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Sample records for included child sex

  1. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  2. Congenital Cerebral Palsy, Child Sex and Parent Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1......OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular...... disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were...

  3. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A Research Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…

  4. Maternal Childhood Sexual Trauma, Child Directed Aggression, Parenting Behavior, and the Moderating Role of Child Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B J; Mills-Koonce, R; Cox, M

    2017-02-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the associations between maternal report of child-directed aggression and observed parenting behavior across early childhood for women with and without childhood sexual trauma histories. The moderating role of child sex was also examined. The sample (n=204) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape development over time. After controlling for numerous factors including child and primary caregiver covariates, findings reveal that childhood sexual trauma is related to sensitive parenting behavior and child-directed aggression. Findings further revealed that child sex moderates the relation between sexual trauma history and maternal behavior towards children. Implications for interventions for mothers with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed.

  5. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  6. child bride and child sex: combating child marriages in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    There are preventive pre-marriage measures to protect children threatened with forced marriages. An application may be made for an Emergency Protection Order. (EPO). Where the EPO is granted, but the parents are the threat to the child, the court could be asked for a presumption of non-contract for the duration of EPO to ...

  7. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  8. Impact of Parental Sex Education on Child Sexual Abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parental sex education of children is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, especially in our society where talking about issues concerning sex is regarded as a taboo. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the impact of sex education on child sexual abuse among adolescents attending ...

  9. Sex Differences in Parent and Child Pain Ratings during an Experimental Child Pain Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C Moon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of pediatric pain has largely ignored the role of fathers in their children’s pain experiences. The first objective of the present study was to examine the effect of the presence of mothers versus fathers on children’s subjective ratings, facial expressions and physiological responses to acute pain. The second objective was to examine whether child and parent sex influence parents’ proxy ratings of their children’s pain. The final objective was to compare levels of agreement between mothers’ and fathers’ assessments of their children’s pain. Participants included 73 children (37 boys, 36 girls, four to 12 years of age, along with 32 fathers and 41 mothers. Children undertook the cold pressor pain task while observed by one of their parents. During the task, the children’s heart rates and facial expressions were recorded. Children provided self-reports and parents provided proxy reports of child pain intensity using the seven-point Faces Pain Scale. Neither child nor parent sex had a significant impact on children’s subjective reports, facial expressions or heart rates in response to acute pain. Fathers gave their sons higher pain ratings than their daughters, whereas mothers’ ratings of their sons’ and daughters’ pain did not differ. Kappa statistics and t tests revealed that fathers tended to be more accurate judges of their children’s pain than mothers. Overall, this research highlights the importance of examining both parent and child sex differences in pediatric pain research.

  10. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-07-14

    There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses - at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.

  11. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Jérôme; Urbaniok, Frank; Hammermeister, Lea C; Benz, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11) of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2) for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8) for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7) of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9) with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2) with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable. PMID:19602221

  12. The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubacher Arja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses. The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design. Methods The current study population consisted of 231 men, who were subsequently charged with consumption of illegal pornographic material after being detected by a special operation against Internet child pornography, conducted by the Swiss police in 2002. Criminal history, as well as recidivism, was assessed using the criminal records from 2008. Results 4.8% (n = 11 of the study sample had a prior conviction for a sexual and/or violent offense, 1% (n = 2 for a hands-on sex offense, involving child sexual abuse, 3.3% (n = 8 for a hands-off sex offense and one for a nonsexual violent offense. When applying a broad definition of recidivism, which included ongoing investigations, charges and convictions, 3% (n = 7 of the study sample recidivated with a violent and/or sex offense, 3.9% (n = 9 with a hands-off sex offense and 0.8% (n = 2 with a hands-on sex offense. Conclusion Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.

  13. Alcohol and Sex Offending: What Do Child Sex Offenders Think about Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Candice M.; Jones, Lisa M.; Rivers, P. Clayton; Blum, Steven B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines relationships between general and sex-specific alcohol expectancies and drinking before offending with child sex offenders. Results show that sex-specific expectancies were the best predictor of the proportion of times the offenders reported drinking before offending. Highlights the importance of assessing expectancies related to…

  14. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables.

  15. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Child Care Teachers' Perspectives on Including Children with Challenging Behavior in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…

  17. 21st Century Parent-Child Sex Communication in the United States: A Process Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dalmacio; Barroso, Julie

    Parent-child sex communication results in the transmission of family expectations, societal values, and role modeling of sexual health risk-reduction strategies. Parent-child sex communication's potential to curb negative sexual health outcomes has sustained a multidisciplinary effort to better understand the process and its impact on the development of healthy sexual attitudes and behaviors among adolescents. This review advances what is known about the process of sex communication in the United States by reviewing studies published from 2003 to 2015. We used the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and PubMed, and the key terms "parent child" AND "sex education" for the initial query; we included 116 original articles for analysis. Our review underscores long-established factors that prevent parents from effectively broaching and sustaining talks about sex with their children and has also identified emerging concerns unique to today's parenting landscape. Parental factors salient to sex communication are established long before individuals become parents and are acted upon by influences beyond the home. Child-focused communication factors likewise describe a maturing audience that is far from captive. The identification of both enduring and emerging factors that affect how sex communication occurs will inform subsequent work that will result in more positive sexual health outcomes for adolescents.

  18. Impact of parental sex education on child sexual abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... reduce shame, stigma, and self-blame for youth who have experienced sexual abuse6. Educating ... Evaluation of impact of sex education on child sexual abuse among adolescents is under reported in .... behavior, a permissive parent acts “in a non-punitive, acceptant, and affirmative manner towards it8,9.

  19. Sex Education and Student Rights: Including the Missing Actor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2011-01-01

    In the West, sex education has always been a taboo subject that continues to challenge the public schools. Drawing on recent developments in some Canadian provinces, I argue that we cannot begin to address the issue of responsible sex education until we first acknowledge that students themselves have a moral and constitutional right to this kind…

  20. 7. Efektivitas Ecpat Indonesia Dalam Menangani Kejahatan Child Sex Tourism Di Indonesia: Studi Kasus Child Sex Tourism Di Bali Tahun 2012 -2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rizky Irawan, Noor Fathia; Susiatiningsih, Hermini; Paramasatya, Satwika

    2016-01-01

    The crime of child sex tourism in Bali making Indonesia was rated as the country's firstworld sex tourism, it is triggered by a lack of knowledge and lack of strong laws inIndonesia for the offender. Child sex tourism is a threat to children, since the perpetratorsare mostly foreign pedophiles who come on holiday to Indonesia. To overcome thisproblem ECPAT Indonesia undertaking various efforts to assist Indonesia in dealing withchild sex tourism crimes in particular areas of Bali. ECPAT Inter...

  1. Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpreting child sexual abuse: Empathy and offense-supportive cognitions among child sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempel, I.S.; Buck, N.M.L.; van Vugt, E.S.; van Marle, H.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that child sex offenders hold distorted views on social interactions with children. Misinterpreting children’s behavior and intentions could lead to sexually abusive behavior toward children. It is further suggested that the interpretation process is influenced by

  3. The 'stolen generations' of mothers and daughters: child apprehension and enhanced HIV vulnerabilities for sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Duff

    Full Text Available The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.Analyses were drawn from the AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access, 2010-present, a prospective cohort of street and off-street SWs, through outreach and semi-annual visits to the research office. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine correlates of child apprehension.Of a total of 510 SWs, 350 women who had given birth to at least one child were included in the analyses (median age = 37 yrs: IQR: 31-44 yrs. The prevalence of child apprehension among mothers was 38.3%, with 37.4% reporting having been apprehended themselves by child welfare services. In multivariable analysis, servicing clients in outdoor public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments or informal indoor settings (adjusted odds ratio, (aOR = 2.73; 95%CI 1.27-5.90, history of injecting drugs (aOR  = 2.53; 95%CI 1.42-4.49, Aboriginal ancestry (aOR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.01-2.74 were associated with increased odds of child apprehension.Child apprehension rates are high, particularly among the most marginalized sex workers, including sex workers who use drugs and sex workers of Aboriginal ancestry. Structural reforms to child protection are urgently needed, that support family-based care address the historical legacy of colonization affecting Aboriginal peoples.

  4. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Including the Child with Special Needs: Learning from Reggio Emilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Inclusive education aims toward integrating special needs students into all events of the typical classroom. For North American educators, the process of inclusion does not unfold naturally as in the routines of the Reggio Emilia approach. Reggio's powerful image of the child nourishes the authentic practice of maximizing each child's…

  6. Mothers’ Parenting and Child Sex Differences in Behavior Problems among African American Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. This study examines whether associations between observations of mothers’ positive and negative parenting and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consists of 137 African American, low-income families with one sibling approximately two-years-old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately four-years-old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, while lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors. PMID:23937420

  7. Constructing Joseph Fredericks: competing narratives of a child sex murderer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunik, Michael; Weisman, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Joseph Fredericks--one of Canada's most notorious sex offenders--was defined through the institutions that dealt with him from his infancy to his death to the inquest held after his death. In this paper, we locate in historical context and compare the different narratives that were constructed of his life in each of these institutional settings from unwanted child to 'mental defective' to psychiatric offender to criminal recidivist to victim to iconic sexual predator. We show that each of these narratives claimed to capture the essence of Fredericks in terms of what were his core characteristics and what remedies were necessary for the problems he posed only to be superseded by new narratives based on different assumptions. Finally, we show how one of these conceptions of Frederick's essence influenced a shift in Canadian public policy for sex offenders toward the greater emphasis on community protection characteristic of public policy in the United States.

  8. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.

  9. Cognitive distortions in child sex offenders: an overview of theory, research & practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navathe, Shruti; Ward, Tony; Gannon, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    A great deal of clinical and research attention has been paid to understanding and explaining child sex offenders' social cognition. Cognitive distortions have been implicated as a core feature of child sex offenders' offense supportive cognition. The primary aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the phenomenon of cognitive distortions as currently understood with respect to child sex offenders: it reviews the theoretical and research literature and highlights the implications for clinical practice.

  10. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-01-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  11. Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Williamson, Celia; Perdue, Tasha

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry ( N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex-trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

  12. The Social Construction of the Child Sex Offender Explored by Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Helen

    2005-01-01

    The notion of "child sex offender" provokes aversion, but it may be that it is a social construction. We suggest that a Dominant narrative, in which child sex offenders are constructed as irredeemable, persists, despite the emergence of assumption challenging Alternative narratives. A story completion method was used to elicit themes of…

  13. China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese

    2009-04-09

    To elucidate current trends and geographical patterns in the sex ratio at birth and in the population aged under 20 in China and to determine the roles played by sex selective abortion and the one child policy. Analysis of household based cross sectional population survey done in November 2005. All of China's 2861 counties. Population 1% of the total population, selected to be broadly representative of the total. Sex ratio defined as males per 100 females. 4 764 512 people under the age of 20 were included. Overall sex ratios were high across all age groups and residency types, but they were highest in the 1-4 years age group, peaking at 126 (95% confidence interval 125 to 126) in rural areas. Six provinces had sex ratios of over 130 in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio at birth was close to normal for first order births but rose steeply for second order births, especially in rural areas, where it reached 146 (143 to 149). Nine provinces had ratios of over 160 for second order births. The highest sex ratios were seen in provinces that allow rural inhabitants a second child if the first is a girl. Sex selective abortion accounts for almost all the excess males. One particular variant of the one child policy, which allows a second child if the first is a girl, leads to the highest sex ratios. In 2005 males under the age of 20 exceeded females by more than 32 million in China, and more than 1.1 million excess births of boys occurred. China will see very high and steadily worsening sex ratios in the reproductive age group over the next two decades. Enforcing the existing ban on sex selective abortion could lead to normalisation of the ratios.

  14. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  15. Causes of maternal and child mortality among Cambodian sex workers and their children: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Brian; Onda, Saki; Stoklosa, Hanni Marie

    2016-11-21

    To reach global and national goals for maternal and child mortality, countries must identify vulnerable populations, which includes sex workers and their children. The objective of this study was to identify and describe maternal deaths of female sex workers in Cambodia and causes of death among their children. A convenience sample of female sex workers were recruited by local NGOs that provide support to sex workers. We modified the maternal mortality section of the 2010 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey and collected reports of all deaths of female sex workers. For each death we ask the 'sisterhood' methodology questions to identify maternal deaths. For child deaths we asked each mother who reported the death of a child about the cause of death. We also asked all participants about the cause of deaths of children of other female sex workers. We interviewed 271 female sex workers in the four largest Cambodian cities between May and September 2013. Participants reported 32 deaths of other female sex workers that met criteria for maternal death. The most common reported causes of maternal deaths were abortion (n = 13;40%) and HIV (n = 5;16%). Participants report deaths of 8 of their children and 50 deaths of children of other female sex workers. HIV was the reported cause of death for 13 (36%) children under age five. This is the first report of maternal deaths of sex workers in Cambodia or any other country. This modification of the sisterhood methodology has not been validated and did not allow us to calculate maternal mortality rates so the results are not generalizable, however these deaths may represent unrecognized maternal deaths in Cambodia. The results also indicate that children of sex workers in Cambodia are at risk of HIV and may not be accessing treatment. These issues require additional studies but in the meantime we must assure that sex workers in Cambodia and their children have access to quality health services.

  16. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact.

  17. Effectiveness of a national media campaign to promote parent-child communication about sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Evans, W Douglas; Kamyab, Kian

    2013-02-01

    Although there is debate on the effectiveness of youth-focused abstinence education programs, research confirms that parents can influence their children's decisions about sexual behavior. To leverage parent-based approaches to adolescent sexual health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) to encourage parent-child communication about sex. Previous experimental studies have found the campaign to be efficacious in increasing parent-child communication. But to date, the actual reach of the campaign and its real-world effectiveness in promoting parent-child communication has not been established. The present study addresses this gap. The authors surveyed 1,804 parents of 10- to14-year-old children from the nationally representative Knowledge Networks online panel. The survey included questions about parents' awareness of PSUNC ads and parent-child communication behaviors. The authors also analyzed market-level data on campaign gross rating points, a measure of market-level intensity of PSUNC advertising in the United States. Multivariate regressions were used to examine the association between PSUNC exposure and a three-item scale for parent-child communication. Overall, 59.4% of parents in the sample reported awareness of PSUNC. The authors found that higher market-level PSUNC gross rating points were associated with increased parent-child communication. Similar relationships were observed between self-reported awareness of PSUNC and increased frequency of communication and recommendations to wait. These associations were particularly strong among mothers. This study provides the first field-based data on the real-world reach and effectiveness of PSUNC among parents. The data support earlier experimental trials of PSUNC, showing that the campaign is associated with greater parent-child communication, primarily among mothers. Further research may be needed to develop additional messages for fathers.

  18. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality in the Nordic countries, 1981--2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the situation for infant and adult mortality, there are only a few studies on child and adolescent mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by age and cohort in four Nordic countries over a 20-year period.......Unlike the situation for infant and adult mortality, there are only a few studies on child and adolescent mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by age and cohort in four Nordic countries over a 20-year period....

  19. Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: health care needs of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Jordan; Crawford-Jakubiak, James E

    2015-03-01

    Child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are major public health problems in the United States and throughout the world. Despite large numbers of American and foreign youth affected and a plethora of serious physical and mental health problems associated with CSEC, there is limited information available to pediatricians regarding the nature and scope of human trafficking and how pediatricians and other health care providers may help protect children. Knowledge of risk factors, recruitment practices, possible indicators of CSEC, and common medical and behavioral health problems experienced by victims will help pediatricians recognize potential victims and respond appropriately. As health care providers, educators, and leaders in child advocacy, pediatricians play an essential role in addressing the public health issues faced by child victims of CSEC. Their roles can include working to increase recognition of CSEC, providing direct care and anticipatory guidance related to CSEC, engaging in collaborative efforts with medical and nonmedical colleagues to provide for the complex needs of youth, and educating child-serving professionals and the public. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Explaining Sex Differentials in Child Mortality in India: Trends and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntla, Shrikant; Goli, Srinivas; Jain, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    This study has twofold objectives: (1) to investigate the progress in sex differentials in child mortality in India in terms of within and between group changes and (2) to identify the factors explaining the sex differentials in child mortality and quantify their relative contributions. We have used three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data, 1992 to 2006. Life table approach and Pyatt and Oaxaca decomposition models were used as methods of analyses. The results revealed th...

  1. The Effect of a Child's Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Malhotra, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has…

  2. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  3. Sexualized Minds: Child Sex Offenders Offense-supportive Cognitions and Interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Hempel (Inge)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Child sex offenders (CSOs) tend to justify their sexually abusive behaviour. To clarify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the offending process of CSOs, this thesis aimed to extend the knowledge about CSOs’ problematic attitudes and beliefs about sex with

  4. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children

  5. ACHESS--The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; Waters, Elizabeth; McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Davis, Elise

    2012-08-13

    There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS) is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and wellbeing of children with same-sex attracted parents.

  6. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  7. Including an Autistic Middle School Child in General Physical Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…

  8. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  9. PARIWISATA SEKSUAL ANAK : UPAYA PERLINDUNGAN ANAK BERKAITAN DENGAN SEX CHILD TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzah Amila Faisal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the one of the main revenue in Indonesia.  A large of number tourists comes to Indonesia every day with the different country, culture and aim. Base on our international visitor that come from different country, they bring together with their culture when visit Indonesia. Therefore   tourism has the positive and negative impact for our culture. As Indo people we have to keep save our basic identity from the acculturation. But in other hand tourism have some negative effect. Child Sex tourism is the issue of this paper and become one of the phenomena that occur in Indonesian tourism. Even though Indonesia have the national and international regulation that protect child from sex exploitation, but in the real life still find the same issue regarding child sex tourism. The purpose of this research is to find and identify the factor that be the main cause of child sex tourism to be able to conclude the efforts of legal protection rights of children and also against sex child tourism practice and protect the from any kind of sexual crime practice. As we know that the children are our future generation that must be protected all of their rights. Law enforcement officers together with the government need more improvement efforts to against sexual crime practice specialy that happen with the children in Indonesia.

  10. Causes of maternal and child mortality among Cambodian sex workers and their children: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach global and national goals for maternal and child mortality, countries must identify vulnerable populations, which includes sex workers and their children. The objective of this study was to identify and describe maternal deaths of female sex workers in Cambodia and causes of death among their children. Methods A convenience sample of female sex workers were recruited by local NGOs that provide support to sex workers. We modified the maternal mortality section of the 2010 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey and collected reports of all deaths of female sex workers. For each death we ask the ‘sisterhood’ methodology questions to identify maternal deaths. For child deaths we asked each mother who reported the death of a child about the cause of death. We also asked all participants about the cause of deaths of children of other female sex workers. Results We interviewed 271 female sex workers in the four largest Cambodian cities between May and September 2013. Participants reported 32 deaths of other female sex workers that met criteria for maternal death. The most common reported causes of maternal deaths were abortion (n = 13;40% and HIV (n = 5;16%. Participants report deaths of 8 of their children and 50 deaths of children of other female sex workers. HIV was the reported cause of death for 13 (36% children under age five. Conclusion This is the first report of maternal deaths of sex workers in Cambodia or any other country. This modification of the sisterhood methodology has not been validated and did not allow us to calculate maternal mortality rates so the results are not generalizable, however these deaths may represent unrecognized maternal deaths in Cambodia. The results also indicate that children of sex workers in Cambodia are at risk of HIV and may not be accessing treatment. These issues require additional studies but in the meantime we must assure that sex workers in Cambodia and their

  11. Explaining Sex Differentials in Child Mortality in India: Trends and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Kuntla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has twofold objectives: (1 to investigate the progress in sex differentials in child mortality in India in terms of within and between group changes and (2 to identify the factors explaining the sex differentials in child mortality and quantify their relative contributions. We have used three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS data, 1992 to 2006. Life table approach and Pyatt and Oaxaca decomposition models were used as methods of analyses. The results revealed that though sex differential in child mortality is still high in India, it declined during 1992 to 2006 (Gini index from 0.36 to 0.24. This decline was primarily led by a change in within inequality of female child mortality (Gini index from 0.18 to 0.14. Among the selected predictors, breastfeeding (40%, birth order (24%, antenatal care (9%, and mother’s age (7% emerged as critical contributors for the excess female child mortality in India. From the findings of this study, we suggest that any efforts to do away with gender differences in child survival should focus more on within female child disparity across different population subgroups alongside male-female disparity. Implications are advanced.

  12. Family Structure and Child Health: Does the Sex Composition of Parents Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The children of different-sex married couples appear to be advantaged on a range of outcomes relative to the children of different-sex cohabiting couples. Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States, whether and how this general pattern extends to the children of same-sex married and cohabiting couples is unknown. This study examines this question with nationally representative data from the 2004-2013 pooled National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Results reveal that children in cohabiting households have poorer health outcomes than children in married households regardless of the sex composition of their parents. Children in same-sex and different-sex married households are relatively similar to each other on health outcomes, as are children in same-sex and different-sex cohabiting households. These patterns are not fully explained by socioeconomic differences among the four different types of families. This evidence can inform general debates about family structure and child health as well as policy interventions aiming to reduce child health disparities.

  13. Urethrocinusovaginography potentialities in identifying the sex of a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanchenko, O.F.; Urinov, M.Ya.; Nabokov, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Observations over children patients with various versions of intersexuality are presented. It is shown that urethsinusovaginography in combination with endoscopy of genital ducts makes it possible to indentify the structure of the child internal genitalia. The above diagnostic method allows to dermine the diagnosis before the operation and falicitates the selection of optimal tactics of surgical interference

  14. A Joint Parent-Child Sex Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a sex education program that offers classes for four groups: (1) mothers and their 9- to 12-year-old daughters, (2) mothers and their 13- to 17-year-old daughters, (3) fathers and their 9- to 12-year-old sons, and (4) fathers and their 13- to 17-year-old sons. Curricula relevant to the two age groups and classroom activities are…

  15. [An integrated approach including paediatric and forensic medical expertise on suspicion of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, M C M; Karst, W A; van der Stel, H F; Teeuw, A H; van de Putte, E M

    2016-01-01

    A false accusation of child abuse has a major impact on child and family. Conversely, a missed diagnosis of child abuse may have significant and lifelong consequences for the child. For health professionals the assessment of the nature of the injury and differentiating between accidental and inflicted injury, disease manifestation or a physiological phenomenon can be challenging. For adequate determination of the cause of injury, an integrated approach including paediatric knowledge and forensic medical expertise is essential. Therefore, a national expertise centre for child abuse (LECK) was established in the Netherlands in 2014. The first results of this integrated approach are described and illustrated with three case reports. Case A, a 7-month-old boy with an accidental humerus fracture. Case B, an 8-year-old boy with a false positive suspicion of child abuse who was eventually diagnosed with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Case C, boy of 3 months with bruises and a metaphyseal fracture of the femur, both highly suspected of being inflicted injury.

  16. Sex Differences in the Association between Foetal Growth and Child Attention at Age Four: Specific Vulnerability of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C.; Stein, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that impaired foetal growth may provide an early indication of increased risk of child attention problems. However, despite both foetal growth and child attention problems differing by sex, few studies have examined sex differences in this association. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in low- and…

  17. The Parental Bonding Experiences of Sex Offenders: A Comparison between Child Molesters and Rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craissati, Jackie; McClurg, Grace; Browne, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-six men convicted of a sexual offense (57 child molesters and 19 rapists) completed the parental bonding instrument and were interviewed. Affectionless control style of parental bonding was highly prevalent. High overprotection in mothers was linked with parental separation and sex play with male peers in childhood. (Contains references.)…

  18. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797

  19. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls' externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls' internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes.

  20. Effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers with allegations of child sexual abuse: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogu, Ngozi N; Agrawal, Lynet; Chambers, Stephanie; Buagas, Archiel B; Daniele, Rose Mary; Singleton, Joanne K

    2016-01-15

    Child sexual abuse is a multifaceted issue that negatively affects the lives of millions of children worldwide. These children suffer numerous medical and psychological long-term adverse effects both in childhood and adulthood. It is imperative to implement evidence- based interventions for the investigation of this crime. The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach may improve the investigation of child sexual abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children less than 18 years of age, with allegations of child sexual abuse. Children under 18 years, of any race, ethnicity or gender with allegations of child sexual abuse. Other participants included in this review are non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse, and alleged sex offenders. Type of intervention : The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on child sexual abuse investigations. Types of outcomes : Prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and the satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse. Types of studies: This review includes quasi-experimental and descriptive studies. The search strategy aimed to find published and unpublished articles in the English language published from 1985 through April 2015 for inclusion. The databases searched include: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Criminal Justice Periodicals, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Criminal Justice Collections. An additional grey literature search was conducted. Two reviewers evaluated the included studies for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using

  1. Child Pornography Possessors and Child Contact Sex Offenders: A Multilevel Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Rates of Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; Renaud, Cheryl; Camp, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate surrounds the topic of whether possessing or distributing online images of child pornography (CP) represents a new type of crime perpetrated by conventional sex offenders (e.g., child contact [CC] sex offenders), or whether individuals who commit these crimes differ from contact sex offenders in meaningful ways. The current study compares groups of Internet (CP) and CC sexual offenders, with each group's sexual offending history exclusively confined to its offense category. T tests were used to conduct bivariate comparisons of group demographics and criminal histories. Rates of recidivism were examined using survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results showed significant differences on demographic and criminal history variables, with CP offenders demonstrating a lower frequency of prior criminal offending and substance abuse, and higher rates of pre-incarceration employment and level of education. Rates of recidivism were significantly different between the two groups, with CP offenders showing lower rates of re-offense for most measures of recidivism. When controlling for background characteristics and the timing of the event, CC offenders were at much greater risk for having an arrest for a new crime or a non-sexual violent crime than CP offenders. Treatment and policy implications are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. The Father-Child Activation Relationship, Sex Differences, and Attachment Disorganization in Toddlerhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paquette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation relationship theory serves as a complement to Bowlby’s attachment theory to better understand the impact of fathering on child development, focusing primarily on parental stimulation of risk taking and control during children’s exploration. The first aim of this study was to confirm that the activation relationship as assessed with the observational procedure, the Risky Situation, is primarily determined by paternal stimulation of risk taking as assessed by questionnaire. The second aim was to verify the link between the activation relationship and attachment disorganization. The third aim was to verify the existence of a sex difference in father-toddler dyad activation relationships. The Strange Situation procedure and the Risky Situation procedure were conducted with 58 father-toddler dyads. Fathers completed questionnaires on child temperament and parental behavior. Paternal stimulation of risk taking explains activation once child sex and temperament, the attachment relationship, and emotional support are taken into account. Moreover, there is no relation between the father-child activation relationship and attachment disorganization. Finally, data confirm the existence of a sex difference in the activation relationship in toddlers: fathers activate their sons more than their daughters.

  4. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2012-01-01

    mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls......Background Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. Objective To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary...... by age and country, and how much of the sex differences can be explained by external causes of death. Methods Data on all live-born children were received from national birth registries for 1981-2000 (Denmark: n=1¿184¿926; Norway: n=1¿090¿127; and Sweden n=1¿961¿911) and for 1987-2000 (Finland: n=841...

  5. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  6. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  7. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage. PMID:22074416

  8. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  9. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-11-10

    The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Caregivers (N = 59) of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  10. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child's Disorder of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Aimee M; Gardner, Melissa; Vilain, Eric; Sandberg, David E

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn-17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child's age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling.

  11. Determinants of child sex ratio in West and South Districts of Tripura, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, Himadri; Baidya, Subrata

    2017-01-01

    Indian census 2011 has detected declined child sex ratio in the West and South districts of Tripura State. To find out the sex ratio at birth and to identify the factors affecting child sex ratio in west and south districts of Tripura. This community-based cross-sectional study combined with a qualitative component was conducted among 3438 couples chosen by multistage sampling. Quantitative data were collected by a structured interview schedule. Data were analyzed by computer using SPSS version 15.0. Chi-square test was applied for testing the significance of study findings and P Christianity. Expenditure at marriage, lesser contribution to parent's family and fears of adverse situations at in law's house after marriage etc. were causes for lesser daughter preference. Very few pregnant women underwent ultrasonography for sex determination of fetus. Girls had differential or delayed medical care and higher death rate. The desire for children was found to be limited after male births. Low daughter preference was mostly due to economic reasons and prolonged contraception following male birth. Literacy, occupation and residence of study subjects did not modify prevalent higher male preference.

