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Sample records for included bullying perpetration

  1. School bullying perpetration and other childhood risk factors as predictors of adult intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Kathryn L; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-10-01

    To assess the relationship between bullying peers as a child and adult intimate partner violence perpetration in a clinic-based sample of adult men. School bullying perpetration and intimate partner violence perpetration are both thought to stem from desire for power and control over others. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January 2005 and December 2006. Three urban community health centers in Boston, Massachusetts. Men aged 18 to 35 years (n = 1491) seeking services at participating community health centers. School bullying perpetration. Past-year physical or sexual violence perpetration against a female partner (intimate-partner violence [IPV]). Two-fifths of men reported perpetrating school bullying as a child (n = 610; 40.9%). Men who rarely bullied in school were 1.53 times more likely to perpetrate past-year IPV than men who did not bully (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.29); this risk was elevated to 3.82 times more likely to perpetrate any past-year IPV for those men who bullied peers frequently (95% CI, 2.55-5.73). The present study indicates that bullying peers in school as a child, especially frequent bullying perpetration, is associated with increased risk for men's perpetration of IPV as an adult. The effect remains strong after controlling for common prior risk factors for both bullying and IPV perpetration. Future research is needed to discern the mechanisms and underlying root causes of abusive behavior, such as power and control, as a means to prevent violence perpetration across settings and life stages.

  2. Examining Explanations for the Link Between Bullying Perpetration and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration: Do They Vary by Bullying Victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8–10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N =2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840

  3. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sibling bullying perpetration: associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Assessing the links between punitive parenting, peer deviance, social isolation and bullying perpetration and victimization in South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kim, Dong Ha; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-11-01

    Children who are abused at home are at an increased risk of bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. Within that context, the purpose of the present study was to test Agnew's general strain theory and the peer deviancy training hypothesis by utilizing structural equation modeling to empirically examine pathways linking punitive parenting to bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, potential mediating linkages between punitive parenting and bullying perpetration and bullying victimization were examined, including socially withdrawn behavior and deviant peer affiliation. Second, these relationships were considered in a longitudinal sample of South Korean adolescents, which is a novel examination given that parenting in South Korea is guided largely by Confucianism which reinforces parental control, restrictiveness, and a punitive nature. Results indicate that: (1) punitive parenting is directly related to bullying perpetration but not bullying victimization; (2) punitive parenting was found to have indirect effects only on bullying perpetration; (3) deviant peer affiliation increased the likelihood of bullying perpetration and victimization; and (4) socially withdrawn behavior only affected bullying perpetration via its effect on deviant peer affiliation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental and School Bonding in Iranian Adolescent Perpetrators and Victims of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mina; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Wiener, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study compared parental and school bonding in adolescents in Iran who are perpetrators of bullying, victims of bullying and not-involved in bullying. Secondary school students (N = 240) were selected by cluster random sampling and screening, and categorized as perpetrators of bullying (N = 80), victims of bullying (N = 80) and non-involved (N…

  7. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Basile, Kathleen C.; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E.

    2014-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More...

  8. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: the role of the perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Garde, Anne Helene; Høgh, Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2016-09-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010 and colleagues (60.3 %) in WH 2012. In DWECS 2010, the MDI score of those being bullied by clients were significantly lower than the MDI scores of the other groups. In WH 2012, respondents who reported bullying from leaders had a significantly higher mean MDI score than participants being bullied by colleagues. Also in WH 2012, our results indicated that those who were bullied by leaders had a higher MDI score than those bullied by clients, although this difference was not statistically significant at conventional levels. Our findings indicated a similar pattern in the two cohorts, with a tendency of more severe depressive symptoms among employees who are exposed to bullying by their leaders, and the least severe symptoms among those who are bullied by clients.

  9. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms: the role of the perpetrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Török

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. Methods We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study (DWECS 2010 and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012. After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being bullied by their (1 leader, (2 subordinates, (3 clients / customers / patients / students, or (4 colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI. Results The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 % in DWECS 2010 and colleagues (60.3 % in WH 2012. In DWECS 2010, the MDI score of those being bullied by clients were significantly lower than the MDI scores of the other groups. In WH 2012, respondents who reported bullying from leaders had a significantly higher mean MDI score than participants being bullied by colleagues. Also in WH 2012, our results indicated that those who were bullied by leaders had a higher MDI score than those bullied by clients, although this difference was not statistically significant at conventional levels. Conclusion Our findings indicated a similar pattern in the two cohorts, with a tendency of more severe depressive symptoms among employees who are exposed to bullying by their leaders, and the least severe symptoms among those who are bullied by clients.

  10. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  11. Nurse bullying: organizational considerations in the maintenance and perpetration of health care bullying cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Malcolm A

    2006-01-01

    To examine bullying within nursing from a micro-sociological perspective and elucidate interactive mechanisms contributing to its causes and continuation within the nursing profession. The paper is part of a doctoral research study into bullying within nursing. It considers issues pertinent to management, and in the role of negotiated interactions within the National Health Service when dealing with bullying problems. The complex dynamics involved can be problematic for management when dealing with bullying, while often managers have been targets of bullying themselves and not infrequently accused of it. Features of bullying activity are explored, along with issues of target and bully awareness, a central feature in bullying negotiations. Issues of awareness and emergence of bullying behaviour have been identified through vignettes and unstructured interviews, and the research has identified complex interactive events in the creation and maintenance of nurse bullying activity. It is hoped that with a clearer understanding of such mechanisms and manifestations that bullying in the workplace can be reduced or eliminated. The paper is of practical use to nurse managers in illuminating such mechanisms and bringing bullying awareness to the fore. Such activity is ultimately damaging to the organization in both cost and time; and significant for professional practice by its impact upon the nurse and their work in supportive and safe environments. It will also to allow managers to consider their own practice and reactions to bullying activity within the profession. The overall findings from the research point strongly to bullying activity being essentially 'learned behaviour' within the workplace rather than any predominantly psychological deficit within individual perpetrators and targets.

  12. Bullying Victimization and Perpetration and Their Correlates in Adolescents Clinically Diagnosed With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2018-01-01

    To examine the prevalence rates of bullying involvement and their correlates in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan. Bullying involvement, family and ADHD characteristics, the levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral approach system (BAS), and psychiatric comorbidity were assessed in 287 adolescents with ADHD. The multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlate of bullying victimization and perpetration. The prevalence rates of the pure victims, pure perpetrators, and victim-perpetrators were 14.6%, 8.4%, and 5.6%, respectively. Young age, a high BIS score, autism spectrum disorders, and low satisfaction with family relationships were associated with severe bullying victimization. A high score of fun seeking on the BAS and low satisfaction with family relationships were associated with severe bullying perpetration. A high proportion of adolescents with ADHD are involved in bullying. Multiple factors are associated with bullying involvement in adolescents with ADHD.

  13. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E

    2015-09-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber)Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine bullying perpetration and social intelligence (SI), which is a sociocognitive characteristic that has been proposed as a possible regulator of traditional and cyberbullying. We compared SI for perpetrators and nonperpetrators of traditional bullying and/or cyberbullying and examined longitudinal…

  15. How Competent are Adolescent Bullying Perpetrators and Victims in Mastering Normative Developmental Tasks in Early Adulthood?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Branje, Susan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Meeus, Wim H.J.; Deković, Maja; Koot, Hans M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    A substantive body of literature suggests that those involved in bullying as perpetrators but particularly victims are at greater risk for psychological maladjustment. In comparison, relatively little is known about associations between bullying-victimization and perpetration and mastery of early

  16. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cyber bullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyber bullying. The current paper examines the individual, peer, family and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not utilize technology) in adolescents. Methods This paper draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this paper, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in Grade 5 is analyzed to examine Grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyber bullying perpetration in Grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Results Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyber bullying, 21% in traditional bullying and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyber bullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. Conclusions The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration(cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. PMID:22727078

  17. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  18. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Basile, Kathleen C.; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th–7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. PMID:25315484

  19. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetrat...

  20. Longitudinal predictors of cyber and traditional bullying perpetration in Australian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Tollit, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-07-01

    Cyberbullying perpetration (using communication technology to engage in bullying) is a recent phenomenon that has generated much concern. There are few prospective longitudinal studies of cyberbullying. The current article examines the individual, peer, family, and school risk factors for both cyber and traditional bullying (the latter is bullying that does not use technology) in adolescents. This article draws on a rich data set from the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States, which began in 2002. In this article, data from almost 700 Victorian students recruited in grade 5 are analyzed to examine grade 7 (aged 12-13 years) predictors of traditional and cyberbullying perpetration in grade 9 (aged 14-15 years). Fifteen per cent of students engaged in cyberbullying, 21% in traditional bullying, and 7% in both. There are similarities and important differences in the predictors of cyber and traditional bullying. In the fully adjusted model, only prior engagement in relational aggression (a covert form of bullying, such as spreading rumors about another student) predicted cyberbullying perpetration. For traditional bullying, previous relational aggression was also predictive, as was having been a victim and perpetrator of traditional bullying, family conflict, and academic failure. The use of evidence-based bullying prevention programs is supported to reduce experiences of all forms of bullying perpetration (cyber, traditional, and relational aggression). In addition, for traditional bullying perpetration, addressing family conflict and student academic support are also important. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration and/or low social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Alejandra; Opperman, Kiel J; Gipson, Polly Y; King, Cheryl A

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined characteristics of bullying involvement and social connectedness in relation to suicide ideation and attempts in a sample of youth who report bully victimization, bully perpetration, and/or low social connectedness. The sample was comprised of 321 youth (67% female), ages 12-15 years (M = 13.6), recruited from an emergency department in the Midwest region of the United States. Results indicated that lower levels of social connectedness and higher levels of bully victimization and perpetration were significantly associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Level of social connectedness did not moderate the relationship between bullying involvement and suicide risk. The associations between the severity of subtypes of bully victimization and perpetration (verbal, relational, physical), electronic bullying involvement, and suicide risk were examined. Results highlight a continuum in severity of bullying involvement and social connectedness associated with suicide risk. Implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Future Expectations, Attitude Toward Violence, and Bullying Perpetration During Early Adolescence: A Mediation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Varela, Jorge J; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Hopeful future expectations have been linked to positive developmental outcomes in adolescence; however, the association between future expectations and bullying perpetration has received less attention. We examined the relationship between future expectations and physical and relational bullying perpetration and tested a mediation model that linked future expectations with bullying through attitude toward violence. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between future expectations and bullying perpetration (relational and physical) and to test whether these relationships were mediated by attitude toward violence in a sample of U.S. seventh-grade students (Mage = 12.86 years, N = 196, 60% female, 46% African American). Attitude toward violence fully mediated the relationship between future expectations and physical bullying (indirect effects = -0.08, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], R = .17). The relationship between future expectations and relational bullying was partially mediated by attitudes toward violence (indirect effects = -0.07, 95% CI [-0.14, -0.002], R = .20). Our findings suggest that future expectations can play a role in reducing attitude toward violence and physical and relational bullying perpetration among youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in bullying prevention efforts.

  3. Vulnerable Bullies: Perpetration of Peer Harassment Among Youths Across Sexual Orientation, Weight, and Disability Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2015-09-01

    We examined perpetration of bullying among youths in vulnerable groups relative to youths in peer groups not categorized as vulnerable. Data were collected in 2013 from a large school-based survey of adolescents conducted in Minnesota (n = 122,180). We used the χ(2) test and logistic regression to compare measures of perpetration of physical and relational bullying, as well as experiences of victimization and perpetration (or both), across categories of sexual orientation, weight status, and disability status. Rates of physical and relational bullying perpetration were significantly higher among youths in vulnerable groups than among those not in vulnerable groups. With respect to context of victimization experiences, young men and women from vulnerable groups were overrepresented in the group comprising both perpetrators and victims. For example, odds of being both a perpetrator and a victim were 1.41 to 3.22 times higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths than among heterosexual youths. Vulnerable youths, who are prone to peer harassment, may also act as perpetrators of bullying. Prevention strategies should address the particular needs of these populations; targeted programming may be appropriate.

  4. Vulnerable Bullies: Perpetration of Peer Harassment Among Youths Across Sexual Orientation, Weight, and Disability Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined perpetration of bullying among youths in vulnerable groups relative to youths in peer groups not categorized as vulnerable. Methods. Data were collected in 2013 from a large school-based survey of adolescents conducted in Minnesota (n = 122 180). We used the χ2 test and logistic regression to compare measures of perpetration of physical and relational bullying, as well as experiences of victimization and perpetration (or both), across categories of sexual orientation, weight status, and disability status. Results. Rates of physical and relational bullying perpetration were significantly higher among youths in vulnerable groups than among those not in vulnerable groups. With respect to context of victimization experiences, young men and women from vulnerable groups were overrepresented in the group comprising both perpetrators and victims. For example, odds of being both a perpetrator and a victim were 1.41 to 3.22 times higher among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths than among heterosexual youths. Conclusions. Vulnerable youths, who are prone to peer harassment, may also act as perpetrators of bullying. Prevention strategies should address the particular needs of these populations; targeted programming may be appropriate. PMID:26180987

  5. The Co-evolution of Bullying Perpetration, Homophobic Teasing, and a School Friendship Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrin, Gabriel J; Haye, Kayla de la; Espelage, Dorothy L; Ewing, Brett; Tucker, Joan S; Hoover, Matthew; Green, Harold D

    2018-03-01

    Bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors affect the lives of many school aged children, often co-occur, and tend to peak in middle school. While bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors are known to be peer group phenomena, studies typically examine the associations at the individual or school levels. An examination of these behaviors at the peer group level can aid in our understanding of the formation and maintenance of peer groups that engage in these forms of aggressive behavior (selection), and the extent to which friends and the peer group impact individual rates of these aggressive behaviors (influence). In this longitudinal study, we assess the co-evolution of friendship networks, bullying perpetration, and homophobic teasing among middle school students (n = 190) using a Stochastic Actor-Based Model (SABM) for longitudinal networks. Data were collected from 6-8th-grade students (Baseline age 12-15; 53% Female; 47% Male) across three waves of data. The sample was diverse with 58% African American, 31% White, and 11% Hispanic. Since bullying and homophobic teasing behaviors are related yet distinct forms of peer aggression, to capture the unique and combined effects of these behaviors we ran models separately and then together in a competing model. Results indicated that on average individuals with higher rates of bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were associated with becoming increasingly popular as a friend. However, the effects were not linear, and individuals with the highest rates of bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were less likely to receive friendship nominations. There was no evidence that bullying perpetration or homophobic teasing were associated with the number of friendship nominations made. Further, there was a preference for individuals to form or maintain friendships with peers who engaged in similar rates of homophobic name-calling; however, this effect was not found for bullying perpetration. Additionally

  6. Pathways From Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Bully Victimization to Suicidality Among School-Aged Youth: A Review of the Potential Mediators and a Call for Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kral, Michael J; Sterzing, Paul R

    2015-10-01

    In the wake of several highly publicized adolescent suicides attributed to bullying victimization, national attention has been brought to bear on the profound public health problem of bullying. This article reviews the extant literature on the associations between bullying perpetration, victimization, and thoughts of or attempts at suicide and proposes five potential mediators, namely depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness, and hopelessness, that may explain this relationship. Numerous studies have found empirical support for the interrelations between internalizing behaviors and both bullying perpetration and victimization and suicide. We find that further longitudinal research needs to be conducted to more conclusively determine the role and causal ordering these various psychosocial factors may play in bullying perpetration, victimization, and suicide. Although the research literature implies causal directions among all these potential mediators, untangling the unique influence of bullying perpetration, victimization, and bully victimization on suicide and its mechanisms of action has major research and practice implications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of bullying victimisation and perpetration in a nationally representative sample of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Connor, Jason P; Lawrence, David M; Hafekost, Jennifer M; Zubrick, Stephen R; Scott, James G

    2017-09-01

    Bullying prevalence studies are limited by varied measurement methods and a lack of representative samples. This study estimated the national prevalence of bullying victimisation, perpetration and combined victim-perpetration experiences in a representative population-based sample of Australian youth. The relationships between the three types of bullying involvement with a range of mental health symptoms and diagnoses were also examined. A randomly selected nationally representative sample aged 11-17 years ( N = 2967, M age = 14.6 years; 51.6% male) completed the youth component of the Second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (Young Minds Matter). Parents or carers also completed a structured face-to-face interview that asked questions about a single randomly selected child in the household. The youth survey comprised self-reported bullying victimisation and perpetration (Olweus Bully-Victim Questionnaire-adapted), psychological distress (K10), emotional and behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), as well as self-harm, suicide attempts and substance use. Modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV were administered to all youth and parents to assess for mental disorder diagnoses (major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorder and any externalising disorder [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder]). The 12-month prevalence of bullying victimisation was 13.3%, perpetration 1.6% and victim-perpetration 1.9%. Logistic regression models showed all forms of involvement in bullying were associated with increased risk of psychological distress, emotional and behavioural problems, substance use, self-harm and attempted suicide. Victimisation and victim-perpetration were associated with youth-reported major depressive disorder. There were also significant associations between bullying involvement and parent-reported diagnoses of major

  9. Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Demographic Differences in College Students: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M; Ross, Scott W

    2016-01-11

    Although bullying has been widely recognized as a serious issue in elementary and secondary school and in the workplace, little is known about the prevalence of bullying in postsecondary education. We conducted a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature and found 14 studies that reported the prevalence of bullying perpetration, victimization, or both in college or university students. Prevalence estimates varied widely been studies, but on average about 20-25% of students reported noncyberbullying victimization during college and 10-15% reported cyberbullying victimization. Similarly, approximately 20% of students on average reported perpetrating noncyberbullying during college, with about 5% reporting cyber perpetration. Men were more likely to report perpetration, but no consistent gender differences in victimization were found. Few studies reported prevalence by sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, and none reported prevalence by disability status. Overall, these results indicate that bullying continues to be prevalent in postsecondary education, but more research needs to be conducted, particularly that which uses multiuniversity samples and examines demographic differences in prevalence rates. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem t...

  11. What Do Parents Attribute the Cause of Bullying to? It Can Amplify or Buffer the Vicious Cycle of Bullying Perpetration and Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Boungho; Park, Soowon

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what do parents attribute the causes of bullying to and how the attributions of parents are related with their adolescents' experiences of bullying perpetration and bullying victimization in the subsequent year. The data were drawn from 3,293 Korean secondary students and their parents from the Seoul Education Longitudinal Study across two waves (seventh, eighth grades). The results revealed that 1,228 (37.3%) parents thought that bullying was caused by perpetrators' faults while 512 (15.5%) parents thought bullying was caused by victims' faults. The other 1,553 (47.2%) showed external attributions (e.g., peer, violent media). Adolescents' bullying perpetration and victimization interacted with parent's attribution in predicting later bullying perpetration and victimization. These results indicate that parent's attribution is a critical factor to understanding the alleviation or deterioration of bullying in adolescents. Intervention programs should be designed to concern parents' attribution as well as adolescents' prior bullying experiences.

  12. Bully Perpetration and Self-Esteem: Examining the Relation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chad A.; Slaten, Christopher D.; Preast, June L.

    2017-01-01

    School-aged youth face a number of academic and behavioral challenges within the educational environment, including bullying involvement. Unfortunately, bullying has been linked to a number of detrimental psychosocial outcomes. Scholars have attempted to establish predictive profiles for youth involved in bullying. These profiles include bully…

  13. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Students' Perceptions of Characteristics of Victims and Perpetrators of Bullying in Public Schools in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Nahla Mansour; Gharaibeh, Muntaha; Masadeh, Mohammad Jaser

    School bullying is the most common school violence among adolescents and has become a global concern. Little is known about the characteristics associated with bullies and victims among Jordanian students. The aim of the study was to examine student perceptions of school bullying-specifically, the characteristics of perpetrators and victims and how to stop bullying-and assess differences in perceptions between boys and girls. Cross-sectional study, using self-reported questionnaires, was employed to collect data from eighth-grade students (N = 913; 51% male) from a mixed rural and suburban area in northern of Jordan during the 2013-2014 school year. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize item responses. Chi-squared tests were performed to compare responses between the male and female students. Most of the students described a bully as one who is a coward underneath (78.9%), lacks respect for other people (70%), wants to show power (67.5%), wants to impress others (60.8%), and wants to feel superior (59.6%). Students perceived victims of bullying as having low self-esteem (68.2%), talking or sounding different than others (50.9%), shy (35%), and having no friends (27.1%). Students suggested that, to stop bullying, the victim should stand up for himself (75.4%), should become psychologically stronger (75.1%), and should involve adults (teachers, family, or others; 45.9%). There was a significant gender difference, in which boys and girls were describing victims and bullies differently. A significant percentage of students relate bullying and victimization characteristics to psychosocial characteristics and less to physical characteristics. The results offer valuable information necessary to design and implement school bullying prevention and intervention programs.

  15. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  16. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among school-aged youth with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Aimé, Annie; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Morin, Alexandre J S; Normand, Claude L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature reviews show that bullying perpetration and victimization are major public health concerns for typically developing (TD) youth. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this phenomenon among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to provide a synthesis of the empirical studies examining the prevalence and correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization among youth with ID. A systematic literature search was performed and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings from these studies showed weighted mean prevalence rates of general bullying perpetration, bullying victimization and both of 15.1%, 36.3%, and 25.2%, respectively. Weighted mean prevalence rates of bullying perpetration and victimization differed according to the characteristics of the studies (e.g., assessment context, school setting, information source, type of measures, time frame). Additionally, high weighted mean prevalence rates of physical (33.3%), verbal (50.2%), relational (37.4%), and cyber (38.3%) victimization were found among youth with ID. When youth with ID were compared to youth with other disabilities or TD peers, no clear differences were found. Finally, the present review shows that correlates of bullying perpetration and victimization in this population remain understudied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Well-being, school climate, and the social identity process: a latent growth model study of bullying perpetration and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Isobel; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

    2014-09-01

    The present study concerns longitudinal research on bullying perpetration and peer victimization. A focus is on school factors of school climate (academic support, group support) and school identification (connectedness or belonging), which are conceptualized as related but distinct constructs. Analysis of change on these factors as well as individual well-being across time contributes to understanding bullying behavior. Latent growth modeling was employed to examine the predictors of anxiety, depression, 2 school climate factors and school identification in understanding change in physical and verbal bullying behavior. The sample included 492 Australian school students (means age 15 years, 53.5% male) in Grades 7 to 10 who completed measures over 3 years. Academic support and group support were the strongest predictors of change in bullying and victimization. Positive change in school identification also predicted a decrease in bullying behavior over time. An increase in depression or anxiety across time predicted an increase in rates of both bullying and victimization over time. Future research should continue to examine the complex relationship between individual-psychological and social-psychological variables in impacting on incidence of school-based bullying. On a practical note, school-based intervention programs may benefit from an approach that aims to target the school climate, social identity with the school, and promote individual psychological well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, H. Luz; Chen, May S.; Ennett, Susan T.; Basile, Kathleen C.; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother–adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother–adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study’s implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  20. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.

  1. How Students' Perceptions of the School Climate Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…

  2. The Role of Social, Emotional and Mental Wellbeing on Bullying Victimisation and Perpetration of Secondary School Boarders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Leanne; Mander, David

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the social, emotional and mental wellbeing predictors of bullying victimisation and perpetration for boarding students following the transition from primary school to secondary boarding school. Longitudinal data on 76 male and 74 female boarding students in Grades 7, 8 and 9 was used from a larger longitudinal study of…

  3. Forensic aspects and assessment of school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley W; Thompson, Christopher; Jaques, Cory

    2012-12-01

    This article describes school's obligations related to bullying behavior, the assessment of bullying students and their victims, the evaluation of claimed damages due to bullying, and potential interventions for both individuals and school systems to reduce the frequency of bullying behavior. This article assists evaluators when assessing youth who are involved in bullying behavior, either as victims or perpetrators. Key areas highlighted include an overview of bullying behaviors, legal issues related to a school's responsibility in preventing or curtailing bullying behaviors, important components of a bullying assessment, and proposed interventions to minimize bullying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  5. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  6. The Associations between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…

  7. Understanding School Climate, Aggression, Peer Victimization, and Bully Perpetration: Contemporary Science, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina K.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying…

  8. Interpersonal bullying behaviours in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Pietersen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper employing a phenomenological method to explicate seven informants’ experience of interpersonal bullying behaviors in a South African work context, I demarcated four general themes namely: lack of recognition, discrimination, obstructionism, and isolation. Moreover, I found that perpetrators (male and female managers predominantly used verbal and indirect negative acts to bully subordinates. Finally, racial tensions contributed to bullying behavior. While a phenomenological approach shows promise to explore local bullying behavior more research is needed to broaden our understanding of the phenomenon, including explicating bullying through the eyes of bystanders and alleged bullies.

  9. Understanding school climate, aggression, peer victimization, and bully perpetration: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R

    2014-09-01

    Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Modifying Anti-Bullying Programs to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Modell, Scott

    2011-01-01

    "Bullying" is defined as any aggressive behavior with the intent to harm that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. Bullying is identified as one of the most predominant problems faced by children in the United States education system, as well as one of the most significant health risks to children. Exactly how prevalent this issue is…

  11. Internet-chatrooms : A new playground for bullies. A comparison of bullying behavior in school and in chatrooms from the perpetrators' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzer, Catarina; Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Belschak, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Bullying is not a specific phenomenon of the school environment. Different forms of verbal victimisation and social manipulation are also common behaviors in internet chatrooms. The present study compares traditional bullying with chatroom bullying. A total of 1,700 pupils of different secondary

  12. Differences in predictors of traditional and cyber-bullying: a 2-year longitudinal study in Korean school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Dewey, Michael E; Maskey, Sean; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-05-01

    Traditional bullying has received considerable research but the emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying much less so. Our study aims to investigate environmental and psychological factors associated with traditional and cyber-bullying. In a school-based 2-year prospective survey, information was collected on 1,344 children aged 10 including bullying behavior/experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, and psychopathology. Parents reported demographic data, general health, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. These were investigated in relation to traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization at age 12. Male gender and depressive symptoms were associated with all types of bullying behavior and experience. Living with a single parent was associated with perpetration of traditional bullying while higher ADHD symptoms were associated with victimization from this. Lower academic achievement and lower self esteem were associated with cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and anxiety symptoms with cyber-bullying perpetration. After adjustment, previous bullying perpetration was associated with victimization from cyber-bullying but not other outcomes. Cyber-bullying has differences in predictors from traditional bullying and intervention programmes need to take these into consideration.

  13. Perpetrator or victim?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Paper 3: HAN091384 Victim, Perpetrator and Pupil - Teacher Perspectives on Peer Bullying Helle Rabøl Hansen, University of Aarhus This paper investigates the approaches and strategies taken up by two crucial actors in relation to bullying in schools: 1. documents indicating school policies...... and identifies a legally informed matrix, which points out unequivocal positions of perpetrators and victims. The policy document mixes the definition practices, which derive from the Olweus tradition on bullying research, into a law informed kind of discourse. Subsequently the policy document iterates...

  14. Influence of Workplace Bullying on Turkish Nurses' Psychological Distress and Nurses' Reactions to Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakçı, Ezgi; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to determine the influence of bullying on nurses' psychological distress. A descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 284 nurses of a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey. The Workplace Bullying Behavior Scale and the General Health Questionnaire were used. After the study was completed, it was determined that nurses with a master's degree were exposed to bullying more and that nurses exposed to bullying suffered higher levels of psychological distress and preferred to keep silent about it. Perpetrators of bullying were mainly head nurses. Bullying is a common workplace phenomenon, and in most cases, nurses bully each other. Bullied nurses suffer more psychological distress. Managers of health care institutions should always remember that nurses have a higher risk of exposure to bullying and that measures should be taken to support nurses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Empathy, Attitude towards Bullying, Theory-Of-Mind, and Non-Physical Forms of Bully Perpetration and Victimization among U.S. Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Hong, Jun Sung; Kim, Dong Ha; Nan, Luana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children's bullying involvement may arise from biases and deficiencies in social information processing, and it is important to consider cognitive and emotional aspects of bullying because social cognition is an important aspect of children's social skills and their ability to get along with others. It is also important to understand…

  16. Clinical Trial of Second Step Middle School Program: Impact on Bullying, Cyberbullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Harassment Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional learning programs are increasingly being implemented in U.S. schools to address a wide range of problematic behaviors (e.g., bullying, delinquency) and to promote academic success. The current study examined the direct and indirect impact of the Second Step Middle School Program (Committee for Children, 2008) on bullying,…

  17. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  18. Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C; Pawlowski, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Bullying refers to aggressive behavior that is repetitive and intentional in which a power differential exists between the victim and bully. The negative effects of bullying on an individual's mental and physical health are substantial and in line with other major forms of child maltreatment. Efforts to increase detection of bullying are indicated, especially among youth presenting with school phobia, depression, anxiety, and declining school performance. Several antibullying efforts have been developed and promoted at the school and community level. Research indicates that many of these programs are effective and share some common elements that can help reduce the prevalence and impact of bullying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Student Perceptions of Aggressive Behaviors and Predictive Patterns of Perpetration and Victimization: The Role of Age and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brenda; Kraus, Shane W.; Ceccherini, Traci

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a rural sample of boys' and girls' (N = 205) perceptions of what behaviors constitute bullying and examined whether being a victim of aggression was predictive of perpetrating physical and relational aggression. Results indicated that predictors of perpetrating relational aggression included victimization of relational…

  20. Bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread problem among children. This entry will look at its prevalence and offer an overview of some of the definitions developed and discussed by researchers working within childhood studies, and by practitioners trying to implement researchers’ understandings of bullying...

  1. Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of Columbine and other high-profile school shootings, educators and the public at large have become increasingly aware of the danger and damage that bullying can cause. For example, a study by the U.S. Secret Service suggests that bullying was a contributing factor in two-thirds of 37 school shooting episodes. Other recent research…

  2. Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences. Bullying involvement in 6,406 adolescents was determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Data were collected regarding the mental health problems, including depression, suicidality, insomnia, general anxiety, social phobia, alcohol abuse, inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The association between experiences of bullying involvement and mental health problems was examined. The risk of mental health problems was compared among those with different levels/types of bullying involvement. The results found that being a victim of any type of bullying and being a perpetrator of passive bullying were significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems, and being a perpetrator of active bullying was significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems except for general anxiety. Victims or perpetrators of both passive and active bullying had a greater risk of some dimensions of mental health problems than those involved in only passive or active bullying. Differences in the risk of mental health problems were also found among adolescents involved in different types of bullying. This difference in comorbid mental health problems should be taken into consideration when assessing adolescents involved in different levels/types of bullying. © 2014.

  3. Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships between Adolescents' (Cyber)Bullying Perpetration and Bonding to School and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional relationships between (cyber)bullying and (a) bonding to school and (b) bonding to teachers. These relationships were examined while controlling for traditional and cyberbullying victimization, as well as gender and age. The sample consisted of 2,128 Belgian early adolescents, who participated in…

  4. Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study More Information Preterm Labor and Birth ... answers to other common questions about bullying, such as what laws may apply and whether certain groups are more ...

  5. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...

  6. Emotional Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Questioning Bullies: Does It Differ from Straight Bullies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.

  7. Bullying, psychiatric pathology and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Braquehais, María Dolores; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a highly prevalent behavior which carries a significant social, medical and financial cost for its victims and perpetrators, with powerful and long-lasting psychological and social impact. Bullying has been defined as a specific form of intentional, repeated aggression, that involves a disparity of power between the victim(s) and perpetrator(s). The aggression can take physical, verbal or gestural forms. The behavior of bullying crosses sociodemographic categories of age, gender, ethnicity, level of academic achievement and professional environment. It has been abundantly observed by teachers and parents in elementary schools, but has also shown its negative presence in corporate boardrooms. The direct outcome of bullying, for both victims and perpetrators, is an increased risk of psychiatric disorders including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse and suicidal behavior. Cruelty (and bullying, as one of its manifestations) breaks the basis of morality. Mental health professionals usually treat the victims of those actions unfortunately long after they have been exposed to the harm. The evidence does not support the idea that the majority of cruel actions are intrinsically "pathological", in the sense of being motivated by "mental disorders". Therefore, only moral rules and legal actions - but not psychiatric or psychological interventions - may dissuade humans from this form of cruelty.

  8. Longitudinal Examination of the Bullying-Sexual Violence Pathway across Early to Late Adolescence: Implicating Homophobic Name-Calling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; Leemis, Ruth W; Hipp, Tracy N; Davis, Jordan P

    2018-03-02

    The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.

