WorldWideScience

Sample records for included base flow

  1. En bloc resection of skull base tumor including internal carotid artery. Preoperative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Zensei; Kamijo, Atsushi; Ogino, Jun; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Nukui, Hideaki; Yokomizo, Michinori; Togawa, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Carotid artery resection yields a possibility of cure in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma involving the carotid artery. However, the criteria for the identification of those who are vulnerable to neurologic injury after resection have not been established. Interposition graft covered with a well-vascularized flap could minimize the rate of perioperative morbidity. Particularly, when an extensive resection of the skull base including carotid artery and sigmoid vein, is planned, extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered to minimize the risks of neurologic morbidity, even if preresection positron emission tomography during balloon test occlusion of internal carotid artery suggested the adequacy of hemispheric collateral blood flow. In these cases, the temporary occlusion of the carotid artery is not an accurate prediction of the morbidity after permanent occlusion. (author)

  2. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated...... to be 1.4–5.4% for standard choices 0.4 ≥ k ≥ 0.25 of the wake expansion parameter. Wake model fits based on short time intervals of length 15sec ≤ T ≤ 10 min within three months of data reveal a strong wake flow variability, resulting in rather broad distributions for the wake expansion parameter. When...... an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%....

  3. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberg Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  4. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  5. Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)

  6. Toward Understanding Tip Leakage Flows in Small Compressor Cores Including Stator Leakage Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work was to provide additional data to supplement the work reported in NASA/CR-2015-218868 (Berdanier and Key, 2015b). The aim of that project was to characterize the fundamental flow physics and the overall performance effects due to increased rotor tip clearance heights in axial compressors. Data have been collected in the three-stage axial research compressor at Purdue University with a specific focus on analyzing the multistage effects resulting from the tip leakage flow. Three separate rotor tip clearances were studied with nominal tip clearance gaps of 1.5 percent, 3.0 percent, and 4.0 percent based on a constant annulus height. Overall compressor performance was previously investigated at four corrected speedlines (100 percent, 90 percent, 80 percent, and 68 percent) for each of the three tip clearance configurations. This study extends the previously published results to include detailed steady and time-resolved pressure data at two loading conditions, nominal loading (NL) and high loading (HL), on the 100 percent corrected speedline for the intermediate clearance level (3.0 percent). Steady detailed radial traverses of total pressure at the exit of each stator row are supported by flow visualization techniques to identify regions of flow recirculation and separation. Furthermore, detailed radial traverses of time-resolved total pressures at the exit of each rotor row have been measured with a fast-response pressure probe. These data were combined with existing three-component velocity measurements to identify a novel technique for calculating blockage in a multistage compressor. Time-resolved static pressure measurements have been collected over the rotor tips for all rotors with each of the three tip clearance configurations for up to five loading conditions along the 100 percent corrected speedline using fast-response piezoresistive pressure sensors. These time-resolved static pressure measurements reveal new knowledge about the

  7. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  8. Flow-Based Provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: With information almost effortlessly created and spontaneously available, current progress in Information and Communication Technology (ICT has led to the complication that information must be scrutinized for trustworthiness and provenance. Information systems must become provenance-aware to be satisfactory in accountability, reproducibility, and trustworthiness of data. Background:\tMultiple models for abstract representation of provenance have been proposed to describe entities, people, and activities involved in producing a piece of data, including the Open Provenance Model (OPM and the World Wide Web Consortium. These models lack certain concepts necessary for specifying workflows and encoding the provenance of data products used and generated. Methodology: Without loss of generality, the focus of this paper is on OPM depiction of provenance in terms of a directed graph. We have redrawn several case studies in the framework of our proposed model in order to compare and evaluate it against OPM for representing these cases. Contribution: This paper offers an alternative flow-based diagrammatic language that can form a foundation for modeling of provenance. The model described here provides an (abstract machine-like representation of provenance. Findings: The results suggest a viable alternative in the area of diagrammatic representation for provenance applications. Future Research: Future work will seek to achieve more accurate comparisons with current models in the field.

  9. A generalised solution for step-drawdown tests including flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-07-03

    Jul 3, 2001 ... Numerous constant rate tests, of which a few are discussed in this paper, has shown that this is not ... Although the model proposed for multi-rate tests is still based on constant time steps, the one for step-drawdown tests allows the ..... is a highly non-linear equation in the mathematical sense in that it.

  10. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y + up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  11. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  12. Process For Controlling Flow Rate Of Viscous Materials Including Use Of Nozzle With Changeable Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, William A.; Forster, George A.

    1999-11-02

    Apparatus and a method for controlling the flow rate of viscous materials through a nozzle includes an apertured main body and an apertured end cap coupled together and having an elongated, linear flow channel extending the length thereof. An end of the main body is disposed within the end cap and includes a plurality of elongated slots concentrically disposed about and aligned with the flow channel. A generally flat cam plate having a center aperture is disposed between the main body and end cap and is rotatable about the flow channel. A plurality of flow control vane assemblies are concentrically disposed about the flow channel and are coupled to the cam plate. Each vane assembly includes a vane element disposed adjacent the end of the flow channel. Rotation of the cam plate in a first direction causes a corresponding rotation of each of the vane elements for positioning the individual vane elements over the aperture in the end cap blocking flow through the flow channel, while rotation in an opposite direction removes the vane elements from the aperture and positions them about the flow channel in a nested configuration in the full open position, with a continuous range of vane element positions available between the full open and closed positions.

  13. Numerical Treatment of Two-phase Flow in Porous Media Including Specific Interfacial Area

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a numerical treatment for the model of two-phase flow in porous media including specific interfacial area. For numerical discretization we use the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method based on the shifting-matrices method which can reduce the time-consuming operations. A new iterative implicit algorithm has been developed to solve the problem under consideration. All advection and advection-like terms that appear in saturation equation and interfacial area equation are treated using upwind schemes. Selected simulation results such as pc–Sw–awn surface, capillary pressure, saturation and specific interfacial area with various values of model parameters have been introduced. The simulation results show a good agreement with those in the literature using either pore network modeling or Darcy scale modeling.

  14. Relativistic thermodynamics, a Lagrangian field theory for general flows including rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Christian

    Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, Lagrangian field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier approach to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to phenomenology, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.

  15. CFD simulation of a screw compressor including leakage flows and rotor heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spille-Kohoff, Andreas, Dr.; Hesse, Jan; El Shorbagy, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have promising potential to become an important part in the development process of positive displacement (PD) machines. CFD delivers deep insights into the flow and thermodynamic behaviour of PD machines. However, the numerical simulation of such machines is more complex compared to dynamic pumps like turbines or fans. The fluid transport in size-changing chambers with very small clearances between the rotors, and between rotors and casing, demands complex meshes that change with each time step. Additionally, the losses due to leakage flows and the heat transfer to the rotors need high-quality meshes so that automatic remeshing is almost impossible. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a dry screw compressor are shown. The rotating parts are meshed with TwinMesh, a special hexahedral meshing program for gear pumps, gerotors, lobe pumps and screw compressors. In particular, these meshes include axial and radial clearances between housing and rotors, and beside the fluid volume the rotor solids are also meshed. The CFD simulation accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, heat transfer between gas and rotors, and leakage flows through the clearances. We show time- resolved results for torques, forces, interlobe pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and rotors, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, temperature etc. for different discharge ports and working points of the screw compressor. These results are also used as thermal loads for deformation simulations of the rotors.

  16. A power function method for estimating base flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A; Stewart, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    Analytical base flow separation techniques are often used to determine the base flow contribution to total stream flow. Most analytical methods derive base flow from discharge records alone without using basin-specific variables other than basin area. This paper derives a power function for estimating base flow, the form being aQ(b) + cQ, an analytical method calibrated against an integrated basin variable, specific conductance, relating base flow to total discharge, and is consistent with observed mathematical behavior of dissolved solids in stream flow with varying discharge. Advantages of the method are being uncomplicated, reproducible, and applicable to hydrograph separation in basins with limited specific conductance data. The power function relationship between base flow and discharge holds over a wide range of basin areas. It better replicates base flow determined by mass balance methods than analytical methods such as filters or smoothing routines that are not calibrated to natural tracers or empirical basin and gauge-specific variables. Also, it can be used with discharge during periods without specific conductance values, including separating base flow from quick flow for single events. However, it may overestimate base flow during very high flow events. Application of geochemical mass balance and power function base flow separation methods to stream flow and specific conductance records from multiple gauges in the same basin suggests that analytical base flow separation methods must be calibrated at each gauge. Using average values of coefficients introduces a potentially significant and unknown error in base flow as compared with mass balance methods. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Simulations of Tokamak Edge Turbulence Including Self-Consistent Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce; Umansky, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    Progress on simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the tokamak edge is summarized in this mini-conference talk. A more detailed report on this work is presented in a poster at this conference. This work extends our previous work to include self-consistent zonal flows and their effects. The previous work addressed the simulation of L-mode tokamak edge turbulence using the turbulence code BOUT. The calculations used realistic single-null geometry and plasma parameters of the DIII-D tokamak and produced fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes that compare favorably to experimental data. In the effect of sheared ExB poloidal rotation is included with an imposed static radial electric field fitted to experimental data. In the new work here we include the radial electric field self-consistently driven by the microturbulence, which contributes to the sheared ExB poloidal rotation (zonal flow generation). We present simulations with/without zonal flows for both cylindrical geometry, as in the UCLA Large Plasma Device, and for the DIII-D tokamak L-mode cases in to quantify the influence of self-consistent zonal flows on the microturbulence and the concomitant transport. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Multi-hypothesis Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding including Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Luong, Huynh Van

    2011-01-01

    information has a major impact on the performance of TDWZ. In this paper, a novel multi-hypothesis based TDWZ video coding is presented to exploit the redundancy between multiple side information and the source information. The decoder used optical flow for side information calculation. Compared with the best...... available single estimation mode TDWZ, the proposed multi-hypothesis based TDWZ achieves robustly better Rate-Distortion (RD) performance and the overall improvement is up to 0.6 dB at high bitrate and up to 2 dB compared with the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  19. GNSS-Based Space Weather Systems Including COSMIC Ionospheric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjathy, Attila; Mandrake, Lukas; Wilson, Brian; Iijima, Byron; Pi, Xiaoqing; Hajj, George; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation outline includes University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) product comparisons, assimilating ground-based global positioning satellites (GPS) and COSMIC into JPL/University of Southern California (USC) Global Assimilative Ionospheric Model (GAIM), and JPL/USC GAIM validation. The discussion of comparisons examines Abel profiles and calibrated TEC. The JPL/USC GAIM validation uses Arecibo ISR, Jason-2 VTEC, and Abel profiles.

  20. Large-Eddy Simulation of a High Reynolds Number Flow Around a Cylinder Including Aeroacoustic Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos, Evangelos T.; Holmes, Bayard S.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamic subgrid-scale model is employed in large-eddy simulations of flow over a cylinder at a Reynolds number, based on the diameter of the cylinder, of 90,000. The Centric SPECTRUM(trademark) finite element solver is used for the analysis. The far field sound pressure is calculated from Lighthill-Curle's equation using the computed fluctuating pressure at the surface of the cylinder. The sound pressure level at a location 35 diameters away from the cylinder and at an angle of 90 deg with respect to the wake's downstream axis was found to have a peak value of approximately 110 db. Slightly smaller peak values were predicted at the 60 deg and 120 deg locations. A grid refinement study suggests that the dynamic model demands mesh refinement beyond that used here.

  1. Electromagnetic Flow Meter Having a Driver Circuit Including a Current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, David M. (Inventor); Cushing, Vincent (Inventor); Patel, Sandeep K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) accurately measures both the complete flow rate and the dynamically fluctuating flow rate of a fluid by applying a unipolar DC voltage to excitation coils for a predetermined period of time, measuring the electric potential at a pair of electrodes, determining a complete flow rate and independently measuring the dynamic flow rate during the "on" cycle of the DC excitation, and correcting the measurements for errors resulting from galvanic drift and other effects on the electric potential. The EMFM can also correct for effects from the excitation circuit induced during operation of the EMFM.

  2. One-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

    1989-01-01

    The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plate which emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined by integrating the equations of motion across the thin liquid layer and discretizing the integrated equations using finite difference techniques. The effects of 0-g and solid-body rotation will be discussed. The two cases of interest are plane flow and radial flow. In plane flow, the liquid is considered to be flowing along a channel with no change in the width of the channel, whereas in radial flow the liquid spreads out radially over a disk, so that the area changes along the radius. It is desired to determine the height of the liquid film at any location along the plate of disk, so that the heat transfer from the plate or disk can be found. The possibility that the flow could encounter a hydraulic jump is accounted for.

  3. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of the Basic Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Including Separated Flows and Effects of Wall Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    in I newly’% f’ahri cated water test. Iaci ifY built expressly for this program. Heat Transfer Sfudy onI C’, neave Su.rfne Good progress has been made...TO A. LYRIO FOR FRASER B FLOW. (NOTE THI’S FLOW WAS NOT PREDICTED WELL BY ANY METHOD IN THE 19b8 AFOSR-4FP STANFORD CONFERENCE) FIGuRE t-2 --- _f0.O Hz

  4. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  5. Base Flow Model Validation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The program focuses on turbulence modeling enhancements for predicting high-speed rocket base flows. A key component of the effort is the collection of high-fidelity...

  6. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of the Basic Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Including Separated Flows and Effects of Wall Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-31

    instability leading to longitudinal roll cells called Taylor-Gortler cells is responsible for the increase of mean surface stress and heat flux. The flow...that provides a guar- antee against taking data in some range of the test-parameter hyperspace where uncertainties aggregate to high values. As Prof

  7. Numerical simulation of subsonic and transonic turbulent flows in turbine cascades including wall heat flux and roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, P.; Kozel, K.; Sváček, P.; Příhoda, J.

    2012-11-01

    The work deals with numerical simulation of transonic flow in turbine cascade including heat transfer between fluid and blades. The blades are considered either solid, with heat conduction, or with a cavity held at constant temperature above the total temperature of the fluid. The surface of blades is hydraulically smooth or rough. The mathematical model is based on Favre averaged Navier-Stokes equations with SST turbulence model. The heat transfer inside blades is governed by Laplace equation for temperature. The solution for fluid part is obtained by implicit AUMPW+ finite volume method. The solution of Laplace equation is obtained by finite element method. The coupling between the two solvers is discussed including some problems. In the discussion of results, the effects of heat conduction in the blade, internal heating of the blade and surface roughness are observed.

  8. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  9. Duality based optical flow algorithms with applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau

    We consider the popular TV-L1 optical flow formulation, and the so-called duality based algorithm for minimizing the TV-L1 energy. The original formulation is extended to allow for vector valued images, and minimization results are given. In addition we consider different definitions of total...... variation regularization, and related formulations of the optical flow problem that may be used with a duality based algorithm. We present a highly optimized algorithmic setup to estimate optical flows, and give five novel applications. The first application is registration of medical images, where X...... the motion estimation from the surrounding frames directly to the unknown frame by parametrizing the optical flow objective function such that the interpolation assumption is directly modeled. This reparametrization is a powerful trick that results in a number of appealing properties, in particular...

  10. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, T; Schwerter, M; Büttgenbach, S; Leester-Schädel, M; Sattler, S; El Sayed, Y; Radespiel, R; Zander, M; Sinapius, M; Wierach, P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development. (technical note)

  11. The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.

  12. Nonlinear flow model of multiple fractured horizontal wells with stimulated reservoir volume including the quadratic gradient term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junjie; Guo, Ping

    2017-11-01

    The real fluid flow in porous media is consistent with the mass conservation which can be described by the nonlinear governing equation including the quadratic gradient term (QGT). However, most of the flow models have been established by ignoring the QGT and little work has been conducted to incorporate the QGT into the flow model of the multiple fractured horizontal (MFH) well with stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). This paper first establishes a semi-analytical model of an MFH well with SRV including the QGT. Introducing the transformed pressure and flow-rate function, the nonlinear model of a point source in a composite system including the QGT is linearized. Then the Laplace transform, principle of superposition, numerical discrete method, Gaussian elimination method and Stehfest numerical inversion are employed to establish and solve the seepage model of the MFH well with SRV. Type curves are plotted and the effects of relevant parameters are analyzed. It is found that the nonlinear effect caused by the QGT can increase the flow capacity of fluid flow and influence the transient pressure positively. The relevant parameters not only have an effect on the type curve but also affect the error in the pressure calculated by the conventional linear model. The proposed model, which is consistent with the mass conservation, reflects the nonlinear process of the real fluid flow, and thus it can be used to obtain more accurate transient pressure of an MFH well with SRV.

