observed in adults. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in frontal electroencephalogram power spectra and coherence during propofol-induced unconsciousness. We analyzed electroencephalogram data recorded during propofol-induced unconsciousness in patients between 0 and 21 yr of age (n = 97), using multitaper spectral and coherence methods. We characterized power and coherence as a function of age using multiple linear regression analysis and within four age groups: 4 months to 1 yr old (n = 4), greater than 1 to 7 yr old (n = 16), greater than 7 to 14 yr old (n = 30), and greater than 14 to 21 yr old (n = 47). Total electroencephalogram power (0.1 to 40 Hz) peaked at approximately 8 yr old and subsequently declined with increasing age. For patients greater than 1 yr old, the propofol-induced electroencephalogram structure was qualitatively similar regardless of age, featuring slow and coherent alpha oscillations. For patients under 1 yr of age, frontal alpha oscillations were not coherent. Neurodevelopmental processes that occur throughout childhood, including thalamocortical development, may underlie age-dependent changes in electroencephalogram power and coherence during anesthesia. These age-dependent anesthesia-induced electroencephalogram oscillations suggest a more principled approach to monitoring brain states in pediatric patients.

  11. Surgical options for treatment of traumatic subdural hematomas in children younger than 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, José Roberto Tude; Di Rocco, Federico; Bourgeois, Marie; Puget, Stephanie; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Meyer, Philippe G; Zerah, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common finding on cranial CT in pediatric victims of abusive head trauma (AHT). The hematomas are commonly bilateral and sometimes associated with interhemispheric hyperdensity and/or convexity hemorrhages. There is no consensus regarding the best surgical treatment in such cases nor are there standardized surgical protocols. The authors report their experience and discuss the routine surgical options in the management of traumatic SDH at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center. In this paper, the authors describe a cross-sectional study with consecutive revision of data described in the medical records of Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades between January 2008 and January 2013. During this period, all children younger than 2 years of age who were admitted with a traumatic SDH identified on CT scans were included in this study. One hundred eighty-four children who had SDH and were younger than 2 years of age were included. Their median age was 5.8 months (range 5 days-23 months), and 70% of the children were male. On admission CT scans, the SDH was bilateral in 52% of cases and homogeneously hypodense in 77%. Neurosurgical treatment was undertaken in 111 children (60%) with an admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less, bulging fontanels, or other signs suggestive of intracranial hypertension. The first surgical option was craniotomy in 1.8% (2) of these 111 cases, decompressive craniectomy in 1.8% (2), transcutaneous subdural puncture in 15% (17), external subdural drainage in 16% (18), subdural-subgaleal shunt placement in 17% (19), and subdural-peritoneal shunt placement in 48% (53). In 82% of the children initially treated with transcutaneous subdural puncture and in 50% of those treated with external subdural drainage, increase or persistence of the SDH, CSF or skin infection, or shunt system malfunction was observed and further surgical intervention was required. There was a 26% rate of complications in patients

  12. Optics workshops designed to preschool children (age 3 to 6 years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Charvel; Solano, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Since 2005, it was decided in Mexico that children have to start their formal education at the age of 3 years, two years earlier that in many other countries. This change was done to increase activities that enhance the social interaction and stimulus (knowledge and skills) of the students to prepare them to the next academic level. The main drawback of the developed curriculum for the younger children is that it does not include enough scientific activities. The work presented here is the answer of a particular initiative of some teachers to implement scientific workshops in optics. We have found that preschoolers are attracted to scientific activities if the material is presented in the right way. While design any scientific activity it is important to remember that young children want to know about their world without changing it, they have to experience the principle without memorizing, therefore the language used to describe concepts, ideas or terms has to be carefully chosen to avoid confuse preschoolers that can lose track of the activity. The scientific information has to be very clear and limited to a single physical principle and the concepts have to be presented in a way to include games as a learning activity that allow them to experience with the results.