  9. Obesity as a determinant of two forms of bullying in Ontario youth: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukaswadia, Atif; Craig, Wendy; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William

    2011-01-01

    Obesity can have negative effects in terms of stigma and discriminatory behavior. Past cross-sectional analyses have shown that overweight and obese youths are more likely to be involved in bullying. Here, we examine such relationships in a longitudinal analysis. Study outcomes were self-reports of: i) physical bullying victimization and perpetration and ii) relational bullying victimization and perpetration. Participants were administered the Health Behaviour in School-Age Children Survey in 2006 and then again in 2007, and included 1,738 youths from 17 Ontario high schools. Relationships between adiposity and each of the four forms of bullying were evaluated using multi-level analyses. Excess adiposity was shown to precede bullying involvement in this study. Obese and overweight males reported 2-fold increases in both physical and relational victimization, while obese females reported 3-fold increases in perpetration of relational bullying. Among those free of bullying at baseline (2006), significant increases in perpetration of relational bullying were reported by obese females in 2007 relative to normal-weight females (14.8 vs. 3.8% among normal-weight girls; p = 0.02). Findings are congruent with previous cross-sectional studies and confirm that obese youths are at increased risk of social consequences attributable to their appearance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  11. Psychiatric correlates of past year adult bullying behaviors: Findings from the National Epidemiology Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Katherine A; Thorisdottir, Audur S; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2016-12-30

    Previous research on bully perpetration and psychiatric outcomes has been limited to examination of lifetime associations and has not included evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite previously reported correlations between PTSD and anger and aggression. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the association between bullying behaviour and mental disorders within a past-year framework. Data was obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; n=34,653), a nationally-representative survey of American adults. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviour and psychiatric diagnosis. A total of 239 individuals (138 males, 101 females) reported engaging in bullying behaviour within the past-year. Mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were all more common among bully perpetrators compared to others. Of note, strong associations were found between PTSD and bully perpetration. Findings from the current study demonstrate strong associations between bullying perpetration and mental health concerns. The proximity of bullying behaviors and mental health concerns may be important, suggesting avenues for efforts at intervention and bullying prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Exploration of Managers’ Discourses of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L.; Boutain, Doris M.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Beaton, Randal; de Castro, Arnold B.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify discourses used by hospital nursing unit managers to characterize workplace bullying, and their roles and responsibilities in workplace bullying management. BACKGROUND Nurses around the world have reported being the targets of bullying. These nurses often report that their managers do not effectively help them resolve the issue. There is scant research that examines this topic from the perspective of managers. METHODS This was a descriptive, qualitative study. Interviews were conducted with hospital nursing unit managers who were recruited via purposive and snowball sampling. Data were analyzed using Willig’s Foucauldian discourse analysis. RESULTS Managers characterized bullying as an interpersonal issue involving the target and the perpetrator, as an intrapersonal issue attributable to characteristics of the perpetrator, or as an ambiguous situation. For interpersonal bullying, managers described supporting target’s efforts to end bullying; for intrapersonal bullying, they described taking primary responsibility; and for ambiguous situations, they described several actions, including doing nothing. CONCLUSION Managers have different responses to different categories of bullying. Efforts need to be made to make sure they are correctly identifying and appropriately responding to incidents of workplace bullying. PMID:25597260

  13. Perpetrator Disgust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Jurisic, Ditte Marie

    perpetrator disgust”. The central point of dispute is the moral significance of perpetrator disgust. Does the perpetrator’s bodily response indicate a subliminal awareness of the moral wrong of the act? I argue that perpetrator disgust can in some cases reflect a moral conflict, but warn against conflating...

  14. Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, I.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Didden, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are particularly vulnerable to be involved in bullying compared to their peers without ASD. Studies have found that students with ASD are at higher risk to be involved in bullying as a bully (i.e., perpetrator of bullying), a victim

  15. Prevalence, causes and mental health impact of workplace bullying in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Design Self-administered questionnaire survey. Setting 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. Participants 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). Main outcome measures The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Results Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45–64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Conclusions Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. PMID:29478015

  16. Prevalence, causes and mental health impact of workplace bullying in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios

    2018-02-24

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Self-administered questionnaire survey. 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45-64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights

  17. Examining the Outcomes of Including Students with Disabilities in a Bullying/Victimization Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Vinoski, Erin; Black, Mary; Varjas, Kris; Henrich, Christopher; Meyers, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities are bullied at rates disproportionate to their typically developing peers, yet we know little about effective interventions to reduce the rates of victimization among students with disabilities across all disability categories. This study examined the effectiveness of the inclusive Bullying/Victimization Intervention…

  18. Workplace bullying--what's it got to do with general practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Schluter, Philip J; Dick, Marie-Louise

    2013-04-01

    Workplace bullying is repeated systematic, interpersonal abusive behaviours that negatively affect the targeted individual and the organisation in which they work. It is generally the result of actual or perceived power imbalances between perpetrator and victim, and includes behaviours that intimidate, offend, degrade or humiliate a worker. It is illegal, and bullied employees can take legal action against their employers for a breach of implied duty of trust and confidence. Despite this, workplace bullying occurs in many Australian workplaces, including Australian general practices. This article explores the issue of workplace bullying with particular reference to bullying within general practice and provides a framework for managing these situations. All general practices need organisation-wide anti-bullying policies that are endorsed by senior management, clearly define workplace bullying, and provide a safe procedure for reporting bullying behaviours. General practitioners should investigate whether workplace issues are a potential contributor to patients who present with depression and/or anxiety and assess the mental health of patients who do disclose that they are victims of workplace bullying, Importantly, the GP should reassure their patient that bullying is unacceptable and illegal, and that everyone has the right to a safe workplace free from violence, harassment and bullying. The time has come for all workplaces to acknowledge that workplace bullying is unacceptable and intolerable.

  19. Workplace Bullying in a Group Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Iain; Craig, Jane; Smith-Lee Chong, Penelope

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the sociometric status of victims, perpetrators and bully-victims (those who self-reported being a victim and a perpetrator) in functional workplace teams and assessed the relationship between victimisation and bullying on team effectiveness. A sample of 288 fire-fighter personnel in 36 teams were asked to self-report and…

  20. Examining the Intersection of Bullying and Physical Relationship Violence Among New York City High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Zachary J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to explore the intersection of bullying and relationship violence. The relationship between these forms of youth aggression has yet to be examined in diverse urban centers, including New York City (NYC). This study seeks to identify intersections of joint victimization from bullying and electronic bullying (e-bullying) with physical relationship violence (pRV). This study examines data from the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sample of NYC public high school students, to assess the concurrent victimization from bullying at school and e-bullying with pRV, operationalized as physical violence by a dating partner in the past 12 months. Students who reported being bullied at school and e-bullied had increased odds (bullied: OR = 2.5, 95% CI [2.1, 2.9]; e-bullied: OR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.6, 3.5]) of also being victimized by pRV compared with those who did not report being bullied or e-bullied. In logistic regression models, being bullied at school and being e-bullied remained significant predictors of students' odds of reporting pRV (bullied: AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [2.2, 3.1]; e-bullied: AOR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.5, 3.6]) while controlling for race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. This research is the first to assess the intersection of victimization from bullying and e-bullying with pRV in a large, diverse, random sample of urban high school students. In this sample, students who report being bullied or e-bullied are more likely also to report pRV than students who have not been bullied or e-bullied. This research has potential implications for educators, adolescent health and social service providers, and policy makers to tailor programs and enact policies that jointly address bullying and pRV. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess both victimization from and perpetration of bullying and pRV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Bullying Behaviors among Macanese Adolescents-Association with Psychosocial Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xue; Chui, Wing Hong; Liu, Liu

    2017-08-07

    Bullying is a widespread public health problem among school students. Using a large sample of Macanese school adolescents, the present study examines psychosocial conditions and demographic characteristics in discriminating the following four subgroups of students: victims; bullies; bully-victims; and a comparison group of adolescents. Participants included 2288 adolescents from 13 primary and secondary schools in Macau whose ages ranged from 10 to 20 years. Statistical results revealed significant differences among the groups and indicated that adolescents who are involved in school bullying experience worse psychosocial adjustment. Specifically, among the four subgroups of students, bully-victims reported the strongest feelings of anxiety, depression, and negative affectivity, and expressed the lowest satisfaction with life. Compared with students who were not involved in bullying and victimization, bullies experienced more anxiety and depression and victims had lower levels of satisfaction with life. In addition, boys were more likely to engage in bullying behaviors and younger students had a greater probability of being victimized by their peers at school. Implications for future research and practice on bullying perpetration and the prevention of peer victimization are discussed.

  2. School Bullies’ Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, C.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Vartio, Annina; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how bullies’ perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an

  3. Identifying children at risk for being bullies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the greatest and lowest prevalence of bullying perpetration among U.S. children. Using the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, a nationally representative survey of U.S. children in 6th-10th grades, bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with any (once or twice or more), moderate (two to three times/month or more), and frequent (weekly or more) bullying. Stepwise multivariable analyses identified risk factors associated with bullying. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified risk factors which, in combination, identify students with the highest and lowest bullying prevalence. The prevalence of any bullying in the 13,710 students was 37.3%, moderate bullying was 12.6%, and frequent bullying was 6.6%. Characteristics associated with bullying were similar in the multivariable analyses and RPA clusters. In RPA, the highest prevalence of any bullying (67%) accrued in children with a combination of fighting and weapon-carrying. Students who carry weapons, smoke, and drink alcohol more than 5 to 6 days/week were at greatest risk for moderate bullying (61%). Those who carry weapons, smoke, have more than one alcoholic drink per day, have above-average academic performance, moderate/high family affluence, and feel irritable or bad-tempered daily were at greatest risk for frequent bullying (68%). Risk clusters for any, moderate, and frequent bullying differ. Children who fight and carry weapons are at greatest risk of any bullying. Weapon-carrying, smoking, and alcohol use are included in the greatest risk clusters for moderate and frequent bullying. Risk-group categories may be useful to providers in identifying children at the greatest risk for bullying and in targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bullying Prevention and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Megan; Vera, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    School bullying exists as a societal epidemic that affects millions of school-aged students (Espelage & Holt, 2012). Youths involved in bullying--whether perpetrating, witnessing, or being victimized--face inequitable access to school-based resources and opportunities aimed at academic growth and empowerment. This article conceptualizes school…

  5. Bullying and Victimization Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Bullying among children is a significant public health problem world-wide. Bullying is most commonly defined as repeated, intentional aggression, perpetrated by a more powerful individual or group against a less powerful victim. Trends in victimization and moderate to frequent bullying may be decreasing slightly in the United States, but over 20% of children continue to be involved in bullying. Direct bullying consists of physical and verbal aggression, whereas indirect bullying involves relational aggression. Cyber bullying is an emerging problem which may be more difficult to identify and intervene with than traditional bullying. Bullies, victims, and bully-victims are at risk for negative short and long-term consequences such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and delinquency. Various individual, parental, and peer factors increase the risk for involvement in bullying. Anti-bullying interventions are predominantly school-based and demonstrate variable results. Healthcare providers can intervene in bullying by identifying potential bullies or victims, screening them for co-morbidities, providing counseling and resources, and advocating for bullying prevention. PMID:24007839

  6. Parent/Child Concordance about Bullying Involvement and Family Characteristics Related to Bullying and Peer Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kaufman Kantor, Glenda; Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parent perspectives on bullying, parent/child concordance about bullying involvement, and family characteristics associated with bullying perpetration and peer victimization. Participants were 205 fifth-grade students and their parents. Students attended an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth…

  7. Staff and prisoner perceptions of physical and social environmental factors thought to be supportive of bullying: the role of bullying and fear of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew D; Ireland, Jane L

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the relationship between social and physical environmental factors supportive of bullying, levels of bullying and fear of bullying. Participants were 261 adult male prisoners. All completed the Direct and Indirect Prisoner Checklist-Scaled Version Revised (DIPC-SCALED-r Ireland, 2007), the Prison Environment Scale (PES Allison, 2007), and a Brief Measure of Fear of Bullying Scale (BMFBS). The PES was explored initially using 100 male prisoners randomly selected from the main sample and 100 prison officers. It was predicted that increased bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; that increased levels of fear of bullying would be associated with increased evidence of environmental factors supportive of bullying; and that actual experience of bullying would represent better predictors of fear levels than the presence of environmental factors supportive of bullying. Those perceiving greater levels of environmental factors reported more fear of bullying and more behaviours indicative of bullying (perpetration and victimisation), with this holding for indirect and direct behaviours indicative of bullying. Bullying behaviours (direct perpetration and indirect victimisation) predicted fear of bullying more than the presence of environmental factors. The environmental factor of rules, regulations and security were found to predict bullying perpetration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Konstantina; Skapinakis, Petros; Gkatsa, Tatiana; Bellos, Stefanos; Araya, Ricardo; Stylianidis, Stylianos; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2012-02-12

    Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic associations. Our findings may add to the

  9. Bullying behaviour in schools, socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity: a cross-sectional study in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magklara Konstantina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R, while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization

  10. Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2007-12-01

    Previous research in offline environments suggests that there may be an overlap in bullying and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization; however to what extent this may be true for perpetration and victimization of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation is unknown. The Growing Up with Media survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1,588 youth, 10-15 years old, who have used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. Cluster analysis was conducted with four scales: Internet harassment perpetration, Internet harassment victimization, unwanted sexual solicitation perpetration, and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization. A four-cluster solution was identified: youth with little to no involvement (n = 1326; 81.7%); perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment (n = 205; 14.3%); victims of both Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation (n = 45; 3.1%); and perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation (n = 12; .9%). Involvement in Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation was associated with concurrent reports of psychosocial problems including substance use; involvement in offline victimization and perpetration of relational, physical, and sexual aggression; delinquent peers; a propensity to respond to stimuli with anger; poor emotional bond with caregivers; and poor caregiver monitoring as compared with youth with little to no involvement. This was especially true for perpetrator-victims of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation. Findings were replicated using a frequency-based definition of involvement, suggesting that cluster analysis is useful in identifying subgroups of youth and can be used to guide frequency-based definitions, which are easier to implement across study samples. The majority of youth are not frequently involved in Internet harassment or unwanted sexual solicitation either as victims or as perpetrators. Among those who are, however

  12. Bullying, Genealogy of the Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem among children in schools and institutions. However, it is only relatively recently that bullying has emerged as a field of research, although the phenomenon itself has likely existed in various forms among children for as long as mankind has walked the earth. The ge....... The genealogy of bullying as a concept has taken the understanding of bullying in different directions with a varying emphasis on either the roles played by individuals (victims and perpetrators) or on social and relational aspects....

  13. Understanding Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likelihood of victimization include: • Poor peer relationships • Low self-esteem • Perceived by peers as different or quiet National ... ME, Lumpkin CD. Bullying surveillance among youths: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements, Version ...

  14. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  15. Traditional Bullying as a Potential Warning Sign of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Morgan, Chad A.; Limber, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Although traditional bullying and cyberbullying share features in common, they differ in important ways. For example, cyberbullying is often characterized by perceived anonymity and can occur any time of the day or night. Conversely, perpetrators of traditional bullying are known to the victim, and most traditional bullying occurs at school. Yet,…

  16. Bullying in the family: sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava

    2015-10-01

    Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively. PMID:29415426

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Christine Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2018-02-06

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumption of violent media, and being victims of aggressive online behaviors are correlated with the risk that a child will become a bully. Female adolescents are less likely than boys to engage in sexual cyberbullying perpetration, but they are more likely to engage in psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Only a small share of adolescents engage in sexual and psychological cyberbullying perpetration. Both behaviors differ in their correlates, however being a victim of aggressive online behaviors increase the risk for perpetration of both behaviors, respectively.

  1. Unacknowledged threats proffered "in a manner of speaking": recognizing workplace bullying as shaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Albataineh, Raya

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine workplace bullying victims' perceptions of what they heard their bully counterparts say through their use of prosody. From a sampling frame of 89 manuscripts referenced in the authors' previous studies, we identified a subset (n = 10) that included quotes regarding bullying victims' perceptions of communication experiences with their bully perpetrators. We used hermeneutics and a recursive metasynthesis to interpret quotes embedded in the manuscripts chosen for this study. Two-thirds of language is expressed nonverbally through prosody or "manner of speaking"-rhythm, stress, intonation, and vocabulary choice. We found that as bullies communicated with their intended victims over time, they used prosody across subtle, linked communications, or boldly and openly in public venues, to establish a context-embedded, one-way communication process of "doublespeak." Bullies' confusing prosodic communication processes served to recontexualize victims' situations and, through mechanisms largely unacknowledged by the victims, to subtly demean their personhood, and to shame them and render them voiceless. This study directs formal attention to the language of workplace bullying. Further study might strengthen opportunities to effectively address and curtail the long-term personal, professional, and organizational injuries deriving from workplace bullying. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Bullying experience in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aulia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is still a significant problem today. Bullying occurs starting from the primary level up to college. The impact of the bullying on victims can be a lonely, difficult to adjust, insecurity, low self-esteem, depression and the worst is suicide. The earlier effort to detect bullying experienced by children will be able to prevent long-term effects caused. This study was conducted on 258 students of class 4-5 primary school in Yogyakarta. Data was collected through open-ended questionnaires associated with feelings and experiences of bullying in schools both as perpetrators and victims. The result showed that students feel negative emotions associated with bullying at school and most children experience bullying at school with a variety of forms, ranging from physical, verbal and relational from peers at school. These findings have implications related to the effort to do the school to help students cope with the impact of bullying experienced.

  3. The role of bullying in depressive symptoms from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A growth mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Mellick, William; Temple, Jeff R; Sharp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence and emerging adulthood using a school-based sample of adolescents assessed over a five-year period. The study also examined whether bully and cyberbully victimization and perpetration significantly predicted depressive symptom trajectories. Data from a sample of 1042 high school students were examined. The sample had a mean age of 15.09 years (SD=.79), was 56.0% female, and was racially diverse: 31.4% Hispanic, 29.4% White, and 27.9% African American. Data were examined using growth mixture modeling. Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified, including those with a mild trajectory of depressive symptoms, an increasing trajectory of depressive symptoms, an elevated trajectory of depressive symptoms, and a decreasing trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that bully victimization and cyberbully victimization differentially predicted depressive symptoms trajectories across adolescence, though bully and cyberbully perpetration did not. Limitations include reliance on self-reports of bully perpetration and a limited consideration of external factors that may impact the course of depression. These findings may inform school personnel in identifying students' likely trajectory of depressive symptoms and determining where depression prevention and treatment services may be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Traditional versus internet bullying in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, Rosa; Avitzour, Malka

    2012-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of traditional and Internet bullying and the personal, family, and school environment characteristics of perpetrators and victims. Students (12-14 years old) in 35 junior high schools were randomly selected from the Jerusalem Hebrew (secular and religious) and Arab educational system (n = 2,610). Students answered an anonymous questionnaire, addressing personal, family, and school characteristics. Traditional bullying and Internet bullying for perpetrators and victims were categorized as either occurring at least sometimes during the school year or not occurring. Twenty-eight percent and 8.9 % of students were perpetrators of traditional and Internet bullying, respectively. The respective proportions of victims were 44.9 and 14.4 %. Traditional bullies presented higher Odds Ratios (ORs) for boys, for students with poor social skills (those who had difficulty in making friends, were influenced by peers in their behavior, or were bored), and for those who had poor communication with their parents. Boys and girls were equally likely to be Internet bullies and to use the Internet for communication and making friends. The OR for Internet bullying victims to be Internet bullying perpetrators was 3.70 (95 % confidence interval 2.47-5.55). Victims of traditional bullying felt helpless, and victims of traditional and Internet bullying find school to be a frightening place. There was a higher OR of Internet victimization with reports of loneliness. Traditional bully perpetrators present distinctive characteristics, while Internet perpetrators do not. Victims of traditional and Internet bullying feel fear in school. Tailored interventions are needed to address both types of bullying.

  5. Take that, You Bully!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Academics can be found all over the Internet commiserating about academic bullying, including on "The Chronicle's" own forums and blogs. There are debates over how to resolve bullying, warnings to other scholars, and even primal cries for help. This article describes three blogs on bullying: (1) Historiann (http://www.historiann.com); (2) On…

  6. New Perspectives on Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ken

    Two decades in which educators have seriously tried to eradicate bullying in schools have met with only modest success. Moreover, bullying is no longer being viewed exclusively as a problem for schools and school children. This book examines bullying behavior in a wide range of settings, including kindergartens and schools, workplaces, the home,…

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the School Bullying Scales: A Rasch Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying-Yao; Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Kun-Shia; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to develop three school bullying scales--the Bully Scale, the Victim Scale, and the Witness Scale--to assess secondary school students' bullying behaviors, including physical bullying, verbal bullying, relational bullying, and cyber bullying. The items of the three scales were developed from viewpoints of bullies, victims, and…

  8. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-01-01

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. PMID:29261114

  9. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Olsson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067 and teachers (n = 1251 in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  10. School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gabriella; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Modin, Bitte

    2017-12-20

    As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people's lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students ( n = 6067) and teachers ( n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying.

  11. Bullying among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478

  12. Bullying at school: Agreement between caregivers' and children's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Lucas G; Scherñuk Schroh, Jordán C; Panizoni, Estefanía P; Jouglard, Ezequiel F; Serralunga, M Gabriela; Esandi, M Eugenia

    2017-02-01

    Bullying at school is usually kept secret from adults, making them unaware of the situation. To describe caregivers' and children's perception and assess their agreement in terms of bullying situations. Cross-sectional study in children aged 8-12 years old attending public schools and their caregivers. The questionnaire on preconceptions of intimidation and bullying among peers (PRECONCIMEI) (child/caregiver version) was used. Studied outcome measures: Scale of bullying, causes of bullying, child involvement in bullying, communication in bullying situations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were done and agreement was estimated using the Kappa index. A total of 529 child/caregiver dyads participated. Among caregivers, 35% stated that bullying occurred in their children's schools. Among children, 133 (25%) admitted to being involved: 70 (13%) were victims of bullying, 40 (8%) were bullies, and 23 (4%) were bullied and perpetrated bullying. Among the 63 caregivers of children who admitted to be bullies, 78% did not consider their children capable of perpetrating bullying. Among children who were bullied or who both suffered bullying and bullied others, 69.9% (65/93) indicated that "if they were the victims of bullying, they would tell their family." However, 89.2% (83/93) of caregivers considered that their children would tell them if they were ever involved in these situations. Agreement was observed in terms of a positive communication (Kappa = -0.04) between 62.6% (57/91) of the child/caregiver dyads school bullying. Disagreement was observed between children and their caregivers in relation to the frequency and communication of bullying situations. Few caregivers whose children admitted to being involved in these situations believed it was a possibility. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Cyberbullying Perpetration. Findings from a German Representative Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2018-01-01

    Based on a survey of 9512 ninth-grade students conducted in Lower Saxony in 2013, this paper examines the prevalence of cyberbullying perpetration and the correlates of this behavior. Binary logistic multilevel regression was used in order to analyze correlates of sexual and psychological cyberbully perpetration. In the preceding semester, 2.4% of the adolescents were perpetrators of psychological cyberbullying and 0.4% bullied someone online sexually. Low levels of empathy, frequent consumpt...

  14. The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Bullying development across adolescence, its antecedents, outcomes, and gender-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Deković, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2017-08-01

    In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation in the outcomes, with a number of studies (but not all) showing increased risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. We used a developmental framework and data from 2,230 participants of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) to examine bullying perpetration across adolescence, to test the links with various antecedents in preadolescence, and to elucidate the outcomes in early adulthood. Latent growth models indicated significant variance in initial bullying perpetration levels and an overall decrease between pre- and late adolescence. Individual, family, and peer factors were associated with initial levels and partially associated with bullying development over time. Bullying perpetration was linked to later maladjustment and substance use, although only in girls. Finally, bullying perpetration appears to function as an intermediate variable between preadolescent individual, family, and peer risk and substance use more than 10 years later. These results have important implications for understanding the gender-specific nature of bullying perpetration and its outcomes and for demonstrating that bullying carries early risk into adulthood.

  16. Challenging Conventions of Bullying Thresholds: Exploring Differences between Low and High Levels of Bully-Only, Victim-Only, and Bully-Victim Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Sterzing, Paul R; Stuart, Marla J

    2018-03-01

    Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city. The study population consisted of 3,221 middle school (53.4%) and high school (45.6%) students, with 48.7% females, 44.6 males, and 6.7% youth identifying with another gender category. These youth were racially diverse, with the modal category being Black (36.0%). Based on student survey response, we report, (a) the frequency and intensity of bullying behaviors, (b) common patterns of involvement, and (c) demographic and individual-level risk factors associated with these patterns. Analyses resulted in nine bully types, with substantial differences in bullying-involvement intensity based on gender, race, school connectedness, and mental health. Perhaps most striking, the majority of youth (70.9%) were involved in some level of bullying perpetration, victimization, or both, when accounting for the accumulation of low frequency involvement (e.g., once, twice, or a few times) across multiple bullying behaviors. Implications for adolescent development and prevention are described.

  17. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bullying development across adolescence, its antecedents, outcomes, and gender-specific patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Veenstra, René; Dekovíc, Maja; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    In contrast to victimization, prior research on the antecedents and outcomes of bullying perpetration has provided little conclusive knowledge. Some adolescent bullies may be well adjusted and popular among peers, while other bullies are rejected and lack self-control. There is also great variation

  19. Interventions for prevention of bullying in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Patricia A; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, W George; Begley, Cecily M; Luyben, Ans G

    2017-01-30

    Bullying has been identified as one of the leading workplace stressors, with adverse consequences for the individual employee, groups of employees, and whole organisations. Employees who have been bullied have lower levels of job satisfaction, higher levels of anxiety and depression, and are more likely to leave their place of work. Organisations face increased risk of skill depletion and absenteeism, leading to loss of profit, potential legal fees, and tribunal cases. It is unclear to what extent these risks can be addressed through interventions to prevent bullying. To explore the effectiveness of workplace interventions to prevent bullying in the workplace. We searched: the Cochrane Work Group Trials Register (August 2014); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, issue 1); PUBMED (1946 to January 2016); EMBASE (1980 to January 2016); PsycINFO (1967 to January 2016); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL Plus; 1937 to January 2016); International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS; 1951 to January 2016); Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA; 1987 to January 2016); ABI Global (earliest record to January 2016); Business Source Premier (BSP; earliest record to January 2016); OpenGrey (previously known as OpenSIGLE-System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe; 1980 to December 2014); and reference lists of articles. Randomised and cluster-randomised controlled trials of employee-directed interventions, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time-series studies of interventions of any type, aimed at preventing bullying in the workplace, targeted at an individual employee, a group of employees, or an organisation. Three authors independently screened and selected studies. We extracted data from included studies on victimisation, perpetration, and absenteeism associated with workplace bullying. We contacted study authors to gather additional data. We used the

  20. What is Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Aggressive Behavior Print Share What Is Bullying Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged ... When Bullying Happens Frequency of Bullying Types of Bullying There are three types of bullying: Verbal bullying ...

  1. Future Orientation and School Bullying Among Adolescents in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Ling Gao; Ko Ling Chan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among future orientation, school bonding, and school bullying perpetration behaviors. Data were collected from 677 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents in an area in Southwest China. Specifically, students completed the Future-Orientation Questionnaire, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, and the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire to assess their future orientatio...

  2. Motivations behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pattie; Tankersley, Merrie; Joenson, Trevor; Hupp, Mikey; Buckley, Jennifer; Redmond-McGowan, Margaret; Zanzinger, Allison; Poirier, Alex; Walsh, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has…

  3. Effectiveness of a multicomponent school based intervention to reduce bullying among adolescents in Chandigarh, North India: A quasi-experimental study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bullying perpetration and victimization is associated with significant academic, psychosocial and health related problems among adolescents. There is a need to develop effective interventions to prevent bullying among adolescents, especially in low and middle income countries. This paper presents the study protocol to develop, and evaluate the effect of multi-component school based prevention program for bullying in India. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Methods: The study will be conducted among 846 students of grade 7th and 8th in the intervention and control schools in Chandigarh, Union Territory, North India. A government and a private school will be selected purposively in each of the intervention and control arm. The intervention is based on socio-ecological model, and will be administered at individual, relationship (parents and teachers and school level. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of students experiencing any kind of bullying (bullying, victimization, or both, in each study arm. The effectiveness of the intervention will be measured by performing difference in difference analysis and generalized estimating equations. Expected impact for public health: Bullying is an aggressive behaviour with significant morbidities, including psychological or physical trauma, affecting individuals not only in their adolescence, but also later in their adulthood. This quasi-experimental study is expected to provide evidence on whether multi-component bullying prevention intervention program, can reduce the burden of bullying perpetration and victimization among school adolescents in India. The results of the study will add in the exiting literature on bullying intervention program, especially, from the low middle-income countries, as there are limited studies available on this topic in these countries.

  4. Tackling acute cases of school bullying in the KiVa anti-bullying program : A comparison of two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Whether cases of bullying should be handled in a direct, condemning mode or in a manner that does not involve blaming the perpetrator is a controversial issue among school professionals. This study compares the effectiveness of a Confronting Approach where the bully is openly told that his behavior

  5. Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary M; Cook-Fasano, Hazel T; Sibbaluca, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year. Bullying can result in emotional distress, depression, anxiety, social isolation, low self-esteem, school avoidance/refusal, and substance abuse for the victim and the bully. Preventive measures include encouraging patients to find enjoyable activities that promote confidence and self-esteem, modeling how to treat others with kindness and respect, and encouraging patients to seek positive friendships. For those who feel concern or guilt about sharing their experiences, it may be useful to explain that revealing the bullying may not only help end the cycle for them but for others as well. Once bullying has been identified, family physicians have an important role in screening for its harmful effects, such as depression and anxiety. A comprehensive, multitiered approach involving families, schools, and community resources can help combat bullying. Family physicians are integral in recognizing children and adolescents who are affected by bullying-as victims, bullies, or bully- victims-so they can benefit from the intervention process.

  6. Racial bullying and adolescent substance use: An examination of school-attending young adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L; Carlisle, Shauna K

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the association between race and racial bullying (bullying due to one's race), in relation to youth substance use in school attending young adolescents in the United States. Weighted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were run to assess if racial bullying involvement was associated with youth substance use. Data for this study come from the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey (n = 7,585). An association between racial bullying status (not involve, bullying victim, bullying perpetrator, or mixed bullying victim/perpetrator) and youth substance was identified in this study. Racial bully perpetrators were most likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana, followed by youth in the mixed victim/perpetrator group. When analyses were stratified by race, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic youth experienced an increased risk of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use if in the perpetrator or mixed group (compared to those not involved with racial bullying). Non-Hispanic White and Asian youth were also more likely to report marijuana use if in the victim group. Non-Hispanic Black youth were more likely to use alcohol and marijuana if they were a perpetrator or in the mixed group, but they were not more likely to use cigarettes. Differences appear to exist in relation to racial bullying experience and substance across racial/ethnic group among youth in grades 7-10. Implications for prevention and educational professionals are discussed.

  7. Health correlates of workplace bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    -labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...... adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. CONCLUSION: Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist...

  8. Relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators on sleep disturbance-data from the 4th Korean working conditions survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Taejun; Ye, Byeongjin; Kim, Jung-Il; Park, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague. Presence of sleep disturbance was determined based on subjective symptoms felt within the past 12 months by each individual. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the effects on sleep distance according to general, occupational, and psychosocial characteristics, as well as the types of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence. Workplace violence was found as a factor affecting sleep disturbance (OR = 3.773, 95 % CI = 3.058-4.655), and with respect to perpetrators of violence, complaint of sleep disturbance symptoms was higher when the perpetrator was a colleague or boss (OR = 5.688, 95 % CI 4.189-7.723) than a client (OR = 2.992, 95 % CI 2.301-3.890). Workplace violence had an effect on occurrence of sleep disturbance and when the perpetrators of violence was a boss or colleague at work, the risk for symptoms such as sleep disturbance increased, which indicated the need for appropriate intervention from a workplace healthcare perspective, including preventive education of workplace violence among employees.

  9. Experiences With and Perceptions of Workplace Bullying Among Athletic Trainers in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitney, William A; Weuve, Celest; Mazerolle, Stephanie M

    2016-09-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) has recently received much attention in society. Research on WPB in athletic training practice settings is limited. To determine the prevalence of WPB in the secondary school setting and explore the factors related to it. Mixed-methods study. Secondary school. A total of 567 athletic trainers (women = 322 [56.8%], men = 245 [43.2%]), aged 36.5 ± 11.1 years with 11.9 ± 9.5 years of experience took part in phase I. Ten participants (7 women and 3 men), aged 39.3 ± 10.1 years with 14.3 ± 8.3 years of experience, took part in phase II. For the online survey, we used the previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α = .84) Athletic Training Workplace Environment Survey, which included the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. The prevalence of WPB was measured with descriptive statistics, and χ 2 analyses were used to compare differences between groups (ie, females and males, perpetrators' titles). The interview data were examined using an inductive content analysis. Of the participants, 44 (7.8%) were empirically identified as targets of bullying, though a higher percentage (12.4%, n = 70) self-identified as bullying targets. Men and women did not differ with respect to having experienced WPB, but more perpetrators were male (71.6%, n = 48) than female (28.4%, n = 19; χ 2 1 = 12.55, P = discrimination were antecedents of bullying. Stress, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported consequences. Participants coped with bullying by avoidance and role refocusing. Bullying was experienced by a small percentage of athletic trainers in the secondary school setting, a contrast to the findings in the collegiate practice setting.

  10. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-03-01

    Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  11. Bullying in Senior Living Facilities: Perspectives of Long-Term Care Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Felicia J; Buchanan, Jeffrey A

    2017-07-01

    Resident-to-resident bullying has attracted attention in the media, but little empirical literature exists related to the topic of senior bullying. The aim of the current study was to better understand resident-to-resident bullying from the perspective of staff who work with older adults. Forty-five long-term care staff members were interviewed regarding their observations of bullying. Results indicate that most staff members have observed bullying. Verbal bullying was the most observed type of bullying, but social bullying was also prevalent. Victims and perpetrators were reported to commonly have cognitive and physical disabilities. More than one half of participants had not received formal training and only 21% reported their facility had a formal policy to address bullying. The implications of these results support the need for detailed policies and training programs for staff to effectively intervene when bullying occurs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(7), 34-41.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. An exploration of bullying behaviours in nursing: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janet Lynn

    This article explores bullying behaviours in nursing in the UK and other countries, why bullying happens, and suggests actions to prevent or combat it. Bullying involves intentional and repeated psychological violence, humiliating and isolating staff from colleagues. Current literature reports that 20-25% of nursing staff experience bullying behaviour. The main perpetrators are nurses in a senior position to those being bullied and colleagues who are established staff members. Those likely to be bullied are students and new staff members. Bullying can cause distress and depression, with up to 25% of those bullied leaving their jobs or the profession, and have an impact on patient care. Factors contributing to bullying are hierarchical management and employees not feeling empowered. Silence and inaction by managers and colleagues allows this behaviour to continue. A zero-tolerance policy and the addressing of this behaviour clearly and promptly by managers should be instigated. Staff being bullied should be supported by colleagues.