  12. Supporting same-sex mothers in the Nordic child health field: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of the most gender equal countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Lang, Sarah N

    2016-12-01

    To explore the needs of and support given to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents within the Nordic child health field. The number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents is growing around the world. However, they face fear, discrimination and heteronormativity within the child health field. The Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) rank as the most gender equal countries in the world; therefore, they may support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents to a greater extent. Systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. A systematic search was conducted for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents' experiences in the child health field, which consists of prenatal, labour and birth, postnatal and child health clinics, using PubMed, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts and CINAHL, as well as searching the grey literature, from 2000-2015. Ten articles were included. A quality assessment and a meta-synthesis of the articles were performed. Nearly all studies were qualitative, and most articles had at least one area of insufficient reporting. Only two countries, Sweden and Norway, had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents reporting on the child health field. However, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex parents' perspectives were nonexistent in the literature; therefore, the results all relate to same-sex mothers. Five themes were found: Acceptance of Same-sex Mothers, Disclosing Sexual Orientation, Heteronormative Obstacles, Co-mothers are Not Fathers, and Being the Other Parent. Same-sex mothers are generally accepted within the Nordic child health field, but they still face overt and covert heteronormative obstacles, resulting in forms of discrimination and fear. Co-mothers feel invisible and secondary if they are not treated like an equal parent, but feel noticed and important when they are given equal support. Changes at the

  13. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  14. Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Dorothy Neriah; Fry, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To explore aftercare services provided to child victims of sex trafficking globally based on the results of a systematic review of published and unpublished research, organizational policy, and current practice. This systematic review serves as a first step toward developing best practices for aftercare service providers. A systematic search was conducted of four English language databases, two human trafficking resource libraries, and one Internet search engine for journal articles and "grey" literature published between January 2000 and May 2013 on the services offered to child sex trafficking victims globally. The search yielded 15 documents for inclusion in the review. The 15 documents emphasized the need for aftercare service provision to be founded on children's rights and trauma-informed service provision. They recommended delivery practices such as case management and multidisciplinary, multiagency and multinational coordination to ensure the child victims benefit fully from the services. The systematic review revealed that there are three phases to aftercare service provision: rescue, recover, and reintegration. Each of these phases is characterized by different needs and types of services provided. The recovery phase received the most attention compared to recovery and reintegration phases. The literature highlighted that aftercare service provision for child sex trafficking victims is a new area that needs an evidence base from which policy and practice can be formed. There is great need for further research and better documentation of service provision. While this research provides insight into this area, the gap in literature remains wide. The area of aftercare service provision for children who have been trafficked has experienced phenomenal growth within the last 10 years, and with more research and resources being directed to the area, the achievement of international minimum standards of care provision is possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets (TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and antisociality. There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and antisociality. Nevertheless, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered as particularly antisociality and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual offending against prepubescent children. PMID:26147099

  16. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Klein

    Full Text Available Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality, and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  17. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  18. Gender differences? Internet use and parent-child communication about sex toward sexual attitudes among early adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Weng, Chia-Sui; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-06-01

    With the progress of information technology, early adolescents are able to access sex-related information through the Internet easily. This information has been shown to have a significant influence on the sexual health of this population. In addition, parent-child communications about sex affect the sexual health of adolescents. Few empirical studies have focused on early adolescents and gender differences. This study explores gender differences between early adolescents in terms of the use of the Internet to obtain sex-related information, parent-child communication, and sex-related knowledge and attitudes. This cross-sectional and comparative study uses an analysis of covariance and a hierarchical regression for data analysis. The researchers recruited 457 sixth-grade boys (n = 204) and girls (n = 253) in southern Taiwan as participants and used a structured questionnaire to collect data. Participants exhibited significant differences in terms of Internet usage behavior, parent-child communications about sex, and sex-related knowledge and sexual attitudes. The male participants spent more time on "recreation and entertainment" activities on the Internet, whereas their female peers spent significantly more time searching for information. Regarding parent-child communications about sex, girls had better mother-child communications than boys. In addition, no gender-based difference was found for father-child communications about sex. The knowledge of physical changes occurring during puberty and of menstrual healthcare among female participants was superior to their male counterparts. Girls had a more informed sexual attitude, particularly with regard to issues of gender roles, relationships with the opposite gender, and the social aspects of sex. Sex-related knowledge and parent-child communication about sex were the two major predictors of sexual attitudes for boys and girls, respectively. To develop healthy sexual attitudes among early adolescents, nursing

  19. Neuroticism in child sex offenders and its association with sexual dysfunctions, cognitive distortions, and psychological complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Deuring, Gunnar; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    Studies in child sex offenders (CSO) often report deviant personality characteristics. In our study, we investigated neuroticism in CSO and tested the hypothesis that CSO with high neuroticism show more serious abuse behavior and are more likely to exhibit sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, as compared to CSO with low neuroticism. A sample of 40 CSO (both child sexual abusers and child sexual material users) was split into two subsamples based on their neuroticism scores, obtained by the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) questionnaire. Subsequently, we compared their scores in the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSI) questionnaire and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Our results show that CSO exhibited higher levels of neuroticism than controls, but were still in the normal range. In CSO, neuroticism was associated with sexual dysfunction and cognitive distortions, rather than with more severe abuse behavior. Moreover, neuroticism in this group was linked to a broad range of psychological problems and psychopathological symptoms, such as somatization or anxiety. Our findings suggest that neuroticism even below the level of personality disorder is associated with a broader range of psychological problems in CSO, which should be addressed in therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample Errors Call Into Question Conclusions Regarding Same-Sex Married Parents: A Comment on "Family Structure and Child Health: Does the Sex Composition of Parents Matter?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sullins, D

    2017-12-01

    Because of classification errors reported by the National Center for Health Statistics, an estimated 42 % of the same-sex married partners in the sample for this study are misclassified different-sex married partners, thus calling into question findings regarding same-sex married parents. Including biological parentage as a control variable suppresses same-sex/different-sex differences, thus obscuring the data error. Parentage is not appropriate as a control because it correlates nearly perfectly (+.97, gamma) with the same-sex/different-sex distinction and is invariant for the category of joint biological parents.

  1. Child mortality estimation: estimating sex differences in childhood mortality since the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Cheryl Chriss

    2012-01-01

    Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y), child (age 1-4 y), and under-five (under age 5 y) mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that may be eroded if they are disadvantaged in access to resources. Earlier studies found that girls in some regions were not experiencing the survival advantage expected at given levels of mortality. In this paper I generate new estimates of sex differences for the 1970s to the 2000s. Simple fitting methods were applied to male-to-female ratios of infant and under-five mortality rates from vital registration, surveys, and censuses. The sex ratio estimates were used to disaggregate published series of both-sexes mortality rates that were based on a larger number of sources. In many developing countries, I found that sex ratios of mortality have changed in the same direction as historically occurred in developed countries, but typically had a lower degree of female advantage for a given level of mortality. Regional average sex ratios weighted by numbers of births were found to be highly influenced by China and India, the only countries where both infant mortality and overall under-five mortality were estimated to be higher for girls than for boys in the 2000s. For the less developed regions (comprising Africa, Asia excluding Japan, Latin America/Caribbean, and Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand), on average, boys' under-five mortality in the 2000s was about 2% higher than girls'. A number of countries were found to still experience higher mortality for girls than boys in the 1-4-y age group, with concentrations in southern Asia, northern Africa/western Asia, and western Africa. In the more developed regions (comprising Europe, northern America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand), I found that the sex ratio of infant mortality peaked in the

  2. Child mortality estimation: estimating sex differences in childhood mortality since the 1970s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Chriss Sawyer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Producing estimates of infant (under age 1 y, child (age 1-4 y, and under-five (under age 5 y mortality rates disaggregated by sex is complicated by problems with data quality and availability. Interpretation of sex differences requires nuanced analysis: girls have a biological advantage against many causes of death that may be eroded if they are disadvantaged in access to resources. Earlier studies found that girls in some regions were not experiencing the survival advantage expected at given levels of mortality. In this paper I generate new estimates of sex differences for the 1970s to the 2000s. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Simple fitting methods were applied to male-to-female ratios of infant and under-five mortality rates from vital registration, surveys, and censuses. The sex ratio estimates were used to disaggregate published series of both-sexes mortality rates that were based on a larger number of sources. In many developing countries, I found that sex ratios of mortality have changed in the same direction as historically occurred in developed countries, but typically had a lower degree of female advantage for a given level of mortality. Regional average sex ratios weighted by numbers of births were found to be highly influenced by China and India, the only countries where both infant mortality and overall under-five mortality were estimated to be higher for girls than for boys in the 2000s. For the less developed regions (comprising Africa, Asia excluding Japan, Latin America/Caribbean, and Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand, on average, boys' under-five mortality in the 2000s was about 2% higher than girls'. A number of countries were found to still experience higher mortality for girls than boys in the 1-4-y age group, with concentrations in southern Asia, northern Africa/western Asia, and western Africa. In the more developed regions (comprising Europe, northern America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, I found

  3. Clinical characteristics associated with paedophilia and child sex offending - Differentiating sexual preference from offence status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwinn, Hannah; Weiß, Simone; Tenbergen, Gilian; Amelung, Till; Födisch, Carina; Pohl, Alexander; Massau, Claudia; Kneer, Jonas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Kärgel, Christian; Wittfoth, Matthias; Jung, Stefanie; Drumkova, Krassimira; Schiltz, Kolja; Walter, Martin; Beier, Klaus M; Walter, Henrik; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2018-04-03

    Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Child sex tourism - prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Thula; Turner, Daniel; Neutze, Janina; Briken, Peer

    2017-04-20

    To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST) in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4%) reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1%) with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  5. Sex differences in child and adolescent mortality by parental education in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Ossi; Mortensen, Laust; Arntzen, Annett; Cnattingius, Sven; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic position inequalities in infant mortality are well known, but there is less information on how child mortality is socially patterned by sex and age. To assess maternal and paternal socioeconomic inequalities in mortality by sex, whether these differences vary by age and country, and how much of the sex differences can be explained by external causes of death. Data on all live-born children were received from national birth registries for 1981-2000 (Denmark: n=1,184,926; Norway: n=1,090,127; and Sweden n=1,961,911) and for 1987-2000 (Finland: n=841,470). Data on the highest level of education in 2000 were obtained from national education registers, and data on mortality and causes of death were received from the national cause-of-death registers until the end of follow-up (20 years or 2003). Boys had a higher child and adolescent mortality than girls. The children of mothers and fathers who had had the shortest education time had the highest mortality for both sexes and for all ages and countries. The differences between the groups with longer than basic education were smaller, particularly among older children and girls. The gradient in mortality was mostly similar for boys and girls. Among 1-19-year-olds, 32% of boys' deaths and 27% of girls' deaths were due to external causes. Boys' excess mortality was only partly explained by educational inequalities or by deaths from external causes. A more detailed analysis is needed to study whether the share of avoidable deaths is higher among children whose parents have had a shorter education time.

  6. Child sex moderates the association between negative parenting and childhood conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple dimensions of negative parenting behavior are associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), there is relatively little research on whether the association is equally robust in boys and girls. To improve the specificity of current models of negative parenting and offspring CP, we explored the potential moderating role of child sex in a sample of 179 5- to 10-year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were assessed using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales, semistructured interviews) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, race-ethnicity, and ADHD diagnostic status (i.e., ADHD vs. non-ADHD), inconsistent discipline was positively associated with offspring aggression and rule-breaking behavior, whereas harsh punishment was positively associated with aggression, rule-breaking behavior, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Furthermore, child sex significantly moderated the association of inconsistent discipline and aggression and rule-breaking behavior, such that inconsistent discipline was positively associated with CP for boys, but not for girls. Given the centrality of negative parenting to theories of and efficacious interventions for aggression and CP, we discuss these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework and consider their implications for intervention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sex preference and its effect on family size and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1982-12-01

    . A cross-cultural study including data from Bangladesh, India, and Morocco found that families starting out with a string on sons were as likely to have more children as those families who began with a string of daughters. Approaches to changing attitudes about sex preference include attempting to reorganize society and reform the partriarchal family, emphasize economic development, and ignoring the problem. Sex preference is the result of social organization, family structure, economic activities, religious beliefs, and tradition.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  9. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders’ views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people’s sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. Design This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Settings Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Results Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a ‘life skills’ approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a ‘sex-positive’ approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. Conclusions We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice

  10. What is best practice in sex and relationship education? A synthesis of evidence, including stakeholders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Pandora; Denford, Sarah; Shucksmith, Janet; Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Owen, Jenny; Hutten, Rebecca; Mohan, Leanne; Bonell, Chris; Abraham, Charles; Campbell, Rona

    2017-07-02

    Sex and relationship education (SRE) is regarded as vital to improving young people's sexual health, but a third of schools in England lacks good SRE and government guidance is outdated. We aimed to identify what makes SRE programmes effective, acceptable, sustainable and capable of faithful implementation. This is a synthesis of findings from five research packages that we conducted (practitioner interviews, case study investigation, National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, review of reviews and qualitative synthesis). We also gained feedback on our research from stakeholder consultations. Primary research and stakeholder consultations were conducted in the UK. Secondary research draws on studies worldwide. Our findings indicate that school-based SRE and school-linked sexual health services can be effective at improving sexual health. We found professional consensus that good programmes start in primary school. Professionals and young people agreed that good programmes are age-appropriate, interactive and take place in a safe environment. Some young women reported preferring single-sex classes, but young men appeared to want mixed classes. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should take a 'life skills' approach and not focus on abstinence. Young people advocated a 'sex-positive' approach but reported this was lacking. Young people and professionals agreed that SRE should discuss risks, but young people indicated that approaches to risk need revising. Professionals felt teachers should be involved in SRE delivery, but many young people reported disliking having their teachers deliver SRE and we found that key messages could become lost when interpreted by teachers. The divergence between young people and professionals was echoed by stakeholders. We developed criteria for best practice based on the evidence. We identified key features of effective and acceptable SRE. Our best practice criteria can be used to evaluate existing programmes

  11. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Socio-cultural determinants of child mortality in southern Peru: including some methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meer, K; Bergman, R; Kusner, J S

    1993-02-01

    Among Amerindian children living at high altitude in the Andes in southern Peru, high child mortality rates have been reported in the literature, especially in the perinatal and neonatal period. We compared mortality rates in children calculated from retrospective survey data in 86 rural families from 2 Aymara and 3 Quechua peasant communities living at the same level of altitude (3825 m) in southern Peru. Relations between land tenure, socio-cultural factors and child mortality were studied, and methodological considerations in this field of interest are discussed. Checks on consistency of empirical data showed evidence for underreporting of neonatal female deaths with birth order 3 and more. Perinatal (124 vs 34 per 1000 births) and infant mortality (223 vs 111 per 1000 live births) was significantly higher in Aymara compared with Quechua children, but no difference was found after the first year of life. A short pregnancy interval was associated with an elevated perinatal and infant mortality rate, and a similar albeit insignificant association was found with increased maternal age. Amount of land owned and birth order were not related with child mortality. Although levels of maternal education are generally low in both cultures, a consistent decline in infant and child mortality was found with the amount of years mothers had attended school. However, the results suggest a U-shaped relationship between the amount of years of parental education and perinatal mortality in offspring. Late fetal and early neonatal mortality were particularly high in one Aymara community where mothers were found to have more years of education. Infanticide, a known phenomenon in the highlands of the Andes, is discussed in relation with the findings of the study. Although maternal and child health services are utilized by the majority of families in 4 of 5 study communities, 43 of 51 mothers under the age of 45 years reported that they delivered their last baby in the absence of

  13. Sex distribution and psychiatric features of child and adolescent conversion disorder across 2 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Ying-Shue

    2009-09-01

    Earlier research suggested female predominance in adult conversion disorder, and the strong association between conversion disorder and experiences of being abused is well known. However, the data for child and adolescent populations are limited. In Taiwan, the dramatic increase in child abuse may have some impact on the features of child and adolescent conversion disorder. This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and experiences of being abused in Taiwanese children and adolescents diagnosed with conversion disorder in psychiatric consultations across 2 decades. Retrospective and consecutive chart reviews were conducted for child and adolescent patients (conversion disorder in psychiatric consultations at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 1987 to 2006. The first group included patients who were diagnosed between 1987 and 1996 (the first decade), and the second group included patients who were diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 (the second decade). A total of 42 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder were included in this study. Nineteen of the 42 subjects were diagnosed in the first decade (from 1987 to 1996), and 23 in the second decade (from 1997 to 2006). There existed among patients a tendency toward an increasing number of male subjects (p conversion disorder might have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. There is an increasing need for screening and interventions for psychiatric comorbidity and experiences of being abused in children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Because of the small sample size of our study, further studies that include multiple study sites and a larger number of patients are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

  14. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference.

  15. Perinatal outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and child mortality and their association with maternal vitamin D status in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh; Hunter, David J; Mugusi, Ferdinand M; Spiegelman, Donna; Manji, Karim P; Giovannucci, Edward L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Msamanga, Gernard I; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin D is a strong immunomodulator and may protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and child mortality. A total of 884 HIV-infected pregnant women who were participating in a vitamin supplementation trial in Tanzania were monitored to assess pregnancy outcomes and child mortality. The association of these outcomes with maternal vitamin D status at enrollment was examined in an observational analysis. No association was observed between maternal vitamin D status and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm birth. In multivariate models, a low maternal vitamin D level (vitamin D level had a 61% higher risk of dying during follow-up (95% CI, 25%-107%). If found to be efficacious in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could prove to be an inexpensive method of reducing the burden of HIV infection and death among children, particularly in resource-limited settings.

  16. Sex Distribution and Psychiatric Features of Child and Adolescent Conversion Disorder Across 2 Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lin Huang

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: The sex distribution in conversion disorder might have significantly changed over the past 2 decades. There is an increasing need for screening and interventions for psychiatric comorbidity and experiences of being abused in children and adolescents with conversion disorder. Because of the small sample size of our study, further studies that include multiple study sites and a larger number of patients are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn.

  17. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  18. Understanding the motivations and activities of transnational advocacy networks against child sex trafficking in the Mekong Subregion: The value of cosmopolitan globalisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Davy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Child sex trafficking has become one of the most highly publicised social issues of our time and, due to its global nature, transnational anti-trafficking advocacy networks are well placed and central to lead campaigns against it. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on the subjects of child sex trafficking and transnational advocacy networks we lack an understanding of the motivations of these networks that act as buffers against trafficking. Cosmopolitan globalisation theory remains a compelling framework for examining the motivations of transnational anti-child sex trafficking networks in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Applying a cosmopolitan globalisation lens, this article discusses the social justice goals of transnational advocacy networks, their centrality in combating child sex trafficking, and their ability to perform cosmopolitan ‘globalisation from below’ to counter global social problems.

  19. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a

  20. Kontribusi Ecpat (End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking) Terhadap Aktifitas Sex Tourism Di Brazil Tahun (2012-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Harto, Syafri; Rizky, Amanda Riri

    2015-01-01

    The research describes the role of ECPAT through ethics commitees in tackling the problems of Sex Tourism in Brazil. Authors would like to clarify the role taken by ECPAT on issues that concern about the world tourism. The aim is to overcome the problems of exploitation in Brazilian children get in the tourism industry due to several factors cause children into the sex tourism industry.This study uses the theory of the role of international organizations as a tool used to analyze the role and...

  1. Online child pornography offenders are different: a meta-analysis of the characteristics of online and offline sex offenders against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Hanson, R Karl; VanZuylen, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The current meta-analysis compared the characteristics of online child pornography-only offenders, typical (offline) sex offenders against children, and offenders with both child pornography and contact sex offences against children (mixed). Based on 30 unique samples (comparison ns ranging from 98 to 2,702), the meta-analysis found key differences between groups. Offenders who committed contact sex offences were more likely to have access to children than those with only child pornography offences. In contrast, offenders who used the internet to commit sexual offences had greater access to the internet than those with contact sex offenders. Differences between the groups, however, were not limited to differential opportunities. Sex offenders against children and mixed offenders were found to score higher on indicators of antisociality than online child pornography offenders (CPOs). CPOs were also more likely to have psychological barriers to sexual offending than sex offenders against children and mixed offenders (e.g., greater victim empathy). Mixed offenders were found to be the most pedophilic, even more than CPOs. The findings suggest that offenders who restricted their offending behavior to online child pornography offences were different from mixed offenders and offline sex offenders against children, and that mixed offenders were a particularly high risk group.

  2. Do Female Child Molesters Implicitly Associate Children and Sex? A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Theresa A.; Rose, Marianne R.; Williams, Sian E.

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies using the Implicit Association Test have shown successfully that male child molesters hold cognitive associations between children and sexual concepts. The results of such studies appear to indicate that male child molesters hold core cognitive associations that play some part in facilitating and/or maintaining sexual advances…

  3. Identifying best practices for "Safe Harbor" legislation to protect child sex trafficking victims: Decriminalization alone is not sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Abrams, Susan; Azzi, Veronica F; Ryan, Gery; Brook, Robert; Chung, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted "Safe Harbor" laws to redirect child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and child sex trafficking from the criminal justice system and into the child welfare system. No comprehensive studies of Safe Harbor law implementation exist. The nine state Safe Harbor laws enacted by 2012 were analyzed to guide state legislators, health professionals, law enforcement agents, child welfare providers, and other responders to the commercial sexual exploitation of children on the development and implementation of state Safe Harbor laws. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with Safe Harbor experts in these states. Participants conveyed that Safe Harbor legislation signified a critical paradigm shift, treating commercially sexually exploited youth not as criminals but as vulnerable children in need of services. However, Safe Harbor legislation varied widely and significant gaps in laws exist. Such laws alone were considered insufficient without adequate funding for necessary services. As a result, many well-meaning providers were going around the Safe Harbor laws by continuing to incarcerate commercially sexually exploited youth in the juvenile justice system regardless of Safe Harbor laws in place. This was done, to act, in their view, in what was the best interest of the victimized children. With imperfect laws and implementation, these findings suggest an important role for local and state responders to act together to protect victims from unnecessary criminalization and potential further traumatization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Characteristics of child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking victims presenting for medical care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Selina; Gillespie, Scott; McCracken, Courtney; Greenbaum, V Jordan

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to describe distinguishing characteristics of commercial sexual exploitation of children/child sex trafficking victims (CSEC) who present for health care in the pediatric setting. This is a retrospective study of patients aged 12-18 years who presented to any of three pediatric emergency departments or one child protection clinic, and who were identified as suspected victims of CSEC. The sample was compared with gender and age-matched patients with allegations of child sexual abuse/sexual assault (CSA) without evidence of CSEC on variables related to demographics, medical and reproductive history, high-risk behavior, injury history and exam findings. There were 84 study participants, 27 in the CSEC group and 57 in the CSA group. Average age was 15.7 years for CSEC patients and 15.2 years for CSA patients; 100% of the CSEC and 94.6% of the CSA patients were female. The two groups significantly differed in 11 evaluated areas with the CSEC patients more likely to have had experiences with violence, substance use, running away from home, and involvement with child protective services and/or law enforcement. CSEC patients also had a longer history of sexual activity. Adolescent CSEC victims differ from sexual abuse victims without evidence of CSEC in their reproductive history, high risk behavior, involvement with authorities, and history of violence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child sex tourism – prevalence of and risk factors for its use in a German community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Koops

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the prevalence of child sex tourism (CST in a large German community sample, and to compare those who made use of CST with other child sexual abusers regarding established characteristics and risk factors for child sexual abuse. Methods Adult German men were recruited through a German market research panel and questioned by means of an anonymous online survey. Group assignment was accomplished based on information on previous sexual contacts with children and previous use of CST. Characteristics and risk factors were compared between the groups using t- and Chi-square tests. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict CST. Data collection was conducted in 2013, data analysis in January 2015. Results Out of 8718 men, 36 (0.4% reported CST use. The CST group differed from the nonCST group (n = 96; 1.1% with regard to pedophilic sexual and antisocial behaviors as well as own experiences of sexual abuse. Social difficulties, pedophilic sexual interests, and hypersexuality were not distinct features in the CST group. Own experiences of sexual abuse, child prostitution use, and previous conviction for a violent offense predicted CST in a logistic regression model. Conclusions This study is a first step to gain insight into the prevalence and characteristics of men using CST. Findings could help to augment prevention strategies against commercial forms of sexual abuse in developed as well as in developing countries by fostering the knowledge about the characteristics of perpetrators.

  6. Pre- and postnatal tobacco and cannabis exposure and child behavior problems: Bidirectional associations, joint effects, and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Zhao, Junru; Casey, Meghan; Shisler, Shannon; Schuetze, Pamela; Colder, Craig R

    2018-02-05

    We examined prospective associations between pre-and-postnatal tobacco and cannabis exposure on child behavior problems from 2 to 3 years of child age, sex differences in these associations, and bidirectional associations between maternal postnatal substance use and child behavior problems across time. The sample consisted of 247 primarily young, unmarried, low-income, minority mothers and their children (97 prenatally exposed to tobacco and cannabis, 81 exposed to tobacco only, and 69 non-exposed). Mothers were assessed during each trimester of pregnancy, at 2, 9, 16 months, 2 and 3 years of child age. Bivariate results indicated significant differences mainly for girls. Girls in the prenatal tobacco exposure group had higher internalizing problems compared to the other two groups, and higher attention and sleep problems at 3 years compared to the control group. Higher number of cigarettes per day during pregnancy was significantly associated with higher anxiety/depression and higher attention problems at 3 years, and the associations were stronger for girls compared to boys. In model testing controlling for prenatal exposure, results indicated bidirectional associations between behavior problems at 2 years and maternal postnatal cannabis use, such that higher cannabis use across the infant toddler period predicted higher behavior problems at 2 years, which in turn predicted higher cannabis use a year later. Results add to the literature on joint effects of tobacco and cannabis, highlight the importance of considering bidirectional associations between maternal substance use and child behavior problems, and indicate generally stronger prenatal tobacco exposure effects for girls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement Invariance of a Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Questionnaire Across Sex: The Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sophie C; Baillie, Andrew J; Mond, Jonathan; Turner, Cynthia M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2016-11-19

    Measures of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms have received little psychometric evaluation in adolescent samples. This study aimed to examine cross-sex measurement invariance in the Body Image Questionnaire-Child and Adolescent version (BIQ-C) to establish whether observed sex differences in total scores may be meaningful or due to differences in measurement properties. A sample of 3,057 Australian high school students completed the initial screening item of the measure (63.2% male, M age = 14.58 years, SD = 1.37, range = 12-18 years). Of these participants, 1,512 (49.5%) reported appearance concerns and thus completed the full measure. Partial scalar measurement invariance was established among a revised two-factor, 9-item version of the BIQ-C (BIQ-C-9). Females reported significantly greater latent factor variance, higher BIQ-C-9 total and factor scores, and higher scores on most individual BIQ-C-9 items. The measure can be used with caution to compare body dysmorphic disorder symptoms between male and female adolescents, though sex-specific cutoff scores should be used. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Repeated exposure to media messages encouraging parent-child communication about sex: differential trajectories for mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian

    2012-01-01

    To examine changes in parent-child communication related to sexual behavior after exposure to public health messages. Randomized, controlled trial that was part of precampaign message testing. Exposure occurred online or through DVDs mailed to participants and viewed on their personal computers. Data collection occurred via a secure Web site. Participants included parents (n  =  1969) living with a child age 10 to 14 years drawn from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Treatment participants were exposed to video, audio, and print advertisements that promoted the benefits of speaking to their children early and often about delaying initiation of sexual activity; messages also directed parents to an informational Web site. The dependent variable assessed frequency of parent-child communication related to sexual behavior. The primary independent variable was treatment assignment. Longitudinal growth modeling that included five waves of data. The trajectory of growth over time differed between fathers in the treatment group and fathers in the control group (F[1, 2357]  =  4.15; p communication among treatment fathers than among control fathers. Trajectories did not differ between mothers in treatment and control groups. This study demonstrates that father-child and mother-child communication patterns differ over time in response to public health messages. Findings have implication for researchers developing health marketing campaigns.