  13. Chromium based Framework to include Gaze Interaction in Web Browser

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Chandan; Menges, Raphael; Müller, Daniel; Staab, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    EnablingWeb interaction by non-conventional input sources like eyes has great potential to enhance Web accessibility. In this paper, we present a Chromium based inclusive framework to adapt eye gaze events in Web interfaces. The frameworkprovides more utility and control to develop a full featured interactive browser, compared to the related approaches of additional mouse and keyboard emulation orbrowser extensions. We demonstrate the framework through a sophisticated gaze driven Web browser,...

  14. A Boundary Condition Relaxation Algorithm for Strongly Coupled, Ablating Flows Including Shape Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2011-01-01

    Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.

  15. Transformation of Commercial Flows into Physical Flows of Electricity – Flow Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We are witnesses of large – scale electricity transport between European countries under the umbrella of the UCTE organization. This is due to the inabilyof generators to satisfy the growing consumption in some regions. In this content, we distinguish between two types of flow. The first type is physical flow, which causes costs in the transmission grid, whilst the second type is commercial flow, which provides revenues for the market participants. The old methods for allocating transfer capacity fail to take this duality into account. The old methods that allocate transmission border capacity to “virtual” commercial flows which, in fact, will not flow over this border, do not lead to optimal allocation. Some flows are uselessly rejected and conversely, some accepted flows can cause congestion on another border. The Flow Based Allocation method (FBA is a method which aims to solve this problem.Another goal of FBA is to ensure sustainable development of expansion of transmission capacity. Transmission capacity is important, because it represents a way to establish better transmission system stability, and it provides a distribution channel for electricity to customers abroad. For optimal development, it is necessary to ensure the right division of revenue allocation among the market participants.This paper contains a brief description of the FBA method. Problems of revenue maximization and optimal revenue distribution are mentioned. 

  16. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  17. Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar; Gjelsvik, Anders

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Potential effects of elevated base flow and midsummer spike flow experiments on riparian vegetation along the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program has requested experimental flow releases from Flaming Gorge Dam for (1) elevated summer base flows to promote larval endangered Colorado pikeminnow, and (2) midsummer spike flows to disadvantage spawning invasive smallmouth bass. This white paper explores the effects of these proposed flow modifications on riparian vegetation and sediment deposition downstream along the Green River. Although modest in magnitude, the elevated base flows and possible associated reductions in magnitude or duration of peak flows would exacerbate a long-term trend of flow stabilization on the Green River that is already leading to proliferation of vegetation including invasive tamarisk along the channel and associated sediment deposition, channel narrowing and channel simplification. Midsummer spike flows could promote establishment of late-flowering plants like tamarisk. Because channel narrowing and simplification threaten persistence and quality of backwater and side channel features needed by endangered fish, the proposed flow modifications could lead to degradation of fish habitat. Channel narrowing and vegetation encroachment could be countered by increases in peak flows or reductions in base flows in some years and by prescription of rapid flow declines following midsummer spike flows. These strategies for reducing vegetation encroachment would need to be balanced with flow

  19. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  20. A review of cell-scale multiphase flow modeling, including water management, in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Beale, S.B.; Espinoza, M.; Wu, Z.; Lehnert, W.

    2016-01-01

    on the transport processes inside the porous GDL are extensively discussed. The selection of a computational approach, for the two-phase flow within a GDL or GC, for example, should be based on the computational resources available, concerns about time and scale (microscale, cell scale, stack scale or system scale), as well as accuracy requirements. One important feature, included in some computational approaches, is the possibility to track the front between the liquid and the gas phases. To build a PEFC model, one must make a large number of assumptions. Some assumptions have a negligible effect on the results and reliability of the model. However, other assumptions may significantly affect the result. It is strongly recommended in any modeling paper to clearly state the assumptions being implemented, for others to be able to judge the work. It is important to note that a large fraction of the expressions that presently are used to describe the transport processes inside PEFC GDLs were originally developed to describe significantly different systems, such as sand or rocks. Moreover, the flow pattern maps and pressure drop correlations of two phase flow in micro channels may not be applicable for GCs due to one side wall being porous, with the resulting interaction between the GDL and GC.

  1. Screening performance for trisomy 21 comparing first trimester combined screening and a first trimester contingent screening protocol including ductus venosus and tricuspid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, C K; Petersen, O B; Sundberg, K

    2012-01-01

    To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow.......To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow....

  2. On event-based optical flow detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eBrosch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Event-based sensing, i.e. the asynchronous detection of luminance changes, promises low-energy, high dynamic range, and sparse sensing. This stands in contrast to whole image frame-wise acquisition by standard cameras. Here, we systematically investigate the implications of event-based sensing in the context of visual motion, or flow, estimation. Starting from a common theoretical foundation, we discuss different principal approaches for optical flow detection ranging from gradient-based methods over plane-fitting to filter based methods and identify strengths and weaknesses of each class. Gradient-based methods for local motion integration are shown to suffer from the sparse encoding in address-event representations (AER. Approaches exploiting the local plane like structure of the event cloud, on the other hand, are shown to be well suited. Within this class, filter based approaches are shown to define a proper detection scheme which can also deal with the problem of representing multiple motions at a single location (motion transparency. A novel biologically inspired efficient motion detector is proposed, analyzed and experimentally validated. Furthermore, a stage of surround normalization is incorporated. Together with the filtering this defines a canonical circuit for motion feature detection. The theoretical analysis shows that such an integrated circuit reduces motion ambiguity in addition to decorrelating the representation of motion related activations.

  3. Schwarz-Based Algorithms for Compressible Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidriri, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate in this paper the application of Schwarz-based algorithms to compressible flows. First we study the combination of these methods with defect-correction procedures. We then study the effect on the Schwarz-based methods of replacing the explicit treatment of the boundary conditions by an implicit one. In the last part of this paper we study the combination of these methods with Newton-Krylov matrix-free methods. Numerical experiments that show the performance of our approaches are then presented.

  4. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1997-12-31

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  5. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It can be used for comparing alternate flow regimes, identifying changes in a flow regime through time and for generating flow statistics that can be used to predict the likely ... The Lyn–Hollick filter equation in calculating the base flow component of the hydrograph in RAP software is shown below. It has an alpha value of.

  6. Data-Mining-Based Intelligent Differential Relaying for Transmission Lines Including UPFC and Wind Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Manas Kumar; Samantaray, Subhransu Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a data-mining-based intelligent differential relaying scheme for transmission lines, including flexible ac transmission system device, such as unified power flow controller (UPFC) and wind farms. Initially, the current and voltage signals are processed through extended Kalman filter phasor measurement unit for phasor estimation, and 21 potential features are computed at both ends of the line. Once the features are extracted at both ends, the corresponding differential features are derived. These differential features are fed to a data-mining model known as decision tree (DT) to provide the final relaying decision. The proposed technique has been extensively tested for single-circuit transmission line, including UPFC and wind farms with in-feed, double-circuit line with UPFC on one line and wind farm as one of the substations with wide variations in operating parameters. The test results obtained from simulation as well as in real-time digital simulator testing indicate that the DT-based intelligent differential relaying scheme is highly reliable and accurate with a response time of 2.25 cycles from the fault inception.

  7. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  9. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

  10. Simple Radiowave-Based Method for Measuring Peripheral Blood Flow

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project objective is to design small radio frequency based flow probes for the measurement of blood flow velocity in peripheral arteries such as the femoral artery...

  11. Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank

    2016-01-19

    As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.

  12. Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccormick, Patrick S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brownlee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pegoraro, Vincent [UNIV OF UTAH; Shankar, Siddharth [UNIV OF UTAH; Hansen, Charles D [UNIV OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.

  13. Calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for supersonic mixed compression inlets at angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The flow field in supersonic mixed compression aircraft inlets at angle of attack is calculated. A zonal modeling technique is employed to obtain the solution which divides the flow field into different computational regions. The computational regions consist of a supersonic core flow, boundary layer flows adjacent to both the forebody/centerbody and cowl contours, and flow in the shock wave boundary layer interaction regions. The zonal modeling analysis is described and some computational results are presented. The governing equations for the supersonic core flow form a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations. The equations for the characteristic surfaces and the compatibility equations applicable along these surfaces are derived. The characteristic surfaces are the stream surfaces, which are surfaces composed of streamlines, and the wave surfaces, which are surfaces tangent to a Mach conoid. The compatibility equations are expressed as directional derivatives along streamlines and bicharacteristics, which are the lines of tangency between a wave surface and a Mach conoid.

  14. Development of microcontroller based water flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad Miftahul; Surachman, Arif; Fathonah, Indra Wahyudin; Billah, Muhammad Aziz; Khairurrijal, Mahfudz, Hernawan; Rimawan, Ririn; Lestari, Slamet

    2015-04-01

    A digital instrument for measuring water flow was developed using an AT89S52 microcontroller, DS1302 real time clock (RTC), and EEPROM for an external memory. The sensor used for probing the current was a propeller that will rotate if immersed in a water flow. After rotating one rotation, the sensor sends one pulse and the number of pulses are counted for a certain time of counting. The measurement data, i.e. the number of pulses per unit time, are converted into water flow velocity (m/s) through a mathematical formula. The microcontroller counts the pulse sent by the sensor and the number of counted pulses are stored into the EEPROM memory. The time interval for counting is provided by the RTC and can be set by the operator. The instrument was tested under various time intervals ranging from 10 to 40 seconds and several standard propellers owned by Experimental Station for Hydraulic Structure and Geotechnics (BHGK), Research Institute for Water Resources (Pusair). Using the same propellers and water flows, it was shown that water flow velocities obtained from the developed digital instrument and those found by the provided analog one are almost similar.

  15. Flow cytometry-based DNA hybridization and polymorphism analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, H.; Kommander, K.; White, P.S.; Nolan, J.P.

    1998-07-01

    Functional analysis of the humane genome, including the quantification of differential gene expression and the identification of polymorphic sites and disease genes, is an important element of the Human Genome Project. Current methods of analysis are mainly gel-based assays that are not well-suited to rapid genome-scale analyses. To analyze DNA sequence on a large scale, robust and high throughput assays are needed. The authors are developing a suite of microsphere-based approaches employing fluorescence detection to screen and analyze genomic sequence. The approaches include competitive DNA hybridization to measure DNA or RNA targets in unknown samples, and oligo ligation or extension assays to analyze single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Apart from the advances of sensitivity, simplicity, and low sample consumption, these flow cytometric approaches have the potential for high throughput multiplexed analysis using multicolored microspheres and automated sample handling.

  16. Optical Flow based Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlouche Souhila

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to develop an algorithm for visual obstacle avoidance of autonomous mobile robot. The input of the algorithm is an image sequence grabbed by an embedded camera on the B21r robot in motion. Then, the optical flow information is extracted from the image sequence in order to be used in the navigation algorithm. The optical flow provides very important information about the robot environment, like: the obstacles disposition, the robot heading, the time to collision and the depth. The strategy consists in balancing the amount of left and right side flow to avoid obstacles, this technique allows robot navigation without any collision with obstacles. The robustness of the algorithm will be showed by some examples.

  17. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  18. A Labeled Data Set For Flow-based Intrusion Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; van Vliet, Frank; Pras, Aiko; Nunzi, Giorgio; Scoglio, Caterina; Li, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Flow-based intrusion detection has recently become a promising security mechanism in high speed networks (1-10 Gbps). Despite the richness in contributions in this field, benchmarking of flow-based IDS is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose the first publicly available, labeled data set

  19. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jenke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout—differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors—are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved.

  20. The Combination of Micro Diaphragm Pumps and Flow Sensors for Single Stroke Based Liquid Flow Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Christoph; Pallejà Rubio, Jaume; Kibler, Sebastian; Häfner, Johannes; Richter, Martin; Kutter, Christoph

    2017-04-03

    With the combination of micropumps and flow sensors, highly accurate and secure closed-loop controlled micro dosing systems for liquids are possible. Implementing a single stroke based control mode with piezoelectrically driven micro diaphragm pumps can provide a solution for dosing of volumes down to nanoliters or variable average flow rates in the range of nL/min to μL/min. However, sensor technologies feature a yet undetermined accuracy for measuring highly pulsatile micropump flow. Two miniaturizable in-line sensor types providing electrical readout-differential pressure based flow sensors and thermal calorimetric flow sensors-are evaluated for their suitability of combining them with mircopumps. Single stroke based calibration of the sensors was carried out with a new method, comparing displacement volumes and sensor flow volumes. Limitations of accuracy and performance for single stroke based flow control are described. Results showed that besides particle robustness of sensors, controlling resistive and capacitive damping are key aspects for setting up reproducible and reliable liquid dosing systems. Depending on the required average flow or defined volume, dosing systems with an accuracy of better than 5% for the differential pressure based sensor and better than 6.5% for the thermal calorimeter were achieved.

  1. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  2. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  3. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    OpenAIRE

    Orita, A; Verde, MG; Sakai, M; Meng, YS

    2016-01-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactio...

  4. Access control mechanism of wireless gateway based on open flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the access control of wireless gateway and improve the access control of wireless gateway devices, an access control mechanism of SDN architecture which is based on Open vSwitch is proposed. The mechanism utilizes the features of the controller--centralized control and programmable. Controller send access control flow table based on the business logic. Open vSwitch helps achieve a specific access control strategy based on the flow table.

  5. One-dimensional analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of thin film flows including the hydraulic jump and rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plane that emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined numerically. In one g, a hydraulic jump was predicted in both plane and radial flow, which could be forced away from the inlet by increasing the inlet Froude number or Reynolds number. In zero g, the hydraulic jump was not predicted. The effect of solid-body rotation for radial flow in one g was to 'wash out' the hydraulic jump and to decrease the film height on the disk. The liquid film heights under one g and zero g were equal under solid-body rotation because the effect of centrifugal force was much greater than that of the gravitational force. The heat transfer to a film on a rotating disk was predicted to be greater than that of a stationary disk because the liquid film is extremely thin and is moving with a very high velocity.

  6. A Quadrature Method of Moments for Polydisperse Flow in Bubble Columns Including Poly-Celerity, Breakup and Coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Acher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.

  7. Liquid Flow Meter based on a Thermal Anemometer Microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Sazhin

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model of a thermal anemometer sensor is developed. A thermal anemometer microsensor utilizing doped polycrystalline silicon is created. A liquid flow meter prototype based on a thermal anemometer microsensor is designed. Results of the flow meter testing are presented.

  8. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  9. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries’ roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading “trophic levels” have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows. PMID:26569618

  10. Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.

  11. Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services - Part 1: Theory on flow persistence, flashiness and base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noordwijk, Meine; Tanika, Lisa; Lusiana, Betha

    2017-05-01

    Flood damage reflects insufficient adaptation of human presence and activity to location and variability of river flow in a given climate. Flood risk increases when landscapes degrade, counteracted or aggravated by engineering solutions. Efforts to maintain and restore buffering as an ecosystem function may help adaptation to climate change, but this require quantification of effectiveness in their specific social-ecological context. However, the specific role of forests, trees, soil and drainage pathways in flow buffering, given geology, land form and climate, remains controversial. When complementing the scarce heavily instrumented catchments with reliable long-term data, especially in the tropics, there is a need for metrics for data-sparse conditions. We present and discuss a flow persistence metric that relates transmission to river flow of peak rainfall events to the base-flow component of the water balance. The dimensionless flow persistence parameter Fp is defined in a recursive flow model and can be estimated from limited time series of observed daily flow, without requiring knowledge of spatially distributed rainfall upstream. The Fp metric (or its change over time from what appears to be the local norm) matches local knowledge concepts. Inter-annual variation in the Fp metric in sample watersheds correlates with variation in the flashiness index used in existing watershed health monitoring programmes, but the relationship between these metrics varies with context. Inter-annual variation in Fp also correlates with common base-flow indicators, but again in a way that varies between watersheds. Further exploration of the responsiveness of Fp in watersheds with different characteristics to the interaction of land cover and the specific realisation of space-time patterns of rainfall in a limited observation period is needed to evaluate interpretation of Fp as an indicator of anthropogenic changes in watershed conditions.

  12. Flow-Based Network Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacik, Karol A; Schaub, Michael T; Beguerisse-Díaz, Mariano; Billeh, Yazan N; Barahona, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    We exploit flow propagation on the directed neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans to reveal dynamically relevant features of its connectome. We find flow-based groupings of neurons at different levels of granularity, which we relate to functional and anatomical constituents of its nervous system. A systematic in silico evaluation of the full set of single and double neuron ablations is used to identify deletions that induce the most severe disruptions of the multi-resolution flow structure. Such ablations are linked to functionally relevant neurons, and suggest potential candidates for further in vivo investigation. In addition, we use the directional patterns of incoming and outgoing network flows at all scales to identify flow profiles for the neurons in the connectome, without pre-imposing a priori categories. The four flow roles identified are linked to signal propagation motivated by biological input-response scenarios.