  13. Systematic aging of commercial LiFePO4|Graphite cylindrical cells including a theory explaining rise of capacity during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, Meinert; Münnix, Jens; Schmalstieg, Johannes; Käbitz, Stefan; Knips, Marcus; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2017-03-01

    The contribution introduces a new theory explaining the capacity increase that is often observed in early stages of life of lithium-ion batteries. This reversible and SOC-depending capacity rise is explained by the passive electrode effect in this work. The theory assumes a slow, compensating flow of active lithium between the passive and the active part of the anode, where the passive part represents the geometric excess anode with respect to the cathode. The theory is validated using a systematic test of 50 cylindrical 8 Ah LiFePO4|Graphite battery cells analyzed during cyclic and calendaric aging. The cyclic aging has been performed symmetrically at 40 °C cell temperature, varying current rates and DODs. The calendar aging is executed at three temperatures and up to four SOCs. The aging is dominated by capacity fade while the increase of internal resistance is hardly influenced. Surprisingly shallow cycling between 45 and 55% SOC shows stronger aging than aging at higher DOD and tests at 4 C exhibit less aging than aging at lower C-rates. Aging mechanisms at 60 °C seem to deviate from those at 40 °C or lower. The data of this aging matrix is used for further destructive and non-destructive characterization in future contributions.

  14. Prospective long-term follow up of children with anorectal malformation: growth and development until 5years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hondel, Desiree; Sloots, Cornelius E J; Gischler, Saskia J; Meeussen, Conny J H M; Wijnen, Rene M H; IJsselstijn, Hanneke

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate growth and development in children with anorectal malformations and to analyze effects of type of malformation and comorbidities. Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations were prospectively evaluated at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 years. Biometrics were obtained at all visits. Mental and psychomotor function development was determined. 108 children (59% male) were included. 49% had a high malformation, and 46% had ≥ 1 additional major comorbidity. All growth parameters were below the norm at all ages (pChildren with ≥ 1 additional major anomaly had lower height at all ages; at 5 years, mean (95% CI) height was -1.83 (-2.7 to -1.1) and -0.70 (-1.3 to -0.1) in children with and without comorbidities, respectively (p=0.019). Mental development was normal, irrespective of the type of malformation or comorbidities. Motor development was delayed at all ages. At 5 years, motor development (n=30) was normal in 70%, borderline in 23%, and 7% had definitive motor problems (p=0.043). Non-syndromal children with anorectal malformations are at risk for growth impairment, especially those with additional major comorbidity. Mental development is normal. Motor development is slightly impaired. Supportive care should focus on growth, dietary management, and motor development besides defecation problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children aged 1 year old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children aged 1 year old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children aged 1 year old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  16. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  17. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kierla Ireland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13 with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130 and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83. We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for

  18. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Kierla; Parker, Averil; Foster, Nicholas; Penhune, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers

  19. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormier J

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Justine Cormier, Catherine J ChuMassachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Programs in Child Neurology and Neurophysiology, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups.Keywords: levetiracetam, anticonvulsant drug, partial seizures, pediatric epilepsy

  20. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 children with diarrhea from December 2011 to February 2012. ..... ing with their toys or other objects, and unknowingly ... associated with the development of immunity or loss.

  1. Vaccines for Your Children: Protect Your Child at Every Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Vaccines site Cancel Submit CDC A-Z Index MENU ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Vaccines site Cancel Submit Vaccines for Your Children: Protect ...

  2. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

  3. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in White and African-American Children Aged 6 through 71 Months: The Baltimore Pediatric Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David S.; Repka, Michael X.; Katz, Joanne; Giordano, Lydia; Ibironke, Josephine; Hawse, Patricia; Tielsch, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the age-specific prevalence of strabismus in White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months and of amblyopia in White and African-American children aged 30 through 71 months. Design Cross-sectional population-based study. Participants White and African-American children aged 6 through 71 months in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Among 4,132 children identified, 3,990 eligible children (97%) were enrolled and 2,546 children (62%) were examined. Methods Parents or guardians of eligible participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a detailed eye examination including optotype visual acuity and measurement of