  9. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive...... levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...

  10. Love, sex and gender: missing in African child and youth studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In African childhood studies, ideas about love, sex and gender are often ignored. Despite love's overarching presence children and young people are often written about as loveless. The study of African childhood sexualities, its gendered effects and the local configurations of power and affects, remains an embryonic field of ...

  11. Love, Sex and Gender: Missing in African Child and Youth Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultural norms lead to men establishing multiple partners to gain respect and power. Under these precarious circumstances young Africans find it hard to talk about sex and sexuality and find difficulty in accessing sexual health services. Access to sexual knowledge is made difficult by poor schooling and lack of focus on the ...

  12. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  13. Estimating the effect of the one-child policy on the sex ratio imbalance in China: identification based on the difference-in-differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen

    2011-11-01

    In China, the male-biased sex ratio has increased significantly. Because the one-child policy applies only to the Han Chinese but not to minorities, this unique affirmative policy allows us to identify the causal effect of the one-child policy on the increase in sex ratios by using a difference-in-differences (DD) estimator. Using the 1990 census, we find that the strict enforcement of the one-child policy led to 4.4 extra boys per 100 girls in the 1980s, accounting for about 94% of the total increase in sex ratios during this period. The robust tests indicate that the estimated policy effect is not likely confounded by other omitted policy shocks or socioeconomic changes. Moreover, we conduct the DD estimation using both the 2000 census and the 2005 mini-census. Our estimates suggest that the one-child policy resulted in about 7.0 extra boys per 100 girls for the 1991-2005 birth cohorts. The effect of the one-child policy accounts for about 57% and 54% of the total increases in sex ratios for the 1991-2000 and 2001-2005 birth cohorts, respectively.

  14. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  15. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  16. Prostitution and exploitation child sexual in Uruguay. Opinion of sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present the information obtained in the project entitled "Investigation on conditions of work and opinion on trafficking in persons between population that he exercises the feminine prostitution in Uruguay " from 188 interviews to sexual workers. First we analyse the concept of child prostitution in the frame of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, to advance then in the result of the fieldwork. 29 % of the sample expresses to know cases of child prostitution in his areas of work, which confirms a worrying presence of this phenomenon, especially in the street prostitution.  As for the opinion, 77% of the interviewed ones have a negative opinion of the phenomenon.

  17. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  18. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...... and precocious puberty in girls. In this article, recent literature on sex steroid levels and their physiological roles during childhood is reviewed. It is concluded that (i) circulating levels of estradiol in prepubertal children are lower than originally claimed; (ii) children are extremely sensitive...... to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...

  19. How safe are trick-or-treaters? An analysis of child sex crime rates on halloween.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Levenson, Jill; Letourneau, Elizabeth; Stern, Paul

    2009-09-01

    States, municipalities, and parole departments have adopted policies banning known sex offenders from Halloween activities, based on the worry that there is unusual risk on these days. The existence of this risk has not been empirically established. National Incident-Base Reporting System crime report data from 1997 through 2005 were used to examine daily population adjusted rates from 67,045 nonfamilial sex crimes against children aged 12 years and less. Halloween rates were compared with expectations based on time, seasonality, and weekday periodicity. Rates did not differ from expectation, no increased rate on or just before Halloween was found, and Halloween incidents did not evidence unusual case characteristics. Findings were invariant across years, both prior to and after these policies became popular. These findings raise questions about the wisdom of diverting law enforcement resources to attend to a problem that does not appear to exist.

  20. Abuse Experiences of Family Members, Child Maltreatment, and the Development of Sex Offending Among Incarcerated Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuish, Evan C; Cale, Jesse; Corrado, Raymond R

    2017-02-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a risk factor for the development of sexual offending in adolescence. Beyond this, comparisons of the risk factor profiles between adolescent sex offenders (ASOs) and adolescent non-sex offenders (ANSOs) have uncovered minimal differences. However, differences between ASOs and ANSOs in terms of patterns in the abuse histories of their family members have rarely been studied. The aim in the current study was to retrospectively examine histories of abuse among family members of ASOs compared with ANSOs to determine whether and how these were related to youth abuse experiences and sexual offending in adolescence. The current study is based on a sample of 482 incarcerated male adolescents (ASOs = 67, ANSOs = 415). Latent class analysis was conducted to determine multidimensional familial abuse profiles, and a series of logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between family abuse profiles, youth abuse experiences, and adolescent sexual offending. Overall, familial abuse profiles were related to subsequent youth abuse experiences and sexual offending, and these abuse profiles differentiated ASOs and ANSOs.

  1. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders; Leffers, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    levels during fetal and prepubertal development may have severe effects in adult life and (v) the daily production rates of sex steroids in children estimated by the Food and Drug Administration in 1999 and still used in risk assessments are highly overestimated and should be revised. Because no lower...... to estradiol and may respond with increased growth and/or breast development even at serum levels below the current detection limits; (iii) no threshold has been established, below which no hormonal effects can be seen in children exposed to exogenous steroids or endocrine disruptors; (iv) changes in hormone...

  2. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  3. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  4. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  5. Construct validity and parent-child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Francisco R; Rosetti, Marcos F; Rodríguez-Delgado, Andrés; Villavicencio, Lino R; Palacio, Juan D; Montiel, Cecilia; Mayer, Pablo A; Félix, Fernando J; Larraguibel, Marcela; Viola, Laura; Ortiz, Silvia; Fernández, Sofía; Jaímes, Aurora; Feria, Miriam; Sosa, Liz; Palacios-Cruz, Lino; Ulloa, Rosa E

    2018-06-01

    Changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) incorporate the inclusion or modification of six disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder and Binge Eating Disorder. The objectives of this study were to assess the construct validity and parent-child agreement of these six disorders in the Spanish language Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL-5) in a clinical population of children and adolescents from Latin America. The Spanish version of the K-SADS-PL was modified to integrate changes made to the DSM-5. Clinicians received training in the K-SADS-PL-5 and 90% agreement between raters was obtained. A total of 80 patients were recruited in four different countries in Latin America. All items from each of the six disorders were included in a factor analysis. Parent-child agreement was calculated for every item of the six disorders, including the effect of sex and age. The factor analysis revealed 6 factors separately grouping the items defining each of the new or modified disorders, with Eigenvalues greater than 2. Very good parent-child agreements (r>0.8) were found for the large majority of the items (93%), even when considering the sex or age of the patient. This independent grouping of disorders suggests that the manner in which the disorders were included into the K-SADS-PL-5 reflects robustly the DSM-5 constructs and displayed a significant inter-informant reliability. These findings support the use of K-SADS-PL-5 as a clinical and research tool to evaluate these new or modified diagnoses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Same-sex and different-sex parent households and child health outcomes : Findings from the national survey of children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Knox, J.R.; van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.K.

    Objective: Using the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child

  7. Impact of parent-child communication interventions on sex behaviors and cognitive outcomes for black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth: a systematic review, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S

    2014-04-01

    We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p parent and child session attendance, promotion of parent/family involvement, sexuality education for parents, developmental and/or cultural tailoring, and opportunities for parents to practice new communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Exploratory Analysis of Child Feeding Beliefs and Behaviors Included in Food Blogs Written by Mothers of Preschool-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg; Birch, Leann

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed child feeding beliefs and behaviors, types of recipes, and their associations in blogs focused on child feeding. The authors selected 13 blogs using purposive snowball sampling, from which 158 blog posts were sampled and coded using directed qualitative content analysis. Child feeding beliefs and behaviors and types of recipes were coded using schemes developed from existing literature. Code frequencies were calculated. Chi-square tests for independence examined associations between child feeding and recipe codes. Bonferroni corrections were applied: P feeding beliefs and behaviors were coded in 78% and 49% of posts, respectively. Beliefs about children's food preferences (48% of posts) and involving children in food preparation (27% of posts) were the most frequent codes. Recipes were included in 66% of posts. Most recipes were for mixed dishes (32% of recipes), followed by sweets and desserts (19% of recipes). Vegetable recipes were more likely in posts that included behavior encouraging balance and variety (χ2 [1, n = 104] = 18.54; P feeding practices. Future research should explore how mothers use blogs to learn about child feeding. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J; Sexton, Holly R

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys) and their parents and teachers. Three dimensions of parenting, warm responsiveness, induction, and corporal punishment, were assessed via maternal report when children were 3 years old. Child effortful control at age 3 was measured using laboratory tasks and a mother-report questionnaire. Mothers and teachers contributed ratings of child externalizing behavior at age 6. Results showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well and that the pattern of associations between constructs differed for boys and girls. For boys, parental warm responsiveness and corporal punishment had significant indirect effects on children's externalizing behavior three years later, mediated by child effortful control. Such relations were not observed for girls. These findings support a sex-differentiated pathway to externalizing behavior across the transition from preschool to school.

  10. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  11. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Theory of mind in men who have sexually offended against children: a U.K. comparison study between child sex offenders and nonoffender controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsegood, Kelly J; Duff, Simon C

    2010-03-01

    Child sex offenders are typically characterized by empathy problems, cognitive distortions, and social skills deficits. It has been proposed that these characteristics may be attributable to an underlying impairment in the ability to attribute mental states to others (i.e., theory of mind).This study compared a group of nonincarcerated child sex offenders (n = 46) with a group of community controls ( n = 46) matched for age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and status as a parent. Both groups completed two measures of theory of mind: one that measures the ability to infer the mental states of adults and another that measures the ability to infer the mental states of children. Offenders were significantly worse than controls at inferring the mental states of adults. In contrast, there were no differences between offenders and controls in their ability to infer the mental states of children. The results are discussed with regard to psychological theory, clinical work, and future research.

  13. A review of sex differences in sexual jealousy, including self-report data, psychophysiological responses, interpersonal violence, and morbid jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2003-01-01

    The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.

  14. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  15. Sex Education: Talking to Toddlers and Preschoolers about Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Sex education often begins with a child's curiosity about his or her body. Here's how to set the stage for sex education — and how to answer your child's questions. ...

  16. Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: results from national family planning and reproductive health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qu Jian; Hesketh, Therese

    2006-08-19

    To examine the impact of the one child family policy in China on fertility, preferred family size, and sex ratio. Secondary analysis of data from the Chinese cross sectional national family planning and reproductive health survey, 2001. Interviews of representative sample of women aged 15-49. Data were obtained from 39,585 women, with a total of 73,202 pregnancies and 56,830 live births. The average fertility rate in women over 35 (n = 17,078) was 1.94 (2.1 in rural areas and 1.4 in urban areas) and for women under 35 (n = 11,543) 1.73 (1.25 and 1.79). Smaller families were associated with younger age, higher level of education, and living in an urban area. The male to female ratio was 1.15 and rose from 1.11 in 1980-9 to 1.23 for 1996-2001. Most women wanted small families: 35% preferred one child and 57% preferred two. Since the one child family policy began, the total birth rate and preferred family size have decreased, and a gross imbalance in the sex ratio has emerged.

  17. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch, Simon Robert; Waters, Elizabeth; McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Davis, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experi...

  18. Are Child Abusers Sexually Attracted to Submissiveness? Assessment of Sex-Related Cognition With the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, Thijs; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Nunes, Kevin L.; Huijding, Jorg; Zwets, Almar J.; Snowden, Robert J.; Muris, Peter; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with social anxiety, low self-esteem, and intimacy deficits. This, in combination with the core belief of a dangerous world, might suggest that child abusers are sexually attracted to submissiveness. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was used to examine this

  19. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and clinical outcomes among young adults reporting high-risk sexual behavior, including men who have sex with men, in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-05-01

    African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.

  20. The Impact of Socio-Demographic Variables, Social Support and Child Sex on Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Piccinini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES, of social support as perceived by mothers, and of their three-month-olds child's sex, on mother-infant and father-infant interaction. A total of 58 mothers and 52 fathers were observed interacting with their infants. Univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed several significant differences, particularly regarding maternal behaviors. Mothers from the highest SES level both talked to and interpreted their infants' behavior more than did lowest SES mothers. Social support perceived as unsatisfactory was associated with a greater amount of touch and stimulation during mother-infant interaction and also more infant vocalization. Mothers and fathers tended to talk more to their same-sex infants, and fathers tended to kiss and caress their sons more than they did their daughters. These results suggest particularities in the mother-infant and fatherinfant interaction when the infant was three months old.

  1. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  2. 20 CFR 229.42 - When a child can no longer be included in computing an annuity rate under the overall minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... annuity rate under the overall minimum. A child's inclusion in the computation of the overall minimum rate..., unless the child is disabled or a full-time student, as shown in part 216 of this chapter; or (d) The... secondary school, and not disabled; or (f) The month before the month the child becomes entitled to an...

  3. Early risk pathways to physical versus relational peer aggression: The interplay of externalizing behavior and corporal punishment varies by child sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulauf, Courtney A; Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2018-03-01

    Children who aggress against their peers may use physical or relational forms, yet little research has looked at early childhood risk factors and characteristics that uniquely predict high levels of relational versus physical aggression in preadolescence. Accordingly, the main aim of our study was to link early corporal punishment and externalizing behavior to children's physical and relational peer aggression during preadolescence and to examine how these pathways differed by sex. Participants were 193, 3-year-old boys (39%) and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (5.5 years) and preadolescence (10.5 years). A series of autoregressive, cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between child externalizing problems and corporal punishment at ages 3 and 5.5 years, and their association with physical and relational aggression at age 10.5. Multiple group analysis was used to determine whether pathways differed by sex. Three developmental pathways were identified: (i) direct associations between stable childhood externalizing problems and later physical aggression; (ii) a direct pathway from early corporal punishment to preadolescent relational and physical peer aggression; and (iii) an indirect pathway from early corporal punishment to later physical aggression via continuing externalizing problems in middle childhood. Child sex moderated the nature of these pathways, as well as the direction of association between risk and outcome variables. These data advance our understanding of the etiology of distinct forms of peer aggression and highlight the potential for more efficacious prevention and intervention efforts in the early childhood years. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. China's one-child policy and "the mystery of missing women": Ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.; Heerink, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that as many as 40 million women are ‘missing’ in China. We exploit a special provision in the Chinese one-child policy (OCP; allowing for preferential treatment of ethnic minority groups) to revisit the mystery of these missing women, and in particular to explore the

  5. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Sex between Young Teens and Older Individuals: A Demographic Portrait. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin; Liechty, Janet; Ikramullah, Erum; Cottingham, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, considerable legal and policy discussion has emerged about sexual activity between young teens and older individuals. This discussion has been prompted by the growing awareness of the personal and societal costs of this activity. Sex between young teens and older individuals is linked with risky sexual behaviors that could…

  7. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella, Ed.; Thomas, Alexander, Ed.

    Selected studies of infant development concern biological rhythms, pattern preferences, sucking, and Negro-white comparisons. Sex, age, state, eye to eye contact, and human symbiosis are considered in mother-infant interaction. Included in pediatrics are child development and the relationship between pediatrics and psychiatry. Environmental…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  9. Sex Crimes, Children, and Pornography: Public Views and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Daniel P.; Mancini, Christina; Gertz, Marc; Bratton, Jake

    2008-01-01

    "Get tough" approaches for responding to sex crimes have proliferated during the past decade. Child pornography in particular has garnered attention in recent years. Policy makers increasingly have emphasized incarceration as a response to such crime, including accessing child pornography. Juxtaposed against such efforts is a dearth of knowledge…

  10. Evaluation of the Families Matter! Program in Tanzania: An Intervention to Promote Effective Parent-Child Communication About Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Benjamin A; Rosecrans, Kathryn D; Shoo, Tiransia A; Al-Alawy, Hamid Z; Berrier, Faith; Bwogi, David F; Miller, Kim S

    2017-04-01

    The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is a curriculum-based intervention designed to give parents and other primary caregivers the knowledge, skills, comfort, and confidence to deliver messages to their 9-12-year-old children about sexuality and practice positive parenting skills. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation study on FMP outcomes was conducted with 658 parent participants and their preadolescent children in two administrative wards in Tanzania in 2014. There was an increase in the proportion of study participants (parent-preadolescent pairs) that had positive attitudes toward sex education. On parent-child communication, the majority of participants (59-87%) reported having had more sexuality discussions. On communication responsiveness about sexual issues, scores improved in the period between surveys, with parents showing more improvements than preadolescents. Our results corroborate evidence from previous FMP evaluations, lending support to the conclusion that FMP is successful in promoting attitude and behavior change among parents and preadolescents in different cultural contexts.

  11. The role of maternal control in the development of sex differences in child self-evaluative factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, E M; Ruble, D N

    1998-04-01

    The major goal of the present research was to examine the role of parental control in the development of sex differences in 2 pivotal self-evaluative factors in children: taking responsibility for failure and possessing strong standards. Parents were expected to use control with and without autonomy granting in specific domains differentially with girls and boys on a daily basis, and this was expected to foster sex differences in children's self-evaluative factors. Ninety-one mothers of elementary school children completed a daily checklist for 10 to 21 days. The checklist assessed mothers' everyday use of control and autonomy granting in 5 specific domains (helping, monitoring, decision making, praising, and disciplining). Children completed self-report measures assessing their tendency to take responsibility for failure and the strength of their standards. As anticipated, mothers were more likely to employ control without autonomy granting with girls than with boys, but were more likely to employ control with autonomy granting with boys than with girls. Significantly, this pattern of gender socialization partially mediated the tendency of girls to take greater responsibility for failure than boys. Although there were no sex differences in the strength of children's standards, the pattern of gender socialization was associated with the strength of children's standards as well.

  12. Commercial 'Sex Work' and substance abuse among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial 'Sex Work' and substance abuse among adolescent street children of Harare Central Business District. ... These child rights violations are seen when children including street children engage in substance abuse and commerical sex work. This paper is part of the author's doctoral degree study that adopted a ...

  13. Pathway from child sexual and physical abuse to risky sex among emerging adults: the role of trauma-related intrusions and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of consanguineous marriages and degrees of inbreeding on fertility, child mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Mohd; Kaisar Ahmad, Mir; Azeem Anwar, Malik; Afzal, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to understand the relationship between consanguineous marriages and reproductive outcomes. A total of 999 families were recruited from five Muslim populations of Jammu region. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and inbreeding status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F). Fertility, mortality, secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and lethal equivalents were measured using standard methods. The significant differences for gross fertility was found to be higher among inbred groups as compared to the unrelated families (P child mortality rates (i.e., U5MR and U18MR) have presented a persuasive increase with an upsurge in the homozygosity level. The mortality rate was found to be maximum among families with the highest value of coefficient of inbreeding (F). The selection intensity (SI) also showed inflations among families with respect to their increasing inbreeding coefficients. The greater values of lethal equivalents per gamete (LEs/gamete) were observed for autosomal inheritance in comparison with sex-linked inheritance. Our conclusive assessment brings out the deleterious consequence of consanguineous marriages on reproductive outcomes.

  15. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  16. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R; McArdle, Wendy L; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Cupples, L Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F; Chanock, Stephen J; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Gejman, Pablo V; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R; Schwarz, Peter E H; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M; Price, Jackie F; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K; Chines, Peter S; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Saaristo, Timo E; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N A; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E; Strawbridge, Rona J; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O; Kleber, Marcus E; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W G; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; McCarthy, Mark I; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; North, Kari E; Heid, Iris M

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  17. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,72...

  18. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Magi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Gronberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Heijer, M. den; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  19. Improving the Quality of Child Care. Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources on Examining Proposals To Improve the Quality of Child Care in the United States, Including the Proposed Creating Improved Delivery of Child Care: Affordable, Reliable, and Educational Act of 1997. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These hearings transcripts present testimony on proposals to improve the quality of child care in the United States. Both oral and submitted written statements are included. Contributors are: Representative Peter Deutsch (Florida); Senator James M. Jeffords, committee chairman; Senator Mike Enzi (Wyoming); Senator Edward M. Kennedy…

  20. Early life status epilepticus and stress have distinct and sex-specific effects on learning, subsequent seizure outcomes, including anticonvulsant response to phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ozlem; Moshé, Solomon L; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2015-02-01

    Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16. Rats were tested on Barnes maze (PN16-19), or lithium-pilocarpine SE (PN19) or flurothyl seizures (PN32). The anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital (20 or 40 mg/kg/rat, intraperitoneally) pretreatment were tested on flurothyl seizures. FluoroJadeB staining assessed hippocampal injury. 3KA-SE or separation on PN4-6 caused more transient learning delays in males and did not alter lithium-pilocarpine SE latencies, but aggravated its outcomes in females. Anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital were preserved and potentiated in specific groups depending on sex, type, and age at EL event. Early life 3KA-SE and maternal separation cause more but transient cognitive deficits in males but aggravate the consequences of subsequent lithium-pilocarpine SE in females. In contrast, on flurothyl seizures, EL events showed either beneficial or no effect, depending on gender, type, and age at EL events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Kujawska-Łuczak, Magdalena; Suliburska, Joanna; Reguła, Julita; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Marcinkowska, Emilia; Kanikowska, Alina; Bielas, Marzena; Grzymisławski, Marian; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The concentrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the sex hormone in obese premenopausal women.

  2. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. Methods: For this systematic anal...

  3. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  4. The overall situation of female street children (11-18 years) engaged in commercial sex work in Dire Dawa - Ethiopia : survey in case study with special reference to child prostitution

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Melkem Lengereh

    2004-01-01

    THE OVERALL SITUATION OF FEMALE STREET CHILDREN (11 18 YEARS) ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL SEX WORK IN DIRE DAWA - ETHIOPIA (SURVEY IN CASE STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHILD PROSTITUTION) By MELKAM LENGEREH MEKURIA 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF OSLO FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION ABSTRACT Prostitution in gene...

  5. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    performance, knowledge, and attitude toward sex were risk factors for students having sex. However, risk factors for multiple sex partners included working in a places of .... education. Premarital sex and commercial sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs. 94% of females and 79% vs 88% of male students respectively.

  6. Sex inequality, high transport costs, and exposed clinic location: reasons for loss to follow-up of clients under prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in eastern Uganda – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubega M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhamadi Lubega,1–4 Ibrahim A Musenze,3 Gukiina Joshua,2 George Dhafa,2 Rose Badaza,3 Christopher J Bakwesegha,3 Steven J Reynolds41District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, Iganga, Uganda; 2Research Institute, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Busoga University, Iganga, Uganda; 4National Institutes of Health/NIAID-ICER American Embassy, Kampala, UgandaBackground: In Iganga, Uganda, 45% of women who tested HIV-positive during antenatal care between 2007 and 2010 were lost to follow-up (LTFU. We explored reasons for LTFU during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT from a client perspective in eastern Uganda, where antiretroviral therapy (ART awareness is presumably high.Methods: Seven key informant interviews and 20 in-depth interviews, including both clients who had been retained under PMTCT care and those LTFU during PMTCT were held. Ten focus-group discussions involving a total of 112 participants were also conducted with caretakers/relatives of the PMTCT clients. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.Results: Our findings indicate that LTFU during PMTCT in eastern Uganda was due to sex inequality, high transport costs to access the services, inadequate posttest counseling, lack of HIV status disclosure, and the isolated/exposed location of the ART clinic, which robs the clients of their privacy.Conclusion: There is a need for approaches that empower women with social capital, knowledge, and skills to influence health-seeking practices. There is also a need to train low-ranking staff and take PMTCT services closer to the clients at the lower-level units to make them affordable and accessible to rural clients. Posttest counseling should be improved to enable PMTCT clients to appreciate the importance of PMTCT services through increasing the number of staff in antenatal care to match the client numbers for improved quality. The counseling should emphasize HIV status disclosure to

  7. Children of Sex Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia; Baird, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Outlines three major differentiating categories of children who were sexually abused by sex rings: level of fear, ability to trust, and disclosure confusion. Addresses denial and resistance regarding child sexual exploitation by a ring among practitioners in the child welfare system. (Author/BB)

  8. Effect of including genetic Progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan F.; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2011-01-01

    of a dairy herd including young stock. A daily increasing trend describing genetic milk yield potential of the sire population was included in the model. The inaccuracy of assuming that replacement heifers have the same (milk yield) potential as the cows present in the herd was hereby dealt with. Improving...... on the superior half of all heifers reduced GM by €8 per cow-year when genetic progress was not included and increased the GM by €16 per cow-year when genetic progress was included in the model. Including genetic progress reduced the losses caused by lower conception and estrus detection rates and had a minimal...

  9. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Background Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. Objective The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Data sources and eligibility Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. Setting High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. Methods The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Main outcome Consistency between studies. Results In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two ‘natural experiments’ found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female–male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. Conclusions These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the

  10. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  11. Risks for upper respiratory infections in infants during their first months in day care included environmental and child-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    AIM: We examined the frequency and potential risk factors for respiratory infections, diarrhoea and absences in infants during their first months in day care. METHODS: This prospective cohort study comprised 269 Danish infants aged 8-14 months and was part of a study that examined how probiotics...... affected absences from day care due to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The risk factors examined were the household, child characteristics and type of day care facility. Parents registered upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), diarrhoea and day...

  12. Characteristics of internet child pornography offenders: a comparison with child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L; Craissati, J; Keen, S

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to compare internet sex offenders with a matched group of child molesters in the Greater London Area. Over an 8-month period 210 subjects were assessed, of whom 90 were internet sex offenders and 120 were child molesters. A wide range of background data was collected, including a number of psychometric measures to determine risk and personality traits. The research identified a number of similarities between internet sex offenders and child molesters on background variables. Specifically, in comparison to the child molesters, the internet offenders reported more psychological difficulties in adulthood and fewer prior sexual convictions. The socio-affective characteristics of internet offenders and child molesters look similar, but the antisocial variables, such as, 'acting out' and breaking social rules underlines their difference. The follow up research was carried out after a short period of time at risk-averaging 18 months-but suggested that internet sex offenders were significantly less likely to fail in the community than child molesters in terms of all types of recidivism.

  13. Effect of including genetic progress in milk yield on evaluating the use of sexed semen and other reproduction strategies in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Sørensen, M K

    2010-01-01

    strategies based on the phenotypical states of the individual animals over a number of years. Typically, the genetic levels of replacement heifers in these models are not different from those of the culling candidates in the herd; continuous genetic improvement in the population is ignored. The importance...... of including genetic progress when evaluating reproductive strategies with simulation models has not been explored. Improved reproductive efficiency does allow a higher selection intensity of which cows to stay in the herd and give birth to own young stock....

  14. Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes. (GR)

  15. A Study of the Effect of a Child's Physical Attractiveness upon Verbal Scoring of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) and upon Personality Attributions

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Paula Theisler

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate possible examiner bias in scoring the Verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) due to the level of facial attractiveness of the child. Sex of the child and sex of the research subject were also included as independent variables. No main effect for attractiveness or sex x attractiveness interactions were found. Thus, little evidence emerged to suggest attractiveness stereotyping effects in an intelligence testing ...

  16. Why parents should not be told the sex of their fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tamara Kayali

    2017-01-01

    A new technique called non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been developed, which can detect a range of genetic and chromosomal diseases, as well as fetal sex earlier, more easily and more reliably. NIPT, therefore, potentially expands the market for sex determination and sex selective abortion. This paper argues that both practices should be prevented by not including fetal sex in prenatal test reports. This is because there is a discrepancy between what parents are concerned with (gender) and what the prenatal test can provide (sex). The paper first presents arguments, which indicate a difference between sex and gender before presenting parental motivations for sex selection and sex determination to show that parents are not concerned with their child's sex chromosomes, or even their genitalia, but the gender role that their child will espouse. That, however, is not something that a prenatal test can provide. We are thus left with a situation in which what parents are told, and what they think they are being told, are two different things. In other words, as the conflation of sex with gender is implicit in the disclosure of fetal sex, it may be more accurate to refer to it as misinformation. This misinformation promotes sexism via gender essentialism, which is neither in the interests of the future child nor society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  19. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology: Toxicokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions. Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise FDA rules excluded women of child-bearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more adverse drug reactions than men, The Classic Sex Hormone Paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and toxicokinetics including absorption, distribution, metabolisms and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging. PMID:27895264

  20. 76 FR 45208 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... technical corrections, and substantive changes including in the definition of ``child'' for purposes of the... benefits, where possible, to same-sex domestic partners. The changes to subpart A also would remove... identified statutorily based benefits that those agencies believed could be extended to qualified same-sex...