  13. Appearance-related bullying and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Bullying encompasses verbal aggression, physical aggression, and social exclusion. It involves "harm-doing" that is carried out repeatedly, over time, and within a relationship, involving a power imbalance between the bully and the bullied. Being bullied may have considerable adverse sequelae, including psychologic or psychiatric harm. Much bullying is appearance-related, and it would be surprising if some individuals with skin disease were not bullied given the high visibility of skin diseases. The limited evidence available does suggest that individuals with skin disease, particularly those with acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, are often bullied, which can adversely affect them psychologically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling workplace bullying using catastrophe theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, J; Ceja, L; Navarro, J; Zapf, D

    2013-10-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as negative behaviors directed at organizational members or their work context that occur regularly and repeatedly over a period of time. Employees' perceptions of psychosocial safety climate, workplace bullying victimization, and workplace bullying perpetration were assessed within a sample of nearly 5,000 workers. Linear and nonlinear approaches were applied in order to model both continuous and sudden changes in workplace bullying. More specifically, the present study examines whether a nonlinear dynamical systems model (i.e., a cusp catastrophe model) is superior to the linear combination of variables for predicting the effect of psychosocial safety climate and workplace bullying victimization on workplace bullying perpetration. According to the AICc, and BIC indices, the linear regression model fits the data better than the cusp catastrophe model. The study concludes that some phenomena, especially unhealthy behaviors at work (like workplace bullying), may be better studied using linear approaches as opposed to nonlinear dynamical systems models. This can be explained through the healthy variability hypothesis, which argues that positive organizational behavior is likely to present nonlinear behavior, while a decrease in such variability may indicate the occurrence of negative behaviors at work.

  15. Bullying and Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K.; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Holland, Kristin M.; DeGue, Sarah; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Wolfe, Misty; Reid, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Over the last decade there has been increased attention to the association between bullying involvement (as a victim, perpetrator, or bully-victim) and suicidal ideation/behaviors. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the association between bullying involvement and suicidal ideation and behaviors. METHODS We searched multiple online databases and reviewed reference sections of articles derived from searches to identify cross-sectional studies published through July 2013. Using search terms associated with bullying, suicide, and youth, 47 studies (38.3% from the United States, 61.7% in non-US samples) met inclusion criteria. Seven observers independently coded studies and met in pairs to reach consensus. RESULTS Six different meta-analyses were conducted by using 3 predictors (bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and bully/victim status) and 2 outcomes (suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors). A total of 280 effect sizes were extracted and multilevel, random effects meta-analyses were performed. Results indicated that each of the predictors were associated with risk for suicidal ideation and behavior (range, 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67–2.69] to 4.02 [95% CI, 2.39–6.76]). Significant heterogeneity remained across each analysis. The bullying perpetration and suicidal behavior effect sizes were moderated by the study’s country of origin; the bully/victim status and suicidal ideation results were moderated by bullying assessment method. CONCLUSIONS Findings demonstrated that involvement in bullying in any capacity is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. Future research should address mental health implications of bullying involvement to prevent suicidal ideation/behavior. PMID:25560447

  16. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Dooley, Julian; Shaw, Thérèse; Cross, Donna

    2010-11-23

    Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  17. Bullying in school and cyberspace: Associations with depressive symptoms in Swiss and Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Thérèse

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. Method The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0. All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Results Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Conclusions Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.

  18. Cross-national time trends in bullying behaviour 1994-2006: findings from Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molcho, Michal; Craig, Wendy; Due, Pernille; Pickett, William; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Overpeck, Mary

    2009-09-01

    To identify trends over 12 years in the prevalence of bullying and associated victimization among adolescents in North American and European countries. Cross-sectional self-report surveys were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11-15 year old school children in 21 countries in 1993/94 and in 27 countries in each of 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. Measures included involvement in bullying as either a perpetrator and/or victim. Consistent decreases in the prevalence of bullying were reported between 1993/94 to 2005/06 in most countries. Geographic patterns show consistent decreases in bullying in Western European countries and in most Eastern European countries. An increase or no change in prevalence was evident in almost all English speaking countries participating in the study (England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Canada, but not in the USA). Study findings demonstrated a significant decrease in involvement in bullying behaviour in most participating countries. This is encouraging news for policy-makers and practitioners working in the field of bullying prevention.

  19. Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2014-10-01

    This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. School bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is defined as a systematic abuse of power; the development of the research program on school bullying is outlined over four phases. The distinctive nature of cyberbullying, and also of identity-based bullying, is outlined. Measurement methods are discussed, and the kinds of prevalence rates obtained. A range of risk factors for involvement as a bully, or victim, are summarized. A range of school-based interventions are described, together with discussion of a meta-analysis of their o...

  1. Physiotherapy students' experiences of bullying on clinical internships: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy

    2013-06-01

    To consider the prevalence and type of bullying behaviours experienced whilst on clinical placement in a cohort of final-year BSc undergraduate students. Cross-sectional survey. University in the West Midlands, UK. Fifty-two final-year undergraduate students. Prevalence of incivility and bullying behaviours. Twenty-five percent of students reported at least one incident of bullying behaviour. The perpetrator of the bullying behaviour was most often the clinical educator (8/13, 62%). Despite the negative effects caused, the majority of students (11/13, 84%) did not report this experience to the university. Bullying behaviour may take many forms and can have a negative effect on the well-being of students. It should be addressed by all stakeholders including universities, National Health Service trusts and researchers. Possible strategies to move forwards and better protect the future of the physiotherapy profession are briefly considered. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Chang, Ling-Yin; Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-09-01

    One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Data were collected in school from sixth graders in three primarily rural counties and then again when students were in the eighth grade. Analyses were conducted with 1,154 adolescents who had not perpetrated dating violence at the sixth-grade assessment. The sample was 47% male, 29% black, and 10% of another race/ethnicity than black or white. Direct bullying, defined as hitting, slapping, or picking on another kid in the sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade, controlling for indirect bullying and potential confounders. Although indirect bullying, defined as spreading false rumors and excluding students from friendship groups, was associated with the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in bivariate analyses, it did not predict the onset of physical dating violence when controlling for direct bullying. None of the associations examined varied by sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescents. Our findings suggest that efforts targeted at preventing direct bullying may also prevent the onset of physical dating violence. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Bullying as a Longitudinal Predictor of Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Chang, Ling-Yin; Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Methods Data were collected in school from sixth graders in three primarily rural counties and then again when students were in the eighth grade. Analyses were conducted with 1,154 adolescents who had not perpetrated dating violence at the sixth-grade assessment. The sample was 47% male, 29% black, and 10% of another race/ethnicity than black or white. Results Direct bullying, defined as hitting, slapping, or picking on another kid in the sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade, controlling for indirect bullying and potential confounders. Although indirect bullying, defined as spreading false rumors and excluding students from friendship groups, was associated with the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in bivariate analyses, it did not predict the onset of physical dating violence when controlling for direct bullying. None of the associations examined varied by sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescents. Conclusions Our findings suggest that efforts targeted at preventing direct bullying may also prevent the onset of physical dating violence. PMID:24768162

  4. Cyber bullying behaviors among middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Gadalla, Tahany; Daciuk, Joanne; Solomon, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Little research has been conducted that comprehensively examines cyber bullying with a large and diverse sample. The present study examines the prevalence, impact, and differential experience of cyber bullying among a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students (N = 2,186) from a large urban center. The survey examined technology use, cyber bullying behaviors, and the psychosocial impact of bullying and being bullied. About half (49.5%) of students indicated they had been bullied online and 33.7% indicated they had bullied others online. Most bullying was perpetrated by and to friends and participants generally did not tell anyone about the bullying. Participants reported feeling angry, sad, and depressed after being bullied online. Participants bullied others online because it made them feel as though they were funny, popular, and powerful, although many indicated feeling guilty afterward. Greater attention is required to understand and reduce cyber bullying within children's social worlds and with the support of educators and parents.

  5. Longitudinal Relationships between Bullying and Moral Disengagement among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cixin; Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Swearer, Susan M; Turner, Rhonda; Goldberg, Taryn S

    2017-06-01

    Moral disengagement is a series of cognitive processes used to disengage moral standards to achieve absolved guilt and permit immoral conduct and has been found to be an important connection to bullying and aggressive behaviors among adolescents. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between moral disengagement and bullying behavior among a group of adolescents from fifth grade to ninth grade (n = 1180, mean age = 12.2, SD = 1.29, 46.5 % female, 80.2 % Caucasian/White, 7.1 % Black/African American, 5.4 % Latino/Hispanic, 2.4 % Asian American, and 1.7 % other) over three semesters. The objectives were to investigate (a) whether moral disengagement was a precursor to bullying behavior, vice versa, or whether the relationship was reciprocal and (b) whether gender and grade predicted moral disengagement and bullying behavior. The results showed that moral disengagement predicted bullying perpetration 6 months later. Also, older students and males utilized more moral disengagement than younger students and females and younger students and males engaged in greater bullying perpetration. Indirect paths linking gender and grade to bullying via moral disengagement at previous time points were identified and implications for bullying prevention are discussed. The findings underscore the importance of examining moral disengagement when studying bullying and across gender and development.

  6. Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers and online-only contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David

    2007-12-01

    To shed light on the nature of online harassment and the extent to which it may be bullying by examining differences in the characteristics of harassed youth, online harassment incidents, and distressing online harassment based on the identity of online harassers (known peer vs. online-only contact). A telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17, conducted between March and June 2005. Nine percent (n = 129) of youth were harassed online in the past year, 43% (n = 56) by known peers and 57% (n = 73) by people they met online and did not know in person (online-only contacts). Most online harassment incidents did not appear to meet the standard definition of bullying used in school-based research and requiring aggression, repetition, and power imbalance. Only 25% of incidents by known peers and 21% by online-only contacts involved both repeated incidents and either distress to targets or adult intervention. In many cases, the concept of "bullying" or "cyber-bullying" may be inappropriate for online interpersonal offenses. We suggest using "online harassment," with disclaimers that it does not constitute bullying unless it is part of or related to offline bullying. This would include incidents perpetrated by peers that occur entirely online, but arise from school-related events or relationships and have school-related consequences for targets. The Internet provides opportunities for the extension of conventional school bullying to new venues. Those who study conventional school bullying should include online forms of the behavior in research, prevention, and intervention paradigms.

  7. Bullying in Elementary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Tine L. Mundbjerg; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Simonsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread social phenomenon that is thought to have detrimental effects on life outcomes. This paper investigates the link between bullying and later school performance. We rely on rich survey and register-based data for children born in a region of Denmark during 1990–92, which...... allows us to carefully consider possible confounders including psychological factors. We implement an IV strategy inspired by Carrell and Hoekstra (2010) where we instrument victim status with the proportion of peers from troubled homes in one’s classroom. We show that bullied children suffer in terms...

  8. Examination of the change in latent statuses in bullying behaviors across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Wang, Cixin; Swearer, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    Involvement in bullying and victimization has been mostly studied using cross-sectional data from 1 time point. As such, much of our understanding of bullying and victimization has not captured the dynamic experiences of youth over time. To examine the change of latent statuses in bullying and victimization, we applied latent transition analysis examining self-reported bullying involvement from 1,180 students in 5th through 9th grades across 3 time points. We identified unobserved heterogeneous subgroups (i.e., latent statuses) and investigated how students transition between the unobserved subgroups over time. For victimization, 4 latent statuses were identified: frequent victim (11.23%), occasional traditional victim (28.86%), occasional cyber and traditional victim (10.34%), and infrequent victim (49.57%). For bullying behavior, 3 latent statuses were identified: frequent perpetrator (5.12%), occasional verbal/relational perpetrator (26.04%), and infrequent perpetrator (68.84%). The characteristics of the transitions were examined. The multiple-group effects of gender, grade, and first language learned on transitions across statuses were also investigated. The infrequent victim and infrequent perpetrator groups were the most stable, and the frequent victim and frequent perpetrator groups were the least stable. These findings suggest instability in perpetration and victimization over time, as well as significant changes, especially during school transition years. Findings suggest that school-based interventions need to address the heterogeneity in perpetrator and victim experiences in adolescence.

  9. The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold symptoms. Methods 5614 pupils 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened in the first phase and a stratified random sample of 2431 were selected for a detailed interview at the second phase. Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal ideation were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Results Victims of bullying behavior were more likely to express suicidal ideation. This association was particularly strong for those who were bullied on a weekly basis and it was independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity (Odds Ratio: 7.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 3.05 - 19.90. In contrast, being a perpetrator ("bullying others" was not associated with this type of ideation after adjustment. These findings were similar in both boys and girls, although the population impact of victimization in the prevalence of suicidal ideation was potentially higher for boys. Conclusions The strong cross-sectional association between frequent victimization and suicidal ideation in late adolescence offers an opportunity for identifying pupils in the school setting that are in a higher risk for exhibiting suicidal ideation.

  10. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  11. The Association between Bullying and Psychological Health among Senior High School Students in Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Andrew; Hart, Peter; Oliver, Brittney; Kang, Minsoo

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based bullying, a global challenge, negatively impacts the health and development of both victims and perpetrators. This study examined the relationship between bullying victimization and selected psychological variables among senior high school (SHS) students in Ghana, West Africa. Methods: This study utilized data from the…

  12. Association between Self-Control and School Bullying Behaviors among Macanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Chan, Heng Choon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Macau is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China with over 95% of the population is of Chinese descent. Research on school bullying using Macanese samples is virtually nonexistent. Thus, this study is among the first to sample this population by exploring the association between bullying perpetration and victimization, and the…

  13. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. An Association between Bullying Behaviors and Alcohol Use among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Comerford, Mary; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Although a high prevalence of bullying behaviors among adolescents has been documented, little is known about the association between bullying behaviors and alcohol use among perpetrators or victims. This study used data from a representative two-stage cluster random sample of 44, 532 middle school adolescents in Florida. We found a high…

  15. Bullying Experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service-Users: A Pilot Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kevin; Teggart, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Victims and perpetrators of bullying experience a variety of psychological problems. The aim of the current pilot study was to explore the bullying experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMHS) service-users. The investigation was conducted as a cross-sectional survey at a community-based specialist CAMH service. A modified version of…

  16. Childhood experiences of female family-violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiski, Pia; Flinck, Aune; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help. The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence. The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article. The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bullying in the Nursing Workplace: Applying Evidence Using A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ju; Bernstein, Kunsook; Lee, Mihyoung; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Bullying in the nursing workplace can result in serious health-related outcomes for both nurses and patients who are under their care as well as the health care organizations. Bullying can erode the victim's professional competence and reputation and challenge the victim to maintain and improve professional identity. Although bullying can occur among co-workers, the most common form of bullying involves the abuse of power by superiors against subordinates. Persistent negative behaviors of a perpetrator indicates repeated negative behaviors of at least once or twice weekly by the perpetrator targeting the victim over period of time of at least 6 months and as long as 12 months. Building a conceptual framework of bullying specific to the nursing workplace is warranted to better understand bullying dynamics and its consequences while developing strategies to change the health care environment to a safer workplace for nurses.

  18. Prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence by nursing unit and the relationship between violence and the perceived work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihyun; Cho, Sung-Hyun; Hong, Hyun-Ja

    2015-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and perpetrators of workplace violence against nurses and to examine the relationship of work demands and trust and justice in the workplace with the occurrence of violence. This study employed cross-sectional data from a 2013 nurse survey conducted at a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The study sample included 970 female nurses from 47 nursing units, including general, oncology, intensive care units (ICUs), operating rooms, and outpatient departments. The second version of the medium-sized Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) was used to measure work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, work pace, and emotional demands), trust and justice, and violence. Relationships among those variables were examined by conducting multiple logistic regression analyses with multilevel modeling. The 12-month prevalence of verbal abuse (63.8%) was highest, followed by threats of violence (41.6%), physical violence (22.3%), and sexual harassment (19.7%), but bullying had the lowest prevalence (9.7%). Physical violence, threats of violence, and verbal abuse occurred most frequently in ICUs, whereas sexual harassment and bullying were highest in operating rooms. The main perpetrators were patients, followed by physicians and patients' families. Nurses perceiving greater work demands and less trust and justice were more likely to have been exposed to violence. The prevalence and perpetrators of violence varied considerably among nursing units. Greater work demands and less trust and justice were associated with nurses' experiences of violence. Adequate work demands and a trusted and just work environment may reduce violence against nurses. In return, reduction of violence will contribute to creating a better nursing work environment. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-vic...

  20. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  1. Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Nadine M; Morris, Robert G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Introduction: new approaches to school bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schott, Robin May; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers an introduction to and discussion of the two main paradigms within bullying research: paradigm one with its focus on static personality traits and paradigm two woth an understanding of bullying in terms of the complex relational dynamics and negotiations that occur within social...... Groups and which include a variey of intra-acting forces. The chapter gives a 'road map' to the book's 16 chapters on bullying, situated within the second paradigm. A new definition of bullying concludes the chapter....

  3. Cyberbullying: The New Era of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ann; Beran, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Bullying involves a powerful person intentionally harming a less powerful person repeatedly. With advances in technology, students are finding new methods of bullying, including sending harassing emails, instant messages, text messages, and personal pictures to others. Although school bullying has been studied since the 1970s, relatively little is…

  4. Workplace Bullying in Radiology and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Jay R; Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-08-01

    Workplace bullying is common in health care and has recently been reported in both radiology and radiation oncology. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of bullying and its potential consequences in radiology and radiation oncology. Bullying behavior may involve abuse, humiliation, intimidation, or insults; is usually repetitive; and causes distress in victims. Workplace bullying is more common in health care than in other industries. Surveys of radiation therapists in the United States, student radiographers in England, and physicians-in-training showed that substantial proportions of respondents had been subjected to workplace bullying. No studies were found that addressed workplace bullying specifically in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology residents. Potential consequences of workplace bullying in health care include anxiety, depression, and health problems in victims; harm to patients as a result of victims' reduced ability to concentrate; and reduced morale and high turnover in the workplace. The Joint Commission has established leadership standards addressing inappropriate behavior, including bullying, in the workplace. The ACR Commission on Human Resources recommends that organizations take steps to prevent bullying. Those steps include education, including education to ensure that the line between the Socratic method and bullying is not crossed, and the establishment of policies to facilitate reporting of bullying and support victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bullying and the Twice-Exceptional Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin-Rohr, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Bullying has been an ongoing problem for students, but the issue is becoming more critical with changes in the society and the school systems. A bully is no longer "a person who hurts, frightens, threatens, or tyrannizes over those who are smaller or weaker". According to Tracy Cross, the definition of a bully now is evolving to include any person…

  6. School bullying: development and some important challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olweus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    After sketching how my own interest and research into bullying problems began, I address a number of potentially controversial issues related to the definition and measurement of such problems. The importance of maintaining the distinctions between bullying victimization and general victimization and between bullying perpetration and general aggression is strongly emphasized. There are particular problems with the common method of peer nominations for purposes of prevalence estimation, comparisons of such estimates and mean levels across groups and time, and measurement of change. Two large-scale projects with time series data show that several recent claims about cyber bullying made in the media and by some researchers are greatly exaggerated and lack scientific support. Recent meta-analyses of the long-term outcomes for former bullies and victims provide convincing evidence that being involved in such problems is not just a harmless and passing school problem but something that has serious adjustment and public health consequences that also entail great costs to society. Another section presents my view of why the theme of bullying took quite some time to reach the peer relations research community in the United States and the role of a dominant research tradition focusing on "likeability" in this account. In a final section, I summarize some reasons why it may be considered important and interesting to focus both research and intervention on bully/victim problems.

  7. Perceptions of adolescent bullying: attributions of blame and responsibility in cases of cyber-bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Allison; Downey, Christina A

    2013-12-01

    Cyber-bullying (where victims are targeted via online social networking or other electronic means) has gained increased attention in research and the broadcast media, but previous research has not investigated attribution of blame in such cyber-bullying events. This experiment hypothesized that participants would assign higher ratings of blame to bullying perpetrators when the bullying situations were depicted as having highly foreseeable outcomes (vs. unforeseeable outcomes), and as occurring in school (vs. online). In addition, a significant interaction was predicted between outcome foreseeability and bullying situation, with highly foreseeable in-school events being rated as the most predictable and attributable to the bully's actions. One-hundred sixty-three participants completed surveys containing demographic items, items regarding their past experiences of victimization, and one of four randomly-assigned vignettes detailing a bullying situation (which participants rated). While hypotheses regarding outcome foreseeability were supported, no cyber-bullying vs. in-school main effects (or corresponding interaction effects) were detected. Implications for future research and practice, as well as study limitations, are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Moral reasoning and emotion attributions of adolescent bullies, victims, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents aged 12-18 (57% females) reported the frequency of involvement in bullying and victimization. Participants were categorized as bullies (14.3%), bully-victims (3.9%), and victims (9.7%). Moral judgment, moral justifications, and emotion attributions to a hypothetical perpetrator of a moral transgression (relational aggression) were assessed. Bullies showed more morally disengaged reasoning than non-involved students. Bully-victims more frequently indicated that violating moral rules is right. Victims produced more victim-oriented justifications (i.e., more empathy) but fewer moral rules. Among victims, the frequency of morally responsible justifications decreased and the frequency of deviant rules increased with age. The findings are discussed from an integrative moral developmental perspective. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Contrastings views on bullying in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    Contrasting views on bullying in schools Which views on bullying influence teachers intervention strategies? This question is discussed  on the basis of the findings of my empirical study of that aspect of bullying that has to do with the position of the teacher (a quantitative survey...... of the teachers' staff room, observations, interviews and analysis of explicit ‘bullying-politics'). I found contradictions in teachers' definitions of the phenomenon of bullying, in how they describe causality and furthermore in how they would attempt to solve a specific and complicated bullying case....... The informants describe ‘bullying' in general terms that include group dynamic signs, when pressed for a causal explanation, or asked how they would handle a specific case. Most commonly, however, their focus is on the individual bully. In this, the teachers' positions seem to follow the commonplace conception...

  10. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  11. Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Menu Bullying What Is Bullying The Roles Kids Play Who Is at Risk Warning Signs for Bullying Effects of Bullying Diversity, Race & Religion LGBTQ Youth ...

  12. Child homicide perpetrators worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Dekel, Bianca; Morris-Gehring, Alison; Watts, Charlotte; Abrahams, Naeemah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe child homicide perpetrators and estimate their global and regional proportion to inform prevention strategies to reduce child homicide mortality worldwide. A systematic review of 9431 studies derived from 18 databases led to the inclusion of 126 studies after double screening. All included studies reported a number or proportion of child homicides perpetrators. 169 countries and homicide experts were surveyed in addition. The median proportion for each perpetrator category was calculated by region and overall and by age groups and sex. Data were obtained for 44 countries. Overall, parents committed 56.5% (IQR 23.7-69.6) of child homicides, 58.4% (0.0-66.7) of female and 46.8% (14.1-63.8) of male child homicides. Acquaintances committed 12.6% (5.9-31.3) of child homicides. Almost a tenth (9.2% (IQR 0.0-21.9) of child homicides had missing information on the perpetrator. The largest proportion of parental homicides of children was found in high-income countries (64.2%; 44.7-71.8) and East Asia and Pacific Region (61.7%; 46.7-78.6). Parents committed the majority (77.8% (61.5-100.0)) of homicides of children under the age of 1 year. For adolescents, acquaintances were the main group of homicide perpetrators (36.9%, 6.6-51.8). There is a notable lack of studies from low-income and middle-income countries and children above the age of 1 year. Children face the highest risk of homicide by parents and someone they know. Increased investment into the compilation of routine data on child homicide, and the perpetrators of this homicide is imperative for understanding and ultimately reducing child homicide mortality worldwide. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015030125.

  13. A Study of Bullying Against Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hulya; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat

    2017-06-01

    Many institutions have conducted research on the subject of bullying. The literature includes many studies of the effects of widespread bullying among primary and secondary school students. Bullying against hospital nurses and also bullying against university students are well-known and frequently discussed research topics. Yet, the exposure of nursing students to bullying has not been sufficiently explored, and few studies have focused on the issue of bullying against nursing students. The aim of this study is to examine bullying against nursing students, including the rate of bullying, types of bullying, and responses to the negative effects of bullying. This study was conducted on 202 nursing students (including sophomores, juniors, and seniors) during the 2013-2014 academic year. The participation rate was 88.5%. The Negative Attitudes Scale was used to collect data, and descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Participants were evenly distributed between women (49.5%) and men (50.5%). The median age of participants was 21.58 ± 2.28 years; the frequency of bullying was 78.1%. The types of bullying were pejorative statements about the nursing profession (11.3%); low grades used as a form of punishment (9.9%); work, homework, and job rotation used as punishment in lieu of training (9.4%); impossible workloads (9.0%); and the spreading of rumors and gossip (7%). This study indicates that the participants were exposed to high levels of bullying. As exposure to bullying negatively affects the job attitudes of nursing students, further studies are necessary to develop strategies to prevent horizontal bullying.

  14. Bullying behaviors in children and adolescents: an ongoing story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Kimon Tsitsika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a universal problem which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.

  15. Students' perspectives on cyber bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatston, Patricia W; Kowalski, Robin; Limber, Susan

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the impact of cyber bullying on students and the possible need for prevention messages targeting students, educators, and parents. A total of 148 middle and high school students were interviewed during focus groups held at two middle and two high schools in a public school district. The focus groups were approximately 45 minutes in length. Students were divided by gender and asked a series of scripted questions by a same-gender student assistance counselor. We found that students' comments during the focus groups suggest that students-particularly females-view cyber bullying as a problem, but one rarely discussed at school, and that students do not see the school district personnel as helpful resources when dealing with cyber bullying. Students are currently experiencing the majority of cyber bullying instances outside of the school day; however there is some impact at school. Students were able to suggest some basic strategies for dealing with cyber bullying, but were less likely to be aware of strategies to request the removal of objectionable websites, as well as how to respond as a helpful bystander when witnessing cruel online behavior. We conclude that school districts should address cyber bullying through a combination of policies and information that are shared with students and parents. Schools should include cyber bullying as part of their bullying prevention strategies and include classroom lessons that address reporting and bystander behavior.

  16. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of open-ended, social, discursive, material and subjective forces. Instead of approaching bullying as a phenomenon that can be explained and defined in terms of one factor (e.g., aggression), the authors in this anthology focus on a range of different forces that are central in bullying: teachers (Hansen...... to the processes of material–discursive enactments establishes important premises for the recurring basic assumptions that the eXbus-team have developed about bullying being enacted by multiple intra-acting forces and about their entangled agencies (see Søndergaard on page XX for an explication of this idea...

  17. Problem Behaviours, Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying among Adolescents: Longitudinal Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Leanne; Cross, Donna; Shaw, Therese

    2012-01-01

    Problem Behaviour Theory suggests that young people's problem behaviours tend to cluster. This study examined the relationship between traditional bullying, cyberbullying and engagement in problem behaviours using longitudinal data from approximately 1500 students. Levels of traditional victimisation and perpetration at the beginning of secondary…

  18. Does Workplace Bullying Affect Long-Term Sickness Absence Among Co-Workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine if non-bullied employees at work units (WUs) with workplace bullying have more long-term sickness absence (LTSA) than employees in non-bullying WUs. METHODS: We included 7229 public health employees from 302 WUs and 3158 responders to a questionnaire on working conditions and health...... in 2007. WUs were classified into three categories of WUs; 1) no bullying (0% bullied); 2) moderate prevalence of bullying (bullied); and 3) high prevalence of bullying (≥10% bullied). LTSA (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence) during the following two years was obtained by linkage to the Danish...... register of sickness absence compensation benefits and social transfer payments. RESULTS: Non-bullied co-workers in WUs, where bullying was reported had 15 to 22% more LTSA compared with non-bullying WUs. CONCLUSION: Workplace bullying may be associated with LTSA in the entire WU....

  19. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and 6 subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber-bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First-order and second-order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first-order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent-related validation and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school. PMID:28194041

  20. Nurses' perceptions of individual and organizational political reasons for horizontal peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrinli, Alev; Atabay, Gulem; Gunay, Gonca; Cangarli, Burcu Guneri

    2010-09-01

    Nurses are exposed to bullying for various reasons. It has been argued that the reason for bullying can be political, meaning that the behavior occurs to serve the self-interests of the perpetrators. This study aims to identify how nurses perceive the relevance of individual and political reasons for bullying behaviors. In February 2009 a survey was conducted with nurses working in a research and training hospital located in Turkey. The results showed that the aim of influencing promotion, task assignments, performance appraisal, recruitment, dismissal, allocation of equipment and operational means, together with allocation of personal benefits and organizational structure decisions, were perceived as potential political reasons for bullying by nurses. Moreover, the reasons for the various bullying behaviors were perceived as relevant to individual characteristics, namely, the perpetrators' need for power, and their psychological and private life problems.

  1. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…

  2. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and relational practices – as well as the abjections by which subjects and social groups are formed – have inspired several of the articles, and the authors seek to reveal complex patterns of relating amongst children in school classes that are saturated by marginalisation and bullying practices. Foucault......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...... in these countries highlights both the similarities and differences amongst national school systems. Most importantly, the authors share an analytical ambition to understand bullying as a complex phenomenon that is enacted or constituted through the interactive/intra-active entanglements that exist between a variety...

  3. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the importance of qualitative research in the field of school bullying. However, the authors also acknowledge the importance of insights obtained through quantitative studies, such as survey material, and through mixed methods (see Hansen, Henningsen and Kofoed on page XX, and Cross and Barnes on page XX)....... seen amongst various the actors involved in bullying practices. Theoretical approaches based in deconstruction, discourse analysis and narrative analysis as well as mixed methods have been utilised to analyse the qualitative data. This anthology makes a particular contribution in highlighting......School Bullying: New Theories in Context brings together the work of scholars who utilise ontological, epistemological and methodological approaches that challenge paradigm one, contributing to the shift in research on school bullying that we call paradigm two. Several of the authors have...

  4. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A.H. Zottis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10-to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring. A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. RESULTS: 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7% were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; p < 0.001 times more likely of having a bully child. Psychological aggression and mild forms of corporal punishment presented the highest odds ratios. Overall inductive discipline was not associated with bullying. CONCLUSIONS: bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior.

  5. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bullying in work groups: the impact of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether and how laissez-faire, transformational, and authentic leadership styles are related to the occurrence of bullying in work groups. It is hypothesized that the investigated leadership styles have direct associations, as well as indirect associations through group cohesion and safety perceptions, with indicators of bullying among subordinates. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the variables were assessed in a randomly selected sample comprising 594 seafarers from two Norwegian shipping companies. Laissez-faire leadership was associated with an increased risk of exposure to bullying behavior, self-labeled victimization from bullying, and perpetrated bullying. Transformational leadership and authentic leadership were related to decreased risk of exposure to bullying behavior. Authentic leadership contributed to the variance in bullying beyond laissez-faire and transformational leadership. Analyses of indirect effects showed that the association between transformational leadership and bullying was fully mediated through safety perceptions, whereas a partial indirect association through safety perceptions was found for authentic leadership. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature by providing evidence for how leadership styles predict workplace bullying. The findings highlight the importance of recruiting, developing, and training leaders who promote both positive psychological capacities and positive perceptions among their subordinates. © 2012 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. [School bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W

    2018-02-01

    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  8. A structural model of the relationships between optimism and perceived emotional intelligence on bullying victimization and health.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena Rocío; López-Martínez, Alicia Eva; Ruiz-Párraga, Gema Teresa; Esteve, Rosa; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Rey-Peña, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is a relationship in which an individual, or a group of individuals, intentionally and repeatedly perpetrates aggressive behaviors towards someone unable to defend himself/herself. Traditional forms of bullying consist of physical, verbal and covert forms of aggressive behaviors. Recently, the new phenomenon of cyberbullying has emerged. This relatively new form of bullying is defined as a behavior displayed through electronic or digital media. Multiple variables have been related to...

  9. PERILAKU BULLYING: ASESMEN MULTIDIMENSI DAN INTERVENSI SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husmiati Yusuf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented an overview about bullying, multidimentional assessment, and social intervention. Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior in order to intentionally hurt another person physically or mentally. Bullying is characterized by an individual behaving in a certain way to gain power over another person. Behaviors may include name calling, verbal or written abuse, exclusion from activities, exclusion from social situations, physical abuse, or coercion. Bullying in schools sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of, or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who want to avoid becoming the next victim. To comprehensively understand about bullying, professional helpers (psychologist, counsellor, and social worker need to do a multidimentional assesment. Based on this issue, this paper suggested three intervention programs to prevent and combating the bullying behavior in the schools is Citizens’ Responsibility Program. Keywords: school, bullying, assessment, intervention

  10. Psychological Outcomes of Bullying Among Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Onur Celik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying may lead to multiple consequences including academic, social and psychological problems. Bullying, like with in many other branches, has been a major problem in sports. Every form of bullying is described in sports. The competitive nature of sports might unconsciously support bullying. The studies showed that victimization caused by bullying may lead to psychological and physical medical problems as well as unplesant results such as drug abuse and predisposition to crime. In this review we explained the differences between the terms bullying and mobbing and then tried to draw attention to psychological consequences of being exposed to bullying among athletes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 152-162

  11. Patterns of Bullying and Sexual Harassment: Connections with Parents and Teachers as Direct Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Jennifer L; Gower, Amy L; Rudi, Jessie H; McMorris, Barbara J; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-11-01

    Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age  = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.

  12. Altering workplace attitudes for resident education (A.W.A.R.E.): discovering solutions for medical resident bullying through literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisy, Heather B; Ahmad, Meleha

    2016-04-27

    Physicians-in-training are challenged every day with grueling academic requirements, job strain, and patient safety concerns. Residency shapes the skills and values that will percolate to patient care and professional character. Unfortunately, impediments to the educational process due to medical resident mistreatment by bullying remain highly prevalent in training today. A PubMed literature review was undertaken using key terms to help define resident mistreatment by bullying, determine its prevalence, identify its potential causes and sequelae, and find suggestions for changing this detrimental culture of medical training. We identified 62 relevant articles. The most frequently noted form of mistreatment was verbal abuse, with the most common perpetrators being fellow physicians of higher hierarchical power. Mistreatment exists due to its cyclical nature and the existing culture of medical training. These disruptive behaviors affect the wellbeing of both medical residents and patients. This article highlights the importance of creating systems that educate physicians-in-training about professional mistreatment by bullying and the imperative in recognizing and correcting these abuses. Resident bullying leads to increased resident stress, decreased resident wellbeing as well as risks to patient safety and increased healthcare costs. Solutions include education of healthcare team members, committee creation, regulation of feedback, and creation of a zero-tolerance policy focused on the health of both patients and residents. Altering workplace attitudes will diminish the detrimental effects that bullying has on resident training.