  13. Agent Based Reasoning in Multilevel Flow Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    to launch the MFM Workbench into an agent based environment, which can complement disadvantages of the original software. The agent-based MFM Workbench is centered on a concept called “Blackboard System” and use an event based mechanism to arrange the reasoning tasks. This design will support the new...

  14. Information-flow-based Access Control for Virtualized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Postoev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the method of information-flow-based access control, adopted for virtualized systems. General structure of access control system for virtual infrastructure is proposed.

  15. Agent-Based Collaborative Traffic Flow Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose agent-based game-theoretic approaches for simulation of strategies involved in multi-objective collaborative traffic flow management (CTFM). Intelligent...

  16. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1926-000] Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such...

  17. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. Power flow modeling of Back-to-Back STATCOM: Comprehensive simulation studies including PV curves and PQ circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.

  19. Computational Study of pH-sensitive Hydrogel-based Microfluidic Flow Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    This computational study investigates the sensing and actuating behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel-based microfluidic flow controller. This hydrogel-based flow controller has inherent advantage in its unique stimuli-sensitive properties, removing the need for an external power supply. The predicted swelling behavior the hydrogel is validated with steady-state and transient experiments. We then demonstrate how the model is implemented to study the sensing and actuating behavior of hydrogels for different microfluidic flow channel/hydrogel configurations: e.g., for flow in a T-junction with single and multiple hydrogels. In short, the results suggest that the response of the hydrogel-based flow controller is slow. Therefore, two strategies to improve the response rate of the hydrogels are proposed and demonstrated. Finally, we highlight that the model can be extended to include other stimuli-responsive hydrogels such as thermo-, electric-, and glucose-sensitive hydrogels. PMID:24956303

  20. Improving cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastek, Thomas Q. [Washington State University, ISP, Applied Sciences Laboratory, PO Box 1495, Spokane, WA 99210-1495 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Methods for improving the cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel are described. Freezing point depression via dilution is evaluated through controlled studies of methyl stearate freezing in seven different solvents, and methyl palmitate in three solvents. Without accounting for solute activity, the Hildebrand equation can predict the impact of methyl stearate freezing point in an alkane solvent (pentane) to within 4 C. However, there is wide deviation for the other solutions, indicating wide ranging solute activities in these solvents. Dilution in toluene results in the greatest freezing point depression. In addition, several polymeric additives are screened for their effectiveness as biodiesel pour point depressants. After examining more than 13 polymers, including several alkyl methacrylate homo- and copolymers, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) homopolymer most effectively improves the biodiesel cold flow properties. At 1% loading, poly(lauryl methacrylate) lowers the pour point by as much as 30 C and the low temperature filterability point (LTFP) by as much as 28 C. When evaluating the impact of polymer concentration, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) concentrations of 0.14% perform poorly, whereas 0.5% has only a slightly lower impact than 1%. Concentrations above 1% exhibit no improvement. Finally, it is shown that a limited amount of mixing can notably reduce the LTFP in several samples. (author)

  1. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.

  2. Flow Cytometry Based Approaches for Nanotoxicity Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Helena; Roxo, C.; Menezes, Catarina; Mendes, Ana; Farcal, Lucian; Ziemann, Christina; Burla, Sabina; Creutzenberg, Otto; Gonçalves, F.

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NM), due to their unique physicochemical properties, are used in various applications in the industrial, electrical, pharmaceutical and biomedical fields and are being included in several consumer products such as cosmetics and food, or specially designed for bio-imaging or drug delivery applications. The nano-scale dimension of NMs, together with other specific physicochemical properties may determine their varying biological effects. The consequent increase of human exposure ...

  3. A review and development of correlations for base pressure and base heating in supersonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, J.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oberkampf, W.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    A comprehensive review of experimental base pressure and base heating data related to supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles has been completed. Particular attention was paid to free-flight data as well as wind tunnel data for models without rear sting support. Using theoretically based correlation parameters, a series of internally consistent, empirical prediction equations has been developed for planar and axisymmetric geometries (wedges, cones, and cylinders). These equations encompass the speed range from low supersonic to hypersonic flow and laminar and turbulent forebody boundary layers. A wide range of cone and wedge angles and cone bluntness ratios was included in the data base used to develop the correlations. The present investigation also included preliminary studies of the effect of angle of attack and specific-heat ratio of the gas.

  4. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  5. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  6. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate......This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...

  7. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  8. Including pride and its group-based, relational, and contextual features in theories of contempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gavin Brent

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment includes emotional and enduring attitudinal features of contempt, but explaining contempt as a mixture of basic emotion system affects does not adequately address the family resemblance structure of the concept. Adding forms of individual, group-based, and widely shared arrogance and contempt is necessary to capture the complex mixed feelings of proud superiority when "looking down upon" and acting harshly towards others.

  9. Flow Formulations for Curriculum-based Course Timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two mixed-integer programming formulations for the Curriculum based Course Timetabling Problem (CTT). We show that the formulations contain underlying network structures by dividing the CTT into two separate models and then connect the two models using flow formulation...... techniques. The first mixed-integer programming formulation is based on an underlying minimum cost flow problem, which decreases the number of integer variables significantly and improves the performance compared to an intuitive mixed-integer programming formulation. The second formulation is based...... on a multi-commodity flow problem which in general is NP-hard, however, we prove that it suffices to solve the linear programming relaxation of the model. The formulations show competitiveness with other approaches based on mixed-integer programming from the literature and improve the currently best known...

  10. Fabrication of Mediatorless/Membraneless Glucose/Oxygen Based Biofuel Cell using Biocatalysts Including Glucose Oxidase and Laccase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-07-01

    Mediatorless and membraneless enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs) employing new catalytic structure are fabricated. Regarding anodic catalyst, structure consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx), poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered, while three cathodic catalysts consist of glutaraldehyde (GA), laccase (Lac), PEI and CNT that are stacked together in different ways. Catalytic activities of the catalysts for glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions (GOR and ORR) are evaluated. As a result, it is confirmed that the catalysts work well for promotion of GOR and ORR. In EBC tests, performances of EBCs including 150 μm-thick membrane are measured as references, while those of membraneless EBCs are measured depending on parameters like glucose flow rate, glucose concentration, distance between two electrodes and electrolyte pH. With the measurements, how the parameters affect EBC performance and their optimal conditions are determined. Based on that, best maximum power density (MPD) of membraneless EBC is 102 ± 5.1 μW · cm-2 with values of 0.5 cc · min-1 (glucose flow rate), 40 mM (glucose concentration), 1 mm (distance between electrodes) and pH 3. When membrane and membraneless EBCs are compared, MPD of the membraneless EBC that is run at the similar operating condition to EBC including membrane is speculated as about 134 μW · cm-2.

  11. Notes on Newton-Krylov based Incompressible Flow Projection Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Nourgaliev; Mark Christon; J. Bakosi

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present document is to formulate Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov algorithm for approximate projection method used in Hydra-TH code. Hydra-TH is developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) under the auspices of the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors (CASL) for thermal-hydraulics applications ranging from grid-to-rod fretting (GTRF) to multiphase flow subcooled boiling. Currently, Hydra-TH is based on the semi-implicit projection method, which provides an excellent platform for simulation of transient single-phase thermalhydraulics problems. This algorithm however is not efficient when applied for very slow or steady-state problems, as well as for highly nonlinear multiphase problems relevant to nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics with boiling and condensation. These applications require fully-implicit tightly-coupling algorithms. The major technical contribution of the present report is the formulation of fully-implicit projection algorithm which will fulfill this purpose. This includes the definition of non-linear residuals used for GMRES-based linear iterations, as well as physics-based preconditioning techniques.

  12. Are Flow Injection-based Approaches Suitable for Automated Handling of Solid Samples?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Cerdà, Victor

    Flow-based approaches were originally conceived for liquid-phase analysis, implying that constituents in solid samples generally had to be transferred into the liquid state, via appropriate batch pretreatment procedures, prior to analysis. Yet, in recent years, much effort has been focused...... electrolytic or aqueous leaching, on-line dialysis/microdialysis, in-line filtration, and pervaporation-based procedures have been successfully implemented in continuous flow/flow injection systems. In this communication, the new generation of flow analysis, including sequential injection, multicommutated flow...... with the potential hyphenation with modern analytical instrumentation for automated monitoring of the content of targeted species in the on-line generated extracts [3,4]. [1] Z.-L. Zhi, A. Ríos, M. Valcárcel, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem., 26 (1996) 239. [2] M. Miró, E.H. Hansen, R. Chomchoei, W. Frenzel, TRAC-Trends Anal...

  13. Spatial distribution of groundwater recharge and base flow: Assessment of controlling factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zomlot

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The average resulting recharge is 235 mm/year and occurs mainly in winter. The overall moderate correlation between base flow estimates and modeled recharge rates indicates that base flow is a reasonable proxy of recharge. Groundwater recharge variation was explained in order of importance by precipitation, soil texture and vegetation cover; while base flow variation was strongly controlled by vegetation cover and groundwater depth. The results of this study highlight the important role of spatial variables in estimation of recharge and base flow. In addition, the prominent role of vegetation makes clear the potential importance of land-use changes on recharge and hence the need to include a proper strategy for land-use change in sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  14. Refrigerant flow characteristics of electronic expansion valve based on thermodynamic analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhifang; Shi Lin; Ou Hongfei

    2008-01-01

    A mass flow correlation for R134a through an EEV (electronic expansion valve) is developed from extensive experimental data. The refrigerant mass flow characteristics of the EEV are an important issue in heat pump/refrigeration system operation because the valve regulates the refrigerant flow to match various operating conditions. Based on the throttling mechanism and thermodynamic analysis, the mass flow rate is a function of various parameters. The selected decision parameters include the valve's geometric parameters, the inlet refrigerant pressure and temperature, the outlet refrigerant pressure, and the refrigerant thermophysical properties represented by the dynamic viscosity and the surface tension, which are sufficient and irredundant for determining the flow coefficient. Because these parameters have very complex and coupled effects on the mass flow characteristics, two combined non-dimensional parameters are defined to describe the coupled effects based on the influence and uncertainty analysis of parameters. The experimental results illustrate that the defined non-dimensional parameters can reveal the EEV flow characteristics correctly. Then, the semi-theoretical flow coefficient correlation with respect to the defined non-dimensional parameters is proposed and identified from several hundred sets of experimental samples using multivariable regression analysis. The proposed correlation agrees well with experimental data for R134a within a wide range of operating conditions. The investigation method in this paper can be adopted by the flow characteristics studies for other types of the EEVs and refrigerants

  15. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumo, T.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors

  16. Lateral flow based immunobiosensors for detection of food contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisossadati, Mohammad Javad; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Borna, Fazlollah; Gholamzad, Mehrdad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-15

    Safety of food is of great concern these days due to various contaminations including toxins, infectious agents and chemical contaminants. Therefore, there is a need to develop promising and user's friendly method to monitor food safety. Lateral flow tests are new, simple and rapid alternative for detection of food-borne pathogens compared with traditional methods. In this review article, we surveyed application of lateral flow biosensors in detection of different food contaminants and labels used to enhance the efficiency of the system. Finally, the unique feature of multi-parametric analysis of analytes by lateral flow device has been reported, proving a lateral flow system is able to be designed in a way to detect multiple targets, simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of flow boiling curves based on artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junmei; Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an; Su Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the main system parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the database selected from the 1960s. The input parameters of the ANN are system pressure, mass flow rate, inlet subcooling, wall superheat and steady/transition boiling, and the output parameter is heat flux. The results obtained by the ANN show that the heat flux increases with increasing inlet sub cooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase of mass flow rate. The pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in whole boiling regions except film boiling. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate one. (authors)

  18. Control volume based modelling of compressible flow in reciprocating machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum applied to a staggered mesh consisting of two overlapping strings of control volumes. Loss mechanisms can be included directly in the governing equations of models by including them as terms in the conservation laws. Heat transfer, flow friction......, and multidimensional effects must be calculated using empirical correlations; correlations for steady state flow can be used as an approximation. A transformation that assumes ideal gas is presented for transforming equations for masses and energies in control volumes into the corresponding pressures and temperatures...

  19. Comparison of differential pressure model based on flow regime for gas/liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, F; Zhang, F S; Li, W; Tan, C

    2009-01-01

    Gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe is very common in many industry processes, because of the complexity and variability, the real-time parameter measurement of two-phase flow, such as the measurement of flow regime and flow rate, becomes a difficult issue in the field of engineering and science. The flow regime recognition plays a fundamental role in gas/liquid two-phase flow measurement, other parameters of two-phase flow can be measured more easily and correctly based on the correct flow regime recognition result. A multi-sensor system is introduced to make the flow regime recognition and the mass flow rate measurement. The fusion system is consisted of temperature sensor, pressure sensor, cross-section information system and v-cone flow meter. After the flow regime recognition by cross-section information system, comparison of four typical differential pressure (DP) models is discussed based on the DP signal of v-cone flow meter. Eventually, an optimum DP model has been chosen for each flow regime. The experiment result of mass flow rate measurement shows it is efficient to classify the DP models by flow regime.

  20. Physics-based elastic image registration using splines and including landmark localization uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-01-01

    We introduce an elastic registration approach which is based on a physical deformation model and uses Gaussian elastic body splines (GEBS). We formulate an extended energy functional related to the Navier equation under Gaussian forces which also includes landmark localization uncertainties. These uncertainties are characterized by weight matrices representing anisotropic errors. Since the approach is based on a physical deformation model, cross-effects in elastic deformations can be taken into account. Moreover, we have a free parameter to control the locality of the transformation for improved registration of local geometric image differences. We demonstrate the applicability of our scheme based on 3D CT images from the Truth Cube experiment, 2D MR images of the brain, as well as 2D gel electrophoresis images. It turns out that the new scheme achieves more accurate results compared to previous approaches.

  1. Integrated radar-photometry sensor based on constrained optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, Youenn; Agam, Gady; Cohen, Paul

    2000-06-01

    Robotic teleoperation is a major research area with numerous applications. Efficient teleoperation, however, greatly depends on the provided sensory information. In this paper, an integrated radar- photometry sensor is presented. The developed sensor relies on the strengths of the two main modalties: robust radar-based range data, and high resolution dynamic photometric imaging. While radar data has low resolution and depth from motion in photometric images is susceptible to poor visibility conditions, the integrated sensor compensates for the flaws of the individual components. The integration of the two modalities is achieved by us ing the radar based range data in order to constrain the optical flow estimation, and fusing the resulting depth maps. The optical flow computation is constrained by a model flow field based upon the radar data, by using a rigidity constraint, and by incorporating edge information into the optical flow estimation. The data fusion is based upon a confidence estimation of the image based depth computation. Results with simulated data demonstrate the good potential of the approach.

  2. Modal Decomposition of Synthetic Jet Flow Based on CFD Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes results of numerical simulation of synthetic jet flow using modal decomposition. The analyzes are based on the numerical simulation of axisymmetric unsteady laminar flow obtained using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. Three typical laminar regimes are compared from the point of view of modal decomposition. The first regime is without synthetic jet creation with Reynolds number Re = 76 and Stokes number S = 19.7. The second studied regime is defined by Re = 145 and S = 19.7. The third regime of synthetic jet work is regime with Re = 329 and S = 19.7. Modal decomposition of obtained flow fields is done using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD where energetically most important modes are identified. The structure of POD modes is discussed together with classical approach based on phase averaged velocities.

  3. Shape signature based on Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Su, Zengyu; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wei; Dai, Junfei; Gu, Xianfeng

    2014-11-01

    A shape signature based on surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation is introduced for the purpose of surface comparison. First, the surface is conformally mapped onto plane by Ricci flow, which induces a measure on the planar domain. Second, the unique optimal mass transport map is computed that transports the new measure to the canonical measure on the plane. The map is obtained by a convex optimization process. This optimal transport map encodes all the information of the Riemannian metric on the surface. The shape signature consists of the optimal transport map, together with the mean curvature, which can fully recover the original surface. The discrete theories of surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation are explained thoroughly. The algorithms are given in detail. The signature is tested on human facial surfaces with different expressions accquired by structured light 3-D scanner based on phase-shifting method. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the method.

  4. Modeling and Simulation Framework for Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Morten Foged; Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the fluidic flow is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combining...... several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. Such biochips are becoming increasingly complex, with thousands of components, but are still designed manually using a bottom-up full-custom design approach, which is extremely labor intensive...... developed for the top-down design of flow-based biochips. We show how the IDE can be used to design biochips for several applications....