  1. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-09-01

    Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. For this systematic analysis, we estimated country-specific mortality sex ratios for infants, children aged 1-4 years, and children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) for all countries from 1990 (or the earliest year of data collection) to 2012 using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model, accounting for various data quality issues and assessing the uncertainty in sex ratios. We simultaneously estimated the global relation between sex ratios and mortality levels and constructed estimates of expected and excess female mortality rates to identify countries with outlying sex ratios. Global sex ratios in 2012 were 1·13 (90% uncertainty interval 1·12-1·15) for infants, 0·95 (0·93-0·97) for children aged 1-5 years, and 1·08 (1·07-1·09) for under 5s, an increase since 1990 of 0·01 (-0·01 to 0·02) for infants, 0·04 (0·02 to 0·06) for children aged 1-4 years, and 0·02 (0·01 to 0·04) for under 5s. Levels and trends varied across regions and countries. Sex ratios were lowest in southern Asia for 1990 and 2012 for all age groups. Highest sex ratios were seen in developed regions and the Caucasus and central Asia region. Decreasing mortality was associated with increasing sex ratios, except at very low infant mortality, where sex ratios decreased with total mortality. For 2012, we identified 15 countries with outlying under-5 sex ratios, of which ten countries had female mortality higher than expected (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan). Although excess female

  2. Combating human trafficking in the sex trade: can sex workers do it better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Smarajit; Dey, Bharati; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Steen, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The dominant anti-trafficking paradigm conflates trafficking and sex work, denying evidence that most sex workers choose their profession and justifying police actions that disrupt communities, drive sex workers underground and increase vulnerability. We review an alternative response to combating human trafficking and child prostitution in the sex trade, the self-regulatory board (SRB) developed by Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC, Sonagachi). DMSC-led interventions to remove minors and unwilling women from sex work account for over 80% of successful 'rescues' reported in West Bengal. From 2009 through 2011, 2195 women and girls were screened by SRBs: 170 (7.7%) minors and 45 (2.1%) unwilling adult women were assisted and followed up. The remaining 90.2% received counselling, health care and the option to join savings schemes and other community programmes designed to reduce sex worker vulnerability. Between 1992 and 2011 the proportion of minors in sex work in Sonagachi declined from 25 to 2%. With its universal surveillance of sex workers entering the profession, attention to rapid and confidential intervention and case management, and primary prevention of trafficking-including microcredit and educational programmes for children of sex workers-the SRB approach stands as a new model of success in anti-trafficking work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  5. The Relationship between Parental Opinion of School-Based Sex Education, Parent-Child Communication about Sexuality, and Parenting Styles in a Diverse Urban Community College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janet

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-one parents attending an urban, community college were surveyed about what topics schools should teach their children about sexuality education, and how they communicate with their child about sexuality topics. The quantitative data was collected using a "School Sexuality Education Questionnaire" (SSEQ), and the "Parenting…

  6. Religious and Political Conservatism and Beliefs About Same-Sex Parenting in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AimDuring the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs.MethodA total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years (M = 34; SD = 11, responded to one of three questionnaires that included a case vignette depicting a different-sex, a female same-sex, or a male same-sex couple wishing to adopt a child. Participants were then asked to evaluate whether the couple would be suitable to adopt a child, and whether they anticipated any social and emotional problems with the child.ResultsParticipants consistently anticipated more children’s social and emotional problems if they were adopted by a same-sex couple. Men evaluated same-sex couples less favourably than women, and even less so the male same-sex couple.ConclusionIt was found that both religious conservatism and right-wing political leaning were associated with more sexual prejudicial beliefs regarding same-sex couples.

  7. Physicians disciplined for sex-related offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, C E; Wolfe, S M

    1998-06-17

    Physicians who abuse their patients sexually cause immense harm, and, therefore, the discipline of physicians who commit any sex-related offenses is an important public health issue that should be examined. To determine the frequency and severity of discipline against physicians who commit sex-related offenses and to describe the characteristics of these physicians. Analysis of sex-related orders from a national database of disciplinary orders taken by state medical boards and federal agencies. A total of 761 physicians disciplined for sex-related offenses from 1981 through 1996. Rate and severity of discipline over time for sex-related offenses and specialty, age, and board certification status of disciplined physicians. The number of physicians disciplined per year for sex-related offenses increased from 42 in 1989 to 147 in 1996, and the proportion of all disciplinary orders that were sex related increased from 2.1% in 1989 to 4.4% in 1996 (Psex-related offenses was significantly more severe (Psex-related offenses, with 71.9% of sex-related orders involving revocation, surrender, or suspension of medical license. Of 761 physicians disciplined, the offenses committed by 567 (75%) involved patients, including sexual intercourse, rape, sexual molestation, and sexual favors for drugs. As of March 1997, 216 physicians (39.9%) disciplined for sex-related offenses between 1981 and 1994 were licensed to practice. Compared with all physicians, physicians disciplined for sex-related offenses were more likely to practice in the specialties of psychiatry, child psychiatry, obstetrics and gynecology, and family and general practice (all Psex-related offenses is increasing over time and is relatively severe, although few physicians are disciplined for sexual offenses each year. In addition, a substantial proportion of physicians disciplined for these offenses are allowed to either continue to practice or return to practice.

  8. Preferences for the sex-composition of children in Europe: a multilevel examination of its effect on progression to a third child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Begall, K.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative research on the preferred sex of children in Western societies has generally focused on women only and ignored the role of gender equity and the need for children's economic support in old age. A multilevel analysis extends existing research by examining, for both men and women and

  9. Post-Emancipation Slave Commerce: Increasing Child Slave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Victims of all slave trading systems in Africa always included significant numbers of children, but, until the nineteenth century, these formed smaller proportions of total volumes of trade slaves. Following abolition, however, the age/sex ratio of trade slaves began to shift as slave trading in children increased. Child-slave ...

  10. Child's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Kristina; Woolsey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…

  11. Associations among parent acculturation, child BMI, and child fruit and vegetable consumption in a Hispanic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Monica I; Madanat, Hala; Crespo, Noe C; Lemus, Hector; Elder, John

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of parent acculturation with child fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI). Participants included 250 Mexican-American and other Hispanic families living within San Diego County. Height and weight measurements were collected to calculate the age- and sex-specific BMI for each child and parent, and parents completed self-administered surveys. Child BMI z-score was significantly related to parent BMI after controlling for parent acculturation and parent birth place (β = 0.05, p vegetable consumption was not significantly related to parent acculturation. Findings suggest that parental weight status may be more predictive of child obesity than acculturation, and highlight the need to examine culturally relevant behavioral and psychosocial factors related to childhood obesity and dietary behaviors.

  12. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  13. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  14. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may...... be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27,821 children born to mothers...... participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex...

  15. Supporting adolescent girls to stay in school, reduce child marriage and reduce entry into sex work as HIV risk prevention in north Karnataka, India: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Tara S; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Isac, Shajy; Davey, Calum; Javalkar, Prakash; Nair, Sapna; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Sudhakar, Gautam; Collumbien, Martine; Blanchard, James F; Watts, Charlotte; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori

    2015-03-25

    Low caste adolescent girls living in rural northern Karnataka are at increased risk of school drop-out, child marriage, and entry into sex-work, which enhances their vulnerability to HIV, early pregnancy and adverse maternal and child health outcomes. This protocol describes the evaluation of Samata, a comprehensive, multi-level intervention designed to address these structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability. The Samata study is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will be conducted in eighty village clusters (40 intervention; 40 control) in Bijapur and Bagalkot districts in northern Karnataka. The intervention seeks to reach low caste girls and their families; adolescent boys; village communities; high school teachers and school governing committees; and local government officials. All low caste (scheduled caste/tribe) adolescent girls attending 7th standard (final year of primary school) will be recruited into the study in two consecutive waves, one year apart. Girls (n = 2100), their families (n = 2100) and school teachers (n = 650) will be interviewed at baseline and at endline. The study is designed to assess the impact of the intervention on four primary outcomes: the proportion of low caste girls who (i) enter into secondary school; (ii) complete secondary school; (iii) marry before age 15; and (iv) engage in sex before age 15. Observers assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome will be an adjusted, cluster-level intention to treat analysis, comparing outcomes in intervention and control villages at follow-up. We will also conduct survival analyses for the following secondary outcomes: marriage, sexual debut, pregnancy and entry into sex work. Complementary monitoring and evaluation, qualitative and economic research will be used to explore and describe intervention implementation, the pathways through which change occurs, and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This is an innovative

  16. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  17. "When You're Sitting on the Fence, Hope's the Hardest Part": Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-to-adopt parents as impacting their personal well-being and their attachment to their children. Lack of support services and disorganization within social service agencies, as well as strained relationships with birth parents, were also identified as stressors for foster-to-adopt parents. Importantly, lesbian and gay participants faced additional concerns regarding the security of their placement, due to the possibility for discrimination within the various systems involved with the foster-to-adopt process. Participants as a whole also identified positive aspects of their experiences within various systems; for example, they appreciated child care subsidies, state-provided health insurance, and supportive social workers. Our findings provide insights into foster-to-adopt parents' experiences during the initial post-placement period, and have implications for adoption services aimed to improve placement stability and enhance family functioning in foster-to-adopt families.

  18. Attitudes about Sex Selection and Sex Preference in Iranian Couples Referred for Sex Selection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shirzad, Mahdi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Gender preference is prevalent in some communities and using medical techniques to choose the baby's sex may cause the gender discrimination and gender imbalance in communities. Therefore, evaluating the gender preferences and attitudes towards using sex selection technologies seems to be necessary. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Avicenna Fertility Center. Participants were 100 women with one child who were referred for sex selection. Data were collected through self-developed questionnaires. The questions were designed by the researchers at the experts’ panel. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, the viewpoints of professors specialized in these issues were obtained. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software (Version 11.5), and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Tendency toward the male was more than female sex (55.5% male, 15.5% female and 28.5% no tendency). Majority of participants agreed with sex selection with medical reason and sex selection in order to balance the family. Women's level of education had positive effect on agreements to fetal sex selection with medical and non-medical reasons (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although gender preferences were toward the male sex but this preference was not very strong. Most participants agreed with non-medical sex selection for balancing the sex composition of their children. It doesn't seem that non-medical sex selection for family balancing causes severe sex imbalance in Iran. PMID:25717434

  19. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, K; Ploubidis, GB; Menon, P; Ruel, M; Kadiyala, S; Uauy, R; Ferguson, E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women...

  20. Policy, Protectionism and the Competent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyness, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way recent childhood policy initiatives in Britain have generated contradictory models of child competence and adults' role, and attempts to locate policy within broader understandings of social change. Draws from case material on two dominant child care issues: child sex abuse and school deviance. (BGC)

  1. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  2. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  3. The effect of gender and other factors on early child mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H; Minja, K; Wang, F

    1994-01-01

    Proportional hazards models for first order and higher order births were used to examine the effects of sex and other maternal demographic covariates on infant and child mortality in China. Retrospective data were obtained for a 10% sample from the 1988 2% sample of fertility and contraception conducted by the State Family Planning Commission. The sample included 89,086 children born during 1965-79 and 1980-88 to women aged 15-57 years in 1988. The data set excluded mortality during the famine in the later 1950s and early 1960s. The results confirmed a significant effect of gender on early child mortality. Female survival is the greatest if the female is an only child. The mortality hazard is higher for a female child with an older female sibling. Sex discrimination was most obvious among second and higher order births. The probability of a second birth and a short birth interval was higher for mothers with a female first child. Socioeconomic factors had strong effects on first order births. Mortality was lower among children born in urban areas to mothers with formal education and employment in nonfarming sectors. Child mortality was lower among the majority Han nationality. Survival of second and higher order births was affected by prior infant or child mortality and preceding birth interval. A comparison of the two time periods of births showed that child mortality among first order births was lower during the 1980s. There was higher mortality among second and higher order births. Female child survival was similar or above male child survival in 1965-79, but female child survival was lower than male survival in 1980-88. The mortality hazard by sex for second and higher order births with controls was significantly different at the 5% level, but not apparent for first order births.

  4. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  5. Grappling with smoke: investigating and managing organised child sexual abuse: a good practice guide

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    There has been, and remains, a great deal of concern among policy makers, practitioners, the media and members of the public concerning organised child sexual abuse (OCSA). \\ud OCSA includes the following types of case:\\ud • Child sexual abuse (CSA) by multiple offenders (a small proportion of these cases may also involve allegations of ritual or satanic CSA) \\ud • Sex offenders who abuse a series of children\\ud • Sex offenders who abuse children with whom they work\\ud The study described in ...

  6. An exploratory study of Internet-initiated sexual offenses and the chat room sex offender: has the Internet enabled a new typology of sex offender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Peter; Simon, Walter T; Simonsen, Stacy

    2011-03-01

    This exploratory study examined 51 participants convicted of an Internet-initiated sex offense in which they attempted to entice an adolescent into a sexual relationship using an Internet chat room. All participants were convicted of a sex offense and subject to an evaluation as a part of sentencing requirements in Colorado. Clinical and behavioral data were obtained from each subject's offense-specific evaluation and chat room transcripts. The results of the study found that 90% of the participants were apprehended as a result of an Internet sex sting. The authors conclude that Internet chat room sex offenders constitute a separate group characterized by less severe criminogenic factors than other sex offenders (rapists, child molesters). It can be hypothesized that chat room sex offenders avoid relationships and spend a significant amount of time in online chat rooms as a primary social and sexual outlet, and engage in other sexually compulsive behaviors. Within this offender group, it was discovered that two subgroups exist: a contact-driven group motivated to engage in offline sexual behavior with an adolescent and a fantasy-driven group motivated to engage an adolescent in online cybersex without an express intent to meet offline. The chat room sex offender presents a significant clinical issue to treatment providers as a live victim does not exist. Thus, it is unclear if Internet sex stings prevent incidents of child sexual exploitation and may result in convictions of individuals who may never have abused a child. The data suggest a tentative sex offender typology, including subtypes, which need to be replicated in future studies.

  7. Sex Differences in Parental Teaching Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Parents' use of questions, statements, and levels of demands placed on preschool children to use representational thought, were examined in relation to sex composition of the parent-child dyad, task, family constellation, and social class. (PCB)

  8. Preventing sexual violence: can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombino, Nicole; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Levenson, Jill; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recently, legislative initiatives to prevent sex crime recidivism include the passage of child safety zones (also called loitering zones) that prohibit sex offenders from lingering near places where children congregate. The ability of policies such as these or residence restrictions to curb sexual recidivism depends on the empirical reality of sex offender perpetration patterns. As such, the current study sought to examine locations where sex offenders first come into contact with their victims and whether sex crime locations differ among those who perpetrate offenses against children as compared to those who perpetrate offenses against adults. Further, this study examined actuarial risk scores and recidivism rates among offenders who met victims in child-dense public locations to determine if these offenders are more at risk of re-offense. Descriptive analyses, based on archival sex offender file review (N=1557), revealed that offenders primarily cultivated their offenses in private residential locations (67.0%); relatively few offenders (4.4%) met their victims in child-dense public locations. Further, offenders who perpetrated crimes against children were more likely to meet victims within a residence, while those who perpetrate crimes against adults were more likely to encounter victims in a more public type of location (e.g., bar, workplace). Though only 3.7% of all offenders in this sample sexually recidivated, those who recidivated were more likely to have met their victim in a child-dense public location than those who did not recidivate. Current sex crime policies that focus only on where offenders live may fail to focus on where offenders go and, further, may misdirect efforts away from the place where sex crimes most often occur, namely, in the home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Child abuse: Effects on the child and family in selected villages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... [5] Child work is seen as activities which do not harm the child, whereas child labour are activities that can harm the child.[5]. They further asserted that, the types of child abuse includes-some form of child's slavery, trafficking of children, prostitution, debt bondage, teenage marriage, starvation, deprivation of.

  10. Correlates of Early versus Later Initiation into Sex Work in Two Mexico–U.S. Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Martínez, Gustavo A.; Amaro, Hortensia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine correlates of early initiation into sex work in two Mexico–U.S. border cities. Methods Female sex workers (FSWs) ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent baseline interviews. Correlates of initiation into sex work before age 18 were identified with logistic regression. Results Of 920 FSWs interviewed in Tijuana (N=474) and Ciudad Juarez (N=446), 9.8% (N=90) were early initiators (<18 years) into sex work. Median age of entry into sex work was 26 years (range: 6–58). After adjusting for age, compared to older initiators, early initiators were more likely to use inhalants (21.1% vs 9.6%, p=0.002), initiate sex work to pay for alcohol (36.7% vs 18.4%, p<.001), report abuse as a child (42.2% vs 18.7%, p<.0001), and they were less likely to be migrants (47.8% vs 62.3%, p=0.02). Factors independently associated with early initiation included inhalant use (adjOR=2.39), initiating sex work to pay for alcohol (adjOR=1.88) and history of child abuse (adjOR=2.92). Factors associated with later initiation included less education (adjOR=0.43 per 5-year increase), migration (adjOR=0.47), and initiating sex work for better pay (adjOR=0.44) or to support children (adjOR=0.03). Conclusions Different pathways for entering sex work are apparent among younger versus older females in the Mexico–U.S. border region. Among girls, interventions are needed to prevent inhalant use and child abuse and to offer coping skills; among older initiators, income-generating strategies, childcare, and services for migrants may help to delay or prevent entry into sex work. PMID:20123256

  11. Ecological and social patterns of child dietary diversity in India: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, Jewel; Perkins, Jessica M; Lee, Hwa-Young; Mejia-Guevara, Ivan; Nam, You-Seon; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V

    2018-02-13

    Dietary diversity (DD) measures dietary variation in children. Factors at the child, community, and state levels may be associated with poor child nutritional outcomes. However, few studies have examined the role of macro-level factors on child DD. This study seeks to 1) describe the distribution of child DD in India, 2) examine the variation in DD attributable to the child, community and state levels, and 3) explore the relationship between community socioeconomic context and child DD. Using nationally representative data from children aged 6-23 months in India, multilevel models were used to determine the associations between child DD and individual- and community-level factors. There was substantial variation in child DD score across demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. In an age and sex-only adjusted regression model, the largest portion of variation in child DD was attributable to the child level (75%) while the portions of variance attributable to the community-level and state level were similar to each other (15% and 11%). Including individual-level socioeconomic factors explained 35.6 percent of the total variation attributed to child DD at the community level and 24.8 percent of the total variation attributed to child DD at the state level. Finally, measures of community disadvantage were associated with child DD in when added to the fully adjusted model. This study suggests that both individual and contextual factors are associated with child DD. These results suggest that a population-based approach combined with a targeted intervention for at-risk children may be needed to improve child DD in India. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  13. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  14. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  15. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  16. Gender socialization and sex affilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.

  17. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  18. Why children die: avoidable factors associated with child deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G A; Ward-Platt, M; Harnden, A; Kelly, D

    2011-10-01

    To describe the avoidable factors associated with child deaths identified by a confidential enquiry. In the Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries confidential enquiry, a sample (13%) of cases was subjected to case note review by multidisciplinary panels attempting to identify avoidable factors associated with the deaths. Cases were selected blindly but in equal numbers from predetermined age bands and participating regions. The anonymised records were reviewed in regions remote to where the child lived and died. Panel composition, conduct and reporting were standardised. 119 of 126 cases reviewed by enquiry panels had sufficient information to determine avoidable factors. These cases were comparable with the whole dataset in terms of sex and causes of death. 31 (26%) of 119 had avoidable factors that were predominantly related to individuals or agencies with a direct responsibility to the child. 51 (43%) of 119 were defined as potentially avoidable. In all, 130 factors were considered in relation to these 82 cases, and 64% of the factors were healthcare related. Avoidable factors were more likely where life-limiting illness was not present. Recurring avoidable factors included failure to recognise serious illness at the point of presentation and death occurring in children who had been lost to follow-up. Child Death Overview Panels now have the responsibility to review child deaths using similar methods but relying upon data forms rather than the case record. Analysis of contributory factors on a national scale has the potential to improve understanding of why children die and indicate strategies to reduce child mortality.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the best way to save lives and reduce injuries. Child passenger restraint laws result in more children being ... booster seat, and seat belt use and reducing child motor vehicle injuries and deaths. Options for effective strategies include: Child ...

  20. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  1. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  2. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  3. How to sell safer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  4. Sex offenders and sex crime recidivism: investigating the role of sentence length and time served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Kristen; Desmond, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between criminal justice sanctions and sex crime recidivism remains largely unexplored. Therefore, using a sample of 8,461 previously incarcerated male sex offenders from 13 states in the United States, we focus on the sentence meted out for the sex crime conviction and the amount of time sex offenders served as a result of their conviction. Sex offenders were grouped into four categories: rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined. Recidivism was operationalized as rearrest and reconviction. Findings suggest how recidivism is operationalized matters. When recidivism is measured as rearrest for another sex offense, sentence length and time served are unrelated to sex crime recidivism. On the other hand, when recidivism is operationalized as reconviction for another sex offense, sentence length is positively related to recidivism for rapists, sexual assaulters, child molesters, and all sex offenders combined, while time served is negatively related to recidivism for child molesters and all sex offenders combined. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Moira

    1977-01-01

    Although unable to find any evidence to indicate that secondary schools in Canada have or have not made any progress in reducing sex stereotyping or sex discrimination, the author states that the Canadian educational system is aware of its responsibility to uphold non-sexist standards for its young students. Discusses some research done on undoing…

  6. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times of illness (of a parent or a child) or stress (a move, for instance, or the birth of a new sibling). These kinds of behavior might include not doing chores, ... well-being of the child, the family members, and others. They may interfere ...

  7. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) in which Australian child care facilities are surveyed to include those providing full-day care and therefore excludes kindergartens, play centers, nursery schools, and child minding centers that provide care for only part of the day. The document presents a breakdown of…

  8. Fathers with Child Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    Since recent laws prescribe equal rights for both parents, more fathers will be receiving custody of their children. Counseling psychology must prepare these fathers for their new parental roles. Ten suggestions are listed, including professional training in child custody and the encouragement of father-mother and father-child relationships. (LPG)

  9. Building the Biocentric Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  10. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  11. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  12. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  13. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n-3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20-35 and 49-69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n-3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n-3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (-5% and -23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15-20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n-3 PUFA in human nutrition.

  14. The three dimensions of online child pornography offending

    OpenAIRE

    Merdian, Hannah Lena; Curtis, Cate; Thakker, Jo; Wilson, Nick; Boer, Douglas Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The internet has opened up opportunities for non-contact sex offending, such as the viewing of child pornography. This paper proposes a model for the classification of child pornography offenders as an aid for their assessment and treatment, deducted from empirical studies and existing typologies for child pornography offenders. Different subgroups of child pornography offenders may be described according to three dimensions: (1) type of offending, (2) the motivation behind child pornograp...

  15. Attitudes about Sex Selection and Sex Preference in Iranian Couples Referred for Sex Selection Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shirzad, Mahdi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ranjbar, Fahimeh; Behjati-Ardakani, Zohreh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gender preference is prevalent in some communities and using medical techniques to choose the baby's sex may cause the gender discrimination and gender imbalance in communities. Therefore, evaluating the gender preferences and attitudes towards using sex selection technologies seems to be necessary. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Avicenna Fertility Center. Participants were 100 women with one child who were referred for sex selection. Data were collected through self-developed questionnaires. The questions were designed by the researchers at the experts' panel. To determine the validity of the questionnaire, the viewpoints of professors specialized in these issues were obtained. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software (Version 11.5), and p gender preferences were toward the male sex but this preference was not very strong. Most participants agreed with non-medical sex selection for balancing the sex composition of their children. It doesn't seem that non-medical sex selection for family balancing causes severe sex imbalance in Iran.

  16. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Schou Andersen, C; Schmidt Morgen, C; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Oken, E; Gillman, M W; Sørensen, T I A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. We studied 27,821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾ 85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. A total of 17,721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.05; P=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.10; P=0.047). Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy.

  17. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  18. Rash - child under 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any new foods? Has your child been in contact with grasses/weeds/trees recently? Has your child recently been sick? Do any skin problems run in your family? Does your child or anyone in your family have allergies? Tests are seldom required but may include the ...

  19. Physical Child-Abuse in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sayyari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and

  20. Statistical analysis of child mortality and its determinants | Taiwo | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... residence, birth order and zone. The second factor which seemed to index previous birth had high loadings on child sex, birth sex, birth size (weight of the baby at birth in kilogram)and as well as mother's age. Keywords: Child mortality, Socio-economic and demographic determinants, Mortality rate, Varimax rotation and ...

  1. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  2. Sex Differences in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Eileen P

    2018-04-01

    This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women. Data from research on HIV cure points to sex differences in viral reservoir dynamics and a direct role for sex hormones in latency maintenance. Biological sex remains an important variable in determining the risk of HIV infection and subsequent viral pathogenesis, and emerging data suggest sex differences relevant to curative interventions. Recruitment of women in HIV clinical research is a pathway to both optimize care for women and to identify novel therapeutics for use in both men and women.

  3. Key issues in sex work-related HIV / AIDS / STD prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P

    1992-01-01

    In the last 20 years prostitutes, or sex workers, have formed self-help and advocacy organizations in a number of countries that could have an effect on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention efforts. It is essential when planning a sex work-related intervention to identify sex workers, clients, or third parties as well as any factors that affect the safety of existing sex and drug use practices. It is important to know where sex workers and clients contact each other, where they go to engage in sex, and the working conditions of sex work establishments. Other considerations include the accessibility of condoms and health care; the impact of laws, regulations, and enforcement practices; and the impact of migration of both sex workers and clients. Many projects have involved members of the target audiences in the assessment as interviewers as well as in the design and implementation of the project. All interventions should include current information, education, and communication consisting of media strategies as well as person-to-person strategies. A combination of sites can help to reach the maximum proportion of the population at risk. Several projects have provided bulk supplies in order to ensure access to condoms at no cost or inexpensively to hotels, bars, brothels and other sex work businesses. Projects have also promoted the use of sterile injection equipment where injecting drug use is common. Functioning outreach and education projects emphasize STD service, such as sensitivity training for health care providers to improve services and diagnostic procedures and to motivate sex workers to utilize the health care system. Voluntary utilization may the boosted by offering STD services in a stationary or mobile clinic in the sex work neighborhoods during the afternoon and early evening and combining them with family planning, primary health care, and child health care.

  4. 77 FR 42905 - Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...) clarify that the children of employees' same-sex domestic partners fall within the definition of `child... civilian employees; change the definition of ``child''; expand regulations to extend coverage to child care services for children of same-sex domestic partners of Federal employees; make certain technical...

  5. Sex Offenses Against Minors in China: An Empirical Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming; Liang, Bin; Huang, Siwen

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, due to a number of notorious sex offense cases against minors, a new punitive public attitude emerged in China and pressed for harsher crackdown and punishment against sex offenders. In particular, an "engagement in prostitution with a minor" law (Article 360 of the Criminal Law) was targeted as "unjust" based on the belief that offenders of such crimes often received "lenient" punishment, and many called for its abolition. In this study, based on 440 adjudicated sex offense cases, we examine potential differences across three sex offenses (including rape, child molestation, and engagement in prostitution with a minor) in the demographics of defendants and victims, offending characteristics, and trials and sentences of convicted offenders. Our empirical inquiry pointed to the unique nature of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Offenders of such crimes seemingly carried a different profile, compared with offenders of the other two sex crimes. Moreover, our data casted some doubt on the "lenient" punishment received by offenders of engagement in prostitution with a minor. Policy implications were also drawn based on our findings.