  13. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  14. Experiences of appearance-related teasing and bullying in skin diseases and their psychological sequelae: results of a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker; Adams, Jon; Heading, Gaynor; Pond, Dimity; Smith, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Acne, psoriasis and atopic eczema are common diseases and have been consistently associated with adverse psychological sequelae including stigmatization. Being teased on the basis of appearance has been associated with psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of teasing and bullying in patients with acne, psoriasis and eczema, and the role of appearance-related teasing and bullying as mediators of psychological morbidity in these patients. Data collection consisted of 62 in-depth semi-structured interviews with patients with acne, psoriasis or atopic eczema recruited from both specialist dermatology and general practices. Data analysis was cumulative and concurrent throughout the data collection period reflecting a grounded theory approach. Analysis followed the analytic induction method, allowing themes to emerge from the data. Teasing, taunting or bullying was a considerable problem for a significant minority of acne, psoriasis and atopic eczema participants. Themes that emerged were the universally negative nature of the teasing, the use of teasing as an instrument of social exclusion, and as a means of establishing or enforcing power relationships, teasing related to contagion and fear, the emotional and psychological sequelae of teasing and the theme of 'insensate' teasing. For those who had suffered teasing or bullying, this was causally linked in respondents' accounts with psychological sequelae, especially self-consciousness and effects on self-image and self-esteem. Experiences of teasing and bullying were found to have principally occurred during the adolescence of participants and the perpetrators were other adolescents, but there were findings of respondents with psoriasis also having been subjected to ridicule or derogatory remarks by health professionals. Teasing, taunting and bullying may represent an underappreciated source of psychological morbidity in children and

  15. Characteristics of male and female prisoners involved in bullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Archer, John; Power, Christina L

    2007-01-01

    This study explores bullying behavior in a larger and more representative sample than previous prison-based research. It has two core aims, first to explore the nature of bullying in relation to indirect and direct aggression and, second, to explore the predictors of bully-category membership with particular reference to behavioral characteristics. Participants were adult men (n=728) and women (n=525) prisoners. All completed a behavioral measure of behavior indicative of bullying (Direct and Indirect Prisoner behavior Checklist, DIPC) that also explored prison-based behavior such as negative acts towards staff or prison rules, positive acts and drug-related behavior. Indirect aggression was, as predicted, reported more frequently than direct aggression, although this only held for perpetration. Bully-victims, as predicted, showed more negative behavior. Pure bullies and pure victims also showed more negative behavior than the other categories. The findings are discussed in relation to the environment in which bullying behavior is being assessed and with attention to the possible motivations underlying both bullying and negative behavior. Directions for future research are suggested. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. [A self administered survey to assess bullying in schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecannelier, Felipe; Varela, Jorge; Rodríguez, Jorge; Hoffmann, Marianela; Flores, Fernanda; Ascanio, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    Bullying is common in schools and has negative consequences. It can be assessed using a self-reported instrument. To validate a Spanish self-reporting tool called "Survey of High School Bullying Abuse of Power" (MIAP). The instrument has 13 questions, of which 7 are multiple choice, rendering a total of 49 items. It was applied to 2.341 children of seventh and eighth grade attending private, subsidized and municipal schools in the city of Concepción, Chile. Expert judge analysis and estimated reliability using the Cronbach Alpha were used to validate the survey. The instrument obtained a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.8892, classified as good. This analysis generated four scales that explained 30.9% of the variance. They were called "Witness Bullying" with 18 items, accounting for 11.4% of the variance, "Bullying Victim" with 12 items, accounting for 7.5% of the variance, "Bullying Perpetrator and Severe bullying Victim", with 10 items explaining 6.4% of the variance and "Aggressor Bullying" with 6 items accounting for 5.7% of the variance. The MIAP can recognize four basic factors that facilitate the analysis and understanding of bullying, with good levels of reliability and validity. The remaining questions also deliver valuable information.

  17. Prevalence of bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment in surgery in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebbin, Wendy; Campbell, Graeme; Hillis, David A; Watters, David A

    2015-12-01

    The topic of discrimination, bullying and sexual harassment in surgery was raised in the Australian media earlier in 2015. This led the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) to commission an Expert Advisory Group to investigate and advise the College on their prevalence in surgery in Australia and New Zealand. This paper reports the findings with respect to prevalence of these inappropriate behaviours. The data in this paper were drawn from the published results of two quantitative surveys. One was an online survey sent to all RACS members. The other was an invited survey of hospitals, medical institutions and other related professional organizations including surgical societies. The prevalence survey achieved a 47.8% response rate, representing 3516 individuals. Almost half of the respondents 1516 (49.2%) indicated that they had experienced one or more of the behaviours. This proportion was consistent across every specialty. Male surgical consultants were identified as the most likely perpetrators. More than 70% of the hospitals reported that they had instances in their organization of discrimination, bullying or sexual harassment by a surgeon within the last 5 years. Surgical directors or surgical consultants were by far the most frequently reported perpetrators (in 50% of hospitals). Discrimination, bullying and sexual harassment are common in surgical practice and training in Australia and New Zealand. RACS needs to urgently address these behaviours in surgery. This will involve a change in culture, more education for fellows and trainees, and better processes around complaints including support for those who have suffered. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Bullying in schools: the power of bullies and the plight of victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a pervasive problem affecting school-age children. Reviewing the latest findings on bullying perpetration and victimization, we highlight the social dominance function of bullying, the inflated self-views of bullies, and the effects of their behaviors on victims. Illuminating the plight of the victim, we review evidence on the cyclical processes between the risk factors and consequences of victimization and the mechanisms that can account for elevated emotional distress and health problems. Placing bullying in context, we consider the unique features of electronic communication that give rise to cyberbullying and the specific characteristics of schools that affect the rates and consequences of victimization. We then offer a critique of the main intervention approaches designed to reduce school bullying and its harmful effects. Finally, we discuss future directions that underscore the need to consider victimization a social stigma, conduct longitudinal research on protective factors, identify school context factors that shape the experience of victimization, and take a more nuanced approach to school-based interventions.

  19. Understanding and defining bullying - adolescents' own views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Lisa; Persson, Louise; Hagquist, Curt

    2015-01-01

    The negative consequences of peer-victimization on children and adolescents are major public health concerns which have been subjected to extensive research. Given all efforts made to analyze and estimate the social and health consequences of peer-victimization, the adolescents' own experiences and understandings have had surprisingly little impact on the definition of bullying. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore adolescents' definitions of bullying. A questionnaire study (n = 128) and four focus group interviews (n = 21) were conducted among students aged 13 and 15. First, gender and age differences were analyzed with respect to what behaviors are considered bullying (questionnaire data). Second, analysis of what bullying is (focus group interviews) was conducted using qualitative content analysis. The adolescents own understanding and definition of bullying didn't just include the traditional criteria of repetition and power imbalance, but also a criterion based on the health consequences of bullying. The results showed that a single but hurtful or harmful incident also could be considered bullying irrespective of whether the traditional criteria were fulfilled or not. Further, girls and older students had a more inclusive view of bullying and reported more types of behaviors as bullying compared to boys and younger students. The results of the current study adds to the existing literature by showing that adolescents consider the victim's experience of hurt and harm as a criterion for defining bullying and not only as consequences of bullying. This may be of special relevance for the identification and classification of bullying incidents on the internet where devastating consequences have been reported from single incidents and the use of the traditional criteria of intent, repetition and power imbalance may not be as relevant as for traditional bullying. It implies that the traditional criteria included in most definitions of bullying

  20. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  1. Evaluation of Iowa?s anti-bullying law

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa?s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Methods Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n?=?253,0...

  2. Novice nurse productivity following workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy A; Gillespie, Gordon L; Gates, Donna; Schafer, John

    2012-03-01

    To determine the prevalence and effects of workplace bullying (WPB) on the work productivity of novice nurses (NNs). Internet-based descriptive cross-sectional survey design. One hundred ninety seven NNs (91.4% female, 8.6% male) in practice less than 2 years completed the Healthcare Productivity Survey, Negative Acts Questionnaire, and a demographic survey. The majority (72.6%, n= 147) of NNs reported a WPB event within the previous month, with 57.9% (n= 114) the direct targets and another 14.7% (n= 29) witnesses of WPB behaviors. Using a weighted Negative Acts Questionnaire score, 21.3% (n= 43) of NNs were bullied daily over a 6-month period. When asked if bullied over the past 6 months, approximately 44.7% (n= 88) of NNs reported repeated, targeted WPB, with 55.3% (n= 109) reporting no WPB. WPB acts were primarily perpetrated by more experienced nursing colleagues (63%, n= 126). Further, work productivity regression modeling was significant and NN productivity was negatively impacted by workplace bullying (r=-.322, p= .045). WPB continues in the healthcare environment and negatively affects bullied NNs' productivity by affecting cognitive demands and ability to handle or manage their workload. Healthcare facilities should continue to measure WPB in the work environment after policy implementation as well as eliminate negative behaviors through root-cause analysis to correct environmental factors associated with WPB. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of the Perpetration of Cyber Dating Abuse among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Temple, Jeff R; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Hernandez, Belinda; Cuccaro, Paula; Gabay, Efrat K; Thiel, Melanie; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-02-01

    Much is known about the prevalence and correlates of dating violence, especially the perpetration of physical dating violence, among older adolescents. However, relatively little is known about the prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse, particularly among early adolescents. In this study, using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend (n = 424, 44.2 % female), almost 15 % reported perpetrating cyber dating abuse at least once during their lifetime. Furthermore, using a cross-sectional design, across multiple levels of the socio-ecological model, the individual-level factors of (a) norms for violence for boys against girls, (b) having a current boyfriend/girlfriend, and (c) participation in bullying perpetration were correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse. Collectively, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. Future studies are needed to establish causation and to further investigate the relative importance of correlates of the perpetration of cyber dating abuse among early adolescents that have been reported among older adolescents.

  4. Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of studies have appeared which argue that, prior to their attack, the perpetrators of school shootings had experienced intense conflicts and problematic relations (e.g. bullying) with peers and teachers, and were on the periphery of the schools' social life. This in turn resulted in the perpetrators' view of themselves as marginalized…

  5. Evaluation of Iowa's anti-bullying law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years post-law but not below 2005 pre-law levels. This pattern was consistent across all bullying types except cyberbullying. The odds of teacher intervention decreased 11 % (OR = 0.89, 95 % CL = 0.88, 0.90) from 2005 (pre-law) to 2010 (post-law). Bullying increased immediately after Iowa's anti-bullying law was passed, possibly due to improved reporting. Reductions in bullying occurred as the law matured. Teacher response did not improve after the passage of the law.

  6. A Systematic Review of Research Strategies Used in Qualitative Studies on School Bullying and Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Patel, Sadiq; Kral, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Pain, Bullying Involvement, and Mental Health Problems Among Children and Adolescents With ADHD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Wu, Yu-Yu; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships of pain and pain-induced functional impairment with bullying involvement, as well as the relationships between pain and mental health problems among 474 children and adolescents with ADHD. The levels of pain, pain-induced functional impairment, involvement in bullying, depression, anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and sleep quality were assessed. Both victims of verbal and relational bullying and victims of physical bullying were more likely to have pain and pain-induced functional impairment than nonvictims. The perpetrators of verbal and relational bullying were more likely to have pain than the nonperpetrators. Participants with pain and pain-induced functional impairment experienced more severe depression and anxiety and worse sleep quality than did those without pain or pain-induced functional impairment. Clinical and educational professionals should consider the possibility of involvement in bullying and comorbid depression, anxiety, and poor sleep quality among ADHD children and adolescents with pain problems.

  8. An Analysis of Bullying among Students within Schools: Estimating the Effects of Individual Normative Beliefs, Self-Esteem, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Brian P.; Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among self-esteem, approving normative beliefs about bullying, school climate, and bullying perpetration using a large, longitudinal sample of children from elementary, middle, and high school. Self-report surveys were collected at two points in time over the course of 1 year from 7,299 ethnically diverse…

  9. The View From the Bottom: Relative Deprivation and Bullying Victimization in Canadian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoletano, Anthony; Elgar, Frank J; Saul, Grace; Dirks, Melanie; Craig, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relation between relative deprivation (RD)-disparity in affluence between adolescents and their more affluent schoolmates-and involvement in bullying among 23,383 students (aged 9-19) in 413 schools that participated in the 2010 Canadian Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey. Students reported family affluence and frequency of bullying victimization and perpetration during the previous 2 months. Using the Yitzhaki index of RD and multinomial logistic regression analysis, we found that RD positively related to three types of bullying victimization (physical, relational, and cyberbullying) and to two types of perpetration (relational and cyberbullying) after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. These findings suggest that RD uniquely contributes to risk of bullying involvement. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  11. Bullying of medical students in Pakistan: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies from other countries have shown that bullying, harassment, abuse or belittlement are a regular phenomenon faced not only by medical students, but also junior doctors, doctors undertaking research and other healthcare professionals. While research has been carried out on bullying experienced by psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees in Pakistan no such research has been conducted on medical students in this country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on final year medical students in six medical colleges of Pakistan. The response rate was 63%. Fifty-two percent of respondents reported that they had faced bullying or harassment during their medical education, about 28% of them experiencing it once a month or even more frequently. The overwhelming form of bullying had been verbal abuse (57%, while consultants were the most frequent (46% perpetrators. Students who were slightly older, males, those who reported that their medical college did not have a policy on bullying or harassment, and those who felt that adequate support was not in place at their medical college for bullied individuals, were significantly more likely to have experienced bullying. CONCLUSION: Bullying or harassment is faced by quite a large proportion of medical students in Pakistan. The most frequent perpetrators of this bullying are consultants. Adoption of a policy against bullying and harassment by medical colleges, and providing avenues of support for students who have been bullied may help reduce this phenomenon, as the presence of these two was associated with decreased likelihood of students reporting having being bullied.

  12. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  13. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  14. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Students: Examining Mediation and Moderated Mediation by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari

    2016-11-01

    This longitudinal study tested whether sexual harassment perpetration mediates the relationship between bullying perpetration and teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and tested moderated mediation by assessing whether the developmental pathway varies by gender among middle school-aged youth. Although TDV has been associated with bullying and sexual harassment, the developmental relationship among all three behaviors has rarely been examined, especially by gender. The data were collected from one cohort of seventh grade middle school students (N = 612) from four schools. Students were surveyed every 6 months during seventh and eighth grades for a total of four waves of data collection. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to address the study aims, consisting of three stages: measurement models, mediation, and moderated mediation (otherwise known as Contrast of Mediated Effects). Results indicate no evidence of mediation. However, in the overall model, bullying and sexual harassment both emerged as significant predictors of TDV at a later time point. Among girls, only bullying significantly predicted TDV at a later time point, and, among boys, only sexual harassment significantly predicted TDV at a later time point. Prevention programs that target bullying and sexual harassment perpetration may reduce later perpetration of TDV. Further research is needed to disentangle the temporal relationships between these aggressive behaviors among youth.

  15. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

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    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  16. Long-term effects of bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a ‘normal rite of passage’. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. PMID:25670406

  17. Obesidade infantil e bullying: a ótica dos professores Obesity in children and bullying: the teachers' viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ataide Pinto da Costa

    2012-09-01

    metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro and they were asked an open question concerning the problems faced by overweight students. Intentionally, the question did not mention the word bullying. The principal researcher reached the teachers in their own schools, in a moment of rest or when students were performing activities that did not require the teacher's direct intervention. Responses were grouped in seventeen categories and the results showed that, according to the teachers, the problem most commonly faced by overweight students is prejudice. In addition, other problems faced by these students include exclusion, shyness and low self-esteem. The results also showed negative attitudes by the teacher in relation to the students who sometimes were described as apathetic, unexcited, tired, slow, absent-minded, lazy, unwilling, etc.; this data indicates the possibility that the teacher him/herself could be the perpetrator of bullying. The research findings are evidence that more studies are required in order to seek a better understanding of the teacher role towards the discrimination of overweight students, especially those who are victims of bullying, so that it will be possible to go further in devising actions to promote cultural diversity in the schools.

  18. Managing bullying problems in Nigerian secondary schools: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... prescribes interventions for bullying prevention in schools. These include; provision of helping services for schools; sensitization and capacity building for stakeholders on bullying detection and prevention; implementation of bully buster programme; and improvement of students' level of compassion and empathy through ...

  19. Bullying in Elementary Schools: Its Causes and Effects on Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Afroz; Husain, Shafqat

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an everlasting problem in the lives of school kids. It is a problem that affects all students, the person who bully, those who are victims, and the persons who witnesses to interpersonal violence. Bullying may include verbal and physical assaults, threats, "jokes" or language, mockery and criticizing , insulting behavior and…

  20. The Assessment of School Bullying: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Jennifer L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the conceptual basis for and methods used to assess school bullying, including the core bullying behavior elements of repetition, intentionality, and power differential and instruments needed to foster comparability across studies and to improve the precision of intervention capacity. Common bully self-report procedures…

  1. Risk and protective factors, longitudinal research, and bullying prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ttofi, Maria M; Farrington, David P

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents the results from two systematic/meta-analytic reviews of longitudinal studies on the association of school bullying (perpetration and victimization) with adverse health and criminal outcomes later in life. Significant associations between the two predictors and the outcomes are found even after controlling for other major childhood risk factors that are measured before school bullying. The results indicate that effective antibullying programs should be encouraged. They could be viewed as a form of early crime prevention as well as an early form of public health promotion. The findings from a systematic/meta-analytic review on the effectiveness of antibullying programs are also presented. Overall, school-based antibullying programs are effective, leading to an average decrease in bullying of 20 to 23 percent and in victimization of 17 to 20 percent. The chapter emphasizes the lack of prospective longitudinal research in the area of school bullying, which does not allow examination of whether any given factor (individual, family,. or social) is a correlate, a predictor, or a possible cause for bullying. This has important implications for future antibullying initiatives, as well as implications for the refinement of theories of school bullying. It is necessary to extend the framework of the traditional risk-focused approach by incorporating the notion of resiliency and investigating possible protective factors against school bullying and its negative consequences. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Associations between child disciplinary practices and bullying behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zottis, Graziela A H; Salum, Giovanni A; Isolan, Luciano R; Manfro, Gisele G; Heldt, Elizeth

    2014-01-01

    to investigate associations between different types of child disciplinary practices and children and adolescents' bullying behavior in a Brazilian sample. cross-sectional study, with a school-based sample of 10- to 15-year-old children and adolescents. Child disciplinary practices were assessed using two main subtypes: power-assertive and punitive (psychological aggression, corporal punishment, deprivation of privileges, and penalty tasks) and inductive (explaining, rewarding, and monitoring). A modified version of the Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire was used to measure the frequency of bullying. 247 children and adolescents were evaluated and 98 (39.7%) were classified as bullies. Power-assertive and punitive discipline by either mother or father was associated with bullying perpetration by their children. Mothers who mostly used this type of discipline were 4.36 (95% CI: 1.87-10.16; pbullying. bullying was associated to parents' assertive and punitive discipline. Finding different ways of disciplining children and adolescents might decrease bullying behavior. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Bully, Bullied, Bystander...and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloroso, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Bullying is seldom the only factor in a teenager's suicide. Often, mental illness and family stresses are involved. But bullying does plainly play a role in many cases. These students feel that they have no way out of the pain heaped on them by their tormentors so they turn the violence inward with a tragic and final exit. Bullying involves three…

  4. Bullying among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.

  5. GAMBARAN PERILAKU BULLYING PADA MAHASISWA UMN ALWASHLIYAH

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    Shavreni Oktadi Putri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behavior phenomenon that is conducted by students are getting apprehensive lately, that because education institutions are as the places to educate people turn into bullying behavior spot including university students. Bullying means as an attempt which is conducted to harm a group or a person. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find out levels and kinds of bullying that happened among UMN Al Washliyah Students. Research subject were 102 students of UMN at education of early childhooddepartment that were taken from 4 classes by using cluster random sampling method. Data collection was conducted by using bullying scale from Colloroso. Data analysis method by using Pearson product moment and descriptive statistic. The results of study show that (1 the level of bullying behavior which is done by students is at the medium category with the percentage 74,5%. (2 kindof bullying behaviors which are done most by students is verbal bullying with the percentage73.5% and (3 bullying behaviorthat is done very often by students in 7th semester is 83,9%.

  6. Antecedents, consequences and interventions for workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Vivien

    2014-09-01

    The issue of workplace bullying has become an area of research interest in the last 3 decades. Much of the extant literature is published in the business management journals. This is problematic as the targets of workplace bullying may need psychiatric treatment; as a discipline, therefore psychiatrists may benefit from a deeper understanding of the nature of workplace bullying and its sequelae. There is still no agreed upon definition, although most definitions include similar criteria. Managers and human resources personnel frequently have difficulty identifying and effectively managing workplace bullying. The consequences for the targets of bullying can be severe; they may need psychiatric treatment and it can have a lifelong impact. There is a paucity of research into effective prevention and intervention programs. Preventive measures that focus on the whole workplace culture or on targets alone have mixed results. Workplace policies and procedures may lessen the prevalence and incidence of bullying, but often competing interests of senior management, human resources personnel, supervisors and workers may mitigate any antibullying interventions. Although psychiatrists are likely to treat the targets of bullying, bullying has yet to attract much attention as a research topic in psychiatry. Although the consequences of bullying can be severe for both targets and workplaces, prevention strategies are hampered by competing interests.

  7. ‘It feels like being trapped in an abusive relationship’: bullying prevalence and consequences in the New Zealand senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand’s public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand. Participants Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. Results The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Conclusions Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand’s senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. PMID:29555792

  8. 'It feels like being trapped in an abusive relationship': bullying prevalence and consequences in the New Zealand senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Charlotte N L; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKee, Martin; Barclay, Murray

    2018-03-19

    To estimate prevalence of and factors contributing to bullying among senior doctors and dentists in New Zealand's public health system, to ascertain rates of reporting bullying behaviour, perceived barriers to reporting and the effects of bullying professionally and personally. Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. New Zealand. Members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists (40.8% response rate). Prevalence of bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (revised) (NAQ-r). Workplace demands and level of peer and managerial support were measured with the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Analysis tool. Categories of perpetrators for self-reported and witnessed bullying and barriers to reporting bullying were obtained and qualitative data detailing the consequence of bullying were analysed thematically. The overall prevalence of bullying, measured by the NAQ-r, was 38% (at least one negative act on a weekly or daily basis), 37.2% self-reported and 67.5% witnessed. There were significant differences in rates of bullying by specialty (P=0.001) with emergency medicine reporting the highest bullying prevalence (47.9%). The most commonly cited perpetrators were other senior medical or dental specialists. 69.6% declined to report their bullying. Bullying across all measures was significantly associated with increasing work demands and lower peer and managerial support (P=0.001). Consequences of bullying were wide ranging, affecting workplace environments, personal well-being and subjective quality of patient care. Bullying is prevalent in New Zealand's senior medical workforce and is associated with high workloads and low peer and managerial support. These findings help identify conditions and pressures that may encourage bullying and highlight the significant risk of bullying for individuals and their patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  9. Development of the bullying and health experiences scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya; Stanton, Lauren; Hetherington, Ross; Mishna, Faye; Shariff, Shaheen

    2012-11-09

    Until recently, researchers have studied forms of bullying separately. For 40 years, research has looked at the traditional forms of bullying, including physical (eg, hitting), verbal (eg, threats), and social (eg, exclusion). Attention focused on cyberbullying in the early 2000s. Although accumulating research suggests that bullying has multiple negative effects for children who are targeted, these effects excluded cyberbullying from the definition of bullying. This paper responds to the need for a multidimensional measure of the impact of various forms of bullying. We used a comprehensive definition of bullying, which includes all of its forms, to identify children who had been targeted or who had participated in bullying. We then examined various ways in which they were impacted. We used an online method to administer 37 impact items to 377 (277 female, 100 male) children and youth, to develop and test the Bullying and Health Experience Scale. A principal components analysis of the bullying impact items with varimax rotation resulted in 8 factors with eigenvalues greater than one, explaining 68.0% of the variance. These scales include risk, relationships, anger, physical injury, drug use, anxiety, self-esteem, and eating problems, which represent many of the cognitive, psychological, and behavioral consequences of bullying. The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the 8 scales range from .73 to .90, indicating good inter-item consistency. Comparisons between the groups showed that children involved in bullying had significantly higher negative outcomes on all scales than children not involved in bullying. The high Cronbach alpha values indicate that the 8 impact scales provide reliable scores. In addition, comparisons between the groups indicate that the 8 scales provide accurate scores, with more negative outcomes reported by children involved in bullying compared to those who are not involved in bullying. This evidence of reliability and validity indicates that

  10. Development of a Measure of the Experience of Being Bullied in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Caroline; Peters, Lorna; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    The Personal Experiences Checklist (PECK) was developed to provide a multidimensional assessment of a young person's personal experience of being bullied that covered the full range of bullying behaviors, including covert relational forms of bullying and cyber bullying. A sample of 647 school children were used to develop the scale, and a 2nd…

  11. Those Mean Girls and Their Friends: Bullying and Mob Rule in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentith, Audrey M.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Coryell, Joellen

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the stories and experiences of three White women who were victims of bullying and mobbing in academic settings. Related literature grounds their experiences and offers insights related to the phenomena including definitions of mobbing and bullying, characteristics of bullies, the prevalence of bullying and mobbing, and the…

  12. Bullying among Spanish Secondary Education Students: The Role of Gender Traits, Sexism, and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying,…

  13. Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Alm, Susanne; Sandahl, Julia; Modin, Bitte

    2018-03-27

    Future orientation can be defined as an individual's thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents' future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15-16 years) ( n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  14. Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B. Låftman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims, we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years (n = 5144. Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying.

  15. Komunikasi Keluarga Dalam Pencegahan Perilaku Bullying Bagi Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preciosa Alnashava Janitra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication process occurs in every aspect of life, including family. When people interact to each other, sometimes it may lead to bullying. Bullying is not a new phenomenon, especially in family. Bullying means verbal and physical threat, force and violence which conduct repeatedly, for instance by the older children to their younger sister or brother. This is the uniqueness of this research. Family communication becomes main foundation to prevent bullying. Researcher see this phenomenon as a unique problem to be studied. Based on that phenomenon, researcher interested to study “Family Communication in Preventing Bullying Behavior for Children”. Result shows that family communication in preventing children’s bullying behavior covers: (1 In order to prevent bullying, an effective family communication process has to be strived, including respect, empathy, audible (2 Causative factor of bullying is inappropriate parenting in context of family communication.   Proses komunikasi berlangsung dalam setiap aspek kehidupan, termasuk dalam lapisan masyarakat dan lapisan keluarga. Ketika manusia melakukan interaksi satu sama lainnya, kadang-kadang mengarah pada perilaku bullying. Bullying bukanlah fenomena yang baru lagi, khususnya dalam sebuah keluarga. Bullying artinya ancaman, pemaksaan, kekerasan fisik maupun verbal yang dilakukan berulang-ulang, misalnya kakak kepada adiknya. Disinilah letak keunikan penelitian ini. Komunikasi keluarga menjadi pondasi utama untuk mencegah terjadinya perilaku bullying bagi anak. Peneliti melihat fenomena ini merupakan masalah yang unik dan menarik untuk diteliti. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, peneliti tertarik untuk mengangkat “Komunikasi Keluarga dalam Pencegahan Perilaku Bullying bagi Anak”. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa komunikasi keluarga dalam pencegahan perilaku bullying bagi anak meliputi: (1 Untuk mencegah bullying harus diupayakan proses komunikasi keluarga yang efektif yaitu: respek

  16. Two sides to the story: Adolescent and parent views on harmful intention in defining school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Connor, Jason P; Baguley, Chantelle M; Scott, James G

    2017-07-01

    Bullying is defined as repeated negative actions involving a power differential, and intention to harm. There is limited research on harmful intention as a definitional component. This study explored the role of the perpetrator's harmful intention and the target's perception of harmful intention. Some 209 students (M = 14.5 years; 66.5% female) and 447 parents (M = 46.4 years; 86.4% female) were randomly assigned in an online survey. Participants assessed the likelihood of bullying in five hypothetical scenarios (physical, verbal, rumor, exclusion, and cyber) across five intention conditions, that also involved repetition and a power differential. The five intention conditions were: 1) harm intended by perpetrator (I) and perceived as intended to harm by target (I) [II condition]; 2) harm not intended by perpetrator (N) but perceived as intended to harm by target (I) [NI condition]; 3) harm intended by perpetrator (I) but not perceived as intended to harm by target (N) [IN condition]; 4) harm not intended by perpetrator (N) and not perceived as intended to harm by target N [NN condition]; and 5) a control which did not state any actual or perceived harmful intention [C condition]. For students and parents, the perpetrator's harmful intention and the target's perception of harmful intention were important when considering whether a peer interaction constituted bullying. These findings confirm the applicability of the three-part definition of bullying, and highlight the importance of assessing these two dimensions of harmful intention when determining whether a problematic peer interaction should be regarded as bullying. Aggr. Behav. 43:352-363, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  18. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure...

  19. Bullying in the Clinical Training of Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Patricia; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Yoshizuka, Keith; Chan, Paul; Vo, Thuy

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether bullying is a significant factor in the clinical training of pharmacy students. Methods. The literature as well as the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards and American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) surveys were reviewed for mention and/or measurement of bullying behaviors in the clinical training of pharmacy students. The authors used a Delphi process to define bullying behavior. The consensus definition was used to analyze 2,087 in-house student evaluations of preceptors for evidence of bullying behaviors. The authors mapped strings of text from in-house student comments to different, established categories of bullying behaviors. Results. The ACPE Standards and AACP surveys contained no mention or measures of bullying. The 2013 AACP survey data reported overwhelmingly positive preceptor ratings. Of the 2,087 student evaluations of preceptors, 119 (5.7%) had at least 1 low rating. Within those 119 survey instruments, 34 comments were found describing bullying behaviors. Students’ responses to the AACP survey were similar to data from the national cohort. Conclusions. Given the evidence that bullying behaviors occur in pharmacy education and that bullying has long-term and short-term damaging effects, more attention should be focused on this problem. Efforts should include addressing bullying in ACPE Standards and AACP survey tools developing a consensus definition for bullying and conducting more research into bullying in the clinical training of pharmacy students. PMID:25147389

  20. Workplace Bullying in Healthcare: Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, By Becky

    2015-01-01

    As many as 53.5 million American workers have experienced workplace bullying, which can cost organizations an estimated $200 billion annually in lost productivity, increased sick d ays, increased med ical claims, legal costs, and staff turnover. Bullying can occur in any profession, but for many reasons it is most prevalent in healthcare. Bullying behavior in healthcare has been reported and documented in literature for over 35 years. Although physicians are often considered to be the primary culprit of bullying, healthcare bullies can be one any one of the professionals who work in the organization including nurses, radiology technologists, pharmacists, ancillary staff personnel, administrators, or other non-physician staff members. The first installment of the series focused on defining bullying and its impact on the organization. Part 2 discussed three legal protections for the bully to include at-will laws, unions, and bylaws related to physician privileging. The final installment in this series will evaluate specific bully types and implementing processes to address inappropriate behavior.

  1. Heterosexual and nonheterosexual young university students' involvement in traditional and cyber forms of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Kate; Campbell, Marilyn

    2012-12-01

    Research has consistently found that school students who do not identify as self-declared completely heterosexual are at increased risk of victimization by bullying from peers. This study examined heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students' involvement in both traditional and cyber forms of bullying, as either bullies or victims. Five hundred twenty-eight first-year university students (M=19.52 years old) were surveyed about their sexual orientation and their bullying experiences over the previous 12 months. The results showed that nonheterosexual young people reported higher levels of involvement in traditional bullying, both as victims and perpetrators, in comparison to heterosexual students. In contrast, cyberbullying trends were generally found to be similar for heterosexual and nonheterosexual young people. Gender differences were also found. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of intervention and prevention of the victimization of nonheterosexual university students.

  2. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  3. Uncovering degrees of workplace bullying: A comparison of baccalaureate nursing students' experiences during clinical placement in Australia and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Melanie; Cant, Robyn P; Budden, Lea M; Russell-Westhead, Michele; Sinem Üzar Özçetin, Yeter; Tee, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Bullying in health workplaces has a negative impact on nurses, their families, multidisciplinary teams, patient care and the profession. This paper compares the experiences of Australian and UK baccalaureate nursing students in relation to bullying and harassment during clinical placement. A secondary analysis was conducted on two primary cross-sectional studies of bullying experiences of Australian and UK nursing students. Data were collected using the Student Experience of Bullying during Clinical Placement (SEBDCP) questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The total sample was 833 Australian and 561 UK students. Australian nursing students experienced a higher rate of bullying (50.1%) than UK students (35.5%). Students identified other nurses as the main perpetrators (Aust 53%, UK 68%), although patients were the main source of physical acts of bullying. Few bullied students chose to report the episode/s. The main reason for non-reporting was fear of being victimised. Sadly, some students felt bullying and harassment was 'part of the job'. A culture of bullying in nursing persists internationally. Nursing students are vulnerable and can question their future in the 'caring' profession of nursing after experiencing and/or witnessing bullying during clinical placement. Bullying requires a zero tolerance approach. Education providers must develop clearer policies and implement procedures to protect students - the future nursing workforce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of family and school-level factors in bullying and cyberbullying: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Shackleton, Nichola; Hale, Daniel; Allen, Elizabeth; Bond, Lyndal; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fitzgerald-Yau, Natasha; Fletcher, Adam; Jones, Rebecca; Miners, Alec; Scott, Stephen; Wiggins, Meg; Bonell, Chris; Viner, Russell M

    2017-07-11

    Bullying and cyberbullying are common phenomena in schools. These negative behaviours can have a significant impact on the health and particularly mental health of those involved in such behaviours, both as victims and as bullies. This UK study aims to investigate student-level and school-level characteristics of those who become involved in bullying and cyberbullying behaviours as victims or perpetrators. We used data from 6667 Year 7 students from the baseline survey of a cluster randomized trial in 40 English schools to investigate the associations between individual-level and school-level variables with bullying victimization, cyberbullying perpetration, and cyberbullying victimization. We ran multilevel models to examine associations of bullying outcomes with individual-level variables and school-level variables. In multilevel models, at the school level, school type and school quality measures were associated with bullying risk: students in voluntary-aided schools were less likely to report bullying victimization (0.6 (0.4, 0.9) p = 0.008), and those in community (3.9 (1.5, 10.5) p = 0.007) and foundation (4.0 (1.6, 9.9) p = 0.003) schools were more likely to report being perpetrators of cyberbullying than students in mainstream academies. A school quality rating of "Good" was associated with greater reported bullying victimization (1.3 (1.02, 1.5) p = 0.03) compared to ratings of "Outstanding." Bullying victimization and cyberbullying prevalence vary across school type and school quality, supporting the hypothesis that organisational/management factors within the school may have an impact on students' behaviour. These findings will inform future longitudinal research investigating which school factors and processes promote or prevent bullying and cyberbullying behaviours. Trial ID: ISRCTN10751359 Registered: 11/03/2014 (retrospectively registered).