  5. Video Texture Synthesis Based on Flow-Like Stylization Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an NP-video rendering system based on natural phenomena. It provides a simple nonphotorealistic video synthesis system in which user can obtain a flow-like stylization painting and infinite video scene. Firstly, based on anisotropic Kuwahara filtering in conjunction with line integral convolution, the phenomena video scene can be rendered to flow-like stylization painting. Secondly, the methods of frame division, patches synthesis, will be used to synthesize infinite playing video. According to selection examples from different natural video texture, our system can generate stylized of flow-like and infinite video scenes. The visual discontinuities between neighbor frames are decreased, and we also preserve feature and details of frames. This rendering system is easy and simple to implement.

  6. Weighted cross-correlation based variational optical flow for gastric flow analysis in ultrasonic videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaojie; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Zhou, Zhuyu; Shen, Li; Chen, Yaqing

    2013-05-01

    Estimating the fluid motion in ultrasonic videos is a crucial step in the analysis of duodenogastric reflux. Severe image noise and illumination changes in the pyloric region (the region of interest) challenge the accurate estimation of gastric flow. In this paper, the authors propose an illumination-robust optical flow method based on the weighted cross-correlation. Cross-correlation was combined with the variational optical method framework as an illumination-robust local feature identifier. In consideration of accuracy near edges, they constructed visual similarity weights according to the characteristics of ultrasonic images. A processing procedure containing coarse-to-fine step and refinement was designed to get the final results. They tested the proposed method on synthetic and real ultrasonic images and compared it with other three optical flow methods. For quantitative evaluation, two metrics of angular and amplitude error were used. The synthetic results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better on ultrasonic images, with angular error of 4.1° and amplitude error of 3.3%. In qualitative comparison, the proposed method kept the motion field smooth in the homogeneous region while preserving edge information. When they used the results of the proposed method to judge the gastric flow direction, the automatic judgments agreed well with visual observation. The proposed method is a good tool for image velocimetry in ultrasonic images. It provides promising results to estimate the motion of gastric flow in ultrasonic videos.

  7. Venturi Wet Gas Flow Modeling Based on Homogeneous and Separated Flow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When Venturi meters are used in wet gas, the measured differential pressure is higher than it would be in gas phases flowing alone. This phenomenon is called over-reading. Eight famous over-reading correlations have been studied by many researchers under low- and high-pressure conditions, the conclusion is separated flow model and homogeneous flow model performing well both under high and low pressures. In this study, a new metering method is presented based on homogeneous and separated flow theory; the acceleration pressure drop and the friction pressure drop of Venturi under two-phase flow conditions are considered in new correlation, and its validity is verified through experiment. For low pressure, a new test program has been implemented in Tianjin University’s low-pressure wet gas loop. For high pressure, the National Engineering Laboratory offered their reports on the web, so the coefficients of the new proposed correlation are fitted with all independent data both under high and low pressures. Finally, the applicability and errors of new correlation are analyzed.

  8. Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B. [Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.

  9. Wavelet Analysis on Turbulent Structure in Drag-Reducing Channel Flow Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulation has been performed to study a polymer drag-reducing channel flow by using a discrete-element model. And then, wavelet analyses are employed to investigate the multiresolution characteristics of velocity components based on DNS data. Wavelet decomposition is applied to decompose velocity fluctuation time series into ten different frequency components including approximate component and detailed components, which show more regular intermittency and burst events in drag-reducing flow. The energy contribution, intermittent factor, and intermittent energy are calculated to investigate characteristics of different frequency components. The results indicate that energy contributions of different frequency components are redistributed by polymer additives. The energy contribution of streamwise approximate component in drag-reducing flow is up to 82%, much more than 25% in the Newtonian flow. Feature of turbulent multiscale structures is shown intuitively by continuous wavelet transform, verifying that turbulent structures become much more regular in drag-reducing flow.

  10. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pulakesh Das

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... in turn contributed to overall decrease in ET and increase in runoff and base flow. This study reiterates changes in the hydrology due to LULCC, thereby providing useful inputs for integrated water resources management in the principle of sustained ecology. Keywords. VIC model; land use; Mahanadi River ...

  11. Towards Separation of Concerns in Flow-Based Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Flow-Based Programming (FBP) is a programming paradigm that models software systems as a directed graph of predefined processes which run asynchronously and exchange data through input and output ports. FBP decomposes software systems into a network of processes. However there are concerns...

  12. Flow-through microsensor array based on semipermeable dialysis tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1999-11-01

    In this contribution, a flow-through potentiometric micro sensor is described which is based on semi-permeable tubing. Basically the proposed ion selective electrodes are of the liquid membrane type having an internal electrolyte. Sensors were constructed by guiding 0.3 mm diameter dialysis tube from an artificial kidney through a cavity, precision machined in PerspexTM.

  13. Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pulakesh Das

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... Impact of LULC change on the runoff, base flow and evapotranspiration dynamics in eastern. Indian river basins during 1985–2005 using variable infiltration capacity approach. Pulakesh Das1, Mukunda Dev Behera1,*, Nitesh Patidar2, Bhabagrahi Sahoo3,. Poonam Tripathi1, Priti Ranjan Behera3, S K ...

  14. The concept of flow in collaborative game-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Huizenga, J.; Akkerman, S.; ten Dam, G.

    2011-01-01

    Generally, high-school students have been characterized as bored and disengaged from the learning process. However, certain educational designs promote excitement and engagement. Game-based learning is assumed to be such a design. In this study, the concept of flow is used as a framework to

  15. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...... controllers. Local controllers implement these functions, which include PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, battery charging/discharging control, voltage control of DC bus for high-frequency inverter, and onboard battery charging control. By optimizing and matching parameters of transmitting...

  16. TS Fuzzy Model-Based Controller Design for a Class of Nonlinear Systems Including Nonsmooth Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising......This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... TS modeling of the nonlinear dynamics with signum functions is proposed. This model can exactly represent the original nonlinear system with hard nonlinearity while the discontinuous signum functions are not approximated. Based on the bounded-input-bounded-output stability scheme and L₁ performance...

  17. Characterization of Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Microfluidic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walji, Noosheen; MacDonald, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have been presented as a viable low-cost alternative with the versatility to accommodate many applications in disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Current microfluidic designs focus on the use of silicone and PDMS structures, and several models have been developed to describe these systems; however, the design process for paper-based devices is hindered by a lack of prediction capability. In this work we simplify the complex underlying physics of the capillary-driven flow mechanism in a porous medium and generate a practical numerical model capable of predicting the flow behaviour. We present our key insights regarding the properties that dictate the behaviour of fluid wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices. We compare the results from our model to experiments and discuss the application of our model to design of paper-based microfluidic devices for arsenic detection in drinking water in Bangladesh.

  18. An Evaluation of Argument Patterns Based on Data Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Part 2: The 2014 Asian Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, AsiaARES 2014; International audience; In this paper, we will introduce some of the problem areas that software engineers are susceptible during the creation of assurance cases, based on the author’s educational experience with assurance cases. To mitigate these problems, assurance case patterns are proposed based on Data flow diagrams that help engineers develop assurance cases by reusing those patterns. It is also ...

  19. Polyaffine parametrization of image registration based on geodesic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Thorup, Signe Strann; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Image registration based on geodesic flows has gained much popularity in recent years. We describe a novel parametrization of the velocity field in a stationary flow equation. We show that the method offers both precision, flexibility, and simplicity of evaluation. With our representation, which ...... of geodesic shooting for computational anatomy. We avoid to do warp field convolution by interpolation in a dense field, we can easily calculate warp derivatives in a reference frame of choice, and we can consequently avoid interpolation in the image space altogether....

  20. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  1. Flow cytometry-based diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kanegane

    2018-01-01

    Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs. Flow cytometry effectively identifies major forms of PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper IgM syndromes, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, IPEX syndrome, CTLA 4 haploinsufficiency and LRBA deficiency, IRAK4 and MyD88 deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, chronic mucocuneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. While genetic analysis is the definitive approach to establish specific diagnoses of PIDs, flow cytometry provides a tool to effectively evaluate patients with PIDs at relatively low cost.

  2. Influence of Base Oil Polarity on the Transient Shear Flow of Biodegradable Lubricating Greases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fiedler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to elucidate the physical mechanisms influencing the transient flow behavior of lubricating greases based on biogenic oleochemicals from a polarity point of view. This includes the mutually interacting influence of base oil polarity and thickening agents on the rheologically-measured mechanical structural degradation in transient shear flow. Due to the high temperature dependence of Keesom forces in the background of polar-active bond mechanisms, the analysis of the transient flow response as a function of temperature allows to attribute the observed influences to differences in base oil polarity. In general, clay-thickened greases show a greater tendency to be rheologically influenced by base oil polarities than soap-thickened lubricating greases.

  3. Research on Three-Dimensional Unsteady Turbulent Flow in Multistage Centrifugal Pump and Performance Prediction Based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional flow physical model of any stage of the 20BZ4 multistage centrifugal pump is built which includes inlet region, impeller flow region, guide-vane flow region and exit region. The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow numerical model is created based on Navier-Stoke solver and standard k-ε turbulent equations. The method of multireference frame (MRF and SIMPLE algorithm are used to simulate the flow in multistage centrifugal pump based on FLUENT software. The distributions of relative velocity, absolute velocity, static pressure, and total pressure in guide vanes and impellers under design condition are analyzed. The simulation results show that the flow in impeller is mostly uniform, without eddy, backflow, and separation flow, and jet-wake phenomenon appears only along individual blades. There is secondary flow at blade end and exit of guide vane. Due to the different blade numbers of guide vane and impeller, the total pressure distribution is asymmetric. This paper also simulates the flow under different working conditions to predict the hydraulic performances of centrifugal pump and external characteristics including flow-lift, flow-shaft power, and flow-efficiency are attained. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results, and because of the mechanical losses and volume loss ignored, there is a little difference between them.

  4. Mercury flow through an Asian rice-based food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Qiu, Guangle; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Evers, David C; Goodale, Morgan W; Hintelmann, Holger; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Quan, Rui-Chang; Wang, Jin; Wu, Pianpian; Xu, Xiao-Hang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally-distributed pollutant, toxic to humans and animals. Emissions are particularly high in Asia, and the source of exposure for humans there may also be different from other regions, including rice as well as fish consumption, particularly in contaminated areas. Yet the threats Asian wildlife face in rice-based ecosystems are as yet unclear. We sought to understand how Hg flows through rice-based food webs in historic mining and non-mining regions of Guizhou, China. We measured total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in soil, rice, 38 animal species (27 for MeHg) spanning multiple trophic levels, and examined the relationship between stable isotopes and Hg concentrations. Our results confirm biomagnification of THg/MeHg, with a high trophic magnification slope. Invertivorous songbirds had concentrations of THg in their feathers that were 15x and 3x the concentration reported to significantly impair reproduction, at mining and non-mining sites, respectively. High concentrations in specialist rice consumers and in granivorous birds, the later as high as in piscivorous birds, suggest rice is a primary source of exposure. Spiders had the highest THg concentrations among invertebrates and may represent a vector through which Hg is passed to vertebrates, especially songbirds. Our findings suggest there could be significant population level health effects and consequent biodiversity loss in sensitive ecosystems, like agricultural wetlands, across Asia, and invertivorous songbirds would be good subjects for further studies investigating this possibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A new method of well test analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs based on elliptical flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igbokoyi, A.O.; Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Well testing analysis in naturally fractured reservoirs is usually based on the radial flow model. However, this model is only applicable to purely homogeneous system and long time solution and cannot provide complete formation analysis in a reservoir that exhibits anisotropy. This paper presented a new method of estimating permeability anisotropy in naturally fractured reservoirs. Maximum and minimum permeability were obtained in one well test. The paper discussed the mathematical formulation for the study which used Warren and Root's matrix pseudo-steady state model. The paper presented the assumptions for this model which included an isotropic homogeneous or anisotropic homogeneous formation; a slightly compressible fluid with single phase flow in both the matrix and fracture; initial reservoir pressure; two-dimensional flow; and laminar flow which obeys Darcy's law. The paper also discussed the computation of wellbore pressure and interpretation methods for both early linear flow and the long time radial flow regimes. Anisotropy was also outlined as the purpose of the study was to use an elliptical flow model in quantifying the permeability anisotropy of the reservoir. The type curve model was also explained to demonstrate the validity of the method of quantifying the permeability anisotropy with a known problem. Last, the paper explained the direct method with several example. It was concluded that the elliptical flow model is the most appropriate method of analyzing pressure transient data in naturally fractured reservoirs. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs., 3 appendices.

  6. Thermodynamic and transport properties of plasmas including silicon-based compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, G.; D’Angola, A.; Pietanza, L. D.; Capitelli, M.; Pirani, F.; Stevanato, E.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2018-01-01

    The characterization of the thermodynamic and transport properties of plasmas including silicon species could be of great interest for the investigation of many different systems containing the product of the ablation of silicon-based materials. Different plasma systems (pure silicon, silicon–argon, silicon dioxide and silicon carbide) have been investigated in a wide temperature range (103–4 104 K) and for different pressures (1, 10, 30 and 100 atm), relying on the construction of accurate and extended databases of internal energy levels and binary-interaction transport cross sections for the silicon compounds. The results have been compared with the available results in the literature also studying the dependence on the ratio of components.

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow and effects of groundwater irrigation on stream base flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska, 1895-2055-Phase Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Peterson, Steven M.; Fienen, Michael N.

    2010-01-01

    Regional groundwater-flow simulations for a 30,000-square-mile area of the High Plains aquifer, referred to collectively as the Elkhorn-Loup Model, were developed to predict the effects of groundwater irrigation on stream base flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska. Simulations described the stream-aquifer system from predevelopment through 2005 [including predevelopment (pre-1895), early development (1895-1940), and historical development (1940 through 2005) conditions] and future hypothetical development conditions (2006 through 2033 or 2055). Predicted changes to stream base flow that resulted from simulated changes to groundwater irrigation will aid development of long-term strategies for management of hydrologically connected water supplies. The predevelopment through 2005 simulation was calibrated using an automated parameter-estimation method to optimize the fit to pre-1940 groundwater levels and base flows, 1945 through 2005 decadal groundwater-level changes, and 1940 through 2005 base flows. The calibration results of the pre-1940 period indicated that 81 percent of the simulated groundwater levels were within 30 feet of the measured water levels. The results did not indicate large areas of simulated groundwater levels that were biased too high or too low, indicating that the simulation generally captures the regional trends. Calibration results using 1945 through 2005 decadal groundwater-level changes indicated that a majority of the simulated groundwater-level changes were within 5 feet of the changes calculated from measured groundwater levels. Simulated groundwater-level rises generally were smaller than measured rises near surface-water irrigation districts. Simulated groundwater-level declines were larger than measured declines in several parts of the study area having large amounts of irrigated crops. Base-flow trends and volumes generally were reproduced by the simulation at most sites. Exceptions include downward trends of simulated

  8. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G.; Garg, Manohar L.; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E.

    2017-01-01

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers. PMID:28216582

  9. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E

    2017-02-14

    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design ( n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records ( n = 7), 24-h diet recalls ( n = 5), food frequency questionnaires ( n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener ( n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority ( n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers ( r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  10. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  11. The phylogeny of extant starfish (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including Xyloplax, based on comparative transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linchangco, Gregorio V; Foltz, David W; Reid, Rob; Williams, John; Nodzak, Conor; Kerr, Alexander M; Miller, Allison K; Hunter, Rebecca; Wilson, Nerida G; Nielsen, William J; Mah, Christopher L; Rouse, Greg W; Wray, Gregory A; Janies, Daniel A

    2017-10-01

    Multi-locus phylogenetic studies of echinoderms based on Sanger and RNA-seq technologies and the fossil record have provided evidence for the Asterozoa-Echinozoa hypothesis. This hypothesis posits a sister relationship between asterozoan classes (Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) and a similar relationship between echinozoan classes (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). Despite this consensus around Asterozoa-Echinozoa, phylogenetic relationships within the class Asteroidea (sea stars or starfish) have been controversial for over a century. Open questions include relationships within asteroids and the status of the enigmatic taxon Xyloplax. Xyloplax is thought by some to represent a newly discovered sixth class of echinoderms - and by others to be an asteroid. To address these questions, we applied a novel workflow to a large RNA-seq dataset that encompassed a broad taxonomic and genomic sample. This study included 15 species sampled from all extant orders and 13 families, plus four ophiuroid species as an outgroup. To expand the taxonomic coverage, the study also incorporated five previously published transcriptomes and one previously published expressed sequence tags (EST) dataset. We developed and applied methods that used a range of alignment parameters with increasing permissiveness in terms of gap characters present within an alignment. This procedure facilitated the selection of phylogenomic data subsets from large amounts of transcriptome data. The results included 19 nested data subsets that ranged from 37 to 4,281loci. Tree searches on all data subsets reconstructed Xyloplax as a velatid asteroid rather than a new class. This result implies that asteroid morphology remains labile well beyond the establishment of the body plan of the group. In the phylogenetic tree with the highest average asteroid nodal support several monophyletic groups were recovered. In this tree, Forcipulatida and Velatida are monophyletic and form a clade that includes Brisingida as sister to

  12. Towards Domain-specific Flow-based Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.

    2018-01-01

    describe their problems and solutions, instead of using general purpose programming languages. The goal of these languages is to improve the productivity and efficiency of the development and simulation of concurrent scientific models and systems. Moreover, they help to expose parallelism and to specify...... the concurrency within a component or across different independent components. In this paper, we introduce the concept of domain-specific flowbased languages which allows domain experts to use flow-based languages adapted to a particular problem domain. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrency, while......Due to the significant growth of the demand for data-intensive computing, in addition to the emergence of new parallel and distributed computing technologies, scientists and domain experts are leveraging languages specialized for their problem domain, i.e., domain-specific languages, to help them...