  6. Sex education in Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresova, A

    1991-05-01

    The Czechoslovak FPA (SPRVR) established in 1979 as a separate agency intends to maintain contact with the Ministry of Education in order to strengthen the position of parenthood education and influence the preparation of guidelines. The compulsory school system includes 6 to 15 year olds. After 1948, the head of the school determined the role of sex education and had the option of inviting a guest lecturer. In 1956, the Ministry of Education ruled that 1 sex education lecture was required for 14 year olds. In 1972, Government decision N137 required family life education at all school levels: pre-school stage, basic grades, secondary and higher education, and universities in preparation for harmonious, stable family life, parentship, and parenthood. In 1987, the new Minister of Education changed the prior policy of a separate secondary school subject to integration in other subjects. Due to this policy, there is great variation among schools, regions and teachers. Some emphasize the negative consequences of sex; personal experience and shame are also involved. Textbooks and materials are not uniform, and SPRVR is attempting to develop the resources to prepare sex materials and train unknowledgeable teachers. The Institute of Sexology since 1921 with its small staff has prepared texts and lecture notes and has a teaching staff but cannot meet the needs of the entire school population. New trends in sex education has emphasized the positive side of sex, behavior, and health, but have been met with parent and teacher apprehension and disagreement because of the mortality or the promotion of sex and a liberal attitude toward abortion. SPRVR holds scientific meetings on parenthood education with an interdisciplinary approach. There has been little consensus or uniformity of action, and inadequate sexual knowledge of teachers attitudes. The parenthood program also faces the influence of the Catholic Church which would like to abolish sex education.

  7. Correlates of early versus later initiation into sex work in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Ojeda, Victoria D; Martínez, Gustavo A; Amaro, Hortensia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    To examine correlates of early initiation into sex work in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Female sex workers (FSWs) >/=18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent baseline interviews. Correlates of initiation into sex work before age 18 were identified with logistic regression. Of 920 FSWs interviewed in Tijuana (N=474) and Ciudad Juarez (N=446), 9.8% (N=90) were early initiators (abuse as a child (42.2% vs. 18.7%, pchild abuse (adjOR=2.92). Factors associated with later initiation included less education (adjOR=0.43 per 5-year increase), migration (adjOR=0.47), and initiating sex work for better pay (adjOR=0.44) or to support children (adjOR=0.03). Different pathways for entering sex work are apparent among younger versus older females in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Among girls, interventions are needed to prevent inhalant use and child abuse and to offer coping skills; among older initiators, income-generating strategies, childcare, and services for migrants may help to delay or prevent entry into sex work. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding of prognosis and goals of care among couples whose child died of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelly E; Neville, Bridget A; Cook, Earl F; Aldridge, Sarah H; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2008-03-10

    Little is known about how couples care for the terminally ill child with cancer. We assessed both parents' understanding of prognosis and treatment goals for children with cancer and explored whether sex mediates these views. We also investigated whether discordance within couples regarding treatment goals was related to parental perception of the child's end-of-life (EOL) experience. We surveyed mothers and fathers of children who died of cancer and were cared for at Children's Hospital (Boston, MA) and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, MA) between 2000 and 2004. Our sample included 38 couples (response rate, 56%). Willingness to participate did not differ by sex. At diagnosis, fathers and mothers held a similar understanding of the child's prognosis, and 58% of couples agreed on the goal of cure. During the EOL period, a majority of fathers and mothers reported lessening suffering as the primary goal. However, within couples there was poor agreement about the primary goal of care (kappa = 0.07). When parents did not agree on the primary goal of lessening suffering, both parents were more likely to report that the child suffered significantly from cancer-directed treatment (P = .03). Though parent goals are often concurrent at diagnosis, they frequently differ during the EOL period. Parent disagreement about the goal of lessening suffering at the EOL appears to impact how parents describe their child's experience of suffering. Creating opportunities for parents to work through their goals together may lead to improvements in the child's EOL experience.

  9. PGD gender selection for non-Mendelian disorders with unequal sex incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, David J; Cameron, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was originally developed for couples whose potential offspring were at risk of severe Mendelian disorders, but has since been extended to other indications. One possible use of PGD is to perform gender selection for couples whose offspring are at increased risk of disorders that do not follow Mendelian inheritance, but which are substantially more common in one sex than another (unequal sex incidence). Here, we examine the clinical and ethical issues to be considered prior to offering PGD gender selection to reduce the risk of a child being affected by a non-Mendelian condition with unequal sex incidence. Factors to be considered include: the risk that a child of either sex will be affected by the condition; the overall reduction in risk provided by gender selection and the potential harms of the procedure. Consideration should also be given to the interests of the family and the child to be born, the seriousness of the condition and the couple's procreative autonomy. To illustrate these issues we use the example of autism, a non-Mendelian disorder that is considerably more common in males than in females.

  10. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  11. Reproductive suppression follows threats to child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, K B; Gemmill, A; Catalano, R A

    2017-05-01

    Natural selection presumably conserved mechanisms that allow females to block or terminate gestation when environmental circumstances threaten the survival of offspring. One example of this adaptive reproductive suppression, the Bruce effect, has been identified in several species, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Although descriptive epidemiology reports low fertility among women experiencing stressful circumstances, attempts to detect a Bruce effect in humans have been rare and limited. We contribute to this limited work by examining the relationship between the odds of child death and the sex ratio at birth in Sweden for the years 1751-1840. We find evidence of a generalized Bruce effect in humans in that unexpected changes in child mortality predict opposite unexpected changes in the secondary sex ratio in the following year, even after adjusting for period life expectancy. Our analysis broadens the scope of the Bruce effect literature to include humans, suggesting that women, through noncognitive decisional biology, adjust reproductive strategies and investments in response to changing environmental conditions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  13. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  14. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  15. A Review and Critique of Research on Same-Sex Parenting and Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2016-12-01

    Are the outcomes for children of gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents in general the same as those for heterosexual parents? That controversial question is discussed here in a detailed review of the social science literature in three parts: (1) stability of same-sex parental relationships, (2) child outcomes, and (3) child outcomes in same-sex adoption. Relationship instability appears to be higher among gay and lesbian parent couples and may be a key mediating factor influencing outcomes for children. With respect to part 2, while parental self-reports usually present few significant differences, social desirability or self-presentation bias may be a confounding factor. While some researchers have tended to conclude that there are no differences whatsoever in terms of child outcomes as a function of parental sexual orientation, such conclusions appear premature in the light of more recent data in which some different outcomes have been observed in a few studies. Studies conducted within the past 10 years that compared child outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents were reviewed. Numerous methodological limitations were identified that make it very difficult to make an accurate assessment of the effect of parental sexual orientation across adoptive families. Because of sampling limitations, we still know very little about family functioning among same-sex adoptive families with low or moderate incomes, those with several children, or those with older children, including adolescents or how family functioning may change over time. There remains a need for high-quality research on same-sex families, especially families with gay fathers and with lower income. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  17. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  18. Online Child Sexual Abuse: The French Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chawki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Online child sexual abuse is an increasingly visible problem in society today. The introduction, growth and utilization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs have been accompanied by an increase in illegal activities. With respect to cyberspace the Internet is an attractive environment to sex offenders. In addition to giving them greater access to minors, extending their reach from a limited geographical area to victims all around the world, it allows criminals to alter or conceal their identities. Sexual predators, stalkers, child pornographers and child traffickers can use various concealment techniques to make it more difficult for investigators to identify them and find evidence. Others physically hide removable media and incriminating evidence in rented storage space, impeding an investigator’s job to find the truth. France has given the protection of children from sexual exploitation and abuse a high priority. Traditional laws have been amended to address the challenges of information technology, violence and to bring at the same time the country into line with international conventions on the rights of children. Accordingly this current article will analyze some of the techniques used by offenders to abuse children online, including recent legal and administrative developments in France concerning online children protection.

  19. Girl child: her rights and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood.

  20. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex Differences in Dichotic Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…

  2. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  3. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  4. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  5. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child Topics Commentaries Featured Links Contact Us Child Development & Behavior Topics A B C D E F ... Seat Safety Carbon Monoxide Chewing Tobacco Child Care Child Development Milestones Child Development, What Do Grown-Ups Know ...

  6. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  7. [Child labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  8. [Pre-conception sex selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-11-16

    According to Article 14 of the Oviedo Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine of the Council of Europe, the use of techniques of medically assisted procreation shall not be allowed for the purpose of choosing the sex of a future child, unless serious hereditary sex-related disease is to be avoided. In Israel and the United States of America, pre-conception sex selection for the purpose of family balancing is legal. The European health culture does not regard reproductive justice as part of social justice. From this aspect, the situation is very similar in China and India. Reproductive liberty is opposed by the Catholic Church, too. According to the Catholic Church, medical grounds may not justify pre-conception sex selection, though being bioethically less harmful than family balancing for social reasons. In Hungary, according to Section 170 of the Criminal Code, pre-conception sex selection for the purpose of family balancing constitutes a crime. At present, the Hungarian legislation is in full harmony with the Oviedo Convention, enacted in Hungary in 2002.

  9. Need for Studies of Sex Discrimination in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972

    This paper was designed to aid organizations seeking to eliminate sex discrimination in the public schools. Major emphasis was placed on the need for studies of sex discrimination. Six areas of investigation should include: 1) one sex schools; 2) one sex or practically one sex courses in co-ed schools; 3) physical education, sports and other extra…

  10. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  11. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in assigning sex in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three years old child with ambiguous genitalia since birth had been referred to Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH),a tertiary referral hospital, in order to be evaluated and assigned sex correctly. Due to periphery location of the referring center, social and economic constraints, the child was not presented earlier. Physical ...

  12. 77 FR 73558 - Sex Offender Registration Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... 1380, Washington, DC 20004. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rorey Smith, Deputy General Counsel, (202) 220-5797, or rorey.smith@csosa.gov . Questions about this publication are welcome, but inquiries... addition, the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA), Title I of the Adam Walsh Child...

  13. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-02

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  14. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.

  15. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  16. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  17. Parents and Sex Education--Looking beyond "The Birds and the Bees"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joy

    2004-01-01

    The social and political climate of sex education over the last two decades has dramatically changed, with parents now being encouraged to work in partnership with professionals. This paper seeks to further the argument that involving parents in their child's sex education does matter and can have an impact on their child's future sexual health.…

  18. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  19. AIDS prevention in the sex industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-thomas, R; Overs, C

    1992-01-01

    Most sex work research examines the impact of HIV on prostitutes and on society and involves testing prostitutes for HIV antibodies, but it does not examine the role of others in the sex industry. Sex industry workers include female prostitutes, transvestites, transsexuals, and male prostitutes, bar and brothel owners, taxi drivers, sex workers' partners, and sex business managers. Since sex workers provide sexual services to clients, they are in a perfect position to teach them about sexual health. Society must recognize that we cannot wish the sex industry away and that we need an effective health promotion strategy now. Some successful relevant AIDS education campaigns provide us some guidelines on how to develop campaigns. Any campaign targeting the sex industry should also target the public. Sex workers should participate in developing health messages and educational activities. They should also participate in the project. Any campaign must deal with major obstacles to safer sexual practices of which sex workers are aware and be consulted. Common obstacles are client demand for unprotected sex and irregular and inadequate supply of inexpensive condoms. A health promotion strategy cannot be effective, however, if sex workers do not have access to social support and health care services. Health promotion workers should also encourage local authorities to end discrimination of sex workers so they can freely obtain needed services. In some countries, sex workers operate fantasy workshops providing peers with ideas to sell sex services which reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Other campaigns distribute safer sex messages on small cards, cigarette lighters, key rings, condom packages, and T shirts. Training of sex workers other than prostitutes to reinforce safer sex messages to clients is also effective, e.g., taxi drivers can say they will take a client to a woman who uses condoms rather than to a clean girl. Street theater and puppets have also successfully

  20. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  1. The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Joyce, Ann Marie

    2015-09-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8-13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI's factor structure, reliability, validity

  2. Proximate Sources of Population Sex Imbalance in India

    OpenAIRE

    OSTER, EMILY

    2009-01-01

    There is a population sex imbalance in India. Despite a consensus that this imbalance is due to excess female mortality, the specific source of this excess mortality remains poorly understood. I use microdata on child survival in India to analyze the proximate sources of the sex imbalance. I address two questions: when in life does the sex imbalance arise, and what health or nutritional investments are specifically responsible for its appearance? I present a new methodology that uses microdat...

  3. Child and Adolescent Homicide in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tıraşçı

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding childhood homicides are lacking in our country. We aimed to investigate the frequency and demographic data of child and adolescent homicides by examining postmortem investigation and autopsy reports from Branch of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Diyarbakir Province, between 2000 and 2003. All of the cases were analyzed regarding the age, sex, method and location of homicide and injury location. There were 39 children aged 6 month through 18 years. Adolescents between 16 and 18 years constitued the overhelming number (64.1% of all the chilhood homicides. Male children and adolescents predominated among the homicide victims (82%. The most frequent means of homicide were firearms-(51.2%. The majority of homicides occured at garden/field (46.1%. With regard to injury location, the most common site was the thorax (41%. In conclusion, setting up providing training programmes including parents will be effective for the prevention of childhood homicide.

  4. Molecular players involved in temperature-dependent sex determination and sex differentiation in Teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination and differentiation are conserved and diversified. In fish species, temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation seem to be ubiquitous and molecular players involved in these mechanisms may be conserved. Although how the ambient temperature transduces signals to the undifferentiated gonads remains to be elucidated, the genes downstream in the sex differentiation pathway are shared between sex-determining mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent advances on the molecular players that participate in the sex determination and differentiation in fish species, by putting emphasis on temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation, which include temperature-dependent sex determination and genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. Application of temperature-dependent sex differentiation in farmed fish and the consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal are discussed. PMID:24735220

  5. Gender Inequality: Is the National Population Policy's Objective of Two Child Norm Heading the Correct Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikar, S R; Bhalwar, R; Datta, A; Basannar, D R

    2008-07-01

    Male Preference is well known phenomena world wide from ancient ages. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the attitude of women towards birth of son, use of contraception methods and sex determination methods in rural village Kasurdi in Pune district. Univariate analysis was carried out by considering each factor determining sex preference separately as well as using a Logistic Regression Model. Adequacy of fit of the model has also been tested. Out of 110 respondents interviewed, 62.7% felt that male child is necessary in the family. Univariate analysis revealed that sex of first child, concern undergone for second pregnancy with regards to sex of the child, number of children in family and type of family were significant factors contributing to the son preference. The analysis under the logistic regression model revealed that sex of the first child and concern undergone in second pregnancy with respect to the sex of the second child are the most dominating and significant factors in the causation of son preference. The difference between family sizes when compared with the sex of first child was statistically significant signifying that if the first child is a male then it hardly matters whether the second child is male or female, but if the sex of first child is female then the families land up with bigger family size. On an average most of the respondents favour two children with an equal share of male and female children.

  6. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Udry

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  7. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  8. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  9. "Sex Is a sin": Afro-Caribbean Parent and Teen Perspectives on Sex Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbidon, Kemesha S; Shaw-Ridley, Mary

    2018-01-18

    This study characterized (a) mothers' childhood and teenage experiences with sex conversations and (b) families' perceptions of current parent-child sex conversations within two underserved Afro-Caribbean communities in the U.S. Fourteen dyads comprised of Haitian and Jamaican mothers and teens (aged 14-18) living in Miami, Florida, completed semi-structured interviews sharing their experiences with sex conversations. Researchers analyzed data using thematic content analysis. Mothers' mean age was 41.85 years, (SD = 5.50) and teens' mean age was 16.35 years, (SD = 1.31). Most mothers reported forbidden or little childhood experiences with parent-child sex conversations. They affected their sexual attitudes, behaviors, and ability to discuss sex with their children. Although some mothers benefited from educational and skill development others shared fear-based messages with their children that some teens believed adversely affected the mother-child relationship quality. Culturally appropriate, skill-based approaches are necessary to improve families' communication self-efficacy for healthy sex conversations to occur in Afro-Caribbean families.

  10. Protecting the rights of sex workers: the Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, G; Mahal, A; Shah, R

    2000-01-01

    Although India is a signatory to numerous international agreements on the rights of women and has a constitution that prohibits discrimination and exploitation by gender, as well as a plethora of related legislation, it has failed to satisfactorily protect the human rights of women, particularly those of sex workers. This is manifested in high levels of violence in the sex industry, child sex workers, lack of access to health care, and high levels of HIV infection. Policies that revolve around rescue and rehabilitation, or are based on the premise that sex work is immoral, are unlikely to effectively promote the well-being of sex workers. An alternative paradigm, which revolves around an explicit recognition of the human rights of sex workers together with an activist approach to achieve them, involving a collaboration between NGOs and collectives of sex workers, has worked well to protect the human rights and health of sex workers in India.

  11. Child and adult outcomes of chronic child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kohl, Patricia L; Drake, Brett

    2012-05-01

    To describe how child maltreatment chronicity is related to negative outcomes in later childhood and early adulthood. The study included 5994 low-income children from St Louis, including 3521 with child maltreatment reports, who were followed from 1993-1994 through 2009. Children were 1.5 to 11 years of age at sampling. Data include administrative and treatment records indicating substance abuse, mental health treatment, brain injury, sexually transmitted disease, suicide attempts, and violent delinquency before age 18 and child maltreatment perpetration, mental health treatment, or substance abuse in adulthood. Multivariate analysis controlled for potential confounders. Child maltreatment chronicity predicted negative childhood outcomes in a linear fashion (eg, percentage with at least 1 negative outcome: no maltreatment = 29.7%, 1 report = 39.5%, 4 reports = 67.1%). Suicide attempts before age 18 showed the largest proportionate increase with repeated maltreatment (no report versus 4+ reports = +625%, P child outcomes were added in multivariate models of child maltreatment perpetration and mental health issues. The relationship between adult substance abuse and maltreatment report history disappeared after controlling for adverse child outcomes. Child maltreatment chronicity as measured by official reports is a robust indicator of future negative outcomes across a range of systems, but this relationship may desist for certain adult outcomes once childhood adverse events are controlled. Although primary and secondary prevention remain important approaches, this study suggests that enhanced tertiary prevention may pay high dividends across a range of medical and behavioral domains.

  12. Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders: an extended prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette

    2011-12-01

    We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.

  13. Exposure to preeclampsia in utero affects growth from birth to late childhood dependent on child's sex and severity of exposure: Follow-up of a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kjer Byberg

    Full Text Available An adverse intrauterine environment may affect offspring growth and development. Our aim was to explore whether preeclampsia (PE exposure in utero influences growth from birth to 13 years.In a nested case-control study, 229 children were exposed to PE (mild/moderate: n = 164, severe: n = 54 and 385 were unexposed. Length/height and weight were abstracted from records at birth, 3 and 6 months, 1 and 4 years, and measured along with waist circumference and skinfolds at follow-up at 11/12 (girls/boys and 13 years (both sexes. Associations between PE and z-scores for growth were analyzed by multiple linear and fractional polynomial regression with adjustment for potential confounders.In boys, exposure to mild/moderate PE was positively associated with linear growth after 0.5 years, but severe PE was negatively associated with linear growth in all ages. In girls, both exposure to mild/moderate and severe PE were negatively associated with linear growth. Exposure to PE was negatively associated with weight and body mass index (BMI during infancy, but positively associated with weight and BMI thereafter, except that boys exposed to severe PE consistently had a lower weight and BMI compared to the unexposed. Exposure to severe PE only was positively associated with waist-to-height ratio at 11/12 (girls/boys and 13 years (both sexes.From birth to adolescence, linear growth, weight and BMI trajectories differed between the sexes by severity of exposure to PE. In general, PE exposure was negatively associated with linear growth, while in girls; positive associations with weight and BMI were observed. This underlines fetal life as a particularly sensitive period affecting subsequent growth and this may have implications for targeted approaches for healthy growth and development.

  14. Sex in the brain: hormones and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Jordan; McEwen, Bruce S

    2016-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, sex hormones act throughout the entire brain of both males and females via both genomic and nongenomic receptors. Many neural and behavioral functions are affected by estrogens, including mood, cognitive function, blood pressure regulation, motor coordination, pain, and opioid sensitivity. Subtle sex differences exist for many of these functions that are developmentally programmed by hormones and by not yet precisely defined genetic factors, including the mitochondrial genome. These sex differences, and responses to sex hormones in brain regions and upon functions not previously regarded as subject to such differences, indicate that we are entering a new era in our ability to understand and appreciate the diversity of gender-related behaviors and brain functions.

  15. Family Kinship Patterns and Female Sex Work in the Informal Urban Settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Elizabeth N; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Jansson, Mikael; Roth, Eric A

    2012-06-01

    A basic ecological and epidemiological question is why some women enter into commercial sex work while other women in the same socio-economic environment never do. To address this question respondent driven sampling principles were adopted to recruit and collect data for 161 female sex workers and 159 same aged women who never engaged in commercial sex in Kibera, a large informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. Univariate analysis indicated that basic kinship measures, including number of family members seen during adolescence and at present, not having a male guardian while growing up, and earlier times of ending relationships with both male and female guardians were associated with commercial sex work in Kibera. Multivariate analysis via logistic regression modeling showed that not having a male guardian during childhood, low education attainment and a small number of family members seen at adolescence were all significant predictors of entering sex work. By far the most important predictor of entering sex work was not having any male guardian, e.g., father, uncle, older brother, etc. during childhood. Results are interpreted in light of the historic pattern of sub-Saharan African child fostering and their relevance for young women in Kibera today.

  16. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  17. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  18. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children interact. Disobedience can have a variety of causes. At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's temperament, or to school problems, family stress, or conflicts between his parents. What parents can do When ...

  19. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  20. Same-sex family unions in Israeli law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Einhorn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal problems encountered by same-sex spouses in Israeli law are more complicated than those encountered in other democratic, developed countries. This stems from the fact that under Israeli law many areas of family law, first and foremost marriage and divorce, are governed by religious law, which is opposed to the legal recognition of such relationships. It is also not possible for such couples to establish a registered partnership in Israel, since partnerships can only be established for commercial purposes. A spectrum of family unions has nonetheless developed, gaining state recognition in various respects, mostly owing to the liberal approach of the Israel Supreme Court. Yet, it would appear that only legislation will be able resolve the outstanding problems. In its absence, a legal status is not conferred upon same-sex family unions and as such they are regarded as purely contractual arrangements. Other subject-matters in this article include: the extent of recognition granted to such family unions established abroad, by marriage or registered partnership; spouses’ rights and obligations regarding maintenance obligations and property relations; child adoption in Israel, especially if the child is unrelated to the spouses; parenthood if one spouse is the biological mother and the other a surrogate; the extent of recognition of foreign adoption orders; the dissolution of such family unions and succession.

  1. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  2. The Secret Sex Lives of Rotifers Sex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. The Secret Sex Lives of Rotifers Sex - sex and Cannibalism. T Ramakrishna Rao. General Article Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 41-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Timing of Parent and Child Communication about Sexuality Relative to Children’s Sexual Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Megan K.; Elliott, Marc N.; Martino, Steven; Kanouse, David E.; Corona, Rosalie; Klein, David J.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine timing of parent-child discussions about sexual topics relative to child-reported sexual behavior. Design Longitudinal study of employed parents and their children, with an initial survey followed by subsequent surveys 3, 6, and 12 months later. Participants 141 parents, along with their children (13–17 years), who were control participants in a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate a worksite-based intervention to improve parent-adolescent communication. Main Outcomes Parent and child reports of discussion of up to 24 sexual topics and child-reports on pre-sexual and sexual acts (ranging from hand-holding to sexual intercourse) that occurred before the first survey and in the intervals between subsequent pairs of surveys. Results The sexual topics, as reported by both parents and children, tend to group into three sets. The first includes topics such as girls’ bodies and menstruation, and typically coincides with children’s’ presexual stage (handholding, kissing). The second set includes topics such as birth control efficacy and refusing sex, and typically coincides with the pre-coital (genital touching and oral sex). The third set typically occurs when children have initiated intercourse. Over half of parents and children in the sample say that they have not discussed birth control efficacy, resisting partner pressure for sex, STD symptoms, condom use, choosing birth control, or partner condom refusal before a child is engaged in genital touching; more than 40% of children have intercourse before any discussion about STD symptoms, condom use, choosing birth control, or partner condom refusal. Conclusions Many parents and adolescents do not talk about important sexual topics prior to adolescents’ sexual debut. Clinicians can facilitate this communication by providing parents with information about sexual behavior of adolescents. Clinicians can also address these issues one-on-one or consider other ways of getting the information

  4. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk, George

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0-14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners' lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3-5 children. Experience of IPV, mothers' justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  7. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...

  8. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further, poverty has many dimensions, including mortality, morbidity, hunger, illiteracy, lack of fixed housing, and ...

  9. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  10. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Dinno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. CONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  11. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  12. Cognitive Distortions and Blame Attribution in Sex Offenders against Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Stephen; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Burns, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This study compared sex offenders against children and adults on measures of cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and rape and a measure of blame attribution. Child sexual offenders endorsed more cognitive distortions relating to sex with children and reported more guilt-feeling attributions. (Author/DB)

  13. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  14. "Use Condoms for Safe Sex!" Youth-Led Video Making and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyung-Hwa; MacEntee, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection between child-led visual methods and sex education, this paper focuses on the potential of youth-led video making to enable young people to develop guiding principles to inform their own sexual behaviour. It draws on findings from a video-making project carried out with a group of South African young people, which…

  15. Child Brides, Forced Marriage, and Partner Violence in America: Tip of an Iceberg Revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2016-04-01

    Forced marriage is a violation of human rights and thwarts personal safety and well-being. Child brides are at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and often are unable to effectively negotiate safe sex, leaving them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus, and early pregnancy. The prevalence of forced marriage and child marriage in the United States is unknown. The intersection of forced marriage and child marriage and IPV is equally unknown. When 277 mothers who reported IPV to shelter or justice services were asked about a forced marriage attempt, frequency and severity of IPV, mental health status, and behavioral functioning of their child, 47 (17%) reported a forced marriage attempt with 45% of the women younger than 18 years of age at the time of the attempt. Among the 47 women, 11 (23%) reported death threats, 20 (43%) reported marriage to the person, and 28 (60%) reported a pregnancy. Women younger than 18 years reported more threats of isolation and economic deprivation associated with the attempt as well as pressure from parents to marry. Regardless of age, women experiencing a forced marriage attempt reported more intimate partner sexual abuse, somatization, and behavior problems for their children. Forced marriage attempts occurred to one in six women (17%) reporting IPV and are associated with worse functioning for mother and child. The frequent occurrence and associated effect of forced marriage attempts to maternal child functioning indicates routine assessment for a forced marriage attempt as part of comprehensive care for women reporting IPV.

  16. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.

  17. Clustering of child mortality in a contemporary polygamous population in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bodegom, David; Eriksson, Ulrika K; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2012-01-01

    Child mortality, defined here as mortality under age five, is not evenly distributed but found in clusters. In a contemporary polygamous population in Ghana with extended families, we separate clustering at the parental and household levels, which are often overlapping and inseparable in other historical studies. For eight years, we followed 28,994 individuals, including 9,288 children under the age of five, in 1,703 households. We identified four determinants that had a significant effect on child mortality: sex of the child, age of the child, drinking source, and socioeconomic status. After correcting for these determinants, we still identified significant clustering of child mortality at the level of the village (covariance [cov] = 0.02, p = .04), household (cov = 0.14, p = .003), father (cov = 0.24, p = .001), and mother (cov = 0.18, p = .05). The present data provide clues regarding the levels at which to look for unidentified determinants of child mortality and suggest that the importance of the father could be larger than previously thought.