  5. Online gaming and risks predict cyberbullying perpetration and victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Hung; Lee, Ching-Mei; Huang, Tzu-Fu; Pan, Yun-Chieh

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined factors associated with the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying and victimization in Taiwan. A total of 2,315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in 2010 and 2011. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors. Multivariate analysis results indicated that higher levels of risk factors (online game use, exposure to violence in media, internet risk behaviors, cyber/school bullying experiences) in the 10th grade coupled with an increase in risk factors from grades 10 to 11 could be used to predict the emergence of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. In contrast, lower levels of risk factors in the 10th grade and higher levels of protective factors coupled with a decrease in risk factors predicted the cessation of cyberbullying perpetration/victimization. Online game use, exposure to violence in media, Internet risk behaviors, and cyber/school bullying experiences can be used to predict the emergence and cessation of youth cyberbullying perpetration and victimization.

  6. Bullying among nurses and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, D

    2009-12-01

    The victims of bullying are subjected to being terrorized, annoyed, excluded, belittled, deprived of resources, isolated and prevented from claiming rights. The victims of bullying have decreased job satisfaction, work performance, motivation and productivity. Bullying also negatively affects victims' social relationships inside and outside the institution. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional and descriptive study for the purpose of assessing the workplace, bullying of nurses in Turkey and the effects it has on nursing practices. The sample was composed of 286 nurses, and all of the respondents were female. The research instrument was a questionnaire in five parts. The first section included the participants' demographic information; the other variables were measured in four categories: psychologically violent behaviours, workload, organizational effects and depression. Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses participating in the research had never or almost never encountered workplace bullying behaviour in the last 12 months, 21% of the nurses had been exposed to these behaviours. There were no differences between position and educational level in workplace bullying. Workplace bullying leads to depression, lowered work motivation, decreased ability to concentrate, poor productivity, lack of commitment to work, and poor relationships with patients, managers and colleagues. Workplace bullying is a measurable problem that negatively affects the psychology and performance of the nurses in this study.

  7. LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Reisner, Sari L; Juvonen, Jaana; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Perrotti, Jeff; Schuster, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth experience significant bullying that undermines their mental and physical health. National health organizations have called for the development of innovative strategies to address LGBTQ bullying. Pediatricians and other clinicians, medical and public health students, interdisciplinary researchers, government officials, school leaders, community members, parents, and youth from around the country came together at a national symposium entitled "LGBTQ Bullying: Translating Research to Action to Improve the Health of All Youth" in May 2016 to generate strategies to prevent LGBTQ bullying and meet the needs of LGBTQ youth experiencing bullying. This article describes key scientific findings on bullying, LGBTQ stigma, and LGBTQ bullying interventions that were shared at the symposium and provides recommendations for pediatricians to address LGBTQ bullying via clinical care, research, interventions, and policy. Symposium participants recommended that pediatricians engage in efforts to foster inclusive and affirming health care environments wherein LGBTQ youth feel comfortable discussing their identities and experiences, identify youth experiencing LGBTQ bullying, and prevent the negative health consequences of bullying among youth. Moreover, pediatricians can attend to how multiple identities (eg, sexual orientation, gender identity, race and/or ethnicity, disability, and others) shape youth experiences of bullying and expand intervention efforts to address LGBTQ bullying in health care settings. Pediatricians can further advocate for evidence-based, antibullying policies prohibiting bullying on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Collaboration between pediatricians and diverse stakeholders can contribute to the development and implementation of lasting change in all forms of bullying, including LGBTQ bullying. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Tornero, Bernardita; Valenzuela, Daniela; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Salmivalli, Christina; Valenzuela, Eduardo; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders) and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female) attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring) and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination). This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  9. Bus drivers' exposure to bullying at work: an occupation-specific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasø, Lars; Bele, Edvard; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    The present study employs an occupation-specific approach to examine bus drivers' exposure to bullying and their trait anger, job engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. A total of 1,023 bus drivers from a large public transport organization participated in the study. The findings show that bus driving can be a high risk occupation with regard to bullying, since 70% of the bus drivers had experienced one or more acts typical of bullying during the last six months. As many as 11% defined themselves as victims of bullying, 33% of whom (i.e. 3.6% of the total sample) see themselves as victims of frequent bullying. Colleagues were most frequently reported as perpetrators. Exposure to bullying was negatively related to job engagement and job satisfaction and positively related to turnover intentions. Job engagement and job satisfaction mediated the relationship between bullying and intention to leave, respectively. Trait anger had an interaction effect on the relationship between bullying and turnover intentions. This study indicates that workplace bullying has context-specific aspects that require increased use of context-specific policies and intervention methods. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. THE RELATION BETWEEN SCHOOL BULLYING AND VICTIMIZATION IN CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/ HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija ŽIC RALIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD symptoms put the children suffering from this disorder at a higher risk of being a victim of bulling as well as of behaving aggressively towards peers. Objectives: This study is conducted in order to identify the frequency of specific forms of victimization and bullying in children with ADHD, and to determine if there is any correlation between victimization and bullying, and between different forms of bullying in children with ADHD. Methods: Bullying was tested on a sample of 72 first-through-eighth graders with ADHD diagnosis by means of the School Bullying Questionnaire (UŠN-2003 designed in line with the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Results: The results indicate a statistically significant correlation between being a victim and being a perpetrator of bullying. The study also shows statistically significant correlations between specific forms of bullying. Conclusion: The results of this study provide guidelines for further studies and prevention/ intervention programs concerning bullying which involves children with ADHD.

  11. Substance Use among Adolescents Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being involved in bullying as a victim or perpetrator could have deleterious health consequences. Even though there is some evidence that bullies and victims of bullying have a higher risk for drug use, less is known about bystanders. The aim of this research was to study the association between bullying experience (as victims, bullies, or bystanders and substance use. We gathered complete information from a nationally representative sample of 36,687 students (51.4% female attending 756 schools in Chile. We used a self-reported questionnaire which was developed based on similar instruments used elsewhere. This questionnaire was piloted and presented to an expert panel for approval. We used multilevel multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for several variables at the individual (e.g., school membership, parental monitoring and school levels (e.g., school type, school denomination. This study shows that bullies and bully-victims have a high risk for cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use than bystanders. This is one of the few studies exploring the association between witnessing bullying and substance use. These findings add new insights to the study of the co-occurrence of bullying and substance use. Other factors, such as higher academic performance, stronger school membership, and better parental monitoring reduced the risk of any substance use, while the experience of domestic violence and the perception of social disorganization in the neighborhood, increased the risk. These findings may help the design of preventive interventions.

  12. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Youth: Examining Measurement Invariance by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated measurement invariance by gender among commonly used teen dating violence (TDV), sexual harassment, and bullying measures. Data were collected from one cohort of seventh-grade middle school students (N = 754) from four schools. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed measurement models and tested measurement invariance by gender for aggression measures. Analyses invoked baseline data only. Physical and psychological TDV perpetration measures achieved strict measurement invariance, while bullying perpetration demonstrated partial strict invariance. Electronic TDV and sexual harassment perpetration achieved metric/scalar invariance. Study findings lend validation to prior and future studies using these measures with similar populations. Future research should increase attention to measurement development, refinement, and testing among study measures. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear among victims, bullies, and bully-victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the distribution of the types of involvement in school violence (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students not involved in violence) among the general population of Israeli school students. The prevalence of these different types of involvement was also examined according to gender, age or school level (junior high vs. high school), and ethnicity (Jewish vs. Arab). Further, the study examines the relationships between type of involvement in school violence and students' perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear. Data were obtained from a nationally representative, stratified sample of 13,262 students in grades 7-11 who responded to a self-report questionnaire on victimization by, and perpetration of, school violence and on perceptions of school climate. Data revealed that 3.6% of all students were victims of bullying (18.5% of those involved in violence). The proportion of bully-victims among male students was 6.4% (21.9% of all involved) compared with 1.1% (11.2% of all involved) among females. Bully-victims reported the lowest levels of teacher support and feelings of security and missed school because of fear significantly more often. The results point to the uniqueness of the bully-victim group. This group presents multiple challenges for school staff with these students needing special attention. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  14. An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

  15. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  16. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  17. Bullying and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is an extreme form of social exclusion that affects a significant number of children in schools and other childhood institutions. The definition of bullying is a matter of debate among researchers. Some researchers emphasize aggressive contra vulnerable individual personality traits...... as a basic premise for the emergence of bullying behavior. Others conceptualize bullying as an effect of dysfunctional social mechanisms in groups. In line with such diverse understandings of how to define and understand bullying, researchers also discuss the part played by parents in children’s bullying...... practices. Researchers who understand bullying as an effect of deficits in individual children tend to explain such deficits as a consequence of inadequate upbringing. Researchers who explain bullying behavior as an effect of dysfunctional social patterns in groups of children (and adults), meanwhile, tend...

  18. Bullying Laws and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... origin, sex, disability, or religion*, bullying overlaps with harassment and schools are legally obligated to address it. Read more about when bullying overlaps with harassment and how to report it to the U.S. ...

  19. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  20. Cyber space bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to t...

  1. Cross-contextual stability of bullying victimization: a person-oriented analysis of cyber and traditional bullying experiences among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erentaitė, Rasa; Bergman, Lars R; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2012-04-01

    Using a person-oriented approach the study examined whether bullying victimization at school continued into cyberspace victimization in a large sample of high school students in Lithuania (N = 1667, 58% girls), age 15-19 (M = 17.29, SD = 0.95). Three forms of traditional bullying (verbal, physical and relational) and seven forms of cyberbullying victimization through cell phones and computers were included in the analysis. The findings revealed that 35% of traditional bullying victims were also bullied in cyberspace. In particular, adolescents who experienced predominantly verbal and relational bullying at school, showed a higher risk of victimization in cyberspace a year later, while this was not observed for predominantly physical forms of traditional bullying. The findings point to the importance of a cross-contextual perspective in studies on stability of bullying victimization. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  2. Relationships of bullying involvement with intelligence, attention, and executive function in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ling; Guo, Nai-Wen; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship of bullying victimization and perpetration with the levels of intelligence, attention, and executive function in children who had received a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The experiences of bullying involvement in 105 children with ADHD were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Their scores for four intelligence indexes on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th Edition-Chinese version were determined. Their levels of attention and executive function were assessed using the Comprehensive Nonverbal Attention Test Battery. The results of logistic regression analyses indicated that a high Perceptual Reasoning Index was significantly associated with a decreased risk of being victims of bullying. A high level of executive function was significantly associated with a decreased risk of being victims and perpetrators of bullying. Bullying victimization and perpetration in children with ADHD having a low PRI and low executive function should be routinely surveyed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bullying: It's Not OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and generally feel helpless. Facts About Bullying Both girls and boys can be bullies. Bullies target children who cry, ... teasing, threatening, or hurting someone. All children can learn to treat others ... with others. Together with the school principal, teachers, counselors, and parents ...

  4. Evaluation of bullying in persons with different risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emerging research suggests that being exposed to bullying during childhood can increase the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood. Aggressive peer relations among adolescents are more frequent in boys, both for being victims or perpetrators. Aim: To evaluate whether bullying was more prevalent among Serbian clinical population of patients with psychosis in comparison to their healthy siblings and controls, and to analyze gender differences regarding bullying. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated schizophrenia spectrum patients (n = 52, age = 29.3 ± 5.9 yrs, in remission, illness duration <10 yrs, their healthy siblings (n = 55, age = 28.6 ± 6.8 yrs and controls (n=50, age=25.3±1.5 yrs. The subjects fulfilled the bullying questionnaire, five item self-rating scale. Descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney nonparametric test were used to analyze the data. Results: Compared to their healthy siblings, the patients were more likely to report that they were bullied (patients: 7.0 ± 3.5, siblings: 5.2 ± 2.0, p = 0.000, but patients also bullied others more (patients: 1.4 ± 0.8, siblings: 1.1 ± 0.4, p = 0.02. Comparing the group of patients and controls, we did not find statistically significant difference in any category. The male gender brings higher risk of being physically bullied which has been proven for all examined groups (patients- p = 0.03, controls and siblings- p = 0.00. Conclusion: Aggressive peer relations possibly contribute to the evolution of psychosis, as they were more prevalent in patients in comparison to their healthy siblings, particularly in males. Improved prevention of bullying and use of treatments against its psychological consequences might be one of the possible methods to ameliorate the course of psychosis.

  5. Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between bullying at work and cortisol secretion. Of particular interest was to examine whether frequently and occasionally bullied persons differed from nonbullied persons. The study included 1944 employees (1413 women and 531 men) from 55 workplaces in Denmark (16 private and 39 public workplaces). During a work day three saliva samples were collected at awakening, +30 min later, and at 20:00 hours, and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Mental health was assessed using items on somatic, cognitive, stress, and depressive mood. Of the 1944 employees, 1.1% was frequently bullied and 7.2% occasionally bullied. Frequently bullied persons reported poorer mental health and had a 24.8% lower salivary cortisol concentration compared with the nonbullied reference group. Occasionally bullied persons had a poorer self-reported mental health, but their cortisol concentrations did not deviate from the group of nonbullied persons. The associations remained significant even after controlling for age, gender, exact time of sampling, mental health, and duration of bullying. Bullying occurred at 78% of the workplaces (43 workplaces); frequent bullying occurred at 21% of the workplaces (40%). Frequent bullying was associated with lower salivary cortisol concentrations. No such association was observed for occasional bullying. Whether the generally lower secretion of cortisol among the frequently bullied persons indicate an altered physiological status remains to be evaluated in future studies. Yet, the physiological response seems to underscore the possibility that bullying indeed may have measurable physiological consequences. Hence, the physiological response supports the mental symptoms found among the frequently bullied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric features in perpetrators of homicide-unsuccessful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The high rate of psychiatric disorders diagnosed is in keeping with court referrals occurring ... was collected if available, and included gender, age, employment history, marital ... psychiatric symptoms and of psychiatric illness and treatment, as reported by the ... The identity of alleged perpetrators was kept ...

  7. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.

  8. Perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mesnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Courtroom of the Eichmann trial. Where the trial of Adolf Eichmann took place in 1961. Originally, it was Jerusalem’s Beit Ha’am (People’s House) theatre. © All rights reserved. Could it be that victims are overly exposed in our society? That they are too present? Endorsing their struggle for recognition, their demands and their hopes, should we be wary of the danger of saturating our collective memory? Of submerging or tainting it? Perhaps victims in general occupy a prominent position – an...

  9. Perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mesnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Salle du tribunal du procès Eichmann. Où a eu lieu le procès d’Adolf Eichmann, en 1961. À l’origine, il s’agissait de la salle de spectacle du Beit Ha’am (Maison du Peuple) de Jérusalem. © DR. Les victimes seraient-elles surexposées ? Trop voyantes ? La multitude des discours qui portent leur reconnaissance, leurs revendications, leurs espoirs viendrait-elle saturer la mémoire collective ? L’encombrer ? La polluer ? Peut-être occupent-elles aujourd’hui une grande place – d’aucuns diraient tr...

  10. Approaches used by employee assistance programs to address perpetration of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Pollack, Keshia M; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Lindquist, Christine H; McKay, Tasseli; Lasater, Beth M

    2012-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are workplace resources available to employees with problems impacting work performance. EAPs are well-positioned to address intimate partner violence (IPV), a major public health problem with workplace impacts. A purposeful sample of 28 EAPs across the United States was surveyed to identify policies and programs to address IPV, including perpetration. Most EAPs did not report having standardized approaches for addressing IPV perpetration. EAPs also described significant barriers to identifying IPV perpetrators, with the majority relying on self-disclosure on the part of the perpetrator when contacting the EAP. These results suggest that many EAPs--even when interacting with employees who present with issues known to correlate with IPV--are missing a potential opportunity to assess and intervene with IPV perpetrators.

  11. Bullying and Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Approaching the relevance of teachers and their role in children’s bullying practices depends on the definition of bullying implied. If bullying is understood as an effect of individual traits and behavior, teachers are most often considered to be in a position to determine whether...... or not the reported or observed events can be defined as real cases of bullying. In cases deemed as bullying, they are considered responsible for taking further action in relation to the individual children involved. If bullying is understood as an effect of a dysfunctional culture in the school and in the classroom......, and enacted by the social structures in schools and other childhood institutions, it is instead seen as the teacher’s responsibility to analyze and seek to transform the climate and norms among the children. In those contexts the teachers are to transform the complex social processes in which bullying...

  12. Identifying bully victims: definitional versus behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Furlong, Michael J; Kras, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Schools frequently assess bullying and the Olweus Bully/Victimization Questionnaire (BVQ; Olweus, 1996) is the most widely adopted tool for this purpose. The BVQ is a self-report survey that uses a definitional measurement method--describing "bullying" as involving repeated, intentional aggression in a relationship where there is an imbalance of power and then asking respondents to indicate how frequently they experienced this type of victimization. Few studies have examined BVQ validity and whether this definitional method truly identifies the repetition and power differential that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. This study examined the concurrent validity of the BVQ definitional question among 435 students reporting peer victimization. BVQ definitional responses were compared with responses to a behavioral measure that did not use the term "bullying" but, instead, included items that asked about its defining characteristics (repetition, intentionality, power imbalance). Concordance between the two approaches was moderate, with an area under the receiver operating curve of .72. BVQ responses were more strongly associated with students indicating repeated victimization and multiple forms of victimization, than with power imbalance in their relationship with the bully. Findings indicate that the BVQ is a valid measure of repeated victimization and a broad range of victimization experiences but may not detect the more subtle and complex power imbalances that distinguish bullying from other forms of peer victimization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  14. Sibling bullying and risk of depression, anxiety, and self-harm: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Wolke, Dieter; Joinson, Carol; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-10-01

    Being the victim of peer bullying is associated with increased risk of psychopathology, yet it is not known whether similar experiences of bullying increase risk of psychiatric disorder when the perpetrator is a sibling. We tested whether being bullied by a sibling is prospectively associated with depression, anxiety, and self-harm in early adulthood. We conducted a longitudinal study using data from >6900 participants of a UK community-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who reported on sibling bullying at 12 years. Our main outcome measures were depression, anxiety, and self-harm, assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised during clinic assessments when participants were 18. Children who were frequently bullied were approximately twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.51; P siblings. The ORs were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for a range of confounding individual, family, and peer factors. The population-attributable fractions suggested that 13.0% (95% CI, 1.0%-24.7%) of depression and 19.3% (95% CI, 7.6%-29.6%) of self-harm could be explained by being the victim of sibling bullying if these were causal relationships. Being bullied by a sibling is a potential risk factor for depression and self-harm in early adulthood. Our results suggest that interventions designed to target sibling bullying should be devised and evaluated. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Gender and Workplace Bullying: Men's Experiences of Surviving Bullying at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sue M; MacIntosh, Judith A

    2016-02-01

    Although men are targets of workplace bullying, there is limited research focused on their experiences. To address this gap, we used a qualitative grounded theory approach and interviewed a community sample of 20 Atlantic Canadian men to explore and explain their experiences of, and responses to, bullying. The main problem identified by men was a lack of workplace support to address and resolve the bullying, a challenge named abandonment. Men addressed this problem by surviving, a process that involved efforts to manage persistent bullying and the associated consequences. Men experienced physical, emotional, and social health consequences and, contrary to prevailing assumptions related to men's help-seeking behaviors, men want support and many sought help to address the problem and its consequences. Responses to abandonment and the associated consequences varied according to a number of factors including gender and highlight the need for research aimed at understanding the gendered nature of bullying. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  17. Leadership in Multiple Perpetrator Stranger Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire; Harkins, Leigh; da Silva, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Sexual offences by multiple perpetrators are more violent and involve more severe forms of sexual violation than those perpetrated by a lone offender. Often a clear leader exists within these groups. Questions have been raised as to the relative risk of reoffending and the potentially differing criminogenic needs of leaders and followers. However,…

  18. Bullying Behavior and Psychosocial Health - A Cross-sectional Study among School Students of Pyuthan Municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Durga Khadka; Thapa, Tulsi Ram; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mahotra, Anita

    2018-03-13

    Bullying remains as pervasive phenomenon affecting children worldwide. Bullying in school has long been a matter of concern as wide range of adjustment problems including poor mental health and violent behavior in school are associated with it. The present study examined the prevalence of bullying behavior (bullies, victims and bully-victims) and their association with depression and psychosomatic symptoms. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 8th, 9th and 10th grade students of Pyuthan Municipality, Mid-Western Nepal. A total of 405 students responded to the structured self-administered questionnaire. Data was collected from randomly selected public and private schools. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis. The result of this study showed higher prevalence of bully (55.8%) among students of Relatively Advantaged Janajati whereas victims (64.86%) belonged to Disadvantaged Janajatis. Students who bully were found more in grade 8 and 10 whilst the students of grade 9 were more victims. Bullying behavior prevailed more in private schools than in public schools. The overall prevalence of bullying behavior (either bully or victim) is 69.14%. The finding bolsters an association between bullying behavior and depression, psychosomatic symptoms and school type. Higher prevalence of bullying behavior suggested by this study portends the alarming consequences among school students. Bullying needs to be addressed fleetly. Effective interventions that reduce bullying practice in school is essential.

  19. Getting precise and pragmatic about the assessment of bullying: the development of the California Bullying Victimization Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika D; Sharkey, Jill D; Green, Jennifer Greif; Furlong, Michael J; Tanigawa, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Accurate assessment of bullying is essential to intervention planning and evaluation. Limitations to many currently available self-report measures of bullying victimization include a lack of psychometric information, use of the emotionally laden term "bullying" in definition-first approaches to self-report surveys, and not assessing all components of the definition of bullying (chronicity, intentionality, and imbalance of power) in behavioral-based self-report methods. To address these limitations, we developed the California Bullying Victimization Scale (CBVS), which is a self-report scale that measures the three-part definition of bullying without the use of the term bully. We examined test-retest reliability and the concurrent and predictive validity of the CBVS across students in Grades 5-12 in four central California schools. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing the CBVS with a common, definition-based bullying victimization measure. Predictive validity was examined through the co-administration of measures of psychological well-being. Analysis by grade and gender are included. Results support the test-retest reliability of the CBVS over a 2-week period. The CBVS was significantly, positively correlated with another bullying assessment and was related in expected directions to measures of well-being. Implications for differentiating peer victimization and bullying victimization via self-report measures are discussed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. A systematic review and content analysis of bullying and cyber-bullying measurement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Martell, Brandi N; Holland, Kristin M; Westby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Bullying has emerged as a behavior with deleterious effects on youth; however, prevalence estimates vary based on measurement strategies employed. We conducted a systematic review and content analysis of bullying measurement strategies to gain a better understanding of each strategy including behavioral content. Multiple online databases (i.e., PsychInfo, MedLine, ERIC) were searched to identify measurement strategies published between 1985 and 2012. Included measurement strategies assessed bullying behaviors, were administered to respondents with ages of 12 to 20, were administered in English, and included psychometric data. Each publication was coded independently by two study team members with a pre-set data extraction form, who subsequently met to discuss discrepancies. Forty-one measures were included in the review. A majority used differing terminology; student self-report as primary reporting method; and included verbal forms of bullying in item content. Eleven measures included a definition of bullying, and 13 used the term "bullying" in the measure. Very few definitions or measures captured components of bullying such as repetition, power imbalance, aggression, and intent to harm. Findings demonstrate general inconsistency in measurement strategies on a range of issues, thus, making comparing prevalence rates between measures difficult.

  1. Workplace bullying in the OR: Results of a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Esther; Stelmaschuk, Stephanie; Albert, Nancy M; Bernhard, Linda; Holloman, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study describes the incidence of workplace bullying among perioperative RNs, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel in two academic medical centers. The study sought to determine whether the demographic variables of gender, ethnicity, hospital, years of experience on the unit, years in the profession, and job title predict the experience of workplace bullying; whether a relationship exists between workplace bullying and emotional exhaustion; and whether bullying is associated with perceptions of patient safety in the OR. The cross-sectional design included perioperative nurses, surgical technologists, and unlicensed perioperative personnel (N = 167). Fifty-nine percent of the study participants reported witnessing coworker bullying weekly, and 34% reported at least two bullying acts weekly. Having one's opinion ignored is the most common bullying act, with 28% of respondents experiencing being ignored. Differences in the experience of bullying can be found between hospitals and among ethnicities. Emotional exhaustion also was correlated with bullying. The participants did not perceive bullying as affecting patient safety. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bullying in Guimarães Schools: Types of Bullying and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sousa-Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    of aggression in were verbal and physical (36.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Male  students  were  more  often directly involved in bullying behaviors. With the exception of social bullying, boys were more likely to be victims of all types, as well as being physical and verbal abusers. Significant differences were found in the proportions of victims and perpetrators among schools, age groups and schooling years.Conclusion: Only 28.8% of students denied direct  involvement  in bullying. We have found several significantly different bullying behaviors between genders, but not in every school, age group or grade. These data indicates that genetic factors may not be important, and that action should focus on other aspects. The study of the factors that influence the differences in types of bullying behaviors  may  allow the identification of violent situations in order to prevent them.

  3. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims.

  4. Bullying and Victimization in Overweight and Obese Outpatient Children and Adolescents: An Italian Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bacchini

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.

  5. Workplace bullying: A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja van den Broeck

    2011-05-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to test the work environment hypothesis by applying the Job Demands-Resources model to workplace bullying. We expected job demands and job resources to relate to both perpetrators’ and actors’ reports of workplace bullying. Motivation for the study: We aimed to extend the outcomes examined in the Job Demands- Resources model to a specific form of counterproductive interpersonal behaviour, namely workplace bullying. From the point of view of the literature on bullying, we aimed to substantiate the well-known work environment hypothesis with empirical data. Research design, approach and method: We applied structural equation modelling on questionnaire data of a large heterogeneous sample of Flemish employees (N = 749. Main findings: Job demands and job resources interacted in the prediction of perpetrators’ reports of bullying: job demands associated positively to perpetrators’ reports of bullying particularly under the condition of high job resources. Job demands related positively to targets’ reports of bullying, while job resources related negatively. These associations were (partially mediated by emotional exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: These results suggest that workplace bullying may indeed be reduced by good job design, that is, by limiting the job demands and increasing job resources. Particular prevention plans may be developed for exhausted employees, as they are vulnerable to workplace bullying, in terms of both becoming perpetrators and victims. Contribution/value-add: This study attests to the predictive validity of the JD-R model for perpetrators’ and targets’ reports of workplace bullying. The findings also underline the complex and multi-causal nature of workplace bullying.

  6. Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan

    2011-12-01

    A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem.

  7. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China.A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality.Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66% reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91% were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68% were bullies and 784 (3.28% were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32, bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86 or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03 were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality.Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  8. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; He, Yuan; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  9. Perspectives on Bullying Among Children Who Present to the Emergency Department With Behavioral Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Objectives Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8–17 years),who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. Results We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8–17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what

  10. Joint Trajectories of Bullying and Peer Victimization across Elementary and Middle School and Associations with Symptoms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D.; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The joint development of trajectories of bullying perpetration and peer victimization from Grade 5 to Grade 8 and concurrent and predictive associations with parent- and child-reported symptoms of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and somatization) were examined in a large sample (N = 695) of Canadian…

  11. Theoretical proposals in bullying research: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Postigo, Silvia; González, Remedios; Montoya, Inmaculada; Ordoñez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecolog...

  12. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. CONDUCTA BULLYING Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA EDAD, GENERO Y NIVEL DE FORMACIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES - BULLYING BEHAVIOR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH AGE, GENDER AND ADOLESCENT TRAINING LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAILET COGOLLO FUENTES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was not only to identify the prevalence of bullying behavior whithin a group of teenagers from primary and secondary education, but to establish relationships between the type of actor (perpetrator, victim, witness and perpetrator-victim with gender, age and the level of educational training as well. 120 students were evaluated in a public educational institution by a correlational design, by using a questionnaire for the detection of violence prepared by the Ombudsman of Spain. The data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 using the chi-square (x2 and the Spearman correlation coefficients. The prevalence of abuse was 69,2%, mainly verbal and social forms of violence. It stands out the direct and indirect physical abuse perpetrated by women and a large number of students with mixed role of aggression and victimization. Gender and age did not show relationships with bullying, but abusive behavior is significantly associated to the training level.

  14. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Workplace bullying: a tale of adverse consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution.

  16. Workplace Bullying: A Tale of Adverse Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is defined as the repetitive and systematic engagement of interpersonally abusive behaviors that negatively affect both the targeted individual and the work organization. According to the findings of 12 studies, being bullied in the workplace affects approximately 11 percent of workers. Victims are frequently blue-collar and unskilled workers. However, there also appear to be gender and milieu/management factors. Emotional/psychological consequences of workplace bullying may include increased mental distress, sleep disturbances, fatigue in women and lack of vigor in men, depression and anxiety, adjustment disorders, and even work-related suicide. Medical consequences of workplace bullying may include an increase in health complaints such as neck pain, musculoskeletal complaints, acute pain, fibromyalgia, and cardiovascular symptoms. Finally, socioeconomic consequences of workplace bullying may include absenteeism due to sick days and unemployment. Clinicians in both mental health and primary care settings need to be alert to the associations between bullying in the workplace and these potential negative consequences, as patients may not disclose workplace maltreatment due to embarrassment or fears of retribution. PMID:25852978

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND BULLYING BEHAVIOR IN CHILDREN AT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL NO 7, BANYUASIN, PRAJIN, PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Tirtayanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bullying is a form of repetitive persecution both on physical and emotional aggressions and potentially causing mental and physical disorders on perpetrators and victims. There are various factors that may affect a child to behave as bullies. These are important factors to be identified as one of prevention effort to stop bullying behavior on children. Objective: This research aims to identify the association between emotional development and bullying behavior in children at the Elementary School No 7, Banyuasin Prajin, Palembang. Methods: This was a correlation descriptive using a cross sectional design. This research has been conducted on November 21, until December 1, 2016 involving 85 children as respondents. The instruments used for this research were Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version, school-bullying questionnaire, parenting style questionnaire and peer influence questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for bivariate data analysis and logistic regression test for multivariate analysis. Results: Results from chi-square test showed a significant association between emotional developments and parenting with bullying behavior (ρ0,05. Logistic regression test showed a significant relationship between parenting and bullying behavior (OR 4,655 (95% CI: 1,292-16,774, which indicated that the uninvolved parenting potentially makes bullying behavior have a chance to increase 4,655 times higher. Conclusion: There is a significant association between emotional development and parenting with children bullying behavior.

  18. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults....... I also draw on Judith Butler’s concept of abjection. In the last part of the article, I employ Karen Barad’s theory of agential realism, focusing specifically on her concept of intraacting enacting forces. The entry to the theoretical development is based on empirical data generated in Denmark...

  19. Long-term effects of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2015-09-01

    Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power. Being bullied is still often wrongly considered as a 'normal rite of passage'. This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Workplace bullying in the Australian health context: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne

    2017-05-15

    Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying

  1. Bullying in a caring profession: reasons, results, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Barbara S; Williams-Evans, Shiphrah

    2011-10-01

    The theories of Florence Nightingale and Jean Watson provide a framework for the caring work of nurses. Ironically, this caring profession struggles with bullying. Bullying has both physiological and psychological ramifications for the person being bullied and a negative impact on the organization and patient care. Strategies to address bullying include education, developing codes of acceptable conduct for the workplace, and a zero-tolerance policy. Mental health nurses have a vital role in helping nurses return to roles of caring. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Announcement: National Bullying Prevention Awareness Month - October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Bullying among youths is defined as any unwanted aggressive behavior by another youth or group of youths who are not siblings or current dating partners and involves an observed or perceived power imbalance, and is repeated multiple times or is highly likely to be repeated (1). As a form of youth violence, bullying can include aggression that is physical (hitting or tripping), verbal (name calling or teasing), or relational/social (rumor spreading or leaving out of a group). Electronic aggression, or cyber-bullying, is bullying that occurs through the Internet, cellphone technology, and social media (e.g., e-mail, website, text messaging, posting videos, or pictures) (2).

  3. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Bullies, Bullying and Power in the Contexts of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansel, Peter; Davies, Bronwyn; Laws, Cath; Linnell, Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the four authors explore the experience of school bullying, drawing on stories of bullying generated in a collective biography workshop and on fictional accounts of bullying. They counter the current trend of reading bullying as individual or family pathology with a post-structuralist analysis of subjectification and power.

  5. Comparison of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among students at the University of Ostrava

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Vašutová; Michal Panáček

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part of the paper describes the problems of new media, bullying and its modified form – cyberbullying, place, time and characteristics of the protagonists of traditional bullying and cyberbullying, including a comparison of traditional bullying and cyberbullying, according to criteria that are specifically defined. The second part informs about the results of research of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among university students provided by Ostrava´s questionnaire of cyb...

  6. Observing bullying at school: The mental health implications of witness status

    OpenAIRE

    Rivers, I; Poteat, V P; Noret, N; Ashurst, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that observing bullying at school predicted risks to mental health over and above that predicted for those students who were directly involved in bullying...