  13. Storage and Caching: Synthesis of Flow-based Microfluidic Biochips

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Tsun-Ming; Li, Bing; Ho, Tsung-Yi; Schlichtmann, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Flow-based microfluidic biochips are widely used in lab- on-a-chip experiments. In these chips, devices such as mixers and detectors connected by micro-channels execute specific operations. Intermediate fluid samples are saved in storage temporarily until target devices become avail- able. However, if the storage unit does not have enough capacity, fluid samples must wait in devices, reducing their efficiency and thus increasing the overall execution time. Consequently, storage and caching of...

  14. Flow-based Brute-force Attack Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Drašar, Martin; Vykopal, Jan; Winter, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Brute-force attacks are a prevalent phenomenon that is getting harderto successfully detect on a network level due to increasing volume and en-cryption of network traffic and growing ubiquity of high-speed networks.Although the research in this field advanced considerably, there still remainclasses of attacks that are undetectable. In this chapter, we present sev-eral methods for the detection of brute-force attacks based on the analysisof network flows. We discuss their strengths and shortco...

  15. Discrete-fracture-model of multi–scale time-splitting two–phase flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-11-23

    In this article, we consider a two-phase immiscible incompressible flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured heterogeneous porous media. The system of the governing equations consists of water saturation, Darcy’s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat, as well as, porosity and permeability variation due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores. The discrete-fracture model (DFM) is used to describe the flow and transport in fractured porous media. Moreover, multiscale time-splitting strategy has been employed to manage different time-step sizes for different physics, such as saturation, concentration, etc. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multi-scale time splitting approach.

  16. Flow cytometry-based diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Hirokazu; Hoshino, Akihiro; Okano, Tsubasa; Yasumi, Takahiro; Wada, Taizo; Takada, Hidetoshi; Okada, Satoshi; Yamashita, Motoi; Yeh, Tzu-Wen; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Takagi, Masatoshi; Imai, Kohsuke; Ochs, Hans D; Morio, Tomohiro

    2018-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases of the immune system. The definite diagnosis of PID is ascertained by genetic analysis; however, this takes time and is costly. Flow cytometry provides a rapid and highly sensitive tool for diagnosis of PIDs. Flow cytometry can evaluate specific cell populations and subpopulations, cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biologic effects associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune characteristics, each being useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of PIDs. Flow cytometry effectively identifies major forms of PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper IgM syndromes, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, IPEX syndrome, CTLA 4 haploinsufficiency and LRBA deficiency, IRAK4 and MyD88 deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, chronic mucocuneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. While genetic analysis is the definitive approach to establish specific diagnoses of PIDs, flow cytometry provides a tool to effectively evaluate patients with PIDs at relatively low cost. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A microcomputer-based gamma attenuation monitor for flowing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, S.; Malcolme-Lawes, D.

    1984-01-01

    Many industrial processes involve large-scale flows of liquid mixtures or solutions in situations where it is desirable for the composition of the flow to be monitored. The attenuation (Isub(x)/I 0 ) of a beam of gamma photons can be used to provide a moderately sensitive means of monitoring mixture composition. Several applications of this technique to solid systems have been reported, and we have recently shown how the technique may be applied to monitoring the composition of a flowing liquid binary mixture. This paper describes a microcomputer-based apparatus which may be used to record the attenuation of a collimated beam of gamma photons by a liquid mixture flowing through a pipe. The apparatus and some example results obtained with trial mixtures are discussed. However, the sensitivity of the technique is determined both by the difference in u (the linear absorption coefficient of the matter concerned) for the materials which make up the mixture, and by the precision with which Isub(x)/I 0 may be monitored. For this reason we first consider the precision obtainable in the measurement of the intensity of a gamma photon beam. (author)

  18. Flow logic for language-based safety and security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    2005-01-01

    Society is increasingly dependent on information and communication technology. Computers are integrated into everything from toasters to control systems for critical infrastructure. Consequently even simple programming errors have the potential to wreck havoc on practically every aspect of society......-based safety and security, provide a feasible platform for developing software that can be verified and validated with a very high degree of assurance. Specifically, it is argued and demonstrated that static analysis is an indispensable technique for language- based safety and security and that the Flow Logic...... with respect to the semantics and are then used to verify a wide spectrum of pertinent safety and security properties....

  19. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  20. A novel flow-based parameter of collateral function assessed by intracoronary thermodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Markus; Felix, Stephan B; Empen, Klaus; Reffelmann, Thorsten

    2014-04-01

    Currently, many methods for quantitation of coronary collateral function are based on intracoronary pressure measurements distal of an occluded balloon, which do not fully account for the dynamic nature of collateral flow. Therefore, a flow-based parameter of coronary collateral function based upon principles of thermodilution was evaluated. In 26 patients with a high-grade coronary artery stenosis, intracoronary hemodynamics were analyzed by the RadiAnalyzer system (St Jude Medical), including fractional flow reserve (FFR), index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and the pressure-based collateral flow index (CFI) during balloon occlusion and hyperemia (intravenous adenosine). Moreover, immediately after an intracoronary bolus of room-temperature saline, the balloon was occluded and the intracoronary temperature distal to the balloon was analyzed over time. The slope of the temperature-time curve was calculated after logarithmic transformation as an index of collateral blood flow (CBFI). The coefficient of variation between two measurements of CBFI amounted to 11 ± 2%. In patients with CFI ≥0.25, CBFI amounted to 0.55 ± 0.09, whereas in those with CFI <0.25, CBFI was 0.37 ± 0.03. CBFI correlated significantly with CFI (r = 0.65; P<.001). Interestingly, in the subgroup with IMR below the median (<14.2 mm Hg · s), the slope of the linear regression for CBFI vs CFI was steeper than in individuals with higher IMR, which indicates more effective collateral flow for any given intracoronary pressure distal to the occluded balloon in the group with lower microvascular resistance. This novel index might be useful as a flow-based index of collateral function, and should be evaluated in further studies.

  1. Entropy feature extraction on flow pattern of gas/liquid two-phase flow based on cross-section measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J; Dong, F; Xu, Y Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental of cross-section measurement system based on Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). The measured data of four flow regimes of the gas/liquid two-phase flow in horizontal pipe flow are obtained by an ERT system. For the measured data, five entropies are extracted to analyze the experimental data according to the different flow regimes, and the analysis method is examined and compared in three different perspectives. The results indicate that three different perspectives of entropy-based feature extraction are sensitive to the flow pattern transition in gas/liquid two-phase flow. By analyzing the results of three different perspectives with the changes of gas/liquid two-phase flow parameters, the dynamic structures of gas/liquid two-phase flow is obtained, and they also provide an efficient supplementary to reveal the flow pattern transition mechanism of gas/liquid two-phase flow. Comparison of the three different methods of feature extraction shows that the appropriate entropy should be used for the identification and prediction of flow regimes.

  2. Redox flow batteries based on supporting solutions containing chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Jianlu; Xia, Guanguang

    2017-11-14

    Redox flow battery systems having a supporting solution that contains Cl.sup.- ions can exhibit improved performance and characteristics. Furthermore, a supporting solution having mixed SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions can provide increased energy density and improved stability and solubility of one or more of the ionic species in the catholyte and/or anolyte. According to one example, a vanadium-based redox flow battery system is characterized by an anolyte having V.sup.2+ and V.sup.3+ in a supporting solution and a catholyte having V.sup.4+ and V.sup.5+ in a supporting solution. The supporting solution can contain Cl.sup.- ions or a mixture of SO.sub.4.sup.2- and Cl.sup.- ions.

  3. An improved approach for flow-based cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2014-04-11

    Novel strategies are proposed to circumvent the main drawbacks of flow-based cloud point extraction (CPE). The surfactant-rich phase (SRP) was directly retained into the optical path of the spectrophotometric cell, thus avoiding its dilution previously to the measurement and yielding higher sensitivity. Solenoid micro-pumps were exploited to improve mixing by the pulsed flow and also to modulate the flow-rate for retention and removal of the SRP, thus avoiding the elution step, often carried out with organic solvents. The heat released and the increase of the salt concentration provided by an on-line neutralization reaction were exploited to induce the cloud point without an external heating device. These innovations were demonstrated by the spectrophotometric determination of iron, yielding a linear response from 10 to 200 μg L(-1) with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% (n=7). Detection limit and sampling rate were estimated at 5 μg L(-1) (95% confidence level) and 26 samples per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor was 8.9 and the procedure consumed only 6 μg of TAN and 390 μg of Triton X-114 per determination. At the 95% confidence level, the results obtained for freshwater samples agreed with the reference procedure and those obtained for digests of bovine muscle, rice flour, brown bread and tort lobster agreed with the certified reference values. The proposed procedure thus shows advantages in relation to previously proposed approaches for flow-based CPE, being a fast and environmental friendly alternative for on-line separation and pre-concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Advanced Deployable Shell-Based Composite Booms for Small Satellite Structural Applications Including Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    State of the art deployable structures are mainly being designed for medium to large size satellites. The lack of reliable deployable structural systems for low cost, small volume, rideshare-class spacecraft severely constrains the potential for using small satellite platforms for affordable deep space science and exploration precursor missions that could be realized with solar sails. There is thus a need for reliable, lightweight, high packaging efficiency deployable booms that can serve as the supporting structure for a wide range of small satellite systems including solar sails for propulsion. The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) is currently investing in the development of a new class of advanced deployable shell-based composite booms to support future deep space small satellite missions using solar sails. The concepts are being designed to: meet the unique requirements of small satellites, maximize ground testability, permit the use of low-cost manufacturing processes that will benefit scalability, be scalable for use as elements of hierarchical structures (e.g. trusses), allow long duration storage, have high deployment reliability, and have controlled deployment behavior and predictable deployed dynamics. This paper will present the various rollable boom concepts that are being developed for 5-20 m class size deployable structures that include solar sails with the so-called High Strain Composites (HSC) materials. The deployable composite booms to be presented are being developed to expand the portfolio of available rollable booms for small satellites and maximize their length for a given packaged volume. Given that solar sails are a great example of volume and mass optimization, the booms were designed to comply with nominal solar sail system requirements for 6U CubeSats, which are a good compromise between those of smaller form factors (1U, 2U and 3U CubeSats) and larger ones (12 U and 27 U future CubeSats, and ESPA-class microsatellites). Solar

  5. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  6. A review on flow characterization methods for cereal grain-based powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Jan, Shumaila; Siliveru, Kaliramesh

    2016-01-30

    Flow difficulties during handling, storage, and processing are common in cereal grain-based powder industries. The many studies that focus on the flow properties of powders can be classified as flow indicators, shear properties, and dynamic flow properties. The non-uniformity of physical and chemical characteristics of the individual particles that make up the bulk solid of cereal grain-based powders adds complexity to the characterization of flow behavior. Even so, knowledge of flow behavior is critical to the design of productive and cost-effective equipment for handling and processing of these powders. Because many factors influence flow, a single property/index value may not satisfactorily quantify the flow or no-flow of powders. For powders of biological origin, chemical composition and environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity complicate flow characterization. This review focuses on the specific flow characteristics that directly affect powder flow during handling, processing, and storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  8. Simple Flows of Pseudoplastic Fluids Based on Dehaven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper three simple flows of visco-plastic fluids of DeHaven type or fluids similar to them are considered. These flows are: Poiseuille flow in a plane channel, Poiseuille flow through a circular pipe and rotating Couette flow between two coaxial cylinders. After presentation DeHaven model it was presented some models of fluids similar to this model. Next it was given the solutions of equations of motion for three flows mentioned above.

  9. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accurate Multisteps Traffic Flow Prediction Based on SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Mingheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate traffic flow prediction is prerequisite and important for realizing intelligent traffic control and guidance, and it is also the objective requirement for intelligent traffic management. Due to the strong nonlinear, stochastic, time-varying characteristics of urban transport system, artificial intelligence methods such as support vector machine (SVM are now receiving more and more attentions in this research field. Compared with the traditional single-step prediction method, the multisteps prediction has the ability that can predict the traffic state trends over a certain period in the future. From the perspective of dynamic decision, it is far important than the current traffic condition obtained. Thus, in this paper, an accurate multi-steps traffic flow prediction model based on SVM was proposed. In which, the input vectors were comprised of actual traffic volume and four different types of input vectors were compared to verify their prediction performance with each other. Finally, the model was verified with actual data in the empirical analysis phase and the test results showed that the proposed SVM model had a good ability for traffic flow prediction and the SVM-HPT model outperformed the other three models for prediction.

  11. A MEMS SOI-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B.; Li, H. F.; Yang, H.; Song, D. L.; Bai, X. W.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor is presented; the presented flow sensor mainly consists of a nylon sensing head, stainless steel cantilever beam, SOI sensor chip, printed circuit board, half-cylinder gasket, and stainless steel shell. The working principle of the sensor and some detailed contrastive analysis about the sensor structure were introduced since the nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam have distinct influence on the sensor performance; the structure of nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam is also discussed. The SOI sensor chip was fabricated using micro-electromechanical systems technologies, such as reactive ion etching and low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The designed fluid sensor was packaged and tested; a calibration installation system was purposely designed for the sensor experiment. The testing results indicated that the output voltage of the sensor is proportional to the square of the fluid flow velocity, which is coincident with the theoretical derivation. The tested sensitivity of the sensor is 3.91 × 10-4 V ms2/kg.

  12. File-Based Data Flow in the CMS Filter Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, J.M.; et al.

    2015-12-23

    During the LHC Long Shutdown 1, the CMS Data Acquisition system underwent a partial redesign to replace obsolete network equipment, use more homogeneous switching technologies, and prepare the ground for future upgrades of the detector front-ends. The software and hardware infrastructure to provide input, execute the High Level Trigger (HLT) algorithms and deal with output data transport and storage has also been redesigned to be completely file- based. This approach provides additional decoupling between the HLT algorithms and the input and output data flow. All the metadata needed for bookkeeping of the data flow and the HLT process lifetimes are also generated in the form of small “documents” using the JSON encoding, by either services in the flow of the HLT execution (for rates etc.) or watchdog processes. These “files” can remain memory-resident or be written to disk if they are to be used in another part of the system (e.g. for aggregation of output data). We discuss how this redesign improves the robustness and flexibility of the CMS DAQ and the performance of the system currently being commissioned for the LHC Run 2.

  13. Pipe flow of pumping wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianjun; Liu, Guoming; Cheng, Weimin; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Wet shotcrete can reduce dust and improve supporting strength, however, safe and efficient pipage is a key technical part of wet shotcrete process. The paper studied the pipe flow law of wet shotcrete based on lubrication layer by build the experimental pumping circuit of wet shotcrete that can carry out a number of full-scale pumping tests. The experimental results show there was a linear relationship between pressure loss and flow rate. Combined with the Buckingham rheological equation, the computing equations of the yield shear stress and plastic viscosity were deduced through linear regression. A simple analytical method allowing for a rough estimation of the pumping pressure was proposed and used when considering the lubrication layer of wet shotcrete in pipes. In addition, two kinds of particulate distributive models were established along the time axial to analyze the formation of lubrication layer which is related with particles migration. By computational fluid dynamics simulation, the lubrication layer thickness of different mix proportions was estimated. A new method for measuring the thickness of lubrication layer was proposed to verify it by binarization processing. Finally, according to the comparative analysis of experiments, simulation and computed value, it can be seen that the lubrication layer plays a key role in the process of wet shotcrete flow and with the increase of lubrication layer thickness pipe pressure declines gradually.