  18. Is Child Abuse Associated with Adolescent Obesity? A Population Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Katherine; Norris, Tom; Crawley, Esther; Shield, Julian P H

    Child abuse is associated with obesity in adulthood through multiple mechanisms. However, little is known about the relationship between abuse and obesity during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a birth cohort, whether there is an association between child abuse and overweight or obesity in adolescence. This study utilizes data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective cohort study based in South West England. Using data from the 4205 children with complete data at 13 and 16 years, we analyzed body mass index (BMI) and anonymous parental report of abuse. Abuse was categorized as emotional, physical, or sexual. A sub-sample of 3429 had BMI recorded at 18 years, enabling a longitudinal analysis of BMI trajectories. Using linear and logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sex and family adversity, no association was found between child abuse and BMI, BMI Z-scores, overweight, or obesity, at 13 or 16 years, with all confidence intervals straddling the null. There was weak evidence of a negative association between physical and emotional abuse and BMI trajectories between 13 and 18 years. No relationship was found between child abuse and adolescent obesity in this cohort. This challenges the assumption that adolescent obesity is linked to previous child abuse, as demonstrated for obesity in adult life. A further longitudinal study utilizing both parental and child reports with data record linkage, to improve reporting of abuse, and including neglect as an abuse category, would be desirable.

  19. Reducing school related factors hindering girl-child equality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem addressed in this paper is the school based factor such as curriculum bias, sex stereotyping in learning materials, teachers and student factors which hinder girl-child access to quality education. It is observed that these factors impede the girl-child equality of access to quality education. To solve this problem it ...

  20. Child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northwestern Nigeria | Bugaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child sexual abuse has been reported from all corners of the globe, and all age groups and both sexes are affected. Although the trauma of abuse heals with time, it leaves long term psychological and medical problems. This study was aimed at documenting the pattern of child sexual abuse in Zaria, Northern ...

  1. ADHD Medication Vacations and Parent-Child Interactions by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Sulak, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to examine medication vacations among children with ADHD according to parent-child dyads (e.g., mother-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, and father-son). Method: In a survey study of 259 parents of children with ADHD, the use of medication vacations according to parent-child sex dyads was…

  2. The health perspectives of Australian adolescents from same-sex parent families: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, S R; Waters, E; McNair, R; Power, J

    2015-05-01

    Research involving adolescents from same-sex parent families provides an important contribution to the evidence base on their health, well-being and the impact of stigma. To date reports on the perspectives of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents have been limited. This study aimed to describe the multidimensional experiences of physical, mental and social well-being of adolescents living in this context. A mixed methods study of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents comprising of an adolescent-report survey of 10- to 17-year-olds and family interviews with adolescents and their parents. Data were collected in 2012 and 2013 as part of the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families. The findings from qualitative interviews with seven adolescents and responses to an open-ended survey question (n = 16) suggest four themes: perceptions of normality, positive concepts of health, spheres of life (including family, friends and community) and avoiding negativity. The quantitative sample of adolescents with same-sex attracted parents (n = 35) reported higher scores than population normative data on the dimensions general health and family activities within the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) as well as higher on the peer problems scale on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Perceived stigma correlates with lower health and well-being overall. Positive health outcomes are informed by the ways adolescents conceptualize health and how they construct their spheres of life. Peer relationships, and community perspectives of same-sex families, inform perceived stigma and its correlation with poorer health and well-being. Although adolescents see their families as essentially normal they are negatively affected by external societal stigma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  4. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2017-03-06

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Correlates of admitted sexual interest in children among individuals convicted of child pornography offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2017-06-01

    Recent research on a risk assessment tool for child pornography offending suggests that admission of sexual interest in children is a risk factor for any sexual recidivism. Admission is easily vulnerable to lying, however, or to refusals to respond when asked about sexual interests. This may become a particular issue when individuals are concerned about the potential impact of admission of sexual interest on sentencing and other risk-related decisions. In this study, we identified the following behavioral correlates (coded yes/no) of admission of sexual interest in children in the risk tool development sample of 286 men convicted of child pornography offenses: (a) never married (54% of sample), (b) child pornography content included child sexual abuse videos (64%), (c) child pornography content included sex stories involving children (31%), (d) evidence of interest in child pornography spanned 2 or more years (55%), (e) volunteered in a role with high access to children (7%), and (f) engaged in online sexual communication with a minor or officer posing as a minor (10%). When summed, the average score on this Correlates of Admission of Sexual Interest in Children (CASIC) measure was 2.21 (SD = 1.22, range 0-6) out of a possible 6, and the CASIC score was significantly associated with admission of sexual interest in children, area under the curve (AUC) = .71, 95% CI [ .65, .77]. The CASIC had a stronger relationship with admission in a small cross-validation sample of 60 child pornography offenders, AUC = .81, 95% CI [.68, .95]. CASIC scores may substitute for admission of sexual interest in risk assessment involving those with child pornography offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. "Let's talk about sex": a qualitative study of Rwandan adolescents' views on sex and HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study explored the views and experiences of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in Kigali, Rwanda, regarding sex, love, marriage, children and hope for the future. DESIGN: The study enrolled 42 adolescents who had received combination antiretroviral therapy for at least 12 months, and a selection of their primary caregivers. Study methods included 3 multiple day workshops consisting of role-playing and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescents, 8 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and one FGD with caregivers. RESULTS: The adolescents reported experiencing similar sexual needs and dilemmas as most other adolescents, but with an added layer of complexity due to fears related to HIV transmission and/or rejection by partners. They desired more advice from their parents/caregivers on these topics. Although they struggled with aspects of sex, love, marriage and having children, most agreed that they would find love, be married and have children in the future. The two most discussed HIV-related anxieties were how and when to disclose to a (potential sex/marriage partner and whether to have children. However, most adolescents felt that they had a right to love and be loved, and were aware of prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT options in Rwanda. Adolescents generally spoke about their future role in society in a positive manner. CONCLUSION: Strengthening the life skills of HIV-positive adolescents, especially around HIV disclosure and reduction of HIV transmission, as well as the support skills of parents/caregivers, may not only reduce onward HIV transmission but also improve quality of life by reducing anxiety.

  7. How to Protect Kids from Child Molesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    When one mother was asked how often she worried about her child's safety, she replied, "Every time she goes out the door." Many parents rely on school abuse prevention programs to teach kids how to stay safe. But what if these programs actually increase the risk of sex crimes that target kids? What happens if parental efforts to safeguard kids…

  8. Lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child health care-A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anna-Eva; Moberg, Catherine; Bengtsson Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla

    2017-12-01

    To describe lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of nurses' attitudes in child healthcare. Lesbian, gay and bisexual people are often reluctant to disclose their gender identity for fear of discrimination. This fear may lead to avoidance of healthcare for themselves or their children and may negatively affect families' health and well-being. A qualitative inductive design was employed. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 lesbian, gay or bisexual parents (11 mothers and three fathers) with child health care experiences in southern Sweden. Interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes were identified. One, a "sense of marginalisation," included lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences of heteronormative attitudes among child healthcare nurses which led them to feel alienated and questioned as parents. Another, "being respected for who you are," included experiences of being respected and included at child healthcare appointments. Findings paint a complex picture of lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' interactions with child healthcare nurses in that they experienced both positive and negative attitudes. Knowledge gaps about lesbian, gay and bisexual families within the child healthcare field must be filled. Child health care nurses should work with the entire family to provide the best care for the child; however, discrimination in health care is common and often caused by a lack of knowledge. The number of children living with same-sex parents has increased more than ten-fold since the end of the 1990s. It is therefore important to explore lesbian, gay and bisexual parents' experiences with child healthcare nurses' attitudes to improve quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Labor-Market Specialization within Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the 2000 decennial Census to compare differences in earnings, hours worked, and labor-force participation between members of different household types, including same-sex couples, different-sex couples, and roommates. Both same-sex and different-sex couples exhibit some degree of household specialization, whereas roommates show little or no degree of specialization. Of all household types, married couples exhibit by far the highest degree of specialization with respect to lab...

  10. Correlates of Forced Sex Among Populations of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wimonsate, Wipas; Varangrat, Anchalee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Jommaroeng, Rapeepun; Mock, Philip A.; Tappero, Jordan W.; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Although forced sex is a correlate of HIV infection, its prevalence and associated risks are not well described among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing-country settings. Between March and October 2005, we assessed the prevalence of forced sex and correlates among populations of MSM (this includes general MSM, male sex workers, and male-to-female transgender persons) in Thailand using a community-based sample. Participants were enrolled from venues around Bangkok, Chiangmai, and Ph...

  11. Livestock production, animal source food intake, and young child growth: the role of gender for ensuring nutrition impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Minchao; Iannotti, Lora L

    2014-03-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) provide critical micronutrients in highly bioavailable forms, with the potential to efficiently address undernutrition among young children living in developing countries. There is limited evidence for how livestock ownership might increase ASF intake in poor households either through own-consumption or income generation. Along with lack of nutrition knowledge, gender dimensions may affect the pathways leading from livestock ownership to child ASF intake and ultimately to young child growth. Using data from a large-scale impact evaluation conducted in Kenya, this study tested the hypothesis that co-owned/female-owned livestock would be associated with improved child growth, mediated by increases in ASF consumption. Data were collected from September 2010 to January 2011 from households in six provinces in Kenya on a broad range of agricultural, economic, social, health and nutrition factors. Children ages 6-60 months were included in this analysis (n = 183). In this sample, co-owned/female-owned livestock was valued at 18,861 Kenyan shillings in contrast with male-owned livestock valued at 66,343 Kenyan shillings. Multivariate linear regression models showed a positive association between co-owned/female-owned livestock with child weight-for-age z score (WAZ) after adjusting for caregiver education level, income, child age, and child sex. A mediating effect by child ASF intake was evident, explaining 25% of the relationship of livestock ownership with child WAZ, by Sobel-Goodman test (p livestock and height-for-age z score (HAZ), and no effect was apparent for weight-for-height z score (WHZ). The partial mediating effect may be indicative of other factors inherent in co-owned/female-owned livestock such as higher status of females in these households with greater influence over other child care practices promoting growth. Nonetheless, our study suggests targeting females in livestock production programming may better ensure improvements

  12. Protecting the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, O

    1993-01-01

    The 1991 African charter and the 1990 UN convention on the rights of the child have had an impact on efforts by Nigeria to legally protect the welfare of children. The African Charter and the international community are particularly concerned about legally protecting the best interests of children accused or found guilty of breaking the law: recognizing a legal age of responsibility for infringements of the penal code, separating a child, deprived of liberty from imprisoned adults when it is in the child's interests, and applying separate laws, procedures, authorities, and institutions for children. The African charter also seeks to shield children from environmental adversity and exploitation in employment or jobs that interfere with health and formal education. It is illegal to use children for begging, to abduct children, or to traffic in the sale of children by any person, including parents or legal guardians. Children are to be protected from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse in prostitution, pornographic activities, and coercion to perform sexual acts. Declines in infant mortality, elimination of diseases and malnutrition, and provision of education, particularly for female children and the gifted and the disadvantaged, are recommended. Pregnant adolescents should have access to education during and after the pregnancy. Protection is also sought from narcotic drug production, use, and trafficking, child marriage, and child abuse and torture, and participation in armed conflicts. Children are to be protected upon dissolution of marriage and in adoption. Children need to be assured the right to play and recreation. Nigeria has taken steps to implement fully the provisions of the convention, and to integrate the provisions within the existing Children and Young Persons Laws. The provisions will be integrated by the Department of Social Welfare of the Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services. More punitive enforcement measures will be included in the new

  13. Personality characteristics of sex offenders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S M; Stava, L

    1987-02-01

    Research utilizing psychometric instruments to assess personality characteristics of sex offenders is reviewed. A methodological shortcoming of this research is the frequent use of the MMPI. It is argued that this test was originally developed as a measure of types of psychopathology and has not been validated as a personality test. Studies using tests other than the MMPI have seldom controlled for institutionalization and impression management. Further, little attention has been paid to criminal history, making it difficult to conclude that the current offense is representative of past behavior. In the case of child molesting, there has been a failure to specify and/or control for age and sex of victim and degree of force used. Results suggest that men who engage in rape and child molesting are guilt-ridden individuals who inhibit aggression, but these findings are tentative because of the aforementioned methodological problems.

  14. Insights on the Child Development Movement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Milton J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This monograph presents an oral history of selected aspects of the child development movement, based on interviews with prominent researchers since the 1920's. Topics include reactions to major figures and influences, the relationship of child development to pediatrics and child psychiatry, and the relevance of research to child care practices.…

  15. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Aware of America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2012 Report" presents 2011 data reflecting what parents pay for full-time child care in America. It includes average fees for both child care centers and family child care homes. Information was collected through a survey conducted in January 2012 that asked for the average costs charged for…

  16. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  17. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T A; Ray, Kathryn J; Coffee, Megan P; Gordon, Aubree; Aragón, Tomás J; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J; Porco, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the

  18. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Colijn, Grant P; Amiot, Volodymyr; Vinish, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during con...

  19. The molecular genetics of sex determination and sex reversal in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Alexander; Koopman, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The process of sex determination in mammals normally unfolds in three distinct stages: (1) establishment of chromosomal sex at fertilization (XX or XY); (2) commitment to the appropriate pathway of gonadal differentiation with respect to chromosomal sex, through the action (or absence) of the Y chromosome gene SRY; and (3) correct development of secondary sexual characteristics, including internal and external genitalia, in accordance with gonadal sex. At any of these three steps, the process of sex determination can go awry, leading to disorders of sexual development. In this article, we review the typical mechanism and process of mammalian sex determination, with an emphasis on the well-characterized mouse and human models. We also consider aberrant mammalian sex determination, focusing on examples of sex reversal stemming from gene defects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  1. [Studying dysfunctional personality trends among sex offenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, M; Bénony, H; Chahraoui, K; Juif, C

    2014-10-01

    A review of the literature reveals a consensus on the high prevalence of personality disorders among sexual offenders. Studies show that there is no unique personality profile for sex offenders. In France, little research has been conducted on this population with standardized assessment tools. The objective of the present study is to identify the distribution of personality disorders among sexual offenders using a new French questionnaire, i.e. the TD12. In view of the literature, we postulate that this tool will identify the diversity of personality disorders observed by various authors, but with a higher proportion of cluster B disorders. This study was conducted among 56 men, including 28 sex offenders aged from 21 to 70 years old, and a control group of 28 men without psychiatric disorders. The sex offenders in this study are men convicted or charged with sex offenses of various kinds: exhibitionism, the recording, distribution and possession of pornography depicting minors, aggravated corruption of a minor, sexual assault of a minor, or rape of a minor. They were examined using an inventory of dysfunctional trends recently developed by Rolland and Pichot with the aim of assessing dysfunctional personality styles. The TD-12 questionnaire is composed of 140 items describing thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is based on the diagnostic criteria of Axis II of DSM IV-TR and consists of twelve scales that match the personality disorders described in this diagnostic manual (ten officially recognized disorders and two additional disorders). From a categorical viewpoint, results indicate rigid dysfunctional trends with regard to avoidant personality disorder in sex offenders compared to the control group (Chi(2)=9.16; P=0.005). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the number of rigid dysfunctional trends. Potentially controllable dysfunctional personality trends are identified for the dependent personality (Chi(2

  2. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  3. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p child health outcome (r = -.33, p Child biological responses did not predict child health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  4. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  5. Sex-specific responses to stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Turtzo, L Christine; McCullough, Louise D

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease, with differences between males and females observed both clinically and in the laboratory. While males have a higher incidence of stroke throughout much of the lifespan, aged females have a higher burden of stroke. Sex differences in stroke result from a combination of factors, including elements intrinsic to the sex chromosomes as well as the effects of sex hormone exposure throughout the lifespan. Research investigating the sexual dimorphism of stroke...

  6. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Sex and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1994-01-01

    On the 25th anniversary of Pope Paul VI's signing of the Humanae Vitae "On the Regulation of Birth" and his reaffirming of the ban on birth control, this most controversial encyclical's anniversary will pass unnoticed at east in most US churches. Silence prevails as the utmost expression of dissent that priests and bishops can safely risk. Under the papacy of John Paul II, fidelity to the contraceptive ban is a loyalty test; public dissent by theologians and clerics invites reproach and punishment. Yet a church-sanctioned survey of priests found that more than 80% of Catholic clergy did not insist on the acceptance of the teaching in the confessional. The typical American Catholic uses birth control in the same numbers as everyone else. The Humanae Vitae's claims about sexuality are even more damaging than its position on banning contraception. It exalts sex as sacred, yet implies that sex is an animal impulse that must be suppressed, thus glorifying abstinence. According to Humanae Vitae, "each and every marriage act must remain open to the transmission of life." By insisting on the primacy of procreation in sexual behavior, the church loses its ability to sensibly address an array of societal problems, including AIDS, teen pregnancy, and population pressures. Many Catholics, far ahead of the institution, have crafted their own sexual ethic using the perspective the church uses in every other issue that comes before it: justice. With justice regulating sexual behavior, the concerns become one of respect and equality, the good of one's partner, the welfare of one's children, and the values of determining the number and spacing of births. With this viewpoint, Catholics and others would listen when the church talks about sex; now there is only silence.

  8. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  9. Engendering Harm: A Critique of Sex Selection For "Family Balancing".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvisi, Arianne

    2018-01-24

    The most benign rationale for sex selection is deemed to be "family balancing." On this view, provided the sex distribution of an existing offspring group is "unbalanced," one may legitimately use reproductive technologies to select the sex of the next child. I present four novel concerns with granting "family balancing" as a justification for sex selection: (a) families or family subsets should not be subject to medicalization; (b) sex selection for "family balancing" entrenches heteronormativity, inflicting harm in at least three specific ways; (c) the logic of affirmative action is appropriated; (d) the moral mandate of reproductive autonomy is misused. I conclude that the harms caused by family balancing are sufficiently substantive to override any claim arising from a supposed right to sex selection as an instantiation of procreative autonomy.

  10. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  11. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  12. Violent behavior in adolescents and parent-child cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Krindges, Manuela

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the association between violent behavior in adolescents and parent-child cohabitation. A population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling was performed in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2002. A total of 960 adolescents were interviewed using a self-applied questionnaire. The dependent variables (use of weapons and involvement in fights in the previous year were reported by adolescents) and the independent variable (parent-child cohabitation) were analyzed with the chi-square test and prevalence ratios, adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic level and reporting of alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use, both recently and throughout life. Involvement in fights in the previous year was reported by 23% of participants and use of weapons by 9.6%. Prevalence ratios of occurrence of such behaviors was 1.38 (95% CI: 0.71; 2.68, p=0.34) for involvement in fights and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.06; 2.67, p=0.03) for use of weapons, including "adolescents living with the father, mother or both" as reference. Parent-child cohabitation must be considered in policies aimed at preventing the use of weapons by children and adolescents, although it is recommended that care should be taken not to stigmatize children and adolescents who do not live with their fathers and mothers.

  13. The effects of China's universal two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-15

    In October, 2015, China's one-child policy was replaced by a universal two-child policy. The effects of the new policy are inevitably speculative, but predictions can be made based on recent trends. The population increase will be relatively small, peaking at 1·45 billion in 2029 (compared with a peak of 1·4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy continued). The new policy will allow almost all Chinese people to have their preferred number of children. The benefits of the new policy include: a large reduction in abortions of unapproved pregnancies, virtual elimination of the problem of unregistered children, and a more normal sex ratio. All of these effects should improve health outcomes. Effects of the new policy on the shrinking workforce and rapid population ageing will not be evident for two decades. In the meantime, more sound policy actions are needed to meet the social, health, and care needs of the elderly population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  15. Sex Education. Chapter Seventeen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Jerry A.

    Information and a framework that permits teachers to plan and initiate a successful sex education program for students with mental disabilities is provided. A major aspect of sex education should be its focus on social relationships, emotions, choice-making, and responsibilities to self and others. Sex education should not be viewed as a…

  16. Sex differences in stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, R.A.M.; Gustafson, D.R.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in stroke are observed across epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatments, and outcomes. These sex differences have profound implications for effective prevention and treatment and are the focus of this review. Epidemiologic studies reveal a clear age-by-sex interaction in

  17. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  18. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  19. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  20. The Influence Of Child Survival And Health Of The Previous Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that significant relationship existed between birth order, sex of child, mother's age at birth, index of household wealth, and the length of the preceding birth interval, but not with rural/urban residence, mother's education and type of provider of prenatal care. The result further indicated that a combination of ...

  1. Income Contributions of Child Work in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    John Cockburn

    2002-01-01

    The income contribution of child work is undoubtedly a key factor influencing child work and schooling decisions. Yet, few studies have attempted to directly measure this contribution. This is particularly the case for work performed on the household farm, as is the case for the vast majority of child workers, rather than for wages. In this study, we estimate a household income function with child labour included as an input. Results using a variety of functional forms and alternative child l...

  2. Parents’ experience with child safety restraint in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background Child safety restraints are effective measures in protecting children from an injury while traveling in a car. However, the rate of child restraint use is extremely low in Chinese cities. Parent drivers could play an important role in promoting child safety restraint use, but not all of them take active responsibility. Methods This study used a qualitative approach and included 14 in-depth interviews among parents with a child, under the age of 6, living in Shantou City (7 child sa...

  3. The ethics of sex selection and family balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2010-07-01

    Ethical concerns about the ethics of selecting the sex of a child predate current techniques of prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD) and sperm sorting. The only methods previously available were highly problematic, as they involved infanticide or abortion of an unwanted sex. PGD is less problematic than the earlier methods, yet still troubling to some because it involves destruction of a healthy embryo and risks to women. The technique of sperm sorting, still in an experimental phase, is the least ethically problematic method, yet opponents argue that sex selection by any means involves sex discrimination and can have undesirable consequences. One such consequence is an imbalance in the sex ratio. This imbalance already exists in some Asian countries that favor male children, but is less likely in Western Europe and North America. There is increasing acceptance of family balancing as a reason for sex selection, but some people remain opposed to broadening the indications for sex selection of offspring beyond family balancing. Nevertheless, parents may have good reasons other than family balancing for choosing the sex of a future child. Such reasons may be justified by the principle of reproductive liberty. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  4. Sex differences in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Curley, Erin E; Tung, Esther S; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2016-05-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) appears to be a fairly common disorder, yet little is known about sex differences in its clinical presentation. Long thought to be a primarily female disorder, males with TTM may have unique clinical presentations. Participants with TTM (N = 462) were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and psychiatric comorbidity. Clinical features were compared between males (n = 27) and females (n = 435). There were many similarities in the clinical presentations of males and females with TTM. Males with TTM, however, were more likely to pull from their face, arms, and torso, and were more likely to suffer from a co-occurring substance use disorder. Females were more likely to be younger and less likely to be married. This study suggests that, although few males seek treatment for TTM, sex differences may be an important clinical factor when assessing and treating this disorder. Further research is needed to validate these findings and identify whether treatments should be tailored differently for males and females with TTM.

  5. MEASUREMENT OF FATHER-CHILD ROUGH-AND-TUMBLE PLAY AND ITS RELATIONS TO CHILD BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stgeorge, Jennifer; Freeman, Emily

    2017-11-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of paternal influence on child outcomes such as language and cognition, researchers are not yet clear on the features of father-child play that are most valuable in terms of child development. Physical play such as rough and tumble play (RTP) is a favored type of father-child play in Western societies that has been linked to children's socioemotional competence. It is important, therefore, to determine the implications of this play for child development. In this review and meta-analysis, associations between father-child physical play and child behavior were examined. The review also focused on study methods. Sixteen studies are reviewed, N = 1,521 father-child dyads, 35% boys. Study characteristics such as definitions of physical play, play settings, play measures, and coding were examined. The meta-analysis found weak to moderate population effects for links between father-child physical play and child aggression, social competence, emotional skills, and self-regulation. Research investigating the effect of father-child physical play on children's development will be improved when definitions clearly identify the nature of play, settings facilitate boisterous play, and measures include frequency and quality of play interactions. This play shows promise as an enhancer of positive father-child relationships and a catalyst for child development. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  7. Teenage pregnancy and sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    The head of the Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit at the Department of Health discusses the incidence and causes of the UK's high teenage pregnancy rates and the risk factors. She outlines current Government strategy and progress towards reducing the rate of teenage conceptions. These include initiatives to improve sex and relationship education in schools.

  8. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  9. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood.

  10. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  11. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  12. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  13. Ovotesticular disorder of sex development with unusual karyotype: patient report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Georgette Beatriz; Ribeiro Andrade, Juliana Gabriel; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Sewaybricker, Letícia Esposito; Miranda, Márcio Lopes; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas; Guerra-Júnior, Gil

    2015-05-01

    Ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) (true hermaphroditism) is an anatomopathological diagnosis based on the findings of testicular and ovarian tissues in the same subject, in the same gonad (ovotestis), or in separate gonads. OT-DSD is a rare cause of sex ambiguity, and the most common karyotype is 46,XX; mosaics and chimeras are found only in 10%-20%. To report a case of an OT-DSD patient with a rare karyotype constitution. A 2-month-old child with male sex assignment was referred to our clinic for investigation of sex ambiguity. He was the second child of healthy unrelated parents; pregnancy and labor were uneventful. On physical examination, he had a 2.3-cm phallus and perineal hypospadias (Prader grade III); the right gonad was in the labioscrotal fold and the left was found in the inguinal channel. Karyotype was 46,XX/47,XXY/48,XXYY. Anatomopathological examination of gonads revealed right testis and left ovotestis. The male sex assignment was maintained; the child underwent left gonadectomy, removal of Mullerian structures and urethroplasty. A thorough revision of literature revealed a single case of OT-DSD with the same chromosome constitution. Gonadal biopsy is necessary to establish diagnosis in cases of sex chromosome mosaicism.

  14. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  16. Child related background factors affecting compliance with induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2004-03-01

    Factors such as age, sex, behaviour problems, fears, earlier traumatic hospital events and reactions to vaccination were assessed together with behaviour observed before premedication in order to evaluate their importance in predicting response to the anaesthetic process. The anaesthetic process was divided into four endpoints; compliance when given premedication, sedation, compliance during needle insertion or when an anaesthetic mask was put in place and behaviour when put to sleep. A total of 102 children who were undergoing day-stay surgery and overnight stay surgery were video-filmed during premedication and anaesthetic induction. Before premedication the children and parents answered questionnaires about behaviour [Preschool Behaviour Check List (PBCL)] and fears [Fears Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R)]. The films were analysed to assess behaviour before and after premedication and during induction of anaesthesia. A semistructured interview was conducted with the parents during the time the children were asleep. There was a significantly higher odds ratio for noncompliant behaviour during premedication if the child placed itself in the parent's lap or near the parent or had previously experienced traumatic hospital events. The odds ratio for not being sedated by premedication was higher if compliance was low when premedication was given or the child had experienced a traumatic hospital event in the past. A high odds ratio for noncompliant behaviour during venous access or placement of an anaesthetic mask was seen if the child was not sedated or the child had had a negative reaction when vaccinated. The odds ratio for falling asleep in an anxious or upset state was higher if the child had shown noncompliant behaviour during premedication, had not been sedated or had shown noncompliant behaviour during venous access or facemask placement. The overall most important factor that predicts noncompliant behaviour and a distressed state in the child

  17. Parent dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors associated with child behaviors and weight status among private school children in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Greene-Cramer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent

  18. Opening Trade Barriers: Sex Role Awareness Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rikki

    This manual consists of exercises to explore sex-role stereotyping as it affects work roles. They are intended to make young people aware of career opportunities in nontraditional fields. The 10 exercises include the following: values clarification; true-false quiz about sex characteristics and occupational requirements; character traits…

  19. What's Missing? Anti-Racist Sex Education!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Amanda; Sethna, Christabelle

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary sexual health curricula in Canada include information about sexual diversity and queer identities, but what remains missing is any explicit discussion of anti-racist sex education. Although there exists federal and provincial support for multiculturalism and anti-racism in schools, contemporary Canadian sex education omits crucial…

  20. Dangerous Liaisons: Substance Abuse and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report takes a comprehensive look at the connections between alcohol, drug use, and sex. Two national data sets on more than 34,000 teenagers and two sets on arrested and incarcerated sex offenders were analyzed. A review of the literature, interviews with experts, and an examination of programs aimed at prevention of abuse were included in…

  1. The Cedar Project: Negative health outcomes associated with involvement in the child welfare system among young Indigenous people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Adam F; Christian, Wayne M; Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Caron, Nadine R; Teegee, Mary P; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-05-07

    Indigenous leaders and child and family advocates are deeply concerned about the health impacts of the child welfare system, including HIV vulnerability. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of having been apprehended into the child welfare system and associated HIV vulnerabilities among young Indigenous people who use drugs. The Cedar Project is a cohort of young Indigenous people ages 14-30 years who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia. Multivariable logistic regression modeling determined associations between a history of involvement in the child welfare system and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of 605 participants, 65% had been taken from their biological parents. Median age of first apprehension was 4 years old. Having been sexually abused, having a parent who attended residential school and being HIV-positive were all independently associated with having been involved in the child welfare system. Participants who had been involved in the child welfare system were also more likely to have been homeless, paid for sex, diagnosed and hospitalized with mental illness, self-harmed, thought about suicide, and attempted suicide. Among participants who used injection drugs, those who had been involved in child welfare were more likely to have shared needles and overdosed. This study has found compelling evidence that young Indigenous people who use drugs in two cities in BC are experiencing several distressing health outcomes associated with child welfare involvement, including HIV infection. Jurisdictional reforms and trauma-informed programs that use culture as intervention are urgently needed.