  7. Integrating Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Challenges of Definition and Measurement in Adolescents -- A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J.; Connor, Jason P.; Scott, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for an integrated approach to studying bullying behaviors, both traditional and cyber, in adolescents is increasingly evident. The definitional criteria of bullying are well established in the traditional bullying literature and include (i) intention, (ii) repetition, and (iii) power imbalance. There is emerging evidence that these same…

  8. School Bullying and the Mental Health of Junior Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Josephine W. Y.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of school bullying and its effect on the mental health of junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The participants (N = 364, mean age = 13.55) reported on a survey that included a bullying scale, the Chinese General Health Questionnaire-30, and a psychosocial scale. Verbal bullying was the most frequently…

  9. Traditional bullying and cyberbullying: Differences in emotional problems, and personality. Are cyberbullies more Machiavellians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resett, Santiago; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined differences in emotional problems and personality of traditional bullies and cyberbullies. The present study aimed to determine whether those engaged in cyberbullying differ in emotional problems, and personality from those engage in traditional bullying perpetration. An Argentinean sample of 898 high school students was recruited (56% female; mean age = 15.2 SD = 1.6). Adolescents completed measures of traditional bullying, cyberbullying, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and personality. A 6% were traditional bullies; 8%, cyberbullies; and 4% were involved in both forms; the remainders were non involved. Results indicated that cyberbullies showed less depression and anxiety than traditional bullies. Also, cyberbullies scored low in neuroticism and high in agreeableness compared to traditional bullies. The results suggest that cyberbullies are characterized by an emotional and personality profile different from traditional bullies. In the discussion we analyze the implications of these results. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self-report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully-victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully-victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111-122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Perpetrator problem drinking and intimate partner violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPV) victimization among women and its correlates with perpetrator problem drinking in Cambodia. In the nationally representative cross-sectional 2014 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey a sample of ever married women aged 15 to ...

  12. Exploring high school learners' perceptions of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Patricia; Louw, Johann

    2010-12-01

    Learners' perceptions of aspects of school life that are sufficiently serious to interfere with their schoolwork were investigated. Bullying was a form of behaviour that was singled out for inclusion and further exploration in the study. Learners from three coeducational Western Cape Education Department schools were surveyed: 414 Grade 8 and 474 Grade 9 learners completed an anonymous, voluntary self-report questionnaire. Factors identified as most frequently interfering with their schoolwork included classmates not listening in class, feeling overwhelmed by schoolwork, teacher absenteeism, and verbal fighting. When asked specifically about bullying, 40% of learners indicated that they frequently experienced bullying at school-although they ranked it as much lower when compared to other potentially problematic school experiences. Furthermore, although the majority of learners indicated they thought teachers considered bullying a problem, few felt there was anything that school staff could do to counteract bullying effectively. These findings suggest that learners perceive bullying as an unavoidable part of school experience and have normalised this aggressive behaviour.

  13. The Toll of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  14. Victims of Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current research on bullying (peer victimization, peer harassment) in school, with a focus on victims of such bullying. The 1st section provides a working definition of bullying and its many forms. The 2nd section describes some of the known consequences of being bullied for mental health, physical health, and…

  15. Impact of bullying in childhood on adult health, wealth, crime, and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Copeland, William E; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E Jane

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a serious problem for schools, parents, and public-policymakers alike. Bullying creates risks of health and social problems in childhood, but it is unclear if such risks extend into adulthood. A large cohort of children was assessed for bullying involvement in childhood and then followed up in young adulthood in an assessment of health, risky or illegal behavior, wealth, and social relationships. Victims of childhood bullying, including those that bullied others (bully-victims), were at increased risk of poor health, wealth, and social-relationship outcomes in adulthood even after we controlled for family hardship and childhood psychiatric disorders. In contrast, pure bullies were not at increased risk of poor outcomes in adulthood once other family and childhood risk factors were taken into account. Being bullied is not a harmless rite of passage but throws a long shadow over affected people's lives. Interventions in childhood are likely to reduce long-term health and social costs.

  16. Bullying and harassment in the workplace developments in theory, research, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hoel, Helge; Zapf, Dieter; Cooper, Cary

    2010-01-01

    Previously titled Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace: International Perspectives in Research and Practice, the first edition of this bestselling resource quickly became a benchmark and highly cited source of knowledge for this burgeoning field. Renamed to more accurately reflect the maturing of the discipline, Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace: Developments in Theory, Research, and Practice, Second Edition provides a much-needed update of the original work. Edited by leading experts and presenting contributions from pioneers in their respective subject areas, the book is an up-to-date research-based resource on key aspects of workplace bullying and its remediation. New chapters include: Rehabilitation and Treatment of Victims of Bullying Interventions for the Prevention and Management of Workplace Bullying Bullying and Discrimination An Industrial Relation Perspective on Workplace Bullying Investigating Complaints of workplace bullying Whistleblowing and Workplace b...

  17. Bullying amongst University Students in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cowie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study with 20 university students examined perspectives in three different participant roles: the perpetrator, the target and the bystander. The purpose of the exercise was to resolve the outcome of an alleged incident of cyberbullying using a social network site via the means of a restorative conference. The findings suggest that the power of the peer group needs to be fully understood if cyberbullying, is to be tackled efficiently. The bystanders tended to blame the victim and were reluctant to intervene, the victim felt let down and marginalised by peers’ indifference and hostility, and the bully failed to realise or understand the consequences of their actions. The study offers ideas for strategies and policies to address the issue of cyberbullying with university students.

  18. From Invisibility to Visibility: A Policy Archaeology of the Introduction of Anti-Transphobic and Anti-Homophobic Bullying Guidelines into the Irish Primary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In September 2013, the Department of Education and Skills introduced revised anti-bullying guidelines which made it compulsory for all schools to ensure that their individual anti-bullying policies include a clause on identity-based bullying, specifically referencing transphobic and homophobic bullying. The introduction of these guidelines would…

  19. Precollege and in-college bullying experiences and health-related quality of life among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is a commonly occurring problem behavior in youths that could lead to long-term health effects. However, the impact of school bullying experiences on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among college students has been relatively underexplored. This study aimed to describe school bullying experiences and to empirically examine their associations with HRQOL among college students in Taiwan. Self-administered survey data (response rate 84.2%) were collected from 1452 college students in 2013 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling. Different types of bullying experiences (ie, physical, verbal, relational, and cyber) before and in college, for bullies and victims, were measured. HRQOL was assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Taiwan version. College students with cyber bullying-victimization experiences before college (β 0.060) reported significantly higher HRQOL in physical health. Regarding social relationships, those with verbal (β -0.086) and relational (β -0.056) bullying-victimization experiences, both before and in college, reported significantly lower HRQOL, whereas those with verbal (β 0.130) and relational (β 0.072) bullying-perpetration experiences in both periods reported significantly higher HRQOL. Students with cyber bullying-victimization experiences in college (β 0.068) reported significantly higher HRQOL in the environment domain. Last, the effects of verbal and relational bullying-victimization experiences on psychological HRQOL could be mediated and manifested through depression. Various types of bullying experiences occurring before and in college were differentially associated with HRQOL in different domains. These findings underscore the importance of developing school policies and health education initiatives to prevent school bullying and ameliorate its short-term and long-term effects on HRQOL. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  1. Bullying in primary school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is focussed on the bullying of, and by, Dutch students below age 13. The first questions to be answered are what is 'bullying', and how can it be distinguished from other types of disruptive behaviours? The answers to these questions are given by means of conceptual definitions, based

  2. Joining Hands against Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Jones, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, high-profile episodes of bullying have stirred up broad public alarm. This attention may appear to be merely trendy, but it's important. Bullying--commonly defined as systematic exclusion, aggression, or harassment that one child or a group of children inflicts on less powerful children--is pervasive in schools. Many…

  3. Prevalence of School Bullying Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Normand, Claude L; Salvas, Marie-Claude; Moullec, Grégory; Aimé, Annie

    2016-06-01

    The true extent of school bullying among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains an underexplored area. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to: (a) assess the proportion of school-aged youth with ASD involved in school bullying as perpetrators, victims or both; (b) examine whether the observed prevalence estimates vary when different sources of heterogeneity related to the participants' characteristics and to the assessment methods are considered; and (c) compare the risk of school bullying between youth with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimate for general school bullying perpetration, victimization and both was 10%, 44%, and 16%, respectively. Pooled prevalence was also estimated for physical, verbal, and relational school victimization and was 33%, 50%, and 31%, respectively. Moreover, subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence by geographic location, school setting, information source, type of measures, assessment time frame, and bullying frequency criterion. Finally, school-aged youth with ASD were found to be at greater risk of school victimization in general, as well as verbal bullying, than their TD peers. Autism Res 2016, 9: 601-615. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. What is bullying?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    as teachers, parents and school leaders. These data are generated within eXbus: Exploring Bullying in School, an interdisciplinary research project on bullying among children (www.exbus.dk). The conceptual framework is aimed to enhance understanding of bullying practices and thereby form a knowledge basis......Bullying can be understood as an extreme extension of an everyday social dynamic among children in school. In order to contemplate which conditions might hinder the movement from the normal flow of inclusions and exclusions to bullying, it is vital to understand the mechanisms that can cause...... come under pressure in any number of ways, enacted by intra-activity among a range of material-discursive forces – and when it happens uneasiness circulates around the group. One apparently effective alleviation strategy in relation to social exclusion anxiety is the production of contempt...

  5. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  7. How Can We Prevent and Reduce Bullying amongst University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Carrie Anne; Cowie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    While it has long been recognized that bullying occurs at school and in the workplace, recent research confirms that bullying also takes place among university students, including undergraduates, post-graduates and doctoral research students. In the UK, the National Union of Students (NUS) alerted staff and students to the issue in a series of…

  8. Experiences of Bullying for Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Marisa H.; Lough, Emma; Griffin, Megan M.; Lane, Laurel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disability experience high rates of bullying, but it is not known how people with specific syndromes, such as Williams syndrome (WS), experience and respond to bullying. Given their behavioral profile, including hypersociability and heightened anxiety, and their risk for experiencing other forms of…

  9. School Practices to Foster LGBT-Supportive Climate: Associations with Adolescent Bullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Forster, Myriam; Gloppen, Kari; Johnson, Abigail Z; Eisenberg, Marla E; Connett, John E; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-10-14

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 31,183) reported on frequency of physical and relational bullying victimization and perpetration and sexual orientation-based harassment. School administrators reported on six practices related to creating supportive LGBT school climate (N = 103 schools): having a point person for LGBT student issues, displaying sexual orientation-specific content, having a gay-straight alliance, discussing bullying based on sexual orientation, and providing professional development around LGBT inclusion and LGBT student issues. An index was created to indicate how many practices each school used (M = 2.45; SD = 1.76). Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that students attending schools with more supportive LGBT climates reported lower odds of relational bullying victimization, physical bullying perpetration, and sexual orientation-based harassment compared to students in schools with less supportive LGBT climates. Sexual orientation did not moderate these relations, indicating that LGBT-supportive practices may be protective for all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. Findings support school-wide efforts to create supportive climates for LGBQ youth as part of a larger bullying prevention strategy.

  10. Patterns of adolescent bullying behaviors: physical, verbal, exclusion, rumor, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Luk, Jeremy W

    2012-08-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 and 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005–2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S. adolescents in grades 6 through 10. LCA models were tested on physical bullying, verbal bullying, social exclusion, spreading rumors, and cyber bullying behaviors. Three latent classes were identified for each gender: All-Types Bullies (10.5% for boys and 4.0% for girls), Verbal/Social Bullies (29.3% for boys and 29.4% for girls), and a Non-Involved class (60.2% for boys and 66.6% for girls). Boys were more likely to be All-Types Bullies than girls. The prevalence rates of All-Types and Verbal/Social Bullies peaked during grades 6 to 8 and grades 7 & 8, respectively. Pairwise comparisons across the three latent classes on externalizing problems were conducted. Overall, the All-Types Bullies were at highest risk of using substances and carrying weapons, the Non-Involved were at lowest risk, and the Verbal/Social Bullies were in the middle. Results also suggest that most cyber bullies belong to a group of highly aggressive adolescents who conduct all types of bullying. This finding does not only improve our understanding of the relation between cyber bullying and traditional bullying, but it also suggests that prevention and intervention efforts could target cyber bullies as a high-risk group for elevated externalizing problems. PMID:22710019

  12. Is school a safe place? Prevalence of bullying in a sample of public school students of Sorocaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Bullying is a frequent form of violence among adolescent students, leading to serious physical and psychological damages. This study's objective is to identify the prevalence and factors associated with bullying among adolescents in public high schools. Methods: This is an observational, transversal study, with the participation of 47 14 - to 17-year old male and female adolescents from a public high school. Subjects answered a standardized questionnaire to assess the behavioral characteristics of victims, perpetrators and witnesses of bullying. Victimization was classified as either verbal or physical. This study was authorized by the local Ethics Committee, and both parents and adolescents signed a consent form. Results: 47 adolescents with an average age of 15,6 ± 0,9 years old participated in the study. The average age of girls was 15.5 ± 0.7 and boys 15.6 ± 0.9 years (p > 0.05. Approximately 13% of respondents reported having been verbally bullied, with no difference between genders. About 28% of the total reported having witnessed some form of verbal abuse at school. With regard to offenders, 19.1% of respondents,all of the male, reported having been verbal bullies. All of the attackers said that there was no penalty for their act of bullying. Conclusion: two in every ten adolescents reported having verbally bullied someone at high school, whereas about 28% of respondents reported at some point having been witnesses of physical or psychological bullying at school.

  13. Cyber Bullying and Traditional Bullying: Differential Association with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Nansel, Tonja R.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The study compared levels of depression among bullies, victims and bully-victims of traditional (physical, verbal and relational) and cyber bullying, and examined the association between depression and frequency of involvement in each form of bullying. Methods A U.S. nationally-representative sample of students in grades 6 to 10 (N = 7313) completed the bullying and depression items in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey. Results Depression was associated with each of four forms of bullying. Cyber victims reported higher depression than bullies or bully-victims, a finding not observed in other forms of bullying. For physical, verbal and relational bullies, victims and bully victims, the frequently-involved group reported significantly higher level of depression than the corresponding occasionally-involved group. For cyber bullying, differences were found only between occasional and frequent victims. Conclusion Findings indicate the importance of further study of cyber bullying as its association with depression is distinct from traditional forms of bullying. PMID:21402273

  14. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Boyd, Danah; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Oppenheim, Jay Koby

    2012-07-01

    To inform the scientific debate about bullying, including cyberbullying, measurement. Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6-17-year-olds (n = 1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Measures that use the word "bully" result in prevalence rates similar to each other, irrespective of whether a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word "bully" are similar to each other, irrespective of whether a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word "bully" results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of "bullying." Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word "bully" appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Measures of bullying among English-speaking individuals in the United States should include the word "bully" when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across domains, we suggest the following distinctions: mode (e.g., online, in-person), type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home). We conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bullying in the digital age: a critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Giumetti, Gary W; Schroeder, Amber N; Lattanner, Micah R

    2014-07-01

    Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. Method This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants’ relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Results The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Conclusions Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying. PMID:26619356

  17. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants' relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying.

  18. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beop-Rae Roh

    Full Text Available This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents.This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA to classify participants' relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors.The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied.Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying.

  19. Ganging up or sticking together? Group processes and children's responses to text-message bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Siân E; Manstead, Antony S R; Livingstone, Andrew G

    2011-02-01

    Drawing on social identity theory and intergroup emotion theory (IET), we examined group processes underlying bullying behaviour. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a perpetrator's group, a target's group, or a third party group. They then read a gender-consistent scenario in which the norm of the perpetrator's group (to be kind or unkind towards others) was manipulated, and an instance of cyberbullying between the perpetrator's group and a member of the target's group was described. It was found that group membership, group norms, and the proposed antecedents of the group-based emotions of pride, shame, and anger (but not guilt) influenced group-based emotions and action tendencies in ways predicted by social identity and IET. The results underline the importance of understanding group-level emotional reactions when it comes to tackling bullying, and show that being part of a group can be helpful in overcoming the negative effects of bullying. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Active transportation and bullying in Canadian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, Ioana; Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-02-07

    Bullying is a recognized social problem within child populations. Engagement in childhood bullying often occurs in settings that are away from adult supervision, such as en route to and from school. Bullying episodes may also have a negative impact on school childrens' decisions to engage in active transportation. Using a cross-sectional design, we analyzed reports from the 2009/10 cycle of the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study. Records from this general health survey were obtained for 3,997 urban students in grades 6-10 who lived in close proximity of their school and were hence ineligible for school bussing. Students who indicated walking or bicycling to school were classified as engaged in active transportation. Victims and perpetrators of bullying were defined using standard measures and a frequency cut-off of at least 2-3 times per month. Analyses focused on relations between bullying and active transportation, as well as barriers to active transportation as perceived by young people. 27% of young people indicated being victimized, and 12% indicated that they engaged in bullying. Girls were more likely to be victimized than boys, and younger students were more likely to be victimized than older students. Engagement in active transportation was reported by 63% of respondents, of these, 68% indicated that worrying about bullying on the way to school was an impediment to such transportation methods. Victimization by bullying (adjusted OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.59) was reported more frequently by children who used active transportation. Health promotion efforts to promote engagement in active transportation of students to school have obvious value. The potential for modest increases in exposure to bullying should be considered in the planning of such initiatives.

  1. Bullying in Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Definitions of school bullying vary, when it comes to more detailed descriptions of what this entails and, not least, of why bullying occurs. Some definitions emphasize the individual’s personality and upbringing to explain the cause of bullying behavior. Other, more recent, definitions point...... by a peer or a teacher. A complication in relation to these strategies is that neither of them take into account that the sheltered space of facilitated dialogue differs radically from the shared community of the classroom, with its norms and positionings unchallenged by the mediated conversation. Many...

  2. Association of perpetrator relationship to abusive head trauma clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V; Makoroff, Kathi L; Feldman, Kenneth W; Berger, Rachel P

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of abusive head trauma (AHT) remains a significant public health problem with limited prevention success. Providing protection from further harm is often challenged by the difficulty in identifying the alleged perpetrator (AP) responsible for this pediatric trauma. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics of children with AHT and the relationship between APs and their victims in a large, multi-site sample. Understanding the AHT risks from various caregivers may help to inform current prevention strategies. A retrospective review of all cases of AHT diagnosed by child protection teams (CPT) from 1/1/04 to 6/30/09 at four children's hospitals was conducted. Clinical characteristics of children with AHT injured by non-parental perpetrators (NPP) were compared to parental perpetrators (PP). There were 459 children with AHT; 313 (68%) had an identified AP. The majority of the 313 children were <1 year of age (76%), Caucasian (63%), male (58%), receiving public assistance (80%), and presented without a history of trauma (62%); mortality was 19%. Overall, APs were: father (53%), parent partner (22%), mother (8%), babysitter (8%), other adult caregiver (5%); NPP accounted for 39% of APs. NPPs were more likely to cause AHT in children ≥ 1 year (77% vs. 23%, p<0.001) compared to PP. Independent associations to NPP included: older child, absence of a history of trauma, retinal hemorrhages, and male perpetrator gender. While fathers were the most common AP in AHT victims, there is a significant association for increased risk of AHT by NPPs in the older child, who presents with retinal hemorrhages, in the hands of a male AP. Further enhancement of current prevention strategies to address AHT risks of non-parental adults who provide care to children, especially in the post-infancy age seems warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developement of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is one of behaviors which occur in various forms at workplaces. These types of behaviors are associated with diverse range of behaviors and other variables. Considering the lack of instrument to assess supervisor's bullying in workplaces of Iran, this research was carried out to constructing and studying reliability and validity of supervisor's bullying questionnaire at workplace. Statistical population of this research was all of Isfahan oil refinery’s staff that 402 participants was chosen as participant by simple random sampling mehod. The tools included perceived organizational justice questionnaire, organizational citizenship behaviors questionnaire and deviant behaviors questionnaire which used for studying convergent and divergent validity of researcher-made questionnaire of supervisor's bullying. Data were analyzed by using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, canonical correlation coefficient (for studying convergent and divergent validity and reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha and test- retest reliability. Results showed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has five factor structures which named: supervisors’ threat, insult and scorn by supervisor, anger and revengefulness of supervisor, ignorance and unconventional work pressure of supervisor, supervisors’ boring and cheap. Cronbach’s alpha for the five factors was equal to 0.87, 0.84, 0.82, 0.81, 0.81, and test-retest reliability for those five factors was equal to 0.81, 0.59, 0.58, 0.83, and 0.77. The results of this study revealed that supervisor's bullying questionnaire has suitable validity and reliability for assessment the level of supervisor's bullying at workplaces.

  4. Perspectives on bullying among children who present to the emergency department with behavioral misconduct: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C

    2014-11-01

    The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8-17 years), who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8-17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what these children feel adults should do to

  5. Face-to-Face and Online: An Investigation of Children's and Adolescents' Bullying Behavior through the Lens of Moral Emotions and Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Lauryn; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Talwar, Victoria; Shariff, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of type of aggression (cyberbullying or traditional bullying) and participant role (bystander or perpetrator) on children and adolescents' self-attribution of moral emotions and judgments, while examining the influence of chronological age. Participants (N = 122, 8-16 years) evaluated vignettes and were…

  6. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Schwab-Reese

    Full Text Available We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4 previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration among white men and women.We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis.Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase.Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but

  7. Insecure Attachment, Maladaptive Personality Traits, and the Perpetration of In-Person and Cyber Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Nghi H; Pasalich, Dave S

    2018-02-01

    Although past findings show that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality traits confer risk for perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about how these factors may underpin psychological abuse (PA) committed in-person and via technology. This study examined whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and psychopathic traits account for indirect effects of insecure attachment on the perpetration of face-to-face and cyber PA. Participants included a community-based sample ( N = 200; M age = 22.28 years) in Australia who completed a battery of online questionnaires. Results from bivariate correlations showed that elevated levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and higher scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits, were significantly associated with the perpetration of both face-to-face and cyber PA. Findings from mediation analysis indicated that attachment anxiety was indirectly linked with the perpetration of both forms of PA via elevated scores on BPD traits and psychopathic traits. High levels of psychopathic traits accounted for the indirect effects of attachment avoidance on both forms of PA. Results support the theory that insecure attachment and maladaptive personality functioning might be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the perpetration of PA. These findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs for the perpetration of IPV in terms of shedding new light on potential risk factors for engagement in face-to-face and technology-based PA.

  8. Peer network influence on intimate partner violence perpetration among urban Tanzanian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulawa, Marta I; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Tanzania is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, although research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Grounded in social learning theory, social influence theory, and the theory of gender and power, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and how peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 40) with a sub-sample of 20 men enrolled in the control condition of an ongoing cluster-randomised controlled trial. We purposively sampled participants who previously reported perpetrating physical IPV. To analyse the data, we generated narrative summaries and conducted thematic and interpretative coding. We saw no evidence that men self-selected into peer networks with certain values or behaviours. Rather, men described several mechanisms through which their peers influenced the perpetration of IPV, including: (1) the internalisation of peer network norms, (2) pressure to conform to peer network norms and (3) the direct involvement of peers in shaping couple power dynamics. Our findings suggest that peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV and should be targeted in future programmes and interventions.

  9. Bullied at school, bullied at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    of the participants was derived from a national register at Statistics Denmark. Results Several risk factors were identified. Being obese, low self-assessed position in school class, overprotective parents, low self-esteem, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied...

  10. Blackboard Bullies: Workplace Bullying in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Declan

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive examination of the "lived experience" of workplace bullying in primary schools in Ireland. Underpinned by the qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with a class teacher, a chairperson of a Board of Management and a school principal--all of whom who believe themselves to have been targets of…

  11. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including...... items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect......). RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys...

  12. Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M; Limber, Susan P

    2013-07-01

    To examine the relationship between children's and adolescents' experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance. Nine hundred thirty-one students in grades 6 through 12 completed an anonymous survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Also included were measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, physical well-being, school attendance, and academic performance. Participants were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: cyber victims, cyberbullies, cyber bully/victims, and those not involved in cyberbullying. A similar categorization was done with traditional bullying. Those in the bully/victim groups (and particularly the cyber bully/victim group) had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical, health, and academic performance. There appears to be a substantial, although not perfect, overlap between involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Additionally, the physical, psychological, and academic correlates of the two types of bullying resembled one another. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Executive functions in children who experience bullying situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandersonia Medeiros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is characterized by intentional, repetitive, and persistent aggressive behavior that causes damage to the victim. Many studies investigate the social and emotional aspects related to bullying, but few assess the cognitive aspects it involves. Studies with aggressive individuals indicate impairment in executive functioning and decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess hot and cold executive functions in children who experience bullying. A total of 60 children between 10 and 11 years of age were included in the study. They were divided into four groups: aggressors (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control. Tests for decision-making, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility were used. The bully group made more unfavorable choices on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, which may indicate difficulties in the decision-making process. The victim group took longer to complete the Trail Making Test (Part B than aggressors, suggesting lower cognitive flexibility in victims. The hypothesis that aggressors would have lower performance in other executive functions such as inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility has not been confirmed. This study indicates that bullies have an impairment of hot executive functions whereas victims have a comparatively lower performance in cold executive functions. In addition to social and cultural variables, neurocognitive and emotional factors seem to influence the behavior of children in bullying situations.

  14. Effects of workplace bullying on how women work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Gray, Marilyn Merritt; Aldous, Sarah

    2010-11-01

    Work is central to well-being but working is problematic when people experience workplace bullying, which includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse or harassment. The purpose of the present grounded theory study was to extend current understanding, from the perspective of women, of how workplace bullying affects their work and how they engage in the workforce. The study was conducted in eastern Canada with 36 English-speaking women who had been bullied in the workplace. They reported mainly psychological bullying. The central problem for women is they cannot continue working as they had before the workplace bullying. The authors named a four-stage process of how women address this problem as "Doing Work Differently." The four stages are Being Conciliatory, Reconsidering, Reducing Interference, and Redeveloping Balance. The process is influenced by women's support systems, the effects on their health, and financial circumstances. There are implications for public education, workplace policies, and health care workers.

  15. Esthetic dental anomalies as motive for bullying in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Débora Lopes Salles; Jeremias, Fabiano; Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes Aparecida Martins; Hebling, Josimeri; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista

    2014-01-01

    Facial esthetics, including oral esthetics, can severely affect children's quality-of-life, causing physical, social and psychological impairment. Children and adolescents with esthetic-related dental malformations are potential targets for bullies. This study was aimed to present and discuss patients who suffered from bullying at school and family environment due to esthetic-related teeth anomalies. Providing an adequate esthetic dental treatment is an important step in their rehabilitation when the lack of esthetic is the main source of bullying. After dental treatment, we noted significant improvement in self-esteem, self-confidence, socialization and academic performance of all patients and improvement in parental satisfaction regarding the appearance of their children. It is imperative that both family and school care providers be constantly alert about bullying in order to prevent or interrupt aggressive and discriminatory practices against children and adolescents. Clearly, dental anomalies may be a motive for bullying.

  16. Opportunistic Screening for Exposure to Bullying in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marlene; Menoch, Margaret; Chen, Charity

    2017-01-01

    To assess opportunistic screening for exposure to bullying in the pediatric emergency department (ED), an anonymous survey inquiring about exposure to physical, verbal, social, and cyber bullying behaviors was given to ED patients 5 to 18 years old. The survey asked about being the recipient, perpetrator, and/or witness of bullying; the frequency of exposure; liking school; missing school; and presenting complaint. Either the child or parent could complete the survey. A total of 909 surveys were analyzed. Exposure was 78.7%. A greater proportion of females reported being victims and witnesses. Youth who reported being both victims and witnesses represented the largest group, with witness-only the second largest. Parents reported less cyber-bullying and witness status to all types of bullying. For children who did not like school, there was a significant difference in exposure versus nonexposure. There was no association with presenting complaint. Opportunistic screening for bullying exposure in pediatric ED patients warrants consideration as it may increase detection of preclinical status and clinical sequelae.

  17. Access to a Loaded Gun Without Adult Permission and School-Based Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simckes, Maayan S; Simonetti, Joseph A; Moreno, Megan A; Rivara, Frederick P; Oudekerk, Barbara A; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Gun access and bullying are risk factors for sustaining or perpetrating violence among adolescents. Our knowledge of gun access among bullied students is limited. We used data on students, aged 12-18 years, from the 2011 and 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey to assess the association between self-reported bullying victimization (traditional and cyber) and access to a loaded gun without adult permission. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from multivariable Poisson regression using the Taylor series after controlling for student age, sex, family income, public/private school, and race. Of 10,704 participants, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8%-4.6%) reported gun access. Compared with nonbullied students, those who reported traditional bullying (PR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.4), cyberbullying (PR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-4.9), and both (PR = 5.9; 95% CI: 4.6-7.7) were more likely to also report gun access. Adolescents who experience bullying, particularly those who report both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, are more likely to report access to a loaded gun without adult permission. These findings highlight the importance of developing interventions focused on these modifiable risk factors for preventing self-directed or interpersonal violence among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jung; Ma, Le-Yin; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Yu-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039) and mother-reported (p = .003) bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027). The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041). The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  19. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jung Liu

    Full Text Available Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26 and social skills training (SST; n = 23 programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039 and mother-reported (p = .003 bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027. The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041. The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  20. School bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    –discursive–temporal–technological are entangled with each other in processes of becoming; e.g., in cyberbullying (see Kofoed on page XX). The cultural–historical tradition in psychology – including the work of theorists such as Jerome Bruner, Jaan Valsiner, Klaus Holzkamp and Ole Dreier – also provides background to some of the chapters...... shape both individual and collective bodies, and how the intensity of affects works and translates into a diversity of specific emotions. This research has inspired the analysis of cyberbullying included here (Kofoed). Most of the chapters in this anthology are based on qualitative research and data...

  1. The New Age of Bullying and Violence in Health Care: Part 3: Managing the Bullying Boss and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink-Samnick, Ellen

    PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING(S):: Applicable to all health care sections where case management is practiced. This article is the third of a 4-part series on the topic of bullying in the health care workplace. Part 3 addresses the dimensions of the bullying boss and leadership, posing major implications for patient safety plus the mental health of staff members. The complex constructs and dynamics broached by the bullying boss and department leadership are explored. These include the underlying forces at play such as power, gender, leadership styles, plus weaves in assessment models. Strategic and proactive management of bullying by leadership is vital to workforce retention and well-being. The increasing incidence and impact of bullying across all sectors have made it a major workforce performance management challenge. Health care settings are especially tense environments, often making it difficult for individuals to distinguish between bullying behavior and high expectations for staff. Bullying impacts both direct targets and bystanders who witness the assaultive behaviors, with ethical implications as well.Case management is poised to promote a safe health care workplace for patients and practitioners alike amid these intricate circumstances. Understanding types of bullying bosses and leadership styles is integral to a case manager's success in the workplace.

  2. The efficacy of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2017-09-01

    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hansen, Claus D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors. Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Methods Ris...

  4. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. ... Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. ... is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims.

  5. #bully: Uses of Hashtags in Posts about Bullying on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Angela J.; Bellmore, Amy; Xu, Jun-Ming; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    To understand how bullying is represented within social media, the characteristics of hashtags associated with public mentions of bullying on Twitter between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 are explored in this study. The most frequently used 500 hashtags among the 552,831 distinct hashtags used with the keywords "bully,"…

  6. Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethem, A.A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  7. Explicit- and implicit bullying attitudes in relation to bullying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, A.A.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly

  8. Development and validation of the Bullying and Cyberbullying Scale for Adolescents: A multi-dimensional measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hannah J; Scott, James G; Coates, Jason M; Connor, Jason P

    2018-05-03

    Intervention on adolescent bullying is reliant on valid and reliable measurement of victimization and perpetration experiences across different behavioural expressions. This study developed and validated a survey tool that integrates measurement of both traditional and cyber bullying to test a theoretically driven multi-dimensional model. Adolescents from 10 mainstream secondary schools completed a baseline and follow-up survey (N = 1,217; M age  = 14 years; 66.2% male). The Bullying and cyberbullying Scale for Adolescents (BCS-A) developed for this study comprised parallel victimization and perpetration subscales, each with 20 items. Additional measures of bullying (Olweus Global Bullying and the Forms of Bullying Scale [FBS]), as well as measures of internalizing and externalizing problems, school connectedness, social support, and personality, were used to further assess validity. Factor structure was determined, and then, the suitability of items was assessed according to the following criteria: (1) factor interpretability, (2) item correlations, (3) model parsimony, and (4) measurement equivalence across victimization and perpetration experiences. The final models comprised four factors: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. The final scale was revised to two 13-item subscales. The BCS-A demonstrated acceptable concurrent and convergent validity (internalizing and externalizing problems, school connectedness, social support, and personality), as well as predictive validity over 6 months. The BCS-A has sound psychometric properties. This tool establishes measurement equivalence across types of involvement and behavioural forms common among adolescents. An improved measurement method could add greater rigour to the evaluation of intervention programmes and also enable interventions to be tailored to subscale profiles. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Sam-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen C Basile

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer.Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics.Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types.Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:329–340.

  10. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  11. Health correlates of workplace bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. METHODS: In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past......-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...

  12. Frequency of bullying perceived in clinical practices of last year interns of a medicine school: cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Fernanda Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the medical internship year, students attend several hospitals and are observed and influenced by postgraduate students, general practitioners and other interns, who provide them with fundamental support regarding professional training. Bullying is defined as an aggressive behavior that occurs between a perpetrator and a victim in different scenarios and authority relationships, such as clinical practices at Medicine programs. Objective: To describe the perceived frequency of bullying among a group of interns of the Faculty of Medicine from Universidad Nacional de Colombia during internship. Materials and methods: A transversal analytical study was performed through a questionnaire applied to 82 medical interns of the School of Medicine from Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Results: The perceived frequency of bullying was 90%. Statistically significant differences were not found in the stratified analysis by sex or place of practice. In most cases, bullying was perpetrated by other interns, while residents and specialists showed a lower frequency. Conclusion: Perceived frequency of bullying was higher than expected according to the existing literature. These results can be used as a basis for new studies.

  13. Life satisfaction and school performance of children exposed to classic and cyber peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, Vesna; Flander, Gordana Buljan; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On the other hand, cyber bullying most often comprises harassment in forums, blogs, chats or social networks, then on the web, by e-mail and mobile phone. Almost half of the examinees knew the identity of the bully, while a minority believes that bullies are the same ones who also physically abuse them at school. We found that children exposed to all forms of both classic and cyber bullying, unlike their peers who do not have such experience, show less satisfaction with friends, while those exposed to physical and cyber bullying show dissatisfaction with their family, too. However no statistically significant difference was found in their satisfaction with school. Children exposed to physical bullying showed poorer school performance, poorer achievement in Croatian and math, while children exposed to verbal and cyber bullying and children who were not exposed to such forms of bullying showed no differences in their school achievement.