  14. A MEMS SOI-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B; Li, H F; Yang, H; Song, D L; Bai, X W; Zhao, Y L

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor is presented; the presented flow sensor mainly consists of a nylon sensing head, stainless steel cantilever beam, SOI sensor chip, printed circuit board, half-cylinder gasket, and stainless steel shell. The working principle of the sensor and some detailed contrastive analysis about the sensor structure were introduced since the nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam have distinct influence on the sensor performance; the structure of nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam is also discussed. The SOI sensor chip was fabricated using micro-electromechanical systems technologies, such as reactive ion etching and low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The designed fluid sensor was packaged and tested; a calibration installation system was purposely designed for the sensor experiment. The testing results indicated that the output voltage of the sensor is proportional to the square of the fluid flow velocity, which is coincident with the theoretical derivation. The tested sensitivity of the sensor is 3.91 × 10 -4 V ms 2 /kg.

  15. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  16. Biosensor design based on Marangoni flow in an evaporating drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantum, Joshua R; Baglia, Mark L; Eagleton, Zachary E; Mernaugh, Raymond L; Haselton, Frederick R

    2014-01-21

    Effective point-of-care diagnostics require a biomarker detection strategy that is low-cost and simple-to-use while achieving a clinically relevant limit of detection. Here we report a biosensor that uses secondary flows arising from surface Marangoni stresses in an evaporating drop to concentrate target-mediated particle aggregates in a visually detectable spot. The spot size increases with increasing target concentration within the dynamic range of the assay. The particle deposition patterns are visually detectable and easily measured with simple optical techniques. We use optical coherence tomography to characterize the effect of cross-sectional flow fields on the motion of particles in the presence and absence of target (aggregated and non-aggregated particles, respectively). We show that choice of substrate material and the presence of salts and glycerol in solution promote the Marangoni-induced flows that are necessary to produce signal in the proposed design. These evaporation-driven flows generate signal in the assay on a PDMS substrate but not substrates with greater thermal conductivity like indium tin oxide-coated glass. In this proof-of-concept design we use the M13K07 bacteriophage as a model target and 1 μm-diameter particles surface functionalized with anti-M13 monoclonal antibodies. Using standard microscopy-based techniques to measure the final spot size, the assay has a calculated limit-of-detection of approximately 100 fM. Approximately 80% of the maximum signal is generated within 10 minutes of depositing a 1 μL drop of reacted sample on PDMS enabling a relatively quick time-to-result.

  17. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Facial Expression Recognition Based on TensorFlow Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition have a wide range of applications in human-machine interaction, pattern recognition, image understanding, machine vision and other fields. Recent years, it has gradually become a hot research. However, different people have different ways of expressing their emotions, and under the influence of brightness, background and other factors, there are some difficulties in facial expression recognition. In this paper, based on the Inception-v3 model of TensorFlow platform, we use the transfer learning techniques to retrain facial expression dataset (The Extended Cohn-Kanade dataset, which can keep the accuracy of recognition and greatly reduce the training time.

  19. Simulation and analysis of traffic flow based on cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianping; Liu, Xia

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, single-lane and two-lane traffic model are established based on cellular automaton. Different values of vehicle arrival rate at the entrance and vehicle departure rate at the exit are set to analyze their effects on density, average speed and traffic flow. If the road exit is unblocked, vehicles can pass through the road smoothly despite of the arrival rate at the entrance. If vehicles enter into the road continuously, the traffic condition is varied with the departure rate at the exit. To avoid traffic jam, reasonable vehicle departure rate should be adopted.

  20. Tracing China's energy flow and carbon dioxide flow based on Sankey diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyin; Wang, Pengtao; Xu, Xiaomeng; Dong, Lihui; Xue, Honglai; Fu, Shuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precise Mining of Intergrown Energy and Resources, Beijing (China); China University of Mining and Technology, Faculty of Resources and Safety Engineering, Beijing (China); Ji, Yingxu [State Grid Jibei Electric Power Company Limited, Langfang Power Supply Company, Langfang (China)

    2017-10-15

    China has promised to optimize its energy structure and reduce its CO{sub 2} emission in the 13th Five-Year Plan. To track the energy structure, the conversions, efficiencies, end consumptions of total energy and coal and the whole CO{sub 2} emission status, the energy flow, coal flow and CO{sub 2} flow in 2015 were, respectively, drawn at the national level based on Sankey diagrams. Besides, each provincial fossil fuel structure, CO{sub 2} structure and CO{sub 2} intensity were calculated and plotted. It is mainly found that China's energy structure consisted of 69.2% of coal, 19.9% of oil, 6.3% of natural gas and 4.7% of non-fossil energy, where 45.5% of energy was consumed by industry and 23.9% by losses and statistical difference; coal was distributed to industry (55.6%), etc., with a utilization rate of 70.1%; and CO{sub 2} were derived from coal (84.7%), oil (11.1%) and natural gas (4.2%), of which 39.0% was released through the process of thermal power generation and 19.4% by industry. The structures of fossil fuels and their CO{sub 2} emissions together with the evolution of CO{sub 2} intensity at the provincial level and the regional level were also given. Besides, two pieces of policy implications were proposed to provide the government with reference. (orig.)

  1. CARDfile data base representativeness, Phase 1 : general characteristics including populations, vehicles, roads, and fatal accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the : representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base : (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, : Maryland, Michigan, Penn...

  2. CARDfile Data Base Representatives - Phase I: General Characteristics including Populations, Vehicles, Roads, and Fatal Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This report details the results of an analysis performed to evaluate the representativeness of the Crash Avoidance Research accident data base (CARDfile). The accident records for 1983 and 1984 from six states (Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Pennsylvan...

  3. [Research of potassium flow and circulation based on substance flow analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Zeng, Si-Yu; Dong, Xin; Chen, Ji-Ning

    2013-06-01

    Mass of potassium is consumed in the process of crop production, which is the dominating section of potassium flow and circulation in China. However, the degree of self-sufficiency is relatively low due to the deficient domestic resource of potassium. This study analyzed the key links of potassium issues in crop production and consumptive use in 2009 based on substance flow analysis. The results indicated that the farmland nutrient balance of input/output couldn't make even, with a heavy deficit of 50.4 kg x hm(-2) at the national level. Meanwhile, about 2.31 million ton of potash fertilizer was washed away into the hydrologic cycle, which accounts for 40.97% of chemical fertilizer applied in the whole year. Domestic wastewater in urban and rural areas was identified as another primary source for the transformation of potassium from terrestrial ecosystem to water environment system, annually contributing 671 and 547 thousand tons, which takes up 19.00% and 15.50%, respectively. And the amount of potassium in effluent of wastewater treatment plants was 505 thousand tons per year, accounting for 75.25% of the total emission in urban areas.

  4. Model based flow measurement using venturi flumes for return flow during drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pirir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In an oil well drilling operation, a proper knowledge of the return fluid flowrate is necessary both for the stabilization of the bottom hole pressure of the well and also as a primary indication of a kick or loss. In practice, the drill fluid flowing through the return line is usually measured with Coriolis meters. However this method is both expensive and has some downsides. For instance there is a risk of blockage due to drill cuttings while measuring the discharge. The presence of gas and cuttings in the drilling fluid will also have a negative effect in the measurement i.e. for multi-phase fluid, the readings from Coriolis meters may not be accurate. A cheaper alternative would be to use an open channel for the measurement of the discharge from the return flowline. In this paper, a venturi rig is used as the open channel and modeled by the Saint Venant equations. Experimental verification of the simulation results show a promising behavior of the model based measurement of the return fluid flow.

  5. An expanded Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) to include Carpolepis and Tepualia based on nuclear genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) comprises 50-60 species, found largely across the Pacific Islands. The relationships within this genus, including the circumscriptions of the subgenera Mearnsia and Metrosideros and their relationships with the other members of the tribe Metrosidereae, namely the N...

  6. Flow-based market coupling. Stepping stone towards nodal pricing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Welle, A.J.

    2012-07-01

    For achieving one internal energy market for electricity by 2014, market coupling is deployed to integrate national markets into regional markets and ultimately one European electricity market. The extent to which markets can be coupled depends on the available transmission capacities between countries. Since interconnections are congested from time to time, congestion management methods are deployed to divide the scarce available transmission capacities over market participants. For further optimization of the use of available transmission capacities while maintaining current security of supply levels, flow-based market coupling (FBMC) will be implemented in the CWE region by 2013. Although this is an important step forward, important hurdles for efficient congestion management remain. Hence, flow based market coupling is compared to nodal pricing, which is often considered as the most optimal solution from theoretical perspective. In the context of decarbonised power systems it is concluded that advantages of nodal pricing are likely to exceed its disadvantages, warranting further development of FBMC in the direction of nodal pricing.

  7. Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step, it is a......In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step......, it is applied a crowd tracker in every frame, allowing us to detect and track the crowds. Our system gives the output as a graphic overlay, i.e it adds arrows and colors to the original frame sequence, in order to identify crowds and their movements. For the evaluation, we check when our system detect certains...

  8. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  9. A Multiobjective Optimization Including Results of Life Cycle Assessment in Developing Biorenewables-Based Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmdach, Daniel; Yaseneva, Polina; Heer, Parminder K; Schweidtmann, Artur M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-22

    A decision support tool has been developed that uses global multiobjective optimization based on 1) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment; and 2) process costs, evaluated by using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing biorenewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, for which multiple criteria must be evaluated and optimization-based decision-making processes are particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated by using a case study of the conversion of terpenes derived from biowaste feedstocks into reactive intermediates. A two-step chemical conversion/separation sequence was implemented as a rigorous process model and combined with a life cycle model. A life cycle inventory for crude sulfate turpentine was developed, as well as a conceptual process of its separation into pure terpene feedstocks. The performed single- and multiobjective optimizations demonstrate the functionality of the optimization-based process development and illustrate the approach. The most significant advance is the ability to perform multiobjective global optimization, resulting in identification of a region of Pareto-optimal solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A project-based system for including farmers in the EU ETS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    as ‘the missing link’ in past climate negotiations. We argue that farmers have relatively low marginal reduction costs and that consequences in terms of the effect on permit price and technology are overall positive in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). Thus, we propose a project-based system...

  11. Two Corpus-Based Approaches to Rap Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Gran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary compares and contrasts the two articles within this issue that describe a corpus-based approach to rap music (Condit-Schultz, 2016; Ohriner 2016. Beyond their technical differences, these studies mutually converge on the concept of "flow" as a window into the technical problems of analyzing rap music, and the results of the two studies complement one another. The comparison of these essays allows a unique insight into the methodological alternatives available within corpus-based research. I also attempt to briefly contextualize these essays within the history of the field, and to outline what I believe their significance to be as contributions to the musicology of rap music.

  12. Chemistry resolved kinetic flow modeling of TATB based explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Peter; Fried, Laurence E.; William, Howard; Levesque, George; Souers, P. Clark

    2012-03-01

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB-based explosives are believed to have multiple time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. We use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. We term our model chemistry resolved kinetic flow, since CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. We present here two variants of our new rate model and comparison with hot, ambient, and cold experimental data for PBX 9502.

  13. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  14. An integrated, multiparametric flow cytometry chip using "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaole; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Zhao, Yanhui; McCoy, J Philip; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an integrated, single-layer, miniature flow cytometry device that is capable of multi-parametric particle analysis. The device integrates both particle focusing and detection components on-chip, including a "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing component and a series of optical fibers integrated into the microfluidic architecture to facilitate on-chip detection. With this design, multiple optical signals (i.e., forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence) from individual particles can be simultaneously detected. Experimental results indicate that the performance of our flow cytometry chip is comparable to its bulky, expensive desktop counterpart. The integration of on-chip 3D particle focusing with on-chip multi-parametric optical detection in a single-layer, mass-producible microfluidic device presents a major step towards low-cost flow cytometry chips for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  15. Droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Xin; Luo, Rong; Lü, Shu-Hai; Xu, Ai-Dong; Yang, Yong-Jun

    2005-08-01

    Polymerase chain reactions (PCR), thermally activated chemical reactions which are widely used for nucleic acid amplification, have recently received much attention in microelectromechanical systems and micro total analysis systems because a wide variety of DNA/RNA molecules can be enriched by PCR for further analyses. In the present work, a droplet-based micro oscillating-flow PCR chip was designed and fabricated by the silicon microfabrication technique. Three different temperature zones, which were stable at denaturation, extension and annealing temperatures and isolated from each other by a thin-wall linkage, were integrated with a single, simple and straight microchannel to form the chip's basic functional structure. The PCR mixture was injected into the chip as a single droplet and flowed through the three temperature zones in the main microchannel in an oscillating manner to achieve the temperature maintenance and transitions. The chip's thermal performance was theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated. The results indicated that the time needed for the temperature of the droplet to change to the target value is less than 1 s, and the root mean square error of temperature is less than 0.2 °C. A droplet of 1 µl PCR mixture with standard HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)-DNA sample inside was amplified by the present chip and the results were analyzed by slab gel electrophoresis with separation of DNA markers in parallel. The electrophoresis results demonstrated that the micro oscillating-flow PCR chip successfully amplified the HPV-DNA, with a processing time of about 15 min which is significantly reduced compared to that for the conventional PCR instrument.

  16. An Update on ConSys Including a New LabVIEW FPGA Based LLRF System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Torben; Nielsen, Jørgen S.

    Sys is a standard publisher/subscriber system, where all nodes can act both as client and server. One very strong feature is the easy ability to make virtual devices (devices which do not depend on hardware directly, but combine hardware parameters.) For ASTRID2 a new LabVIEW based Low-Level RF system has been made...... live plots from the regulation loops are implemented in a host program on Windows. All three levels have been implemented with LabVIEW. The LLRF system is interfaced to ConSys through LabVIEW shared variables....

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.

  18. Two-phase flow measurement based on oblique laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cícero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    Multiphase flow measurements play a crucial role in monitoring productions processes in many industries. To guarantee the safety of processes involving multiphase flows, it is important to detect changes in the flow conditions before they can cause damage, often in fractions of seconds. Here we demonstrate how the scattering pattern of a laser beam passing a two-phase flow under an oblique angle to the flow direction can be used to detect derivations from the desired flow conditions in microseconds. Applying machine-learning techniques to signals obtained from three photo-detectors we achieve a compact, versatile, low-cost sensor design for safety applications.

  19. Measurement channel of neutron flow based on software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, T.; Benitez R, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal power in nuclear reactors is based mainly on the measurement of the neutron flow. The presence of these in the reactor core is associated to neutrons released by the fission reaction of the uranium-235. Once moderate, these neutrons are precursors of new fissions. This process it is known like chain reaction. Thus, the power to which works a nuclear reactor, he is proportional to the number of produced fissions and as these depend on released neutrons, also the power is proportional to the number of present neutrons. The measurement of the thermal power in a reactor is realized with called instruments nuclear channels. To low power (level source), these channels measure the individual counts of detected neutrons, whereas to a medium and high power, they measure the electrical current or fluctuation of the same one that generate the fission neutrons in ionization chambers especially designed to detect neutrons. For the case of TRIGA reactors, the measurement channels of neutron flow use discreet digital electronic technology makes some decades already. Recently new technological tools have arisen that allow developing new versions of nuclear channels of simple form and compacts. The present work consists of the development of a nuclear channel for TRIGA reactors based on the use of the correlated signal of a fission chamber for ample interval. This new measurement channel uses a data acquisition card of high speed and the data processing by software that to the being installed in a computer is created a virtual instrument, with what spreads in real time, in graphic and understandable form for the operator, the power indication to which it operates the nuclear reactor. This system when being based on software, offers a major versatility to realize changes in the signal processing and power monitoring algorithms. The experimental tests of neutronic power measurement show a reliable performance through seven decades of power, with a

  20. Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.

  1. Hepatocyte-based flow analytical bioreactor for xenobiotics metabolism bioprediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Helvenstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research for new in vitro screening tools for predictive metabolic profiling of drug candidates is of major interest in the pharmaceutical field. The main motivation is to avoid late rejection in drug development and to deliver safer drugs to the market. Thanks to the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, a flow bioreactor has been developed which is able to perform xenobiotic metabolism studies. The selected cell line (HepaRG maintained its metabolic competencies once iron oxide nanoparticles were internalized. Based on magnetically trapped cells in a homemade immobilization chamber, through which a flow of circulating phase was injected to transport nutrients and/or the studied xenobiotic, off-line and online (when coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography chain metabolic assays were developed using diclofenac as a reference compound. The diclofenac demonstrated a similar metabolization profile chromatogram, both with the newly developed setup and with the control situation. Highly versatile, this pioneering and innovative instrumental design paves the way for a new approach in predictive metabolism studies.