  2. Neurological Manifestations of Medical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Katharine; Rood, Corey; Patel, Anup; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Brink, Farah W

    2016-01-01

    Medical child abuse occurs when a child receives unnecessary and harmful, or potentially harmful, medical care at the instigation of a caretaker through exaggeration, falsification, or induction of symptoms of illness in a child. Neurological manifestations are common with this type of maltreatment. We sought to review common reported neurological manifestations that may alert the clinician to consider medical child abuse. In addition, the possible sequelae of this form of child maltreatment is discussed, as well as practice recommendations for establishing the diagnosis and stopping the abuse once it is identified. A review of the medical literature was conducted regarding the reported neurological presentations of this entity. Neurological manifestations of medical child abuse include false reports of apparent life-threatening events and seizures and reports of induction of symptoms from poisoning. Failure to correlate objective findings with subjective complaints may lead to unnecessary and potentially harmful testing or treatment. This form of child maltreatment puts a child at significant risk of long-term morbidity and mortality. A wide variety of neurological manifestations have been reported in cases of medical child abuse. It is important for the practicing neurologist to include medical child abuse on the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, V Jordan

    2014-10-01

    Child commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking are global health problems requiring a multidisciplinary approach by individuals, organizations, communities, and national governments. The adverse emotional, physical, and social consequences for victims are legion and in many areas of the United States and the rest of the world, victim resources are scarce. Since violence, deprivation, abuse, and infection are so integral to the exploitation experience, victims may present for care to community and academic pediatric and adolescent health care providers. It is essential that medical professionals have the knowledge, skills, and resources to recognize victims, assess their needs, and treat them appropriately, including making key referrals for community services. However, to date medical information and resources regarding commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking has been sparse. There are no clinically validated screening tools specifically designed to identify victims in the health care setting and since victims seldom self-identify, it is likely that the majority of victims are unrecognized. The opportunity for comprehensive assessment and intervention is lost. Further, professionals receive little training on appropriate interview techniques for this special population, and many are ill equipped to ensure safety and optimal medical evaluation during the visit. This article provides a general overview of child sex trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation (CSEC), describing the epidemiology of international and domestic exploitation, and reviewing the challenges of conducting research on this population. The five stages of trafficking are explained, as are typical physical and emotional consequences of exploitation. The medical evaluation is described, including potential indicators of CSEC and sex trafficking, common medical presentations by victims, approaches to the comprehensive medical interview, and the appropriate medical exam with

  4. Clerical Child Abuse – The Irish Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Murphy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has been overwhelmed in the past two decades by what the Catholic Church itself has called ‘a tsunami’ of revelations of clerical child abuse – physical as well as sexual – of the meticulous concealment of abuse and abusers and of a long-established, and almost universal policy of protecting the assets and reputation of the Church, in preference to exposing the abusers.Between 2006 and 2009 Judge Yvonne Murphy chaired a Commission of Inquiry into the child sex abuse scandal in the Catholic Archdiocese of Dublin.

  5. Why Sex Education Is Important for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sol

    1977-01-01

    Listed are 15 important facts about sex that all teenagers, including those with disabilities, should know; and provided is information on resources relating to sex education for the handicapped. (SBH)

  6. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Mapping the Gap TM : Examining Child Care Supply & Demand Across the Country Checking In: A Snapshot of the Child Care Landscape – 2017 State Fact Sheets Child Care State Licensing Database Millennial Generation: How the Changing Economic Environment Impacts Parents’ Ability to Afford Child Care ...

  7. Child abuse and work stress in adulthood: Evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Nilsen, Wendy; Colman, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between child abuse and work stress in adulthood. We used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Mental Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Canadians. This study included all participants aged 20years or older who reported being employed the past 12months (N=14,581). Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to several work stress-related indicators. Multiple linear and Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, marital status, occupation group, and any lifetime mental disorder. Child abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of high work stress (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.43) in adulthood. More specifically, child abuse was associated with greater odds of job dissatisfaction (IRR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.31-2.18), job insecurity (IRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.27-1.91), and self-perceived low support (IRR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.22-1.46). It was also associated with high levels of psychological demand (b=0.348; 95% CI: 0.229-0.467) and job strain (b=0.031; 95% CI: 0.019-0.043). Examination of the Karasek's Demand-Control Model using multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that child abuse was significantly associated with high strain (RRR:1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.72) and active (RRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.28-1.90) jobs. These findings suggest the negative influence of child abuse on work experience. Success in preventing child abuse may help reduce work-related stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Anorexic and pseudoanorexic child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marranzini, M; Paesetto, A G

    1995-01-01

    After having conducted and examined an extensive six-year survey of 1372 children (758 females and 614 males, from newly born babies to 12 year olds), the Authors evaluate the importance of anorexy; in fact, it is one of the most frequent reasons for parents taking their children to a pediatrician, as they often see it as a "problem" even when it may not be the case. It is wise not to underestimate the importance of anorexy and the Authors set down some guidelines including the research into the symptoms which may lead us to organic forms, the evaluation of the child's auxologic and nutritional state and an analysis of the existing relationship between mother and child. Defining the most frequent forms of anorexy as primary, they advise carrying out a diagnosis of this type only after the presence of other secondary forms has been excluded, especially in the first year of life. Besides the etiologic therapy used for the secondary forms and some "treatments" (therapy) which act as placebos, the Authors highlight that the real care to primary anorexy lies in the child's dialogue with his/her parents.

  9. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development

    OpenAIRE

    Aimee M. Rolston; Melissa Gardner; Eric Vilain; David E. Sandberg

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn?17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child's condition. ...

  10. Preliminary evidence for an automatic link between sex and power among men who molest children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Jan H; De Ruiter, Corine; Janssen, Bas; Spiering, Mark

    2005-11-01

    Understanding critical motivational processes of sexual offenders may ultimately provide important clues to more effective treatments. Implicit, automatic cognitive processes have received minimal attention; however, a lexical decision experiment revealed automatic links between the concepts of power and sex among participants who self-reported attraction to sexual aggression. The current study replicates this experiment with a group of male child molesters and forensic and analogue controls. Subliminally presented sex words elicited a facilitation effect for power words among child molesters only; that is, sex to power associations were evident, as well as a trend for the reverse. These results provide preliminary evidence for an automatic sex-power association in child molesters and may point to a crucial pathological link in the cognitive schemata of sex offenders. As well, the current study suggests that paradigms from cognitive psychology may contribute to multimodal (risk) assessment of sexual offenders.

  11. Burns as child abuse: risk factors and legal issues in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Wishnew, Jenna; Rahimi, Maham; Zhang, Yan; Hester, Cynthia; Griswold, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to describe risk factors for child abuse from burns and examine prosecution and conviction rates after case discussions at a multidisciplinary conference Retrospective cohort study of all pediatric burns admitted between 2001 and 2006 was performed. Registry data on age, sex, mechanism, location, and size of burn were recorded. Registry data were verified against nursing documentation for accuracy. All cases were reviewed at the multidisciplinary "care conference" to gather insight from various perspectives to make a final determination of abuse or neglect. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with child abuse. Prosecution rates were determined by contacting child protective services and district attorney's offices. A total of 457 children were included in the analysis. Most of the children were boys (70%) and were of Hispanic origin (57%), with 30% white and 10% black. Hundred cases were suspicious for abuse after review at care conference. Younger age was a significant risk factor (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.65-0.82), with the mean age of abused children being 1 (3/4) years compared with 5 (1/2) years for accidental injuries. Girls were at higher risk for abuse (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.06-2.91).Torso injuries were significantly more common in abused children, an unusual finding possibly reflecting a different abuse pattern in infants compared with toddlers. Suspected abuse resulted in longer hospital stays (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). Prosecution rates and conviction rates in the authors region are low, at only 26 and 11% of suspicious cases, respectively. Young age and female sex were positively correlated with child abuse. Prosecution and conviction rates are remarkably low, despite using a multidisciplinary care conference to review all cases and obtaining early involvement of child protective services and law enforcement.

  12. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    Accepted 26 September, 2012. Here we report a mammal sexing procedure based on the detection of quantitative differences between ... qPCR) assays to quantify the amount of three specific Siberian tiger microsatellite markers (X-/Y- and ..... generation integrated genetic linkage/radiation hybrid maps of the domestic cat ...

  13. Victimization in the Canadian Off-Street Sex Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Doherty, Tamara Carrine

    2015-01-01

    This nation-wide study examined victimization in Canadian off-street commercial sex. Working in collaboration with sex workers, I recruited 109 adult women, men and transgender sex workers to take part in a self-administered survey, and I interviewed 42 sex workers. The survey focused on rates of several forms of violence, including threats, threats with weapons, assault, sexual assault, and confinement. Other forms of victimization included: theft, harassment, the refusal to use condoms, ref...

  14. The ethics of using genetic engineering for sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew

    2005-02-01

    It is quite likely that parents will soon be able to use genetic engineering to select the sex of their child by directly manipulating the sex of an embryo. Some might think that this method would be a more ethical method of sex selection than present technologies such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) because, unlike PGD, it does not need to create and destroy "wrong gendered" embryos. This paper argues that those who object to present technologies on the grounds that the embryo is a person are unlikely to be persuaded by this proposal, though for different reasons.

  15. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Lowthers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, organizing, and activism. In this short Communication, proceedings from a recent sex work research symposium entitled, Sexual Economies, Politics, and Positionality in Sex Work Research are presented. Held at the Centre for Refugee Studies at York University, this symposium is a response to the need for sex work researchers, sex workers, and sex worker-led organizations to come together and critically examine the future of research on sex work and the politics of documenting sex workers’ rights.

  16. child abuse and neglect as seen in a tertiary hospital in western

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-09

    Sep 9, 2011 ... Background: Child abuse is defined as denying a child his or her rights such as food, clothing, education, health and emotional support. The forms of child abuse include physical, sexual, emotional, nutritional, child labour and abandonment. Objective: To describe the types of child abuse seen among the ...

  17. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Abbey; Crowley, Angela A; Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Hill, Sherika; Pan, Yi; Nguyen, Viet; Rose, Roberta; Savage, Eric; Forestieri, Nina; Shipman, Linda; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2014-03-01

    To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI). A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center's written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children's nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers' and parents' knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children's zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by trained child health professionals such as child care

  18. Child Maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of Parent and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sarıyer, Görkem; Ataman, M Gökalp

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Turkey. First, ICAST was translated into Turkish by bilingual experts. Students and their parents were asked to complete ICAST-C and ICAST-P respectively, with the help of trained researchers. In total, data from 2,608 matched reports (2,608 children and 2,608 parents) was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographical variables, and chi-square tests were employed to investigate the statistical significance of comparisons. The present study demonstrated that Turkish parents consider rebukes, insults and corporal punishment effective ways of disciplining children. According to parents' reports, the use of psychological abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 16, while the use of physical abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 13. A statistically significant relationship was found between parents' economic conditions and child abuse (p0.05). However, the relationship between paternal educational background and psychological abuse was observed to be significant (pchildren's and parents' reports shows that parents tended to under-report child maltreatment. The results show that there is a significant healthcare problem in Turkey, since child maltreatment is prevalent, but parents are not generally aware of its extent. Possible approaches to changing this situation include efforts to increase education levels, promoting public awareness, and strengthening political commitments

  19. Growth in adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders, and risky sex: a comparison of youth from low- versus middle-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W Alex; Hitch, Julia E; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hawkins, J David

    2010-12-01

    This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the pathways for youth from low- compared to middle-income backgrounds. Multiple-group latent growth curve modeling was conducted using data collected from a sample of 808 youth followed from age 10 to age 24. Self-report assessments included delinquent involvement, alcohol use, and sexual activity in late childhood; delinquency and alcohol use in adolescence; and crime, AUDs, and risky sex in early adulthood. Late childhood delinquent involvement was associated with young adult crime, AUDs, and risky sex indirectly through adolescent delinquency, and had a persistent direct effect on crime. Adolescent delinquency also mediated the relation between early sex onset and crime. Early alcohol use predicted a higher level of, and a faster rate of increase in, adolescent drinking, which predicted, in turn, young adult AUDs and risky sex. Significant group differences indicated stronger associations between adolescent delinquency and each young adult outcome for youth from low- compared to those from middle-income backgrounds. Early intervention may help prevent the development of crime, AUDs, and risky sex behaviors, especially among disadvantaged youth. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  1. The Big Five: Recent developments in Slovene child personality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of recent personality trait research in children and early adolescents, with a special focus on studies in Slovenia. In the search for the precursors of the adult Big Five, a free-descriptive strategy to assess personality in non-adult samples is emphasized. Findings suggest that parents describe infants and toddlers in terms that are predominantly categorized in the Five-Factor Model taxonomy. Distributions of descriptors show developmental patterns from infancy to early adolescence and small cultural differences. Based on the parental natural language used to describe children across countries, ecologically valid assessment tools were created. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (ICID; Halverson et al., 2003 was conceptualized as an age and culturally neutral instrument, and is widely used in Slovenia. Cross-sectional studies on ICID ratings of 3 to 14 year-olds provide information on age, sex, and cultural differences in child/adolescent personality trait expression across observers. Several aspects of trait consistency from early to middle childhood, using a longitudinal and multiple-informant approach, are reviewed, as well as the aspects of consistency across contexts and informants. Concurrent and longitudinal predictive values of the ICID trait assessments are shown in relation to several social and academic outcomes. In addition to the variable-centered method, results based on the child-centered approach suggest several internally replicable personality types. Developmental and cross-observer consistency in the structure of personality types, stability of type membership and its predictive validity versus personality traits is described. Prospects for future research on child personality development are suggested, including new methods of assessment and the investigation of links between early personality and important life outcomes.

  2. Grandmothers' influence on mother and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, N M

    1995-06-01

    This study is based on interviews with grandmothers during July-September 1992-93 in Sudan. The study shows that grandmothers play a significant role in health education and child care within families in the Sudan. Grandmothers, who are not aware of the changes in knowledge, also promote harmful traditions. The authors recommend that health education be directed to elderly women and grandmothers in order to change beliefs and practices that continue to be harmful to children and mothers. Grandmothers were found to give sound advice on child birth, such as movement during labor, breast feeding immediately after birth, and birth intervals of 2-4 years. Grandmothers also gave sound advice on good nutritional practices during pregnancy and use of fermented cereals as weaning foods. Grandmothers recommended use of fenugreek for lactating mothers and use of mint and haharaib for stomach upsets, remedies that are beneficial. Babul is useful after an episiotomy for its antibacterial effects. Harmful advice includes recircumcision after delivery, short birth intervals, and avoidance of contraception. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a major practice that exposes girls and mothers to a greater risk of mortality during childbirth and pregnancy. The sample of grandmothers agreed on the importance of sex education for a girl before marriage. Unfortunately, 57% of grandmothers recommended 14 years as a suitable age for marriage. Grandmothers generally believed wrongly that riding bicycles, drinking coffee, and wearing trousers by girls would increase their sexual desires. Grandmothers explained menstruation to granddaughters and offered home-made remedies for cramps. 45% believed that there were no disadvantages to FGM and recommended FGM at ages 2-5 years. Most viewed fevers as a danger that required a doctor's care. Advice varied among grandmothers according to socioeconomic class.

  3. Sex education in schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pondělíčková, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of my thesis was to determine what is the awareness of students from different types of grammar schools and reveal the critical points in knowledge. I also wanted to find out what the pupil's attitude to sex education. In the theoretical part I described these issues - sexuality, sexual development, sexual rights and sex education. The second part is the research and deals with awareness and attitudes of students and teachers on sex education.

  4. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, 2000 Types: ... the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from both the ...

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Search form Search « Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  6. Child Pornography: Perpetuating the Sexual Victimization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. P.; Stone, Lore E.

    1985-01-01

    The history of child pornography photography is briefly reviewed and the current problem is examined and partially attributed to the profit motive. The authors urge changing child abuse reporting statutes to include photofinishing laboraties. (CL)

  7. Adolescent Callous-Unemotional Traits and Parental Knowledge as Predictors of Unprotected Sex Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Katherine Long; Shadur, Julia Madeline; Hoffman, Elana Michelle; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is common and results in many negative consequences. The present study investigated longitudinal predictors of adolescents' likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse. Parental knowledge, or the extent to which parents know about their children's activities, whereabouts, and friendships, is a robust predictor of youth risk behavior, including risky sexual behavior. However, parenting practices are typically less potent as predictors of subsequent behavior among youth with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We conducted three logistic regression models, each of which examined parental knowledge in a different way (through child report, parent report, and a discrepancy score), allowing us to examine parental knowledge, CU traits, and their interaction as predictors of adolescents' subsequent engagement in sex without a condom. Results indicated that adolescents who perceived their parents to possess greater knowledge were less likely to engage in unprotected sex. Higher parent report of parental knowledge was also related to decreased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with high levels of CU traits. In addition, greater discrepancy between parent and adolescent reports of parental knowledge was related to increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with low levels of CU traits. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and adolescent perceptions of parental knowledge and have important implications for prevention and intervention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Problems in Sex and Living Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available When the problems of sex and living together are understood as symptoms of underlying old existential wounds in need of healing, and when the physician accepts the role as coach supporting the patient to confront these emotional pains, then the patient can heal existentially in order to obtain the wanted closeness and intimacy. The change of perspective from: “He or she is not all right in...” to “I see that this is really about me, and what I have to learn is...” is where the patient assumes responsibility and this is often efficient in helping the patient with problems in his/her sex- and love life. Intimacy is the most difficult art, where sexuality cannot exist without trust, vulnerability, and surrender. This is often only possible after the patient has found his or her true self, including the purpose of life. The physician who will give “holding” (care and processing to the patient with the intention of healing the “wounded child inside” who cannot love and open up, can often help the patient to improve self-insight and change the whole quality and atmosphere of the relationship. The healing will end a series of symptoms of poor thriving, physically, emotionally, and mentally, and make life worth living. Sometimes a few successful holistic sessions are enough to change the whole picture and solve an emotional “knot” that has the potential to destroy the relationship.

  9. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  10. Sex in the Lesbian Teacher's Closet: The Hybrid Proliferation of Queers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sheila L.

    2008-01-01

    Using feminist, queer and postcolonial theories, this paper analyzes the public commentary and anxious concern about child-welfare in a recent lesbian teacher sex scandal in Vancouver, Canada, involving Jean Robertson. Arguing that the public and professional uproar is not really about child-protectionism so much as it is about the place of white…

  11. Academic Self-Concept, Gender and Single-Sex Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This article assesses gender differences in academic self-concept for a cohort of children born in 1958 (the National Child Development Study). It addresses the question of whether attending single-sex or co-educational schools affected students' perceptions of their own academic abilities (academic self-concept). Academic self-concept was found…

  12. Successful Sex Pre-selection using Natural Family Planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gender can be preselected by timing coitus in relation to ovulation, the marker of ovulation being the Peak symptom according to the Billings Method. A blind prospective study of 99 couples wishing to preselect the sex of their child was conducted in Nigeria, using the ...

  13. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders.

  14. Impact of Chinese one-child policy on sibling structure: experience from rural areas in three provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina; Long, Qian; Wu, Zhuochun; Klemetti, Reija

    2012-01-01

    To study the influence of population policy and boy preference on the sibling structure, that is, in which order and combinations boys and girls are born into families. A population-based survey with a representative sample of new mothers in 2008-2009 in rural China. Two provinces (Anhui and Shaanxi) where authorisation for a second child was usually given if the first birth was a daughter and one province (Chongqing) where only one child was authorised. The mothers giving birth in 2008-2009 were identified from family planning and hospital birth registers (including births outside hospitals) (n=5049). Of them, 3673 were interviewed by trained medical university staff members and students using structured questionnaire (response rate 73%). Children's distribution by sex and families' distribution by children's birth order and sex composition were calculated and compared with theoretical values based on the assumption that family planning policy is fully followed. The recommended family policy was varyingly followed in the three provinces. In all provinces, there were more second children than allowed. If the policy allowing a second child only after a first-born girl were fully followed, it would result in a sibling structure in which the one-child family is always with a boy and in the two-child family the first one is always a girl. This sibling structure was partly seen in Anhui but weakly in Shaanxi. The policy allowing only one child would result in an equal number of boys and girls, but in Chongqing, there were more boys. In Anhui, unlike the other provinces, there were many more first-born girls than boys, which the authors could not fully explain. Population policy and boy preference influence the actual and relative number of girls and boys and also sibling structure.

  15. Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); E. Schwarz (Emanuel); P.C. Guest (Paul); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); J. Steiner (Johann); L. Ruta (Liliana); S. Baron-Cohen (Simon); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females

  18. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  19. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Anton PH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO. The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4 referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents, and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample. However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6% and violent recidivism (32.1%. Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary.

  20. Offense related characteristics and psychosexual development of juvenile sex offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette 't A; Doreleijers, Theo AH; Jansen, Lucres MC; van Wijk, Anton PH; Bullens, Ruud AR

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article reports on offense related characteristics and the psychosexual development in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders as measured by the Global Assessment Instrument for Juvenile Sex Offenders (GAIJSO). The predictive validity of these characteristics for persistent (sexual) offensive behavior in subgroups of juvenile sex offenders was investigated. Methods: One hundred seventy four sex offenders (mean age 14.9 SD 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch Child Protection Board were examined. Offense related characteristics were assessed by means of the GAIJSO and the BARO (a global assessment tool for juvenile delinquents), and criminal careers of the subjects were ascertained from official judicial records. Results: Serious need for comprehensive diagnostics were found on the domains sexual offense and psychosexual development in juvenile sex offenders, especially in the group of child molesters. These youngsters displayed more internalizing and (psychosexual) developmental problems and their sexual offense was more alarming as compared to the other juvenile sex offender subgroups. Although one third of the juveniles had already committed one or more sex offenses prior to the index offense, at follow up (mean follow up period: 36 months SD 18 months) almost no sexual recidivism was found (0.6% of the entire sample). However, a substantial proportion of the entire sample of juvenile sex offenders showed non-sexual (55.6%) and violent recidivism (32.1%). Several predictors for a history of multiple sex offending and non-sexual recidivism were identified. Conclusion: This study revealed numerous problems in juvenile sex offenders. Assessment using the GAIJSO is helpful in order to identify indicators for extensive diagnostic assessment. In order to investigate the predictive validity for sexual reoffending a longer follow up period is necessary. PMID:19594889

  1. An Empirical Study of the Personality Characteristics of Internet Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomak, Sheri; Weschler, Frederick S.; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Virden, Thomas; Nademin, Mahsaw Elicia

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the personality characteristics and psychopathology of internet sex offenders (ISOs) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) to determine whether ISO personality profiles are different to those of general sex offenders (GSOs; e.g. child molesters and rapists). The ISOs consisted of…

  2. Psychotherapy Experiences of Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandra P; Phillips, Kenneth D; Blaine, Susan K

    2015-10-01

    Cynicism about treatment of sex offenders pervades both professional and lay literature. A Cochrane review of randomized controlled trials concluded there is no evidence to support any psychological intervention for sex offenders, but RCT design has limitations for evaluating sex offender treatment. Rarely has a qualitative approach been used to explore perceptions of offenders themselves about their psychotherapy experiences. The purpose of this study was to discover the meaning of therapy experiences to 11 community-dwelling perpetrators of child sexual abuse. They had received therapy during incarceration or after release, or both. Secondary analysis was conducted of phenomenological interviews about participants' early life, during which they spontaneously revealed insights gleaned during therapy in adulthood. Rigor of the analysis was enhanced by reading transcripts aloud and thematizing them in an interdisciplinary interpretive group. Five interrelated themes constituted a gestalt comprising the essence of the therapy experience: "This treatment, it's just totally changed my whole world." Themes included: "It just stripped away all the pretense, all the lies, all the manipulation;" "I didn't understand myself; I found out all about myself through this;" "Nobody knew any of my secrets; that (therapy) was the first time that I got to tell my story;" "The group has become a family for me;" and "I'm very ashamed of what I've done; this treatment has really helped me, gave me a second chance." These findings stand in contrast to cynicism about sex offender therapy and lend support to the increased optimism expressed by several contemporary scholars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  4. Individual Psychotherapy for the Sexually Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David P. H.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to individual psychotherapy includes a five-part conceptualization of the traumatic experience: trauma, threat to ontogeny, neglect and emotional unavailability by the caregiver, child's feeling of exploitation, and the child's adaptation. Some common problems which occur are guilt, loss and anger, as well as alterations in the…

  5. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  6. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... and will not exceed a 12,000 Newton (N) load on the anchors in a 35 mile per hour (mph) frontal... forces generated by the child and CRS in most crash conditions do not exceed the lower anchors' design... weigh up to 80 lb, including structural integrity, force distribution, installation, child restraint...

  7. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  8. Rates of advertised condomless sex in the online profiles of private sex workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackledge, Edjoni; Thng, Caroline; McIver, Ruthy; McNulty, Anna

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of condomless sex advertised online by private sex workers (PSW) in Sydney. In 2015, 750 online profiles of PSW, including 339 female, 53 male and 39 transgender PSWs, were reviewed. It was found that PSWs advertise protected anal and vaginal sex. However, 50% of female PSW advertised condomless oral sex. Age less than 25 years was associated with advertised condomless oral sex (odds ratio 1.56; 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.37; P=0.037). Online platforms are widely used for advertising, especially by female PSWs. Levels of condom use advertised reflect that of other studies of sex workers in Sydney.

  9. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  10. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to HIV Risk Behavior among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…

  11. Sex and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuban, Larry

    1986-01-01

    Predicts that reformers will not attack sex education as an inappropriate addition to otherwise rigorous academic programs. Examines (1) some of the political, social, and practical reasons behind this avoidance and (2) the ineffectiveness of existing programs in preventing teenage pregnancies. Suggests that sex education programs may even hinder…

  12. Insects and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual

  13. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... environmental effects determine sex in some individuals, then those environmentally-influenced individuals will have the wrong gonad type for their genotype: they will be XX males or XY females. This discordance is easy to observe when a species has morphological sex chromosomes, or when genetic.

  14. Pornography and sex crimes in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Milton; Jozifkova, Eva; Weiss, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence. Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change. As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.