  14. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  15. Cross-national perspectives about weight-based bullying in youth: nature, extent and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Latner, J D; O'Brien, K; Luedicke, J; Forhan, M; Danielsdottir, S

    2016-08-01

    No cross-national studies have examined public perceptions about weight-based bullying in youth. To conduct a multinational examination of public views about (i) the prevalence/seriousness of weight-based bullying in youth; (ii) the role of parents, educators, health providers and government in addressing this problem and (iii) implementing policy actions to reduce weight-based bullying. A cross-sectional survey of adults in the United States, Canada, Iceland and Australia (N = 2866). Across all countries, weight-based bullying was identified as the most prevalent reason for youth bullying, by a substantial margin over other forms of bullying (race/ethnicity, sexual orientation and religion). Participants viewed parents and teachers as playing major roles in efforts to reduce weight-based bullying. Most participants across countries (77-94%) viewed healthcare providers to be important intervention agents. Participants (65-87%) supported government augmentation of anti-bullying laws to include prohibiting weight-based bullying. Women expressed higher agreement for policy actions than men, with no associations found for participants' race/ethnicity or weight. Causal beliefs about obesity were associated with policy support across countries. Across countries, strong recognition exists of weight-based bullying and the need to address it. These findings may inform policy-level actions and clinical practices concerning youth vulnerable to weight-based bullying. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Theoretical proposals in bullying research: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Postigo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of research into peer bullying have produced an extensive body of knowledge. This work attempts to provide an integrative theoretical framework, which includes the specific theories and observations. The main aim is to organize the available knowledge in order to guide the development of effective interventions. To that end, several psychological theories are described that have been used and/or adapted with the aim of understanding peer bullying. All of them, at different ecological levels and different stages of the process, may describe it in terms of the relational dynamics of power. It is concluded that research needs to take this integrative framework into account, that is to say to consider multi-causal and holistic approaches to bullying. For the intervention, regardless of the format or the target population, the empowerment of the individuals, and the social awareness of the use and abuse of personal power are suggested.

  17. Experience and Perpetration of Violent Behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... Worldwide, adolescents are disproportionately affected by violent ... and perpetration of physical, sexual and psychological violent behaviours among ... of violence among males were use of alcohol, witnessing domestic violence, ...

  18. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  19. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Bradford C.

    2010-01-01

    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  20. FCCLA Quilting Project Fights Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vandita

    2007-01-01

    Bullying in schools is a topic of serious concern. According to a survey conducted in the United States, approximately 30% of youth in grades 6-10 have reported some involvement in moderate or frequent bullying, and this problem affects about 5.7 million youth. To deal with bullying, 2 years ago, Byrnedale Junior High School in Toledo, Ohio…

  1. Mapping the Landscapes of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana; Schmidtlein, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Past bullying research has consistently identified common locations (e.g. bathrooms, hallways, playgrounds) on school campuses where bullying occurs, but not specific locations. This limitation does not allow researchers to take into account the unique geography of individual schools and how it contributes to bullying. A random sample of 741 grade…

  2. Educators' Understanding of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…

  3. Responding to Bullying: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy; Pepler, Debra; Blais, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Children who are bullied are often told to "solve the problems themselves"; however, when bullying is repeated over time, it becomes increasingly difficult for victimized children to stop the torment because of their relative lack of power. We examine the ways in which children respond to bullying and their evaluations of the…

  4. Dealing with Bullies (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Search English Español Dealing With Bullies KidsHealth / For Kids / Dealing With Bullies What's in this article? Bullying ...

  5. Bullying Affects More than Feelings: The Long-Term Implications of Victimization on Academic Motivation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Jones, Adena; Fursa, Sophie; Byrket, Jacqueline S.; Sly, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying has become a prominent topic within education due to recent media headlines in the United States and abroad. The impact of these occurrences ripples beyond the bully and victim to include administrators, parents, and fellow students. While previous research has concluded bullying behaviors decrease as a child progresses in school, more…

  6. Perilaku Bullying pada Mahasiswa Berasrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangadar Simbolon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students’ bullying characteristics phenomena has become a concern because educational institution where educative individuals are being train has in fact become a place of bullying. Bullying is an act of hurting someone done by an individual or group. Bullying is not limited to a community or educational institutional, such as a university, as a whole, but it happened in a narrower area that is related to a campus – dormitory. Dormitory, a place conducive for learning is a social laboratory, with an educative, social, moral and regeneration function. Based on the statistical data of bullying cases of university A, released by the office of the student affairs in 2008, it was found out that there are 1 or 2 cases every semester. Bullies usually consist of 1 to 8 students.To know the types of bullying, factors and affects that causes the act on the victims and dormitory community, and efforts of prevention. A qualitative research was done to dig deep into the real picture of bullying. An interview and discussions were done toward 14 reseach subject. Sources and methodology triangular were done to validate the data. Data analysis was done using the open coding steps. Bullying causes factors in university A is the same in general that is seniority factor, imitating the past experiences. Seniors expect themselves to be honored and problem occurred when juniors dishonored them. Bullies bullied because they were once victims, therefore bullying is somehow done as an act of revenge. Bullying acts occurred in dormitory of university A in Bandung. Anti-bullying systems designed by the university are: Religious understanding development, religious teaching implementation, uplifting moral values. Others things done are improving students’ controlling system by the dormitory deans and monitors (dormitory workers. Keywords: bullying, dormitory, students

  7. Health correlates of workplace bullying: a 3-wave prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie; Willert, Morten Vejs; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past 6-12 months and data on health characteristics were obtained by self-reports. We identified major depression using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interviews and the Major Depression Inventory. We performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of outcomes according to self-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses adjusting for bullying during follow-up, all health correlates except poor sleep quality persisted up to four years. Self-reported health correlates of workplace bullying including sick-listing, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and a diagnosis of depression tend to persist for several years regardless of whether bullying is discontinued or not. Independent measures of bullying and outcomes are needed to learn whether these findings reflect long lasting health consequences of workplace bullying or whether self-labelled workplace bullying and health complaints are correlated because of common underlying factors.

  8. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison of Antisocial and Family-Only Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joakim; Strand, Susanne; Selenius, Heidi

    2016-03-27

    Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on their generality of violence could facilitate the difficult task of matching perpetrator subtype with efficient risk management strategies. As such, the aim of the present study was to compare antisocial and family-only male perpetrators of interpersonal violence in terms of (a) demographic and legal characteristics, (b) risk factors for violence, and (c) assessed risk and the importance of specific risk factors for violence. A quantitative design was used in this retrospective register study on data obtained from the Swedish police. Risk assessments performed with the Swedish version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and police registers were used. A sample of 657 male alleged IPV perpetrators were classified asantisocial(n= 341) orfamily-only(n= 316) based on their generality of violence. The results showed that the antisocial perpetrators were significantly younger, as well as more psychologically abusive. Antisocial perpetrators also had significantly more present risk factors for IPV, and were assessed with a significantly higher risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV, compared with the family-only perpetrators. The subtypes also evidenced unique risk factors with a significant impact on elevated risk for acute and severe or deadly such violence. Key findings in the present study concerned the subtypes evidencing unique risk factors increasing the risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV. Major implications of this study include the findings of such unique "red flag" risk factors for each subtype. To prevent future IPV, it is vital for the risk assessor to be aware of these red flags when making decisions about risk, as well as risk management strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Bullying, Depression, and Suicide Risk in a Pediatric Primary Care Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Tamar; Herres, Joanna; Shearer, Annie; Atte, Tita; Fein, Joel; Diamond, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Suicide is a serious public health concern for US youth. Research has established an association between bullying and suicide risk. However, several questions remain regarding this relationship. The present study examined (a) whether experiences of verbal, physical, and cyber bullying were uniquely associated with general suicide risk; (b) whether each specific form of bullying was related to suicide attempt; and (c) whether depression moderated the relationship between each type of bullying and suicide risk. The sample included medical records of 5,429 youth screened in primary care when providers had mental health concerns. Patients were screened using the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS), which assessed a range of mental health problems and behaviors, including bullying, depression, and suicide. All types of bullying were associated with suicide risk, but verbal bullying was uniquely associated with suicide attempt. Depression significantly moderated the relationship between each type of bullying and suicide risk. The study's limitations include the use of cross-sectional and self-data reports. When medical providers evaluate suicide risk, bullying should be considered as a possible precipitant, especially if the patient is depressed. Verbal bullying may be particularly important in understanding severity of suicide risk.

  11. PENGETAHUAN GURU TENTANG BULLYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziyah Indahyani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat pengetahuan guru sekolah dasar tentang bullying di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan tes pengetahuan, subjek penelitiannya adalah guru sekolah dasar di Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. Teknik pengambilan sampel data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah clustered sampling. Jumlah populasi penelitian adalah 403 guru dari sekolah dasar di kecamatan Sokaraja, Kabupaten Banyumas. 40% di antaranya diambil sebagai sampel, sehingga sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 130 guru sekolah dasar dari kecamatan Sokaraja, Banyumas kabupaten Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan guru tentang bullying rata-rata, hal ini ditunjukkan dalam analisis yang menunjukkan bahwa 130 guru sekolah dasar, 92 di antaranya 70,77% kategori rata-rata dalam mengetahui bullying verbal (70,77%. Sedangkan untuk pengetahuan bullying fisik, dari 130 guru, 91 guru atau 70,00% dikategorikan ke tingkat rata-rata. Kemudian, dari 130 guru sekolah dasar, 70,00% dikategorikan ke dalam pengetahuan rata-rata yang berhubungan dengan pengetahuan mental. Kata kunci: Pengetahuan tentang Bullying, Guru Sekolah Dasar

  12. BULLYING NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aparecida Grillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to conduct an analysis and reflection of one of the important issues which it is education: bullying, because it is a violence that occurs in the school of repetitive and deliberate manner in which its consequences can cause damage significant to emotional training, psychological and socio-educational of the victim, if the student. Note that bullying is increasing in epidemic form in schools and its effects are traumatizing students to witness and those who suffer the action, because it is violence with deliberate and repetitive character. In terms of overall objective, conduct yourself will this article in order to obtain information about bullying in the school environment, more specifically will address: The Bullying conceptions; Investigate the causes and consequences can be seen in the behavior of students; To study the key players of Bullying in school. Thus, it is a qualitative methodological approach that will make the use of literature by various authors for the issue of deepening. It resulted contribute in the actions of professionals in the face of violence. Therefore, it is concluded that the school is a place of learning, where change is necessary, both in order to act as the thinking of people and students.

  13. Bullying--And the Power of Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This White House report investigates the essential role that peers play in promoting or preventing bullying. Bullies use bullying to attain success and recognition; their success in doing so depends on the characteristics of the bully, the relationship that exists between bullies and those whom they target for harassment, and the reactions of…

  14. Strengthening Elementary School Bully Prevention with Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Moulton, Emily; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Prater, Mary Anne; Brown, Alec

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of bullying are both widespread and severe. It disrupts learning, threatens school safety, and poses long-term emotional repercussions for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Although multiple strategies have targeted bullying, bullying must be understood within a social contextual framework beyond the bully-victim dyad. Davis and…

  15. Perpetration of teen dating violence in a networked society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Boyd, Danah; Lenhart, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious form of youth violence that youth fairly commonly experience. Although youth extensively use computer-mediated communication (CMC), the epidemiology of CMC-based TDV is largely unknown. This study examined how perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC compares and relates to perpetration using longer-standing modes of communication (LSMC; e.g., face-to-face). Data from the national Growing up with Media study involving adolescents aged 14-19 collected from October 2010 to February 2011 and analyzed May 2012 are reported. Analyses focused on adolescents with a history of dating (n=615). Forty-six percent of youth daters had perpetrated psychological TDV. Of those who perpetrated in the past 12 months, 58% used only LSMC, 17% used only CMC, and 24% used both. Use of both CMC and LSMC was more likely among perpetrators who used CMC than among perpetrators who used LSMC. In addition, communication mode and type of psychological TDV behavior were separately related to frequency of perpetration. Finally, history of sexual intercourse was the only characteristic that discriminated between youth who perpetrated using different communication modes. Results suggest that perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC is prevalent and is an extension of perpetration using LSMC. Prevention should focus on preventing perpetration of LSMC-based TDV as doing so would prevent LSMC as well as CMC-based TDV.

  16. "You can never work with addictions in isolation": Addressing intimate partner violence perpetration by men in substance misuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Polly; Gilchrist, Gail

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown rates of IPV-perpetration among men in substance misuse treatment at rates far higher than the general population. There is poor evidence for the effectiveness of IPV perpetrator programmes. An analysis of drugs and alcohol policy documents 1998-2015 was conducted using discourse analysis to examine how English drug and alcohol policy has addressed IPV among substance misusers. Transcripts of interviews with 20 stake holders were analysed thematically. How policy 'frames' IPV-perpetration among drug and alcohol misusers has implications for service provision. IPV has increasingly been framed in terms of its implications for child safeguarding, and has been 'folded in' to policies targeting Troubled Families. With increasing 'localism' in English drug and alcohol policy there has been little specification of services for substance misusing IPV-perpetrators. Policy and literature produced by IPV perpetrator and victim organisations has framed IPV-perpetration as an individual choice with intoxication as a post hoc excuse for violence with limited implications for effective service development. Interviews with stake holders indicate a range of understandings/explanations for IPV among substance misusing men. Stake holders suggest that not all staff have the confidence or skills to ask men about their relationships and that there are few referral routes for substance misusing men who seek help for their IPV perpetration. There are gaps and contradictions in the extent to which English drug and alcohol policy has sought to address IPV-perpetration among substance misusers. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance provide an opportunity to include domestic abuse training for all front line social care staff including in the substance misuse sector. There is a need for further research into effective services for substance misusing perpetrators and the development of training for front-line staff. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  17. Controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse perpetrated by men receiving substance use treatment in England and Brazil: Prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d

  18. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  19. Do Anti-Bullying Laws Reduce Youth Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Bass, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to comprehensively examine the effect of state anti-bullying laws (ABLs) on youth violence. Using data from a variety of sources – including the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, Uniform Crime Reports, and newly collected data on school shootings – we find that the enforcement of strict, comprehensive school district anti-bullying policies is associated with a 7 to 13 percent reduction in school violence and an 8 to 12 percent reduction in bullying. Our results also show th...

  20. Initiating change locally in bullying and aggression through the school environment (INCLUSIVE) trial: update to cluster randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Mathiot, Anne; Allen, Elizabeth; Bevilacqua, Leonardo; Christie, Deborah; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Adam; Grieve, Richard; Legood, Rosa; Scott, Stephen; Warren, Emily; Wiggins, Meg; Viner, Russell M

    2017-05-25

    Systematic reviews suggest that multi-component interventions are effective in reducing bullying victimisation and perpetration. We are undertaking a phase III randomised trial of the INCLUSIVE multi-component intervention. This trial aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the INCLUSIVE intervention in reducing aggression and bullying victimisation in English secondary schools. This paper updates the original trial protocol published in 2014 (Trials 15:381, 2014) and presents the changes in the process evaluation protocol and the secondary outcome data collection. The methods are summarised as follows. cluster randomised trial. 40 state secondary schools. Outcomes assessed among the cohort of students at the end of year 7 (n = 6667) at baseline. INCLUSIVE is a multi-component school intervention including a social and emotional learning curriculum, changes to school environment (an action group comprising staff and students reviews local data on needs to review rules and policies and determine other local actions) and staff training in restorative practice. The intervention will be delivered by schools supported in the first two years by educational facilitators independent of the research team, with a third intervention year involving no external facilitation but all other elements. Comparator: normal practice. Primary: Two primary outcomes at student level assessed at baseline and at 36 months: 1. Aggressive behaviours in school: Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime school misbehaviour subscale (ESYTC) 2. Bullying and victimisation: Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS) Secondary outcomes assessed at baseline, 24 and 36 months will include measures relating to the economic evaluation, psychosocial outcomes in students and staff and school-level truancy and exclusion rates. 20 schools per arm will provide 90% power to identify an effect size of 0.25 SD with a 5% significance level. Randomisation: eligible consenting schools were

  1. Bullying among Spanish secondary education students: the role of gender traits, sexism, and homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying, gender-stereotyped personality traits (instrumentality and expressiveness), hostile and benevolent sexism, and attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. First, the findings demonstrated that boys scored significantly higher on all the variables assessed except on benevolent sexism. Two similar models were obtained for both sexes. Benevolent sexism and, in boys, more positive attitudes toward gay men predicted more negative attitudes toward bullying when mediated by more expressive gender traits. An inverse pattern was also observed: Hostile sexism predicted more favorable attitudes toward bullying when mediated by instrumental gender traits. Attitudes toward bullying were highly correlated with bullying behavior. The five-predictor variables (including attitudes toward bullying) explained 58% of the variance of bullying behavior in girls and 37% of such variance in boys.

  2. Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Study data were from Global School-based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents. The surveys used a two-stage clustered sample design, sampling schools and then classrooms. Logistic regression models were run to determine the statistical significance of associations with bullying. Among the 14 560 school-going adolescents included in this study, the prevalence of any bullying victimization in the past 30 days was 37.8%. Bullying victimization was associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation with planning (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.12; P bullying victimization on suicide outcomes was also observed. Bullying victimization was associated with higher odds of current tobacco use (AOR: 2.14; P bullying victimization varied by country, its association with suicidal ideation and behavior and negative health behaviors remained relatively consistent. Addressing bullying needs to be made a priority in Latin America, and an integrated approach that also includes mental and physical health promotion is needed.

  3. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  4. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-10-10

    Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  5. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chi Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Methods Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13–15 years old. from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Results Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. Conclusions The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

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    Ahmad J. Abdulsalam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peer victimization (bullying is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims. Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, p=0.004, grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, p=0.004, and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, p=0.003, were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students’ adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.

  7. Bullied at school, bullied at work: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Labriola, Merete; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hansen, Claus D

    2015-10-12

    The consequences of childhood bullying victimisation are serious. Much previous research on risk factors for being bullied has used a cross-sectional design, impeding the possibility to draw conclusions on causality, and has not considered simultaneous effects of multiple risk factors. Paying closer attention to multiple risk factors for being bullying can provide a basis for designing intervention programmes to prevent or reduce bullying among children and adolescents. Risk factors for bullying were examined by using questionnaire data collected in 2004 and 2007. In 2004, the participants were aged 14-15 years and 17-18 years in 2007. The baseline questionnaire was answered by 3054 individuals in 2004, and 2181 individuals participated in both rounds. We analysed risk factors for being bullied at the individual and societal level. Information on the social background of the participants was derived from a national register at Statistics Denmark. Several risk factors were identified. Being obese, low self-assessed position in school class, overprotective parents, low self-esteem, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at school. Being overweight, smoking, low self-assessed position in class, low sense of coherence and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for being bullied at work. However, most associations between risk factors in 2004 and being bullied in 2007 disappeared after adjustment for being bullied in 2004. The strongest risk factor for being bullied was being previously bullied. Our results stress the importance of early prevention of bullying at schools. In addition, attention should be drawn to the role of overprotective parents.

  8. Psychiatric outcomes of bullying victimization: a study of discordant monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J L; Copeland, W; Linker, J; Moore, A A; Roberson-Nay, R; York, T P

    2016-07-01

    Bullying victimization in childhood is associated with a broad array of serious mental health disturbances, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and behavior. The key goal of this study was to evaluate whether bullying victimization is a true environmental risk factor for psychiatric disturbance using data from 145 bully-discordant monozygotic (MZ) juvenile twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and their follow-up into young adulthood. Since MZ twins share an identical genotype and familial environment, a higher rate of psychiatric disturbance in a bullied MZ twin compared to their non-bullied MZ co-twin would be evidence of an environmental impact of bullying victimization. Environmental correlations between being bullied and the different psychiatric traits were estimated by fitting structural equation models to the full sample of MZ and DZ twins (N = 2824). Environmental associations were further explored using the longitudinal data on the bullying-discordant MZ twins. Being bullied was associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders in both children and young adults. The analysis of data on the MZ-discordant twins supports a genuine environmental impact of bullying victimization on childhood social anxiety [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], separation anxiety (OR 1.9), and young adult suicidal ideation (OR 1.3). There was a shared genetic influence on social anxiety and bullying victimization, consistent with social anxiety being both an antecedent and consequence of being bullied. Bullying victimization in childhood is a significant environmental trauma and should be included in any mental health assessment of children and young adults.

  9. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School bullying is an emerging problem in China. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association of bullying and being bullied with family factors, school factors and indicators of psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8,342 middle school students were surveyed in four cities in the Guangdong Province. Self-reports on bullying involvement and information regarding family factors, school factors and psychosocial adjustment were collected. Descriptive statistics and multi-level logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the prevalence of school bullying and explore potentially influential factors. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 20.83% (1,738 reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 18.99% were victims of bullying, 8.60% were bullies and 6.74% both bullied themselves and bullied others. Factors that were determined to be correlated with bullying behaviors included grade, parental caring, consideration of suicide, running away from home, time spent online per day and being in a physical fight. CONCLUSION: Bullying was determined to be prevalent among Chinese adolescents. Given the concurrent psychosocial adjustment, family and school factors associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, this issue merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.

  10. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls' social-emotional intelligence and violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Sieving, Renee E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between social-emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants' age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls - including those who have been victims of violence - from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Family-Only Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joakim; Strand, Susanne J M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the first systematic review of family-only intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators (as originally proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe & Stuart). The aims of the present review were to summarize and describe the prevalence of the family-only perpetrator subtype, as well as to investigate what characteristics were associated with perpetrators within this subtype. Electronic literature searches in several databases (e.g., PsychINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed) were carried out. Of the 3,434 studies identified, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria as well as the methodological quality criteria. Thematic analyses were conducted, where several themes and subthemes were identified. The proportion of family-only perpetrators, averaged across sample types, was 47.5%. Drawing on the thematic analyses of the reviewed studies, family-only perpetrators presented as a less violent subtype, displaying several pro-social personality traits, as well as a lower degree of psychopathology. The findings were in line with Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's predictions. The findings also demonstrated the utility of a 2-fold typology, consisting of a family-only and a generally violent (GV) subtype, as well as the need to reconsider the one-size-fits-all approach to IPV treatment. We also included a discussion of the terminology of the subtypes and propose an adoption of the terms "partner only violent" and "generally violent" subtypes.

  12. Cyberbullying Victimization as a Predictor of Cyberbullying Perpetration, Body Image Dissatisfaction, Healthy Eating and Dieting Behaviors, and Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salazar, Leslie

    2017-08-01

    Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration continues to be a serious public health, criminal justice, victimology, and educational problem in middle schools in the United States. Adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing cyberbullying as a victim and/or as a bully given the frequency of their use of the Internet via social networking sites such as Facebook and mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets. To address this important problem, the purpose of this investigation was to examine cyberbullying victimization through communication technology as a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image, healthy eating and dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade-level middle school students. The World Health Organization recruited participants by using a Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. In this in-class questionnaire, 6,944 middle school students were asked about their cyberbullying experiences as a victim and as a bully via Internet, email, and mobile communication technologies to obtain their evaluations of their body image, eating and dieting habits, and perceptions of life satisfaction. After controlling for demographic factors such as sex, age, and class level, this study found that cyberbullying victimization was a predictor of cyberbullying perpetration, body image dissatisfaction, dieting behaviors, and life satisfaction. However, this study did not find a correlation between cyberbullying victimization and students' healthy eating behaviors. This study also discussed each of the findings in the context of previous research findings. In addition, the study provides the strengths, limitations, and future directions for the future examination of cyberbullying victimization in middle schools.

  13. HUBUNGAN ANTARA HARGA DIRI DAN DISIPLIN SEKOLAH DENGAN PERILAKU BULLYING PADA REMAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Apsari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relation between self esteem and school discipline with bullying on adolescent. The participants included 81 IX’s grade students of MTsN Tinawas Nogosari. Questionnaires were used to collect the data and anova one way method and regression were used in this study to analyze and find the dynamic of all variables. Based on the calculation, correlation coeffisien was R=0,58; F regression  =25,119; p=0,0000(p>0,01. This regression measure showed that there was a significant relation between self esteem and school discipline with bullying on adolescent. Self esteem and school discipline could be a predictor for bullying. Bullying on adolescent at school was dominated by male students. Male subjects who were involved in bullying were 30,30%  and female subjects were 24,97%. Bullying at school was appropriate with the categories, which is 34,6% verbal bullying, 24,69% cyber bullying, 22,2% social bullying, and 18,5% physical bullying.

  14. [Association between psychosocial work environment and workplace bullying among office workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Y J; Dai, J M; Gao, J L; Lu, X Y; Liu, J Y; Fu, H

    2016-04-20

    To assess the prevalence of bullying in companies and health care center and identify the association between psychosocial environment and workplace bullying. A total of 847 employees at in business building companies and 146 employees at one community health service center were invited to this survey by cluster sampling during October to December 2014, using anonymous questionnaires including the general demographic information, job characteristics, job stress core scale, the social capital scale, and NAQ-R. The rate of targets of bullying in the two kinds of workplaces were 13.1% and 5.6% respectively. Workplace bullying was associated with employee's education level(χ(2)=11.17, P=0.019)and the area his or her families live in(χ(2)=5.66, P=0.017). In addition, workplace bullying was significantly associated with psychosocial work environment. Job demand was positively correlated with workplace bullying (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.34~3.74), and workplace social support was negatively associated with workplace bullying (OR= 0.33, 95% CI=0.18~0.60). Workplace bullying can be reduced by adjusting certain working conditions that negatively affect employees who are susceptible to being bullied, giving their individual and job characteristic. Moreover, workplace bullying could also be reduced if job demands are limited and job control and social capital are increased.

  15. Peer bullying in seniors' subsidised apartment communities in Saskatoon, Canada: participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Heal-Salahub, Jennifer; PausJenssen, Elliot; James, George; Lidington, Joan

    2017-07-01

    Given that 'home' is the major physical-spatial environment of many older adults and that home, social and neighbourhood environments are well-recognised to impact both the ability to age in place and quality of life in this population, a better understanding of the nature of social interactions within seniors' communal living environments is critical for health promotion. This paper describes a two-phase participatory research study examining peer bullying by older adults conducted in April and May, 2016. Responding to needs expressed by tenants, the objectives of this study were to identify the nature, prevalence and consequences of peer bullying for tenants of two low-income senior apartment communities. In collaboration with the local Older Adult Abuse Task Force, a screening survey on bullying was distributed to all tenants. Findings (n = 49) indicated that 39% of tenants had witnessed peer bullying and 29% had experienced bullying by peers. An adapted version of a youth bullying survey was administered in follow-up face-to-face interviews with 13 tenants. The most common forms of peer bullying were deliberate social exclusion and hurtful comments. The majority of respondents indicated that bullying was a problem for seniors and that bullies hurt other people. Outcomes of bullying included feelings of dejection and difficulties conducting everyday activities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Cyber-bullying in adolescents: associated psychosocial problems and comparison with school bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents engaged in cyber-bullying and then to identify whether students involved in cyber- and school bullying present the same characteristics of internalizing problems (insomnia, perceived social disintegration, psychological distress) and externalizing problems (general aggressiveness, antisocial behavior). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 738 adolescents from a high-school and a middle-school (mean age=14.8 ± 2.7). The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire and the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire were used to identify profiles of cyber-bullying (cyber-victim, cyber-bully, cyber-bully/victim and cyber-neutral) and school bullying (victim, bully, bully/victim and neutral). Internalizing problems were investigated using the Athens Insomnia Scale, a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing problems were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. Almost one student in four was involved in cyber-bullying (16.4% as cyber-victim, 4.9% as cyber-bully and 5.6% as cyber-bully/victim); 14% of our sample was engaged in school bullying as a victim, 7.2% as a bully and 2.8% as a bully/victim. The majority of adolescents involved in cyber-bullying were not involved in school bullying. With regard to the problems associated with school bullying, internalizing problems were more prevalent in victims and bully/victims, whereas externalizing problems were more common in bullies and bully/victims. A similar pattern was found in cyber-bullying where internalizing problems were characteristic of cyber-victims and cyber-bully/victims. Insomnia was elevated in the cyber-bully group which is specific to cyberbullying. General aggressiveness and antisocial behavior were more prevalent in cyber-bullies and cyber-bully/victims. Looking at the differences between types of bullying, victims of "school only" and "school and cyber

  18. School bullying from a sociocultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maunder, Rachel E.; Crafter, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    School bullying is an important concern. Whilst there is growing knowledge about the nature, extent and effects of school bullying, areas of complexity in research findings remain. In this paper we develop our thinking on school bullying using a sociocultural theoretical framework. We review existing literature around three main themes: 1) The conceptualisation and interpretation of bullying; 2) The relational aspects of bullying 3) Bullying as part of someone's life trajectory. For each them...

  19. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  20. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  1. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Chadaga

    Full Text Available To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups.A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications.Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months.Almost half of the respondents (48% reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively. Attendings (29% and nurses (27% were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each, followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37% and attempts to humiliate (32%. Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5'8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals.Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  2. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  3. The Bully Roundup

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-27

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about things you can do to deal with bullying.  Created: 12/27/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 12/27/2011.

  4. Does psychological functioning mediate the relationship between bullying involvement and weight loss preoccupation in adolescents? A two-stage cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-03-24

    Adolescent bullying is associated with a range of adversities for those who are bullied i.e., victims and bully-victims (e.g., those who bully others and get victimised), including reduced psychological functioning and eating disorder symptoms. Bullies are generally well-adjusted psychologically, but previous research suggests that bullies may also engage in problematic diet behaviours. This study investigates a) whether adolescents involved in bullying (bullies, victims, bully-victims) are at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation, b) whether psychological functioning mediates this relationship and c) whether sex is a key moderator. A two-stage design was used. In stage 1, adolescents (n = 2782) from five UK secondary schools were screened for bullying involvement using self and peer reports. In stage 2, a sample of bullies, victims, bully-victims and uninvolved adolescents (n = 767) completed a battery of assessments. The measures included the eating behaviours component of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, which was reduced to one factor (weight loss preoccupation) and used as the outcome variable. Measures of self-esteem, body-esteem and emotional problems were reduced to a latent (mediator) variable of psychological functioning. Multi-group analysis examined the effects of sex and all models were adjusted for covariates (BMI, pubertal stage, age, parental education and ethnicity). Bullies, victims and bully-victims were at increased risk of weight loss preoccupation compared to adolescents uninvolved in bullying. The mechanism by which bullying involvement related to increased weight loss preoccupation varied by bullying role: in bullies the effect was direct, in victims the effect was indirect (via reduced psychological functioning) and in bully-victims the effect was both direct and indirect. Sex significantly moderated the relationship in bullies: weight loss preoccupation was only statistically significant in bullies who were

  5. The handbook of dealing with workplace bullying

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The topic of workplace bullying and abuse gained considerable public and media attention during 2013 when the scandal of events at the BBC was unveiled following an enquiry led by Dinah Rose QC. The Handbook of Dealing with Workplace Bullying, edited by Dr Anne-Marie Quigg, presents the collective wisdom and knowledge of a number of lawyers, management experts and academics from around the world. The key themes include understanding the law in each country represented and the responsibilities of individuals as well as management teams and governors in organizations. New case studies are supplied by people working with and within HR teams who have professional experience of dealing with the issue, as well as practical suggestions that are of use to managers, to people accused of bullying and also to people who find they are targets of bullying. Dr Quigg summarizes the range and scope of the contributions by the individual contributors, commenting on the research findings and professional experience that inform...

  6. Life Satisfaction and School Performance of Children Exposed to Classic and Cyber Peer Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Bilić, Vesna; Buljan Flander, Gordana; Rafajac, Branko

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the exposure of school children to various forms of peer bullying (classic/cyber) and their life satisfaction in the domain of school, family, friends and school performance. The sample included 562 children from rural and urban areas of Croatia who were attending the seventh and the eighth grade of primary school. Results show that children were more often exposed to classic forms of peer bullying, especially verbal, and then physical bullying. On...

  7. Depresi Pada Remaja Korban Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Ramadhani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menemukan hubungan antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Hipotesis penelitian adalah ada korelasi positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 146 siswa SMA. Data dianalisis dengan korelasi product moment. Hasil analisis menemukan terdapat hubungan positif antara mengalami bullying dengan depresi pada remaja, dengan r = 0.218 (p 0,05. Hasil penelitian menemukan tidak terdapat perbedaan frekuensi bullying yang dialami subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t=1,759 (p>0,05. Hasil menemukan perbedaan frekuensi bullying jenis fisik yang dialami oleh subjek laki-laki dan perempuan dengan t = 2,167 (p<0,05. Laki-laki lebih banyak mengalami bullying dibandingkan perempuan.

  8. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  9. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  10. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  11. Bullying Among Tunisian Middle School Students: the Prevalence, Psychosocial Associated Factors and Perceived Involvement of Parents, Teachers and Classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihene; Mellouli, Menel; El Ghardallou, Meriam; Limam, Manel; Gallas, Mouna; Ammar, Asma; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya Nebli; Zedini, Chekib

    2018-05-05

    Bullying is a serious public health concern remarkably common among youth. Involvement in bullying can lead to deleterious effect on the emotional well-being of pupils. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bullying, its psychosocial associated factors and the perceived involvement of parents, teachers, and classmates to counteract this behavior. A cross-sectional study. We conducted this study in 2015 among a representative multistage sample of 1584 students enrolled in middle schools in the Region of Sousse using the revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. It assesses the prevalence of bullying and covers qualitative details of bullying including psychosocial factors and perceived efforts of others to counteract bullying. 11.7% of respondents were classified as pure victims, 7.8% as pure bullies, 3.2% as bully-victims and 75.5% as bystanders. Compared to other groups, the bully-victims were less likely to report a feeling of empathy and liking school. They were more likely to be afraid of being bullied, aggressive and to have fewer friends in the class. Only 30.3% of the victims indicated that they told someone about being bullied. The majority of the middle school students perceived that classmates (54.1%) and teachers (39.5%) did nothing to counteract bullying. Information about bullying is critical and must be gathered before effective intervention is planned. Parents, teachers and students should learn effective ways to handle the bullying problem since the most effective programs are comprehensive targeting students, schools, families and the community.