  2. Active load reduction using individual pitch, based on local blade flow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Thomsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    -of-the-art load-reducing concepts. Since the new flow-based concept deviates significantly from previous published load-reducing strategies, a comparison of the performance based on aeroelastic simulations is included. Advantages and drawbacks of the systems are discussed. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.......A new load-reducing control strategy for individual blade control of large pitch-controlled wind turbines is presented This control concept is based on local blade inflow measurements and offers the possibility of larger load reductions, without loss of power production, than seen in other state...

  3. RANS-based simulation of turbulent wave boundary layer and sheet-flow sediment transport processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Schløer, Signe; Sterner, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    with bed and suspended load descriptions, the latter based on an unsteady turbulent-diffusion equation, for simulation of sheet-flow sediment transport processes. In addition to standard features common within such RANS-based approaches, the present model includes: (1) hindered settling velocities at high...... of a number of local factors important within cross-shore wave boundary layer and sediment transport dynamics. The hydrodynamic model is validated for both hydraulically smooth and rough conditions, based on wave friction factor diagrams and boundary layer streaming profiles, with the results in excellent...... agreement with experimental and/or previous numerical work. The sediment transport model is likewise validated against oscillatory tunnel experiments involving both velocity-skewed and acceleration-skewed flows, as well as against measurements beneath real progressive waves.Model capabilities are exploited...

  4. Flow interaction based propagation model and bursty influence behavior analysis of Internet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Gu, Ren-Tao; Ji, Yue-Feng

    2016-11-01

    QoS (quality of service) fluctuations caused by Internet bursty flows influence the user experience in the Internet, such as the increment of packet loss and transmission time. In this paper, we establish a mathematical model to study the influence propagation behavior of the bursty flow, which is helpful for developing a deep understanding of the network dynamics in the Internet complex system. To intuitively reflect the propagation process, a data flow interaction network with a hierarchical structure is constructed, where the neighbor order is proposed to indicate the neighborhood relationship between the bursty flow and other flows. The influence spreads from the bursty flow to each order of neighbors through flow interactions. As the influence spreads, the bursty flow has negative effects on the odd order neighbors and positive effects on the even order neighbors. The influence intensity of bursty flow decreases sharply between two adjacent orders and the decreasing degree can reach up to dozens of times in the experimental simulation. Moreover, the influence intensity increases significantly when network congestion situation becomes serious, especially for the 1st order neighbors. Network structural factors are considered to make a further study. Simulation results show that the physical network scale expansion can reduce the influence intensity of bursty flow by decreasing the flow distribution density. Furthermore, with the same network scale, the influence intensity in WS small-world networks is 38.18% and 18.40% lower than that in ER random networks and BA scale-free networks, respectively, due to a lower interaction probability between flows. These results indicate that the macro-structural changes such as network scales and styles will affect the inner propagation behaviors of the bursty flow.

  5. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  6. A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year.

  7. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  8. Obtaining Internet Flow Statistics by Volunteer-Based System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Bujlow, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    and groups of users, and as such be useful also for segmentation of users intro groups. We present results with data collected from real users over several months; in particular we demonstrate how the system can be used for studying flow characteristics - the amount of TCP and UDP flows, average flow lengths......, and average flow durations. The paper is concluded with a discussion on what further statistics can be made, and the further development of the system....

  9. Density-based global sensitivity analysis of sheet-flow travel time: Kinematic wave-based formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seiyed Mossa; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2018-04-01

    Despite advancements in developing physics-based formulations to estimate the sheet-flow travel time (tSHF), the quantification of the relative impacts of influential parameters on tSHF has not previously been considered. In this study, a brief review of the physics-based formulations to estimate tSHF including kinematic wave (K-W) theory in combination with Manning's roughness (K-M) and with Darcy-Weisbach friction formula (K-D) over single and multiple planes is provided. Then, the relative significance of input parameters to the developed approaches is quantified by a density-based global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The performance of K-M considering zero-upstream and uniform flow depth (so-called K-M1 and K-M2), and K-D formulae to estimate the tSHF over single plane surface were assessed using several sets of experimental data collected from the previous studies. The compatibility of the developed models to estimate tSHF over multiple planes considering temporal rainfall distributions of Natural Resources Conservation Service, NRCS (I, Ia, II, and III) are scrutinized by several real-world examples. The results obtained demonstrated that the main controlling parameters of tSHF through K-D and K-M formulae are the length of surface plane (mean sensitivity index T̂i = 0.72) and flow resistance (mean T̂i = 0.52), respectively. Conversely, the flow temperature and initial abstraction ratio of rainfall have the lowest influence on tSHF (mean T̂i is 0.11 and 0.12, respectively). The significant role of the flow regime on the estimation of tSHF over a single and a cascade of planes are also demonstrated. Results reveal that the K-D formulation provides more precise tSHF over the single plane surface with an average percentage of error, APE equal to 9.23% (the APE for K-M1 and K-M2 formulae were 13.8%, and 36.33%, respectively). The superiority of Manning-jointed formulae in estimation of tSHF is due to the incorporation of effects from different flow regimes as

  10. Energy Based Clutter Filtering for Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Jensen, Jonas; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    To obtain accurate blood flow velocity estimates it is important to remove the clutter signal originating from tissue. Conventionally, the clutter signal has been separated from the blood signal based on the difference of their spectral frequencies. However, this approach is not enough...... spectrum function to a predetermined threshold. The effect of the clutter filtering is evaluated on a plane wave (PW) scan sequence in combination with transverse oscillation (TO) and directional beamforming (DB) for velocity estimation. The performance of the filter is assessed by comparison...... of the velocity estimates of the proposed filter against a conventional moving average clutter filter. The effect of tissue motion is investigated using a Field II simulation of a straight vessel with moving wall, while the direct effect of the filter on the velocity estimates is evaluated on a CFD model...

  11. Peripheral processing facilitates optic flow-based depth perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinglin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flying insects, such as flies or bees, rely on consistent information regarding the depth structure of the environment when performing their flight maneuvers in cluttered natural environments. These behaviors include avoiding collisions, approaching targets or spatial navigation. Insects are thought to obtain depth information visually from the retinal image displacements (`optic flow' during translational ego-motion. Optic flow in the insect visual system is processed by a mechanism that can be modeled by correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs. However, it is still an open question how spatial information can be extracted reliably from the responses of the highly contrast- and pattern-dependent EMD responses, especially if the vast range of light intensities encountered in natural environments is taken into account. This question will be addressed here by systematically modeling the peripheral visual system of flies, including various adaptive mechanisms. Different model variants of the peripheral visual system were stimulated with image sequences that mimic the panoramic visual input during translational ego-motion in various natural environments, and the resulting peripheral signals were fed into an array of EMDs. We characterized the influence of each peripheral computational unit on the representation of spatial information in the EMD responses. Our model simulations reveal that information about the overall light level needs to be eliminated from the EMD input as is accomplished under light-adapted conditions in the insect peripheral visual system. The response characteristics of large monopolar cells resemble that of a band-pass filter, which reduces the contrast dependency of EMDs strongly, effectively enhancing the representation of the nearness of objects and, especially, of their contours. We furthermore show that local brightness adaptation of photoreceptors allows for spatial vision under a wide range of dynamic light

  12. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert B.

    2018-04-17

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  13. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  14. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 38-40: Optical Instruments; Diffraction; and Alternating Current Circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  15. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 24-26: Electric Potential; Ohm's Law; and Capacitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  16. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 41 and 42: Lenses and Mirrors; Relativity; and Appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  17. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 6 and 7: Work and Energy; Applications of Newton's Laws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  18. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 3-5: Planar Motion; Newton's Laws; and Vector Multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  19. Long-term Performance of Granular Bases Including the Effect of Wet-Dry Cycles on Inverted Base Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to advance the understanding of alternative pavement designs. In particular, potential techniques such as inverted base pavements (IBP) have increased the importance of granular aggregate bases (GAB) in pavement s...

  20. Thermography-based blood flow imaging in human skin of the hands and feet: a spectral filtering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the relationship between skin blood flow and skin temperature dynamics is the main problem in thermography-based blood flow imaging. Oscillations in skin blood flow are the source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels toward the skin's surface, as assumed in this study. This hypothesis allows us to use equations for the attenuation and dispersion of thermal waves for converting the temperature signal into the blood flow signal, and vice versa. We developed a spectral filtering approach (SFA), which is a new technique for thermography-based blood flow imaging. In contrast to other processing techniques, the SFA implies calculations in the spectral domain rather than in the time domain. Therefore, it eliminates the need to solve differential equations. The developed technique was verified within 0.005-0.1 Hz, including the endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic frequency bands of blood flow oscillations. The algorithm for an inverse conversion of the blood flow signal into the skin temperature signal is addressed. The examples of blood flow imaging of hands during cuff occlusion and feet during heating of the back are illustrated. The processing of infrared (IR) thermograms using the SFA allowed us to restore the blood flow signals and achieve correlations of about 0.8 with a waveform of a photoplethysmographic signal. The prospective applications of the thermography-based blood flow imaging technique include non-contact monitoring of the blood supply during engraftment of skin flaps and burns healing, as well the use of contact temperature sensors to monitor low-frequency oscillations of peripheral blood flow.

  1. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    at filling that gap by presenting a new environmental flows assessment approach that explicitly links environmental flows to (socio)-economic values by focusing on ecosystem services. This Service Provision Index (SPI) approach is a novel contribution to the existing field of environmental flows assessment...... of sustaining ecosystems but also a matter of supporting humankind/livelihoods. One reason for the marginalisation of environmental flows is the lack of operational methods to demonstrate the inherently multi-disciplinary link between environmental flows, ecosystem services and economic value. This paper aims...

  2. Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to theirhigh sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-timedetection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase theenzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower thedetection limits. These approaches are based on (i the design of novel matrices for enzymeimmobilisation, (ii new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes includingminiaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii the useof cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modifiedwith the aim of being more sensitive, (iv the incorporation of other highly specificenzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH or parathion hydrolase (PH and (v thecombination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses thesenovel strategies and their advantages and limitations.

  3. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Da Silva, Marco J; Rodrigues, Rômulo L P; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2015-01-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time. (paper)

  4. Multiphase flow parameter estimation based on laser scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendruscolo, Tiago P.; Fischer, Robert; Martelli, Cicero; Rodrigues, Rômulo L. P.; Morales, Rigoberto E. M.; da Silva, Marco J.

    2015-07-01

    The flow of multiple constituents inside a pipe or vessel, known as multiphase flow, is commonly found in many industry branches. The measurement of the individual flow rates in such flow is still a challenge, which usually requires a combination of several sensor types. However, in many applications, especially in industrial process control, it is not necessary to know the absolute flow rate of the respective phases, but rather to continuously monitor flow conditions in order to quickly detect deviations from the desired parameters. Here we show how a simple and low-cost sensor design can achieve this, by using machine-learning techniques to distinguishing the characteristic patterns of oblique laser light scattered at the phase interfaces. The sensor is capable of estimating individual phase fluxes (as well as their changes) in multiphase flows and may be applied to safety applications due to its quick response time.

  5. Water scarcity, groundwater and base flow in Dutch catchments: effects of climate and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D. M. D.; van Ek, R.; Kuijper, M. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During recent years (2003, 2006 en 2008) water boards in the Netherlands have had to cope with drought and water scarcity. Because of human impacts in the area, like groundwater abstraction and extensive drainage, the upper parts of streams run dry during low precipitation periods. The lack of water is a risk for the environmental flow needs of the streams. In addition, agricultural areas encounter problems due to low groundwater levels and limited availability of water for spray irrigation. Such problems are likely to occur more frequent in the future, because of increasing frequency of dry spells, reduced water intake possibilities from large rivers and a higher demand for water for agriculture and other land use functions. Several studies have been carried out to investigate the possibilities for structural improvement of groundwater and base flow conditions, thereby improving the situation of agriculture and ecology (Hendriks et al., 2010; Kuijper et al., 2012). The effects of both climate change and unsustainable use of water resources on base flow were assessed at various scales. For this purpose, spatially distributed groundwater models with fine meshed grids (25x25 m) were used to simultaneously assess the effects of climate and human impacts on both groundwater conditions and surface water discharge. Climatic effects were assessed by comparison of meteorologically dry and average years, as well as through climate scenarios from the Royal Dutch Weather Service (KNMI). Human impacts were assessed by modeling various scenarios with reduced or increased drainage and groundwater abstraction, including a scenario of the undisturbed situation. Also, the impact of stream morphology was studied. The suitability of a new modeling approach (Van der Velde et al., 2009), allowing a fast assessment of discharge with high accuracy, was tested to improve discharge simulations from groundwater models. Model results show that extensive drainage systems have a large impact

  6. A flow-based methodology for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavitsch, H.; Andersson, G.; Lekane, Th.; Marien, A.; Mees, E.; Naef, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the development of the European internal electricity market, several methods for the tarification of cross-border flows have been proposed. This paper presents a flow-based method for the calculation of TSO to TSO compensations for cross-border flows. The basic principle of this approach is the allocation of the costs of cross-border flows to the TSOs who are responsible for these flows. This method is cost reflective, non-transaction based and compatible with domestic tariffs. It can be applied when limited data are available. Each internal transmission network is then modelled as an aggregated node, called 'supernode', and the European network is synthesized by a graph of supernodes and arcs, each arc representing all cross-border lines between two adjacent countries. When detailed data are available, the proposed methodology is also applicable to all the nodes and lines of the transmission network. Costs associated with flows transiting through supernodes or network elements are forwarded through the network in a way reflecting how the flows make use of the network. The costs can be charged either towards loads and exports or towards generations and imports. Combination of the two charging directions can also be considered. (author)

  7. Energy-based upscaling of immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: flow regimes and applicability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Davide; Battiato, Ilenia

    2017-11-01

    Empirical or theoretical extensions of Darcy's law for immiscible two-phase flow have shown significant limitations in properly modelling the flow at the continuum-scale. We tackle this problem by proposing a set of upscaled equations based on pore-scale flow regimes, i.e., the topology of flowing phases. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is upscaled by means of multi-scale expansions and its closures derived from the mechanical energy balance for different flow regimes at the pore-scale. We also derive the applicability conditions of the upscaled equations based on the order of magnitude of relevant dimensionless numbers, i.e., Eotvos, Reynolds, Capillary, Froude numbers, and the viscosity and density ratio of the system. We demonstrate that the classical two-phase Darcy law is recovered for a limited range of operative conditions and it is compatible only with the connected-pathway flow regime, while additional terms accounting for interfacial and wall interactions should be incorporated to model accurately ganglia or drop traffic flow.

  8. Flow Cytometric Bead Sandwich Assay Based on a Split Aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luyao; Bing, Tao; Liu, Xiangjun; Wang, Junyan; Wang, Linlin; Zhang, Nan; Shangguan, Dihua

    2018-01-24

    A few aptamers still bind their targets after being split into two moieties. Split aptamers have shown great potential in the development of aptameric sensors. However, only a few split aptamers have been generated because of lack of knowledge on the binding structure of their parent aptamers. Here, we report the design of a new split aptamer and a flow cytometric bead sandwich assay using a split aptamer instead of double antibodies. Through DMS footprinting and mutation assay, we figured out the target-binding moiety and the structure-stabilizing moiety of the l-selectin aptamer, Sgc-3b. By separating the duplex strand in the structure-stabilizing moiety, we obtained a split aptamer that bound l-selectin. After optimization of one part of the split sequence to eliminate the nonspecific binding of the split sequence pair, we developed a split-aptamer-based cytometric bead assay (SACBA) for the detection of soluble l-selectin. SACBA showed good sensitivity and selectivity to l-selectin and was successfully applied for the detection of spiked l-selectin in the human serum. The strategies for generating split aptamers and designing the split-aptamer-based sandwich assay are simple and efficient and show good practicability in aptamer engineering.

  9. Numerical Simulations of Plasma Based Flow Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.; Jacob, J. D.; Ashpis, D. E.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to simulate flow control applications using plasma actuators. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier Stokes computations as a body force vector. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two additional equations: one for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The model is calibrated against an experiment having plasma-driven flow in a quiescent environment and is then applied to simulate a low pressure turbine flow with large flow separation. The effects of the plasma actuator on control of flow separation are demonstrated numerically.