  15. Case Studies of Child Play Areas and Child Support Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    at the edge of the park 0 Adler introduces use of color * Adler introduces moving things including a triple tire swing and a Tarzan rope e Adler...Parent-child challenge play where the child tried to extend his or her a- bility to do something like the Tarzan Swing. 0 Infants and very young...Attached to the tree house is the pulley-ride that provides the excitement of feet-off-the-ground transportation and is connected to the Tarzan swing at the

  16. Sex and the Imperfect Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.

  17. Pleiotropic Mechanisms Indicated for Sex Differences in Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileena Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in common disease is pervasive, including a dramatic male preponderance in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Potential genetic explanations include a liability threshold model requiring increased polymorphism risk in females, sex-limited X-chromosome contribution, gene-environment interaction driven by differences in hormonal milieu, risk influenced by genes sex-differentially expressed in early brain development, or contribution from general mechanisms of sexual dimorphism shared with secondary sex characteristics. Utilizing a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP dataset, we identify distinct sex-specific genome-wide significant loci. We investigate genetic hypotheses and find no evidence for increased genetic risk load in females, but evidence for sex heterogeneity on the X chromosome, and contribution of sex-heterogeneous SNPs for anthropometric traits to ASD risk. Thus, our results support pleiotropy between secondary sex characteristic determination and ASDs, providing a biological basis for sex differences in ASDs and implicating non brain-limited mechanisms.

  18. Sex work, drug use and sexual health risks: Occupational norms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that alcohol and drugs use among sex workers is shaped by the social organization of sex work, including normative expectations, social pressures, negative societal attitudes towards sex work and threats arising from the socio-cultural context of their lives and work. Drugs occupy an ambiguous position in the ...

  19. Sex Education Outreach from a Family Planning Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Efrem; Weinstein, Stellye

    1982-01-01

    A sex education outreach program emphasizing values, moral reasoning, and approaches to problem solving was developed in response to the rise in teenage pregnancies. Aspects of the sex education program structure included: (1) decision making regarding sex; (2) contraception; (3) parental involvement; (4) outreach volunteer training; and (5)…

  20. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  1. Child spacing and two child policy in practice in rural Vietnam: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, H T; Toan, N V; Johansson, A; Hoa, V T; Höjer, B; Persson, L A

    1996-11-02

    To explore the reproductive pattern of women in rural Vietnam in relation to the existing family planning policies and laws. Cross sectional survey with question-naires on reproductive history. Tien Hai, a district in Red River Delta area, where the population density is one of the highest in Vietnam. 1132 women who had at least one child under 5 years of age in April 1992. Birth spacing and probability of having a third child. The mean age at first birth was 22.2 years. The average spacing between the first and the second child was 2.6 years. Mothers with a lower educational level, farmers, and women belonging to the Catholic religion had shorter spacing between the first and second child and also a higher probability of having a third child. In addition, women who had no sons or who had lost a previous child were more likely to have a third child. Most families do not adhere to the official family planning policy, which was introduced in 1988, stipulating that each couple should have a maximum of two children with 3-5 years' spacing in between. More consideration should be given to family planning needs and perceptions of the population, supporting the woman to be in control of her fertility. This may imply improved contraceptive services and better consideration of sex issues and cultural differences as well as improved social support for elderly people.

  2. Sex reversal in Betta splendens Regan with emphasis on the problem of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T P; Larkin, J R

    1975-01-01

    To gain insight into the sex-determining mechanism of the Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, sex-reversed individuals were bred and the ratios of the spawnings were examined. Sex-reversal of 245 females was undertaken by ovariectomizing them; of these, 104 became sex-reversed. Twenty-three of these latter fish were mated to normal females and eleven spawnings were raised to maturity. These spawnings resulted in all female broods or mixed broods. Were the male fish heterogametic, a view currently held by some authors, no males would be produced in these spawnings. Thus, male heterogamety was not substaintiated in this study. Contrary to other studies, the experimental sex reversal of females is not a rare event since nearly two-thirds of the fish that survived the surgery became sex-reversed. Gross dissection and histological observation of sex-reversed fish revealed a regenerated, unpaired duct which remained after the ovaries had been removed. The tissue of the regenerate was testicular and contained active spermatogenesis. Some alterative methods of sex determination which may apply to the Betta are examined. These include the possibility of two different sex-determining races, the effects of exogenous factors, and a polygenic system of sex determination.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  4. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  5. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  6. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  7. Sex Differences in the Expression of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, David J.; Holloway, Minita G.

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics characterize many drugs and contribute to individual differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. Sex-based differences in drug metabolism are the primary cause of sex-dependent pharmacokinetics and reflect underlying sex differences in the expression of hepatic enzymes active in the metabolism of drugs, steroids, fatty acids and environmental chemicals, including cytochromes P450 (P450s), sulfotransferases, glutat...

  8. Nonconsensual Sex Crimes and the UCMJ: A Proposal for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The History of the Pleas of the Crown). 51 SIR MATTHEW HALE, HISTORIA PLACITORUM CORONAE [THE HISTORY OF THE PLEAS OF THE CROWN] 627 (2d ed. 1847...forcible anal intercourse and forcible oral sex are not included in the definition of rape under Article 120; forcible anal sex and forcible oral ...He then joined the couple in the sex acts. He performed oral sex on the recruit’s girlfriend and then penetrated her. The girlfriend whispered to her

  9. Family and Child Homelessness. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide information about family and child homelessness and the need to address homelessness within the context of community development. The following sections are included: (1) "Family Homelessness" (Homelessness Information Exchange); (2) "A Report on the 1988 National Survey on Shelters for the Homeless"…

  10. Measuring Child Development and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal's "Education 2030" agenda includes an explicit focus on early childhood development. Target 4.2 states that all children are "developmentally on track" at the start of school. What does it mean for a child to be developmentally on track, and how should it be measured, especially in an…

  11. Steady the dizzy child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    angular). Vestibular. (linear). Visual. Auditory. Fig 1. The mechanism of normal balance control. ... CHILD. History. A good clinical history forms the basis of the approach. Owing to the child's lack of communication skills, the parent or caretaker.

  12. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Center October 6, 2017 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  14. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (IBS) Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Toilet Training Your Child Toilet Training Your Child Share Print Children go through ... and for you—is learning to use the toilet. Parents often have many questions about when and ...

  15. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  16. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  17. "Bareback" pornography consumption and safe-sex intentions of men having sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonas, K.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Vastenburg, D.; de Groot, P.

    2014-01-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) commonly consume "bareback" pornography, which includes scenes of unprotected anal intercourse. Prior research on human imitative behavior suggests that these media might counteract efforts to promote safe-sex behaviors. To date, no studies have demonstrated a causal

  18. Pet dogs and child physical activity: the role of child-dog attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, A M; Scribani, M B; Krupa, N; Jenkins, P

    2017-10-01

    Dog ownership has been associated with increased physical activity in children which in turn may mitigate childhood obesity. To measure the association between child-dog attachment and child physical activity and screen time. Cross-sectional study including 370 children (ages 4-10) who had pet dogs in the home. Parents completed the DartScreen, a web-based screener, before a well-child visit. Screener domains included child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time and dog-related questions. The Companion Animal Bonding Scale (CABS) was used to measure child attachment to the dog. Clinic nurses weighed and measured the children. Associations between CABS, BMI z-score, screen time and physical activity were estimated. CABS was strongly associated with time spent being active with the dog (F = 22.81, p dog is associated with increased child physical activity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2010-04-01

    To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical examiner and police reports corresponding to all deaths in children less than 5 years of age reported to NVDRS in 16 states. Of the 1,374 deaths for children under 5 reported to NVDRS, 600 were considered attributable to child maltreatment. Over a half of the 600 victims of child maltreatment in this age group were under 1 year old, 59% were male, 42% non-Hispanic Whites, and 38% were non-Hispanic Blacks. Two thirds of child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5 were classified as being due to abusive head trauma (AHT), 27.5% as other types of physical abuse, and 10% as neglect. Based on these data, fathers or their substitutes were significantly more likely than mothers to be identified as alleged perpetrators for AHT and other types of physical abuse, while mothers were more likely to be assigned responsibility for neglect. Among children under 5 years, children under 1 are the main age group contributing to child maltreatment fatalities in the NVDRS. AHT is the main cause of death in these data. These findings are limited by underascertainment of cases and fair inter-rater reliability of coding. The findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate interventions targeting AHT to reduce the overall number of child maltreatment deaths in young children. These interventions should make special efforts to include fathers and their substitutes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Factors associated with parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS in the United States and Kenya: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Melissa N; Miller, Kim S; Lin, Carol; Fasula, Amy; Vandenhoudt, Hilde; Wyckoff, Sarah C; Ochura, Juliet; Obong'o, Christopher O; Forehand, Rex

    2010-10-01

    This study explored parent-child communication about HIV/AIDS among two populations disproportionately affected by HIV. Similar computer-assisted surveys were completed by parents of pre-teens, including 1,115 African American parents of 9-12-year-old children in southeastern US and 403 parents of 10-12-year-old children in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Multivariate analyses identified factors associated with parental report of ever talking to their child about HIV/AIDS. Twenty-nine percent of US parents and 40% in Kenya had never talked to their pre-teen about HIV/AIDS. In both countries, communication was more likely if parents perceived their child to be ready to learn about sex topics, had gotten information to educate their child about sex, and had greater sexual communication responsiveness (skill, comfort, and confidence communicating about sexuality). Programs are needed that help parents assess children's readiness to learn about sexual issues; access accurate information about adolescent sexual risks; and acquire the responsiveness needed to discuss sexual issues, including HIV/AIDS.

  1. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  2. Nurturing the child's creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandalakshmy, S

    1991-01-01

    A much neglected but vital aspect of a child's development, creativity; needs to be vigorously promoted. India's child survival strategy has focused on immunization, oral rehydration, education, and limiting family size. No policy exists, however, that seeks to nurture a child's curiosity, joy and hopefulness. Many people place art and science in separate realms, not realizing that both depend on the unhindered flow of imagination. India's educational system emphasizes practical and utilitarian knowledge. This systems stresses the accumulation of information, academic performance, and competition. A child acquired value according to how well he or she performs in an exam, a fact that can have only a negative impact on the child's psyche. At home, parents push a child to achieve results, discouraging curiosity in the process. All of these tendencies serve to stifle the creative impulses of the child, making him or her apathetic or frustrated. Society needs to recognize that every child is a gifted child, one who has the inalienable right to explore, seek information, and use his or her imagination. Parents, schools, and the country as a whole need to foster such creativity. Stories, songs, poems, parables--all of these can stimulate a child's imagination. Parents should encourage a child to read for fun, and should help the child differentiate between good literature and mediocre writing, between the aesthetic and the gaudy. Parents should invite children to talk about their feelings and thoughts and should share their own.

  3. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective ways to discipline your child. Strategies That Work When your child does not listen, try the following: Natural Consequences ... younger than 6 or 7 years, withholding privileges works best if done right away. For example, if your child misbehaves in the morning, do not tell her ...

  4. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from getting worse. But, when they no longer work, the child's health care provider will recommend surgery. There are ... urinate. Your child's stomach and bowels may not work for a few days ... Your child may need to receive fluids and nutrition through ...

  5. Managing the Biting Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Anne E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the causes of biting behavior and techniques that parents and educators can use to manage biting toddlers. Notes that solutions need to consider the developmental level and needs of the child, the influence of the child's environment, and the role of adults in the child's life. (MDM)

  6. Grandparents and child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Slaven, James E; Talty, Judith L

    2012-11-01

    This study compares child passenger safety (CPS) practices of grandparents versus parents and determines grandparents' opinions on car safety seats (CSS), barriers to use, and ways to transport grandchildren safely. Observational surveys were conducted on a convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than sixteen years at 25 locations by certified child passenger safety technicians observing children in motor vehicles and recorded use of child passenger restraints. The drivers were surveyed on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding CPS. Data from drivers identifying themselves as grandparents were analyzed; also, three grandparent focus groups provided opinions on CPS practices. During the study 1758 parents transporting 2713 children and 284 grandparents transporting 391 grandchildren were included. While most drivers were restrained and used child occupant restraints, almost 25% of parents and grandparents chose the incorrect seat to transport the child, and greater than 68% had at least one harness error. Grandparents were more likely to have looser lower anchor straps or seat belts and have children younger than thirteen years in the front seat. The focus group-grandparents had a favorable attitude toward CSS. Grandparents acknowledged the need for CSS but opined that CSS were difficult to use. Physical barriers included arthritis, back pain, mobility, decreased strength, and vision problems. Grandparents and parents were equally likely to use CSS and choose correct seats. Compared to parents, grandparents were more likely to travel with their grandchildren with CSS installed with looser harnesses or an installed CSS with looser seat belt or lower anchors. Additionally, grandparents were more likely to have a child younger than thirteen years in the front seat. The use of community resources such as permanent fitting stations could help grandparents improve a grandchild's travel safety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Teacher Stress Predicts Child Executive Function: Moderation by School Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…

  8. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  9. Child Welfare in Developing Countries | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 août 2010 ... What factors affect child welfare? How can policy improve child welfare? In developing countries, there has been relatively little empirical work on the analysis and measurement of child poverty. Further, poverty has many dimensions, including mortality, morbidity, hunger, illiteracy, lack of fixed housing, and ...

  10. Theory into Practice: Advancing Normalization for the Child under Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin-Moore, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    Alyssa Conklin-Moore discusses normalization in the child under three from several perspectives. She takes an extensive look at the child, including orienting parents to the Montessori environment, the child's entrance into the environment, addressing the sensitive periods, and fostering independence, contribution, and community. She reminds the…

  11. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and ... Questions8. Resources What is dyspareunia? Dyspareunia is painful sex for women. Also, it causes pain during tampon ...

  12. Satisfaction and Condomless Anal Sex at Sexual Debut and Sexual Risk Among Young Black Same-Sex Attracted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtman, Jessica; Sherman, Susan G; Morgan, Anthony; German, Danielle; Arrington-Sanders, Renata

    2017-05-01

    First sex may be a sentinel event crucial to understanding sexual health trajectories of young Black same-sex attracted men (YBSSAM). We sought to understand whether satisfaction, condomless anal sex, and contextual factors during first sex were associated with sexual risk and recent condom use in YBSSAM. A total of 201 YBSSAM aged 15-24 years completed an Internet survey exploring first sex, current condom use, and sexual risk. High risk was defined as ≥3 of the following: new/concurrent sex partners, STI history, and no/inconsistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between predictor (satisfaction and first condomless anal sex) and outcome (sexual risk and condomless sex in the past 3 months) variables. Mean age at first sex was 15.2 (SD = 2.9) years, and emotional satisfaction (51.7 %), physical satisfaction (63.7 %), and condomless first anal sex (55.2 %) were common. YBSSAM describing high levels of satisfaction were no more likely to be at high risk or engage in recent condomless sex. Condomless first sex (AOR = 4.57, p = .001), younger age (AOR = 3.43, p = .02), and having a partner >5 years older (AOR = 2.78, p = .03) at first sex were significantly associated with increased risk. Only condomless first sex (AOR = 4.28, p Satisfaction at first sex may not influence later sexual risk in YBSSAM. However, context of first sex, including condom use at first sex, may play an important role in subsequent risk. Prevention strategies on condom negotiation prior to first sex may help to mitigate HIV burden in YBSSAM.

  13. The last commodity: child prostitution in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, A

    1994-01-01

    There is an enormous supply of children and young adolescents worldwide who have sex for money and other forms of tangible compensation. Child prostitution is far from new, but it has only recently grown to become a multibillion dollar industry with children bought, sold, and traded like other mass-produced goods. Brazil has 250,000-500,000 children in the sex trade and the number of children involved in Colombia, Russia, and Benin is growing rapidly. Asia is the center of child prostitution with an estimated 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, 400,000 in India, and 800,000 in Thailand. Most of the sex workers are under 16 years old and most are female, although some parts of the world offer almost exclusively young male prostitutes. Indeed, almost all of Sri Lanka's 20,000-30,000 child prostitutes are boys. The overwhelming majority of children who have sex for money do so out of economic need, particularly in the context of widespread rural poverty. Some children leave home on their own in search of opportunity, some are stolen or sold into slavery, and others are kicked out of their homes. An International Labor Organization study found that a woman in the sex industry in Thailand can make about 25 times more than she could in any other occupation open to her. Such financial reward is often hard to resist. Demand for child prostitutes comes from a range of sources. In Asia, child prostitution, and prostitution in general, is deeply embedded in many local and national cultures. For example, an Harvard University researcher has determined that 75% of all men in Thailand have had sex with a prostitute. While nationals frequent and effectively support the prostitution industry, many foreign travelers also visit countries in search of sex. Young prostitutes are in particular demand due to the myth that youngsters are somehow relatively virgin and bereft of infection with sexually transmitted diseases. The author discusses the causes of rural poverty, the

  14. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  15. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Louwers, Eveline (Eefje)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractChild abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in childhood is enormously reduced over the past decades, unfortunately this has not been the case for the staggering statistics surrounding child abuse.2 Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotion...

  16. Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jenny C; Reue, Karen

    2017-08-21

    Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement. Here, we review the mechanisms by which gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement each contribute to lipid metabolism and associated diseases, and the current approaches that are used to study them. We focus particularly on genetic approaches including genome-wide association studies in humans and mice, -omics and systems genetics approaches, and unique experimental mouse models that allow distinction between gonadal and sex chromosome effects.

  17. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  18. Maternal emotion dysregulation, parenting stress, and child physiological anxiety during dark-enhanced startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minhnguyen; Powers, Abigail; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2017-12-01

    Maternal emotion dysregulation (ED) plays a crucial role in the development of psychopathology in children. The current study aimed to investigate parenting stress as a mediator of the relationship between maternal emotion dysregulation and child startle potentiation, with child sex as a moderator. Mothers were interviewed to obtain self-report of maternal ED and parenting stress and child's dark-enhanced startle (DES) response was measured using electromyographic recordings of the eye-blink muscle during the delivery of acoustic probes. We found that maternal ED was positively correlated with both her parenting stress and her child's DES. A bootstrap analysis yielded a full mediation of the association between ED and child DES via parenting stress. Child sex was not a significant moderator of these relationships. These results suggest that maternal ED has important consequences for the intergenerational transmission of risk and also highlight the interaction of behavioral and biological mechanisms of risk. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hiding behind the cloth:child sexual abuse and the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A; Alpert, Judith L

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general psychological writing on priest sex abuse and the psychoanalytic literature, on child sexual abuse are compared. Both sources of literature seek explanation for priests' child sexual abuse within the structure and culture of the church rather than viewing the priest as a "typical" sex predator. The authors argue that, in fact, the guilty priests are child predators who differ little from other child predators.

  20. Our Families, Our Children: The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force Report on Quality Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Mary

    The Lesbian and Gay Child Care Task Force documented anecdotal evidence of homophobia in child care and school age communities, including: (1) refusal to accept children from lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) families into child care; (2) biased attitudes expressed to children when they speak about their families; and (3) demonstrated…

  1. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    ZW is reserved for female heterogamety.) The Radder et al study used lab incubation regimes that mimic temperature profiles of cool natural nests, so temperature probably determines sex at least occasionally in nature.

  2. Juvenile Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen P; Otonichar, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Sexual offending by juveniles accounts for a sizable percentage of sexual offenses, especially against young children. In this article, recent research on female juvenile sex offenders (JSOs), risk factors for offending in juveniles, treatment, and the ways in which these youth may differ from general delinquents will be reviewed. Most JSOs do not go on to develop paraphilic disorders or to commit sex offenses during adulthood, and as a group, they are more similar to nonsexual offending juvenile delinquents than to adult sex offenders. Recent research has elucidated some differences between youth who commit sex offenses and general delinquents in the areas of atypical sexual interests, the use of pornography, and early sexual victimization during childhood.

  3. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2017-07-01

    In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sex Discrimination in Selecting Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses recent sex discrimination cases by women seeking administrative positions. Points out that women plaintiffs alleging sex bias in such cases have a difficult time proving discrimination. (MD)

  5. Changes in Parent-Child Relationship Quality across Early Adolescence: Implications for Engagement in Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…

  6. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…

  7. Relationship between birth spacing, child maltreatment, and child behavior and development outcomes among at-risk families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowne, Sarah Shea; Gonsalves, Kay; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Prior research indicates that closely spaced births are associated with poor outcomes for the mother and subsequent child. Limited research has focused on outcomes for the index child (the child born immediately prior to a subsequent child in a birth interval). The objectives are to assess the association of short birth intervals in at-risk families with: (1) indicators of harsh and neglectful parenting behaviors towards the index child, including substantiated maltreatment reports across 6 years; and (2) the index child's behavior and development in first grade. This is a longitudinal study of 658 women screened to be at-risk for child maltreatment. Twenty percent of women had a rapid repeat birth (RRB), defined as the birth of a subsequent child within 24 months of the index child. Generalized estimating equations, survival analyses, and linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between RRB and index child outcomes. Women with an RRB were more likely than those without an RRB to report neglectful parenting of the index child. Children of mothers with an RRB were more likely than children of mothers without an RRB to have more behavioral problems and lower cognitive functioning in first grade. This study is among the first to focus on the associations of birth spacing with maltreatment, behavior and development outcomes in the index child. Future work regarding the effects of birth spacing should include a focus on the index child.

  8. Female Sex Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Intyre, Maria Kleivan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This project explores the phenomenon of North American and Western European women, who travel to the Global South and engage in sexual encounters with the local men. This project has positioned itself as a postcolonial critique, arguing that female sex tourism is a form of neocolonialism. It has also investigated the term romance tourism, where it has found that as a result of essentialist gender stereotyping, the female version of sex tourism has been titled ‘romance tourism’. The p...

  9. Sex chromosome evolution in lizards: independent origins and rapid transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaz, T; Sarre, S D; O'Meally, D; Graves, J A Marshall; Georges, A

    2009-01-01

    Reptiles epitomize the variability of reproductive and sex determining modes and mechanisms among amniotes. These modes include gonochorism (separate sexes) and parthenogenesis, oviparity, viviparity, and ovoviviparity, genotypic sex determination (GSD) with male (XX/XY) and female (ZZ/ZW) heterogamety and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Lizards (order Squamata, suborder Sauria) are particularly fascinating because the distribution of sex-determining mechanisms shows no clear phylogenetic segregation. This implies that there have been multiple transitions between TSD and GSD, and between XY and ZW sex chromosome systems. Approximately 1,000 species of lizards have been karyotyped and among those, fewer than 200 species have sex chromosomes, yet they display remarkable diversity in morphology and degree of degeneration. The high diversity of sex chromosomes as well as the presence of species with TSD, imply multiple and independent origins of sex chromosomes, and suggest that the mechanisms of sex determination are extremely labile in lizards. In this paper, we review the current state of knowledge of sex chromosomes in lizards and the distribution of sex determining mechanisms and sex chromosome forms within and among families. We establish for the first time an association between the occurrence of female heterogamety and TSD within lizard families, and propose mechanisms by which female heterogamety and TSD may have co-evolved. We suggest that lizard sex determination may be much more the result of an interplay between sex chromosomes and temperature than previously thought, such that the sex determination mode is influenced by the nature of heterogamety as well as temperature sensitivity and the stage of sex chromosome degeneration. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Why to Limit Your Child's Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk with your children and teens about online citizenship and safety. This includes treating others with respect ... privacy. Encourage your child's school to teach digital citizenship Remember that your opinion counts—so make your ...

  11. 8187 FIGHTING UNDERNUTRITION AND CHILD MORTALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children. Wasting of children. Underweight of children. Other intermediate consequences including poor development of mothers. Insufficient food; unbalanced diet; undersupply of micronutrients (Vitamins and mineral elements); etc. Increased susceptibility to diseases, morbidity, child mortality; cretinism and impairment of.

  12. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  13. A reconfiguration of the sex trade: How social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai; Ward, Helen; Campbell, Catherine; Hallett, Timothy B; Nyamukapa, Constance; White, Peter J; Gregson, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000) in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms of commercial sex

  14. A reconfiguration of the sex trade: How social and structural changes in eastern Zimbabwe left women involved in sex work and transactional sex more vulnerable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Elmes

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and structural changes, such as economic recessions-outside of the bounds of organizational intervention-may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe's economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000-2009 of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides a unique opportunity to study community perceptions of the impact of socio-economic upheaval on the sex trade. We conducted focus group discussions with 122 community members in rural eastern Zimbabwe in January-February 2009. Groups were homogeneous by gender and occupation and included female sex workers, married women, and men who frequented bars. The focus groups elicited discussion around changes (comparing contemporaneous circumstances in 2009 to their memories of circumstances in 2000 in the demand for, and supply of, paid sex, and how sex workers and clients adapted to these changes, and with what implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV-changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work-had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work dispersed from the bars into the wider community, requiring female sex workers to employ different tactics to attract clients. Hyperinflation meant that sex workers had to accept new forms of payment, including sex-on-credit and commodities. Further impacting the demand for commercial sex work was a poverty-driven increase in transactional sex. The economic upheaval in Zimbabwe effectively reorganized the market for sex by reducing previously dominant forms

  15. Child abuse and physical health in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-03-16

    A large literature exists on the association between child abuse and mental health, but less is known about associations with physical health. The study objective was to determine if several types of child abuse were related to an increased likelihood of negative physical health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Data are from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (n = 23,395). The study sample was representative of the Canadian population aged 18 or older. Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to self-perceived general health and 13 self-reported, physician-diagnosed physical conditions. All child abuse types were associated with having a physical condition (odds ratios = 1.4 to 2.0) and increased odds of obesity (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.4). Abuse in childhood was associated with arthritis, back problems, high blood pressure, migraine headaches, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, stroke, bowel disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome in adulthood, even when sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and obesity were taken into account (odds ratios = 1.1 to 2.6). Child abuse remained significantly associated with back problems, migraine headaches, and bowel disease when further adjusting for mental conditions and other physical conditions (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.5). Sex was a significant moderator between child abuse and back problems, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome, with slightly stronger effects for women than men. Abuse in childhood was associated with increased odds of having 9 of the 13 physical conditions assessed in this study and reduced self-perceived general health in adulthood. Awareness of associations between child abuse and physical conditions is important in the provision of health care.

  16. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.

  17. CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  18. Giving or receiving something for sex: a cross-sectional study of transactional sex among Ugandan university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Choudhry

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the prevalence of transactional sex among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between transactional sex and sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use.In 2010, 1954 undergraduate students at a Ugandan university responded to a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mental health, substance use, physical violence and sexual behaviors including sexual coercion and transactional sex. The prevalence of transactional sex was assessed and logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the associations between various risk factors and reporting transactional sex.Approximately 25% of the study sample reported having taken part in transactional sex, with more women reporting having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex, while more men reporting having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Sexual coercion in men and women was significantly associated with having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex. Men who were victims of physical violence in the last 12 months had higher probability of having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex than other men. Women who were victims of sexual coercion reported greater likelihood of having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Respondents who had been victims of physical violence in last 12 months, engaged in heavy episodic drinking and had poor mental health status were more likely to have paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex.University students in Uganda are at high risk of transactional sex. Young men and women may be equally vulnerable to the risks and consequences of transactional sex and should be included in program initiatives to prevent transactional sex. The role of sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use should be considered when designing interventions for countering transactional sex.

  19. Giving or receiving something for sex: a cross-sectional study of transactional sex among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Vikas; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of transactional sex among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between transactional sex and sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use. In 2010, 1954 undergraduate students at a Ugandan university responded to a self-administered questionnaire that assessed mental health, substance use, physical violence and sexual behaviors including sexual coercion and transactional sex. The prevalence of transactional sex was assessed and logistic regression analysis was performed to measure the associations between various risk factors and reporting transactional sex. Approximately 25% of the study sample reported having taken part in transactional sex, with more women reporting having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex, while more men reporting having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Sexual coercion in men and women was significantly associated with having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex. Men who were victims of physical violence in the last 12 months had higher probability of having accepted money, gifts or some compensation for sex than other men. Women who were victims of sexual coercion reported greater likelihood of having paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. Respondents who had been victims of physical violence in last 12 months, engaged in heavy episodic drinking and had poor mental health status were more likely to have paid, given a gift or otherwise compensated for sex. University students in Uganda are at high risk of transactional sex. Young men and women may be equally vulnerable to the risks and consequences of transactional sex and should be included in program initiatives to prevent transactional sex. The role of sexual coercion, physical violence, mental health, and alcohol use should be considered when designing interventions for countering transactional sex.

  20. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data ...