  12. Are changes in workplace bullying status related to changes in salivary cortisol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace...... Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30min after awakening and at 8p.m.). All participants responding...... to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after...

  13. Comparison of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among students at the University of Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vašutová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical part of the paper describes the problems of new media, bullying and its modified form – cyberbullying, place, time and characteristics of the protagonists of traditional bullying and cyberbullying, including a comparison of traditional bullying and cyberbullying, according to criteria that are specifically defined. The second part informs about the results of research of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among university students provided by Ostrava´s questionnaire of cyberbullying. The conclusion of the work points out that most of university students are more likely to interfere with traditional bullying than cyberbullying. With traditional bullying met 466 students (45.2 % compared to 205 students (19.9 %, who clashed with cyberbullying. The preferred defense against cyberbullying strategies are: to confide in parents, to block access to footage of cyberbullying on the Internet, to tell a friend outside the school and the school report cyberbullying.

  14. Logotheoretical Understanding of Existential Sources of Bullying Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Dědová

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach of logotheory is one of many approaches to understanding of man. Logotheory sees a human being in his complexity, as a three-dimensional unity of somatic, psychic, and noetic dimensions. Through logotheory, man discovers the possible sources for not loving himself and others. The logotheoretical approach points out that individuals involved in bullying presentun developed noetic dimension. This becomes a source of existential frustration or existential vacuum leading to the occurrence of various forms of pathological behaviour including bullying. It emphasises that aggressors present insufficient development of two fundamental capacities of the noetic dimension allowing the contact with other people: self-detachment and self-transcendence. The uniqueness of this approach lies in the search for answers to one’s existence that bring more than just a temporary satisfaction. Uncovering existential sources of bullying behaviour could be instrumental in finding solutions to prevention and intervention of bullying.

  15. How can we prevent and reduce bullying amongst university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Anne Myers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been recognized that bullying occurs at school and in the workplace, recent research confirms that bullying also takes place among university students, including undergraduates, post-graduates and doctoral research students. In the UK, the National Union of Students (NUS alerted staff and students to the issue in a series of reports but it is not confined to the UK. Authors in the book edited by Cowie and Myers (2016a, 2016b present cross-national findings on the theme of bullying among university students (Pörhöla et al., 2016. In this article we discuss the urgent need for interventions to prevent and reduce bullying in this context. We also indicate the areas where little or no intervention is taking place, notably in the field of university policy.

  16. School bullying - A comparative approach -

    OpenAIRE

    Kosevaliska, Olga; Buzarovska - Lazetik, Gordana; Nanev, Lazar

    2014-01-01

    The modest purpose of this paper is to elaborate the phenomenon of school bullying and to try to give an answer to questions that remain open over time because of the seriousness of this issue. A child is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort through physical contact, verbal attacks, fighting or psychological manipulation. Besides finding the proper definition of bullying, we’ll give a comparative a...

  17. Adolescents as perpetrators of aggression within the family.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuay, H.S.; Lee, S.; Centifanti, L.M.; Parnis, A.C.; Mrozik, J.H.; Tiffin, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although family violence perpetrated by juveniles has been acknowledged as a potentially serious form of violence for over 30 years, scientific studies have been limited to examining the incidence and form of home violence. The present study examined the prevalence of family aggression as perpetrated by youths; we examined groups drawn from clinic-referred and forensic samples. Two audits of case files were conducted to systematically document aggression perpetrated by referred youths toward ...

  18. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2013-329

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Harmalkar, Sayali

    2013-01-01

    This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyber-bullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and…

  19. Educators' understanding of workplace bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context. The analysis of the educators' descriptions provided the following insights about the relational and organisational foundations of workplace bullying: (1 The relational powerless victims are subjected to public humiliation, disregard, isolation and discrimination. The bullying of educators results in escalating apathy and disempowerment, to the detriment of their professional and private wellbeing. (2 Bullying is likely to occur in schools where organisational chaos reigns. Such schools are characterised by incompetent, unprincipled, abusive leadership, lack of accountability, fairness and transparency. (3 There is interplay between relational powerlessness and organisational chaos, i.e. the absence of principled leadership, accountability and transparency gives rise to workplace bullying.

  20. Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B; Walker, Jenny L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nursing curriculum and bullying: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Sharan; Park, Tanya

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to identify and synthesize key concepts that inform curriculum which increase nursing students' competence, skills and strategies when addressing bullying. Specifically, the authors sought to examine the concepts informing educational interventions, skills, and strategies, which addressed the bullying of nursing students. Integrative literature review. A search of the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Proquest, and PubMed was conducted in January 2016 using search terms such as 'bully' 'nursing student' 'education' and 'curriculum'. Articles were screened for relevance and eligibility and extracted onto a table. Critical appraisal was conducted using multiple tools. Papers were analysed using constant comparison and concept mapping. 61 articles were included in the synthesis. Concepts identified included: empowerment, socialization, support, self-awareness, awareness about bullying, collaboration, communication, and self-efficacy. All concepts linked to empowerment. Social Cognitive Theory was used by many studies. Active teaching methods which gave students opportunities to practice skills were the most effective. Empowered nursing students have the potential to address bullying more effectively and competently. Empowerment of nursing students is a powerful concept that educators must consider when developing curriculum and educational interventions to address bullying. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Are Youth Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Toprak, Fatih; Goemans, Anouk; Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Vedder, Paul

    2017-10-01

    In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were found between bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. These results were not affected by publication bias. Anti-bullying interventions could potentially benefit from including elements that have been found effective in the treatment of youth psychopathy.

  3. South African teachers’ exposure to workplace bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on workplace bullying (WPB in occupations, identified teaching as a high risk job. Yet there is a dearth of research on WPB among teachers. The aim of this study is to contribute to the limited body of knowledge on the prevalence of WPB within an international and South African schooling context. This article reports on results from an exploratory study on South African teachers’ exposure to WPB. Self-reporting questionnaires were completed by a convenient, voluntary sample of teachers (n=999. The respondents had to indicate their exposure to 43 pre-defined acts of WPB clustered into four categories. This study exposes the commonness of WPB among participating teachers: 90.8% of them were victims of WPB during the 12 months that preceded the study, and 89.1% of the victims had been exposed to at least two different categories of WPB. The perpetrators tried especially to undermine the victims’ professional status and isolate them. The study identified the constant evaluation of victims’ performance as the most common of the 43 negative acts. The results are discussed with reference to other studies. It is concluded that WPB is a serious problem in South African schools and needs to be addressed on policy and institutional levels.

  4. Parent Retrospective Recollections of Bullying and Current Views, Concerns, and Strategies to Cope with Children's Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Leigh A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, parent history of bullying was examined in terms of general involvement with bullying, specific types of bullying experienced, level of hurtfulness associated with the experience, and when bullying occurred. Parent current views, levels of concern, and strategies used to cope with bullying were also evaluated. Finally, the…

  5. Making a Difference for the Bullied: Teachers' Responsibilities for Responding to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarra, Janet F.; Forrester, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a challenging issue for classroom teachers. The authors provide seven recommendations to prevent bullying and for intervention if bullying occurs: (a) know the forms of bullying and recognize the effects forms of bullying and recognize the effects, (b) promote a positive classroom environment, (c) teach a variety of…

  6. Bullying, its effects on attitude towards class attendance and the contribution of physical and dentofacial features among adolescents in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaodi, Oguchi; Abdulmanan, Yahaya; Emmanuel, Adeyemi Tope; Muhammad, Jibril; Mohammed, Modu Adam; Izegboya, Akpasa; Donald, Otuyemi Olayinka; Balarabe, Sani

    2017-07-21

    Background Bullying is a worldwide problem with varying consequences. Victims of school bullying may be targeted for many reasons including their appearance. They may also fear school and have difficulties in concentration. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of bullying amongst adolescents in Kano, Northern Nigeria, the contribution of physical features and the perceived effect of bullying on their academic performance and school attendance. Subjects and methods Eight hundred and thirty-five students aged between 12 years and 17 years from eight randomly selected secondary schools in Kano, Nigeria took part in this study. Data collection was by self-administered questionnaires and analysis was by SPSS version 17. Results The pupils' mean age and standard deviation was 14.79 + 1.53 years. There were more male and private school pupils with 55.1% and 62%, respectively. About 43% of respondents reported being victims of bullying while about 32% had bullied someone else. There was more bullying in public schools than in private schools (p-value = 0.003). However, there was no significant gender difference (p > 0.05). More bullied pupils hated being in or outside the classroom (p bullied pupils played truant than non-bullied (p bullying felt it had consequences on their academic performance. Bullies frequently targeted general physical and dento-facial appearance. Conclusion The prevalence of bullying was high among the sampled population especially within public schools. This also had a significant negative effect on the students' academic performance.

  7. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  8. Longitudinal Effects of Gendered Harassment Perpetration and Victimization on Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Sarah J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Bub, Kristen L

    2017-08-01

    Gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and homophobic name-calling, is prevalent in adolescents and is linked to negative outcomes including depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance abuse, and personal distress. However, much of the extant literature is cross-sectional and rarely are perpetrators of these behaviors included in studies of outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of longitudinal changes in gendered harassment perpetration and victimization on changes in mental health outcomes among a large sample of early adolescents. Given that these behaviors commonly occur in the context of a patriarchal society (males hold power), we also investigated the impact of gender on gendered harassment. Participants included 3,549 students from four Midwestern middle schools (50.4% female, 49% African American, 34% White) at two time points (13 and 17 years old). Results indicated that increases from age 13 to 17 years in sexual harassment perpetration and victimization and homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization predicted increases in depression symptoms and substance use. Gender did not moderate these pathways. These findings highlight that negative outcomes are associated with changes in gendered harassment among adolescents and emphasize the importance of prevention efforts. Implications for school interventions are discussed.

  9. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Gulati, Natasha K; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration-particularly for those with low average eBACs-and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one's typical drinking pattern.

  10. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  11. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  12. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  13. Bullying the Meek: A Conceptualisation of Vietnamese School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul; Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Nguyen, Thu Hang

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at three lower secondary schools in the northern Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong, this article provides a contextually nuanced conceptualisation of Vietnamese school bullying. In doing so, the article not only addresses the lack of knowledge about Vietnamese school bullying, but also poses a…

  14. The mediating role of shame in the relationship between childhood bullying victimization and adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Felix, Erika; Thoresen, Siri

    2018-01-01

    Background : Psychological distress following experiencing bullying victimization in childhood has been well documented. Less is known about the impact of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment problems in young adulthood and about potential pathways, such as shame. Moreover, bullying victimization is often studied in isolation from other forms of victimization. Objective : This study investigated (1) whether childhood experiences of bullying victimization and violence were associated with psychosocial adjustment (distress, impaired functioning, social support barriers) in young adulthood; (2) the unique effect of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment; and (3) whether shame mediated the relationship between bullying victimization and these outcomes in young adulthood. Method : The sample included 681 respondents (aged 19-37 years) from a follow-up study (2017) conducted via phone interviews derived from a community telephone survey collected in 2013. Results : The regression analyses showed that both bullying victimization and severe violence were significantly and independently associated with psychological distress, impaired functioning, and increased barriers to social support in young adulthood. Moreover, causal mediation analyses indicated that when childhood physical violence, sexual abuse, and sociodemographic factors were controlled, shame mediated 70% of the association between bullying victimization and psychological distress, 55% of the association between bullying victimization and impaired functioning, and 40% of the association between bullying victimization and social support barriers. Conclusions : Our findings support the growing literature acknowledging bullying victimization as a trauma with severe and long-lasting consequences and indicate that shame may be an important pathway to continue to explore. The unique effect of bullying victimization, over and above the effect of violence, supports the call to integrate the two

  15. Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

  16. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.

  18. Associations of financial stressors and physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Parker, Edith

    2016-12-01

    Contextual factors, such as exposure to stressors, may be antecedents to IPV perpetration. These contextual factors may be amenable to modification through intervention and prevention. However, few studies have examined specific contextual factors. To begin to address this gap, we examined the associations between financial stressors and three types of physical IPV perpetration. This analysis used data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used logistic regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and each type of IPV (minor, severe, causing injury), and multinomial logit regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and patterns of co-occurring types of IPV perpetration (only minor; only severe; minor and severe; minor, severe, and causing injury; compared with no perpetration). Fewer men perpetrated threats/minor physical IPV (6.7 %) or severe physical IPV (3.4 %) compared with women (11.4 % and 8.8 %, respectively). However, among physical IPV perpetrators, a higher percentage of men (32.0 %) than women (21.0 %) reported their partner was injured as a result of the IPV. In logistic regression models of each type of IPV perpetration, both the number of stressors experienced and several types of financial stressors were associated with perpetrating each type of IPV. Utilities nonpayment, housing nonpayment, food insecurity, and no phone service were associated with increased odds of perpetrating each form of IPV in adjusted analysis. Eviction was associated with perpetrating severe physical IPV but not threats/minor IPV or IPV causing injury. In multinomial logit regression comparing patterns of IPV perpetration to perpetrating no physical IPV, the relationships of financial stressors were less consistent. Food insecurity was associated with perpetrating only minor physical IPV. Comparatively, overall number of financial stressors and four types of financial stressors (utilities

  19. The thrill of bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2018-01-01

    effects in school groups saturated with bullying practices. Ridicule appears to be widespread, very much feared, and not amenable to adult interventions. With this article I look into the many and frequently subtle ways humour intertwines itself in relational practices among children, with a particular...... view towards children in groups plagued by bullying and social tension. I focus on the entanglement of humour in the complex manoeuvrings that characterise children’s worlds, and the subtle mechanisms involved in the self-regulation of their communities in and outside schools. The analyses, concepts......, and theory that I develop are grounded in the qualitative data such as interviews with children and extensive observation in schools and in after school care....

  20. International perspectives on workplace bullying among nurses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S L

    2009-03-01

    This article examines the nursing literature on workplace bullying with the aim of reaching a better understanding of the phenomenon. Workplace bullying occurs in many occupations and workplaces, including nursing. The following databases were used for the literature review: CINAHL, PubMed, Pro Quest and EBSCO host. Only articles in English were used. Articles from outside the nursing literature were also examined to gain a broader understanding of workplace bullying. Workplace bullying is more than a simple conflict between two individuals. It is a complex phenomenon that can only be understood through an examination of social, individual and organizational factors. Workplace bullying has been shown to impact the physical and psychological health of victims, as well as their performance at work. Workplace bullying impacts the organization through decreased productivity, increased sick time and employee attrition. More nurse-specific research is needed in this area. Research needs to be conducted in a systematic and uniform manner so that generalizations across studies can be made. The ultimate goal of this research should be to generate an understanding of this phenomenon so that solutions can be found.

  1. Latar Belakang Remaja Melakukan Bullying di Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeh Juwita Sari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of casses of violance that occur in school age children today is very worrying for education and parents.This study aimed to determine teenager’s background do bullying in vocational school (SMK.The school should be a place to gain knowledge and form a positive personality but currently used as place to do bullying.This study aimed to determine teenager’s background do bullying in vocational school (SMK. This research uses qualitative method with phenomenology design which is implemented from July 2016 to May 2017. Informants in this study are vocational students who are still active in school and never do bullying with purposive sampling techniques. Data collection was done by interview and using instrument including interview guidelines, tape recorder handphone. Data analysis used is Colaizzi. The number of respondens in this study was 8 people. From the results of the analysis, there are 10 themes of bullying, democratic parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting, peer influence, wish to power, fanaticism of differences, facilities and infrastructure, teacher response, and mass media influence. The results of this study concluded that the background of teens bullying can be influenced by family parenting, mass media, peers, and school climate. The suggestion is the instituition educational that can explain about the rules at school and student can receive and understand why the rules should be made.

  2. Bullying among Young Children: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily; Tamburrino, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is an increasing problem within childcare facilities, preschool programs, and public schools. As a result, many districts are instituting anti-bullying intervention programs. This article defines bullying and explains the direct and indirect forms it can take. First, it examines research on bullying during the beginning years of school.…

  3. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  4. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  5. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  6. Brief report: Associations between in-person and electronic bullying victimization and missing school because of safety concerns among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2015-08-01

    Although associations between bullying and health risk behaviors are well-documented, research on bullying and education-related outcomes, including school attendance, is limited. This study examines associations between bullying victimization (in-person and electronic) and missing school because of safety concerns among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. We used logistic regression analyses to analyze data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey of students in grades 9-12. In-person and electronic victimization were each associated with increased odds of missing school due to safety concerns compared to no bullying victimization. Having been bullied both in-person and electronically was associated with greater odds of missing school compared to electronic bullying only for female students and in-person bullying only for male students. Collaborations between health professionals and educators to prevent bullying may improve school attendance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Does Ability to Defend Moderate the Association between Exposure to Bullying and Symptoms of Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Birkeland Nielsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of workplace bullying, the ability to defend refers to whether or not a target feels able to deal with those negative behaviors that typically constitute bullying. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceived ability to defend oneself moderates the association between exposure to bullying behaviors at work and symptoms of anxiety as predicted by the definition of workplace bullying. It was hypothesized that exposure to bullying behaviors would be more strongly related to symptoms of anxiety among targets feeling unable to defend oneself than among targets who do feel that they are able to defend themselves in the actual situation. This survey study was based on a probability sample of 1,608 Norwegian employees (response rate 32%. Only respondents exposed to at least one bullying behavior were included (N = 739. In contrast to hypothesis, the findings showed that ability to defend only had a protective effect on the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and anxiety in cases of low exposure. In cases of high exposure, there was a stronger increase in anxiety among employees able to defend themselves than among those who generally felt unable to defend. Hence, the ability to defend against exposure to bullying behaviors does not seem to protect high-exposed targets against symptoms of anxiety. Organization should therefore intervene against bullying in early stages rather than relying on the individual resilience of those exposed.

  8. Accounts of bullying on Twitter in relation to dentofacial features and orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A; Antoun, J S; Morgaine, K C; Farella, M

    2017-04-01

    Social media offers an accessible resource for gaining valuable insights into the social culture of bullying. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively analyse Twitter posts for common themes relating to dentofacial features, braces and bullying. Twitter's database was searched from 2010 to 2014 using keywords relevant to bullying, teeth and orthodontics. Two investigators assessed the Twitter posts, and selected those that conveyed the experiences or opinions of bullying victims. The posts were qualitatively analysed using thematic analysis. Of the 548 posts screened, 321 were included in the final sample. Four primary categories relating to 'dental-related bullying' were identified: (i) morphological features, (ii) psychological and psychosocial impact, (iii) coping mechanisms and (iv) the role of family. Bullied individuals reported a diverse range of psychological impacts and coping mechanisms. Secondary categories were also identified. Family members, for example, were found to play both a contributory and mediatory role in bullying. In summary, social media can provide new and valuable information about the causal factors and social issues associated with oral health-related bullying. Importantly, some coping mechanisms may mitigate the negative effects of bullying. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Does Ability to Defend Moderate the Association between Exposure to Bullying and Symptoms of Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Gjerstad, Johannes; Jacobsen, Daniel Pitz; Einarsen, Ståle Valvatne

    2017-01-01

    In the context of workplace bullying, the ability to defend refers to whether or not a target feels able to deal with those negative behaviors that typically constitute bullying. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceived ability to defend oneself moderates the association between exposure to bullying behaviors at work and symptoms of anxiety as predicted by the definition of workplace bullying. It was hypothesized that exposure to bullying behaviors would be more strongly related to symptoms of anxiety among targets feeling unable to defend oneself than among targets who do feel that they are able to defend themselves in the actual situation. This survey study was based on a probability sample of 1,608 Norwegian employees (response rate 32%). Only respondents exposed to at least one bullying behavior were included ( N = 739). In contrast to hypothesis, the findings showed that ability to defend only had a protective effect on the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and anxiety in cases of low exposure. In cases of high exposure, there was a stronger increase in anxiety among employees able to defend themselves than among those who generally felt unable to defend. Hence, the ability to defend against exposure to bullying behaviors does not seem to protect high-exposed targets against symptoms of anxiety. Organization should therefore intervene against bullying in early stages rather than relying on the individual resilience of those exposed.

  10. Considering Mindfulness Techniques in School-based Anti-bullying Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Foody

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health is the most obvious concern for those responsible for reducing bullying, however, input from psychologists and mental health professionals is scant and often limited on this topic. This paper outlines what bullying is and the devastating impact it can have on the mental health of those involved. It will outline the most common anti-bullying initiatives as well as the current psychological and educational techniques, which could also be used to alleviate distress associated with bullying involvement. We will focus specifically on the role of mindfulness techniques and argue for more of such exercises to be included in whole-school bullying programmes. We conclude by arguing the need to investigate components relevant to both mindfulness and anti-bullying programmes (e.g., empathy, perspective-taking as active ingredients for reducing the impact of bullying on mental health.

  11. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049

  12. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: Evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen; Sipos-Gug, Sebastian; Tocai, Ioana; Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of a class-based antibullying prevention program on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors was investigated. The program consists of a cognitive-behavioral (Rational Emotive Behavioral Education; REBE) and a behavioral (Viennese Social Competence; ViSC) component. The REBE program is based on rational emotive behavioral theory and contains 9 student lessons. The ViSC program is based on social learning theory and comprises 10 student lessons. The order of the programs was experimentally manipulated. The REBE-ViSC program was implemented in 5 schools (14 classes), the ViSC-REBE program was implemented in 3 schools (9 classes), and 3 schools (11 classes) served as an untreated control group. Data were collected during 1 school year at pretest, midpoint, and posttest. Emotions (overt and internalizing anger), cognitions (learning and entitlement), and behaviors (bullying perpetration and bullying victimization) were measured with self-assessments. To examine the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC/ViSC-REBE program, multilevel growth models were applied (time points at Level 1, individuals at Level 2, and classes at Level 3). The analyses revealed that the program effects differed depending on the order of the programs. The REBE-ViSC condition was more effective in changing negative emotions than the ViSC-REBE condition; both experimental conditions were effective in reducing dysfunctional cognitions, whereas no behavioral change was found in the 2 experimental groups when compared with the control group. To improve program effectiveness regarding behavioral changes, a multilevel whole-school approach including a teacher component is recommended. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  14. Cyber Bullying and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the emotional and physiological effects of cyber bullying on the university students. The primary objective of this investigation is to identify the victims of cyber bullying and critically analyze their emotional state and frame of mind in order to provide them with a workable and feasible intervention in fighting cyber…

  15. Moral Disengagement Processes in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Shelley; Bonanno, Rina A.

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is the most common form of interpersonal violence facing youth in schools, and recent school-based intervention efforts have shown only limited success in reducing such behavior. Accordingly, this article considers the utility of Albert Bandura's theory of moral disengagement in understanding bullying behavior among children and…

  16. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.

  17. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  18. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work on Tourette Syndrome Tourette Association information on bullying What it’s like to have Tourette – Mary tells her story What children wish people knew about Tourette Syndrome CDC Children’s Mental Health StopBullying.gov Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  19. Who Cares about the Bullies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Helen; Colliety, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Children who bully have learned to use their power and aggression to control others, a mode that is not conducive to healthy relationships either in the present or in their future lives. Furthermore, there is evidence that children who bully are also likely to have mental health problems that persist into adult life. There are also wide social and…

  20. Poor Parenting, Attachment Style, and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Brian Ermon; Tyler, Kimberly A; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2018-02-01

    Although dating violence is prevalent among college students, little is known about how both attachment style and participation in risky behaviors contribute to this pattern of violence. To address this literature gap, we examine the role of poor parenting, child abuse, attachment style, and risky sexual and drug use behaviors on dating violence perpetration among 1,432 college students (51% female). Path analysis results revealed that females were more likely to report greater attachment anxiety but lower attachment avoidance compared with males. Correlates of attachment anxiety included child physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and poorer maternal relationship quality whereas attachment avoidant behavior was linked to more physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality. Females were more likely to perpetrate dating violence as were those with greater attachment anxiety and lower attachment avoidance. Other correlates of dating violence perpetration included sexual and drug risk behaviors. Finally, distal factors (i.e., more child physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality) also were associated with dating violence perpetration. Study implications are also discussed.

  1. All Apologies: On the Willingness of Perpetrators to Apologize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Leunissen (Joost)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ An apology is one of the most common ways for a perpetrator to initiate the reconciliation process. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects of apologies. Contrary to this, almost no research has investigated when perpetrators are actually willing to offer

  2. Psychosocial risk and protective factors associated with perpetration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap ... Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate ... The participants were relatively young (median age 22 years); over half were ... with higher depression, higher anxiety, lower self-esteem and lower social support.

  3. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Perpetration of Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional survey explored the extent to which students of the Polytechnic, Ibadan had perpetrated Non-Consensual Sex (NCS). A total of 594 randomly selected students completed a questionnaire and three perpetrators were interviewed in-depth. Mean age of the survey respondents was 22.7±2.9 years.

  4. Attachment to Parents As a Moderator in the Association between Sibling Bullying and Depression or Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zomer, Jasmin; Brunstein Klomek, Anat

    2018-01-01

    Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10–17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one’s father (but not to one’s mother) moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one’s father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between sibling bullying

  5. Attachment to Parents As a Moderator in the Association between Sibling Bullying and Depression or Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Zomer, Jasmin; Brunstein Klomek, Anat

    2018-01-01

    Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10-17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females) who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one's father (but not to one's mother) moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one's father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between sibling bullying and

  6. Attachment to Parents As a Moderator in the Association between Sibling Bullying and Depression or Suicidal Ideation among Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Bar-Zomer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is one of the most widespread phenomenon in childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, most research on bullying focuses on bullying at school and not on bullying among siblings at home. Sibling bullying is the most frequent form of repeated aggression that children experience in their lifetime. Furthermore, previous studies indicate that sibling bullying is associated with depression and self-harm behavior. However, the association between sibling bullying and suicidal ideation was never previously examined. Attachment to parents is one variable that can moderate the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. To our knowledge, there is no existing study that examines the association between sibling bullying and attachment patterns. In addition, no previous study has examined the moderating role of attachment on the association between sibling bullying and depression or suicidal ideation among adolescents. The current study includes 279 Israeli students aged 10–17 (M = 13.5; SD = 1.98; 164, 58.8% females who completed self-report questionnaires regarding school and sibling bullying, attachment to mother and father, depression, and suicidal ideation. The results indicated an association between bullying among siblings and school bullying. In addition, children and adolescents who were consistently involved in sibling bullying were at greater risk for depression and suicide ideation when compared to children and adolescents who were not involved in sibling bullying. A secure attachment to one’s father (but not to one’s mother moderated the association between sibling bullying and depression/suicide ideation. It should be noted that when suicide ideation was examined above and beyond depression, attachment to one’s father did not moderate the association between sibling bullying involvement and suicide ideation. This finding indicates that depression plays a central role in the association between

  7. Patterns of Adolescent Bullying Behaviors: Physical, Verbal, Exclusion, Rumor, and Cyber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of engagement in cyber bullying and four types of traditional bullying were examined using latent class analysis (LCA). Demographic differences and externalizing problems were evaluated across latent class membership. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Survey and the analytic sample included 7,508 U.S.…

  8. Workplace Bullying and the Racially Diverse Urban Context: Implications for Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of the racial diversity of the urban environment (Daley, Fisher, & Martin, 2000), a literature review was conducted to explore how race connects to the issue of workplace bullying. Results of the literature review suggest that there are multiple points of view regarding whether workplace bullying includes or is separate…

  9. A Group Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Parent Involvement in Whole-School Actions to Reduce Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Donna; Lester, Leanne; Pearce, Natasha; Barnes, Amy; Beatty, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    Parents can significantly affect children's peer relationships, including their involvement in bullying. The authors developed and evaluated ways to enhance parents' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, and skills related to parent-child communication about bullying. The 3-year Friendly Schools Friendly Families whole-school intervention included…

  10. Examining the Correlation between Perceived Social Support in Adolescence and Bullying in Terms of Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiklar, Abdullah; Sar, Ali Haydar; Celik, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    This research was carried out to examine perceived social support in adolescence and bullying. 112 females and 171 males (in total 283) attending different types of high schools were used in this research. The sample group includes students who were referred to guidance and counseling service as bullies. According to the research results; when…

  11. Empathy and involvement in bullying in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorden, T.H.J. van; Haselager, G.J.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bukowski, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that bullies are deficient in empathy or even lack it completely, bullying prevention and intervention programs often include empathy training. These programs are not always as effective as they aim to be, which may be caused by a failure to acknowledge the multidimensional

  12. To Tell or Not to Tell: What Influences Children's Decisions to Report Bullying to Their Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Khaerannisa I.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are the primary agents for creating and maintaining a positive classroom climate--and promoting healthy interpersonal relations with, and among, their students (including the prevention of school bullying) is key to achieving this goal. For this study it was posited that students' willingness to report bullying to their teachers is an…

  13. Perceptions of Middle School Teachers about an Anti-Bullying Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin; Maldonado, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, K-12 schools throughout the United States have garnered nationwide attention because of bullying problems. Bullying impacts schools in various ways: student performance and self-regard, and it creates an environment of hostility in schools. Many factors contribute to the problem, including socioeconomic status, low self-esteem,…

  14. Observing Bullying at School: The Mental Health Implications of Witness Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie; Ashurst, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the impact of bullying on the mental health of students who witness it. A representative sample of 2,002 students aged 12 to 16 years attending 14 schools in the United Kingdom were surveyed using a questionnaire that included measures of bullying at school, substance abuse, and mental health risk. The results suggest that…

  15. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757

  16. Physical and emotional abuse in romantic relationships: motivation for perpetration among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisring, Penny A

    2013-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.

  17. Bystander motivation in bullying incidents: to intervene or not to intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Tenenbaum, Laura; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Jungert, Tomas; Vanegas, Gina

    2012-08-01

    This research sought to extend knowledge about bystanders in bullying situations with a focus on the motivations that lead them to different responses. The 2 primary goals of this study were to investigate the reasons for children's decisions to help or not to help a victim when witnessing bullying, and to generate a grounded theory (or conceptual framework) of bystander motivation in bullying situations. Thirty students ranging in age from 9 to 15 years (M = 11.9; SD = 1.7) from an elementary and middle school in the southeastern United States participated in this study. Open- ended, semi-structured interviews were used, and sessions ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. We conducted qualitative methodology and analyses to gain an in-depth understanding of children's perspectives and concerns when witnessing bullying. A key finding was a conceptual framework of bystander motivation to intervene in bullying situations suggesting that deciding whether to help or not help the victim in a bullying situation depends on how bystanders define and evaluate the situation, the social context, and their own agency. Qualitative analysis revealed 5 themes related to bystander motives and included: interpretation of harm in the bullying situation, emotional reactions, social evaluating, moral evaluating, and intervention self-efficacy. Given the themes that emerged surrounding bystanders' motives to intervene or abstain from intervening, respondents reported 3 key elements that need to be confirmed in future research and that may have implications for future work on bullying prevention. These included: first, the potential importance of clear communication to children that adults expect bystanders to intervene when witnessing bullying; second, the potential of direct education about how bystanders can intervene to increase children's self-efficacy as defenders of those who are victims of bullying; and third, the assumption that it may be effective to encourage children's belief that

  18. Systematic Review: Bullying Involvement of Children With and Without Chronic Physical Illness and/or Physical/Sensory Disability-a Meta-Analytic Comparison With Healthy/Nondisabled Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2017-04-01

    To compare levels of victimization and perpetration associated with bullying among children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illnesses and/or physical or sensory disabilities. In total, 107 studies were identified using a systematic search in electronic databases and cross-referencing. A random-effects meta-analysis was computed. Children and adolescents with chronic physical illness or disability were more likely to be victims of bullying in general (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65), particularly physical bullying (OR = 1.47), relational bullying (OR = 1.47), verbal bullying (OR = 1.67), cyberbullying (OR = 1.39), and illness-specific teasing (OR = 5.29). They were also more likely to be bullies in general (OR = 1.28), as well physical (OR = 1.38) and relational bullies (OR = 1.13). The effect sizes varied across different illnesses and disabilities and, in part, by visibility of the disease, school type, and year of assessment. Although most between-group differences tend to be small, some form of intervention is needed to reduce bullying among children and adolescents with chronic physical illnesses and/or physical or sensory disabilities, and illness-specific weight- and appearance-related teasing in particular. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Criminal recidivism in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Klusmann, Dietrich; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2008-02-01

    Forensic psychiatric reports on 166 sexual homicide perpetrators in Germany were retrospectively analyzed for criminal risk factors. Follow-up information about release and reconvictions from federal criminal records was available for 139 offenders; 90 (64.7%) had been released. The estimated recidivism rate (Kaplan-Meier analyses) for 20 years at risk was 23.1% for sexual and 18.3% for nonsexual violent reoffences. Three men (3.3%) were reconvicted for attempted or completed homicide. Only young age at the time of sexual homicide resulted in higher sexual recidivism, whereas increased nonsexual violent recidivism was related to previous sexual and nonsexual delinquency, psychopathic symptoms, and higher scores in risk assessment instruments. Increased recidivism with any violent reoffence was associated with age-related factors: young age at first sexual offence, at homicide, and at release and duration of detention. The impacts of the results for risk assessment, relapse prevention, and supervision are discussed.

  20. All Elder Abuse Perpetrators Are Not Alike: The Heterogeneity of Elder Abuse Perpetrators and Implications for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-02-01

    The tendency to label all elder abuse perpetrators as the "bad guys" has diminished our ability to respond effectively. A review of the literature demonstrates that elder abuse perpetrators are in fact heterogeneous with important differences across types of abuse. A reformulation of perpetrator interventions away from a singular emphasis on prosecution to meaningful alternatives that utilize criminal justice and/or therapeutic approaches tailored to the needs of the case is needed. These interventions must incorporate the needs of both victims and perpetrators, take into consideration the type of abuse involved, acknowledge the variations in perpetrator culpability, and recognize the continuum of complexity among these cases. Without addressing these nuances, intervention and prevention efforts will be futile if not harmful. © The Author(s) 2014.