  10. Associative Flow Rule Used to Include Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Analysis of Strain-Rate-Dependent Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and the strain-rate dependence of the composite response are due primarily to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. By applying micromechanics techniques along with given fiber properties, one can also determine the effects of the hydrostatic stresses in the polymer on the overall composite deformation response. First efforts to account for the hydrostatic stress effects in the composite deformation applied purely empirical methods that relied on composite-level data. In later efforts, to allow polymer properties to be characterized solely on the basis of polymer data, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed equations to model the polymers that were based on a non-associative flow rule, and efforts to use these equations to simulate the deformation of representative polymer materials were reasonably successful. However, these equations were found to have difficulty in correctly analyzing the multiaxial stress states found in the polymer matrix constituent of a composite material. To correct these difficulties, and to allow for the accurate simulation of the nonlinear strain-rate-dependent deformation analysis of polymer matrix composites, in the efforts reported here Glenn researchers reformulated the polymer constitutive equations from basic principles using the concept of an associative flow rule. These revised equations were characterized and validated in an

  11. Simulation-based patient flow analysis in an endoscopy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koo, Pyung-Hoi; Nielsen, Karl Brian; Jang, Jaejin

    2010-01-01

    One of the major elements in improving efficiency of healthcare services is patient flow. Patients require a variety of healthcare resources as they receive healthcare services. Poor management of patient flow results in long waiting time of patients, under/over utilization of medical resources......, low quality of care and high healthcare cost. This article addresses patient flow problems at a Gastrointestinal endoscopy unit. We attempt to analyze the main factors that contribute to the inefficient patient flow and process bottlenecks and to propose efficient patient scheduling and staff...... allocation alternatives to increase the system efficiency. Simulation models are used to examine various healthcare operational strategies....

  12. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  14. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  15. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  16. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  17. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  20. 76 FR 31604 - Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3620-000] Lyonsdale Biomass LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Biomass LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that...

  1. 75 FR 70741 - TPF Generation Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1936-000] TPF Generation Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding TPF Generation Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 78 FR 44109 - AEP Generation Resources Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1896-000] AEP Generation Resources Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Generation Resources Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  3. 77 FR 279 - Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-673-000] Brea Generation LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Generation LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that...

  4. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  6. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  7. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  8. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  9. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  10. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  11. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  12. 76 FR 15306 - Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3051-000] Macho Springs Power I, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Springs Power I, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  13. 75 FR 68352 - Yahoo Creek Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1894-000] Yahoo Creek Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Yahoo Creek Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. 75 FR 68354 - Milner Dam Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1883-000] Milner Dam Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Milner Dam Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2036-000] AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  18. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  19. 75 FR 10245 - DPL Energy Resources, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-726-000] DPL Energy Resources, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For Blanket... proceeding of DPL Energy Resources, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  20. 77 FR 62510 - C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-20-000] C.N. Brown Electricity, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Electricity, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  1. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  2. 77 FR 69819 - QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-354-000] QC Power Strategies Fund LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Strategies Fund LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  3. 77 FR 35373 - Duke Energy Dicks Creek, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1951-000] Duke Energy Dicks Creek, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Dicks Creek, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  4. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  5. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  6. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  8. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  10. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  11. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  12. A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.

  13. Compact Mass Flow Meter Based on a Micro Coriolis Flow Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Wiegerink

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar. It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1 mg/h/°C. The meter is robust, has standard fluidic connections and can be read out by means of a PC or laptop via USB. Its performance was tested for several common gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon and air and liquids (water and isopropanol. As in all Coriolis mass flow meters, the meter is also able to measure the actual density of the medium flowing through the tube. The sensitivity of the measured density is ~1 Hz.m3/kg.

  14. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro coriolis flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; van de Geest, Jan; Katerberg, Marcel; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 1 g/h (for water at a pressure drop < 1 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading for both liquids and gases. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 °C is below 1

  15. Compact mass flow meter based on a micro Coriolis flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparreboom, Wouter; Katerberg, M.R.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Postma, F.M.; Haneveld, J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a compact ready-to-use micro Coriolis mass flow meter. The full scale flow is 2 g/h (for water at a pressure drop of 2 bar). It has a zero stability of 2 mg/h and an accuracy of 0.5% reading. The temperature drift between 10 and 50 ºC is below 1 mg/h/ºC. The meter is robust,

  16. Control of supersonic axisymmetric base flows using passive splitter plates and pulsed plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Todd Mitchell

    An experimental investigation evaluating the effects of flow control on the near-wake downstream of a blunt-based axisymmetric body in supersonic flow has been conducted. To better understand and control the physical phenomena that govern these massively separated high-speed flows, this research examined both passive and active flow-control methodologies designed to alter the stability characteristics and structure of the near-wake. The passive control investigation consisted of inserting splitter plates into the recirculation region. The active control technique utilized energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges placed around the base. The flow-control authority of both methodologies was evaluated with experimental diagnostics including particle image velocimetry, schlieren photography, surface flow visualization, pressure-sensitive paint, and discrete surface pressure measurements. Using a blowdown-type wind tunnel reconstructed specifically for these studies, baseline axisymmetric experiments without control were conducted for a nominal approach Mach number of 2.5. In addition to traditional base pressure measurements, mean velocity and turbulence quantities were acquired using two-component, planar particle image velocimetry. As a result, substantial insight was gained regarding the time-averaged and instantaneous near-wake flow fields. This dataset will supplement the previous benchmark point-wise laser Doppler velocimetry data of Herrin and Dutton (1994) for comparison with new computational predictive techniques. Next, experiments were conducted to study the effects of passive triangular splitter plates placed in the recirculation region behind a blunt-based axisymmetric body. By dividing the near-wake into 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 cylindrical regions, the time-averaged base pressure distribution, time-series pressure fluctuations, and presumably the stability characteristics were altered. While the spatial base pressure distribution was

  17. Solution of optimal power flow using evolutionary-based algorithms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal power flow is a load flow analysis that uses optimization methods to adjust decision variables (control variables) to determine the best operating conditions of the power system. The control variables of OPF are the generator active power output, voltage of generating unit, tap-settings of the transformers, and shunt ...

  18. Face Liveness Detection Based on Skin Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yi Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition systems have been widely adopted for user authentication in security systems due to their simplicity and effectiveness. However, spoofing attacks, including printed photos, displayed photos, and replayed video attacks, are critical challenges to authentication, and these spoofing attacks allow malicious invaders to gain access to the system. This paper proposes two novel features for face liveness detection systems to protect against printed photo attacks and replayed attacks for biometric authentication systems. The first feature obtains the texture difference between red and green channels of face images inspired by the observation that skin blood flow in the face has properties that enable distinction between live and spoofing face images. The second feature estimates the color distribution in the local regions of face images, instead of whole images, because image quality might be more discriminative in small areas of face images. These two features are concatenated together, along with a multi-scale local binary pattern feature, and a support vector machine classifier is trained to discriminate between live and spoofing face images. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method for face spoof detection is promising when compared with that of previously published methods. Furthermore, the proposed system can be implemented in real time, which is valuable for mobile applications.

  19. Analysis on the Correlation of Traffic Flow in Hainan Province Based on Baidu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caixia; Shi, Chun

    2018-03-01

    Internet search data records user’s search attention and consumer demand, providing necessary database for the Hainan traffic flow model. Based on Baidu Index, with Hainan traffic flow as example, this paper conduct both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the relationship between search keyword from Baidu Index and actual Hainan tourist traffic flow, and build multiple regression model by SPSS.

  20. Analyzing the Influence of Mobile Phone Use of Drivers on Traffic Flow Based on an Improved Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the influence of drivers’ behavior of phone use while driving on traffic flow, including both traffic efficiency and traffic safety. An improved cellular automaton model was proposed to simulate traffic flow with distracted drivers based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. The driving characters of drivers using a phone were first discussed and a value representing the probability to use a phone while driving was put into the CA model. Simulation results showed that traffic flow rate was significantly reduced if some drivers used a phone compared to no phone use. The flow rate and velocity decreased as the proportion of drivers using a phone increased. While, under low density, the risk of traffic decreased first and then increased as the distracted drivers increased, the distracted behavior of drivers, like using a phone, could reduce the flow rate by 5 percent according to the simulation.

  1. Blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions - Catheter-based thermodilution or Doppler ultrasound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Hansen, Marc A; Schroeder, Torben V

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the clinical performance of catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound of the feeding brachial artery for blood flow measurements during hemodialysis vascular access interventions.Methods: Thirty patients with arteriovenous fistulas who underwent 46 interventions had...... access blood flow measured before and after every procedure. Two methods, catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound, were compared to the reference method of ultrasound dilution. Catheter-based thermodilution and Doppler ultrasound were performed during the endovascular procedures while flow...

  2. A reduced order model based on Kalman filtering for sequential data assimilation of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldi, M.; Poux, A.

    2017-10-01

    A Kalman filter based sequential estimator is presented in this work. The estimator is integrated in the structure of segregated solvers for the analysis of incompressible flows. This technique provides an augmented flow state integrating available observation in the CFD model, naturally preserving a zero-divergence condition for the velocity field. Because of the prohibitive costs associated with a complete Kalman Filter application, two model reduction strategies have been proposed and assessed. These strategies dramatically reduce the increase in computational costs of the model, which can be quantified in an augmentation of 10%- 15% with respect to the classical numerical simulation. In addition, an extended analysis of the behavior of the numerical model covariance Q has been performed. Optimized values are strongly linked to the truncation error of the discretization procedure. The estimator has been applied to the analysis of a number of test cases exhibiting increasing complexity, including turbulent flow configurations. The results show that the augmented flow successfully improves the prediction of the physical quantities investigated, even when the observation is provided in a limited region of the physical domain. In addition, the present work suggests that these Data Assimilation techniques, which are at an embryonic stage of development in CFD, may have the potential to be pushed even further using the augmented prediction as a powerful tool for the optimization of the free parameters in the numerical simulation.

  3. Fusion of optical flow based motion pattern analysis and silhouette classification for person tracking and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is

  4. Consequences of population topology for studying gene flow using link-based landscape genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J

    2017-07-01

    Many landscape genetic studies aim to determine the effect of landscape on gene flow between populations. These studies frequently employ link-based methods that relate pairwise measures of historical gene flow to measures of the landscape and the geographical distance between populations. However, apart from landscape and distance, there is a third important factor that can influence historical gene flow, that is, population topology (i.e., the arrangement of populations throughout a landscape). As the population topology is determined in part by the landscape configuration, I argue that it should play a more prominent role in landscape genetics. Making use of existing literature and theoretical examples, I discuss how population topology can influence results in landscape genetic studies and how it can be taken into account to improve the accuracy of these results. In support of my arguments, I have performed a literature review of landscape genetic studies published during the first half of 2015 as well as several computer simulations of gene flow between populations. First, I argue why one should carefully consider which population pairs should be included in link-based analyses. Second, I discuss several ways in which the population topology can be incorporated in response and explanatory variables. Third, I outline why it is important to sample populations in such a way that a good representation of the population topology is obtained. Fourth, I discuss how statistical testing for link-based approaches could be influenced by the population topology. I conclude the article with six recommendations geared toward better incorporating population topology in link-based landscape genetic studies.

  5. Aircraft Proximity Maps Based on Data-Driven Flow Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the forecast increase in air traffic demand over the next decades, it is imperative to develop tools to provide traffic flow managers with the information...

  6. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1586-000] TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy...

  7. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-21-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Agua...

  8. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1301-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Zone J...

  9. 76 FR 59681 - Record Hill Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4527-000] Record Hill Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Record Hill...

  10. 76 FR 67720 - Bishop Hill Energy III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-164-000] Bishop Hill Energy III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop Hill...

  11. 76 FR 67721 - Bishop Hill Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-161-000] Bishop Hill Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop Hill...

  12. 77 FR 15096 - Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1202-000] Liberty Hill Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Liberty Hill...

  13. 77 FR 6109 - Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-846-000] Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop Hill...

  14. 76 FR 67721 - Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-162-000] Bishop Hill Energy II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bishop Hill...

  15. 78 FR 54464 - ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2260-000] ABC Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of ABC Energy, LLC...

  16. 77 FR 5009 - Power Supply Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Power Supply Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Power Suppl...

  17. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  18. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-733-000] Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear...

  19. 77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-203-000] Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO...

  20. 77 FR 50100 - AP&G Holdings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2430-000] AP&G Holdings LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AP&G Holdings...

  1. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3188-000] Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy...

  2. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-224-000] Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream...

  3. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2301-000] Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Stream...

  4. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  5. 78 FR 27219 - Osprey Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1406-000] Osprey Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Osprey...

  6. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. ER02-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate Tariff Filing...-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such filing includes a...

  7. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-896-000] Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Mariposa...

  8. 76 FR 37110 - ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3808-000] ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ORNI 39 LLC's application for...

  9. 77 FR 73650 - Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-504-000] Electricity NH, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electricity NH...

  10. 78 FR 29131 - Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1440-000] Electricity MASS, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electricity...

  11. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  12. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-327-000] Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker...

  13. 76 FR 26283 - Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3467-000] Blue Chip Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Blue Chip...

  14. 78 FR 55250 - TEC Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2304-000] TEC Energy Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TEC Energy Inc...

  15. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  16. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  17. Monocular Vision Obstacle Detection Method Based on Radial Optical Flow for Rotor UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaodong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of traditional Pyramid LK optical flow algorithm's poor accuracy and adaptability for rotor UAV to detect obstacle in complex outdoor environment, a monocular autonomous real-time obstacle detection method based on radial optical flow is proposed. In the optical flow, the radial optical flow is computed by fusing Pyramid LK optical flow with tangential optical flow, and a new obstacles decision strategy to detect obstacles based on the radial optical flow is put forward. Experimental results show that without increasing the complexity of algorithm, the proposed method can get a higher accuracy and better adaptability than traditional Pyramid LK algorithm, which can meet the requirements of UAV autonomous obstacle avoidance.

  18. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  19. Real-Time and Resilient Intrusion Detection: A Flow-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Pras, Aiko

    Due to the demanding performance requirements of packet-based monitoring solutions on network equipment, flow-based intrusion detection systems will play an increasingly important role in current high-speed networks. The required technologies are already available and widely deployed: NetFlow and

  20. A Solvent-Free Base Liberation of a Tertiary Aminoalkyl Halide by Flow Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Skovby, Tommy; Mealy, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    A flow setup for base liberation of 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl chloride hydrochloride and solvent-free separation of the resulting free base has been developed. Production in flow profits from an on-demand approach, useful for labile aminoalkyl halides. The requirement for obtaining a dry product...

  1. An Examination of Game-Based Learning from Theories of Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Hung; Chu, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsiang-Hsuan; Yang, Shun-Bo; Chen, Wei-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss whether game-based learning with the integration of games and digital learning could enhance not only the flow experience in learning but achieve the same flow experience in pure games. In addition, the authors discovered that whether the game-based learning could make learners to reveal higher cognitive load. The…

  2. Separation of base flow from streamflow using groundwater levels - illustrated for the Pang catchment (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A new filter to separate base flow from streamflow has developed that uses observed groundwater levels. To relate the base flow to the observed groundwater levels, a non-linear relation was used. This relation is suitable for unconfined aquifers with deep groundwater levels that do not respond to

  3. A route-based decomposition for the Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-Commodity k-splittable Maximum Flow Problem routes flow through a capacitated graph such that each commodity uses at most k paths and such that the total amount of routedflow is maximized. This paper proposes a branch-and-price algorithm based on a route-based Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition...

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW REGULATION BASED ON WAVELET COEFFICIENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.N.; Pavlova, O.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    . A reduction in the variability of the wavelet coefficients in hypertension is observed at both the microscopic level of the blood flow in efferent arterioles of individual nephrons and at the macroscopic level of the blood pressure in the main arteries. The reduction is manifest in both of the main frequency...... domains of nephron autoregulation and is likely to reflect a reduced flexibility of the cardiovascular system during hypertension.......The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of revealing new characteristic features of renal blood flow autoregulation in healthy and pathological states through the application of discrete wavelet transforms to experimental time series for normotensive and hypertensive rats...

  5. Vehicle target detection method based on the average optical flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J. Y.; Jie, F. R.; Hu, Y. J.

    2017-07-01

    Moving target detection in image sequence for dynamic scene is an important research topic in the field of computer vision. Block projection and matching are utilized for global motion estimation. Then, the background image is compensated applying the estimated motion parameters so as to stabilize the image sequence. Consequently, background subtraction is employed in the stabilized image sequence to extract moving targets. Finally, divide the difference image into uniform grids and average optical flow is employed for motion analysis. Experiment tests show that the proposed average optical flow method can efficiently extract the vehicle targets from dynamic scene meanwhile decreasing the false alarm.

  6. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Bohm, V; Popp, J

    2009-01-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  7. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Bohm, V; Popp, J [TU Ilmenau, Fak. f. Maschinenbau, FG Technische Mechanik, Max-Planck-Ring 12, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)], E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  8. Bringing Value-Based Perspectives to Care: Including Patient and Family Members in Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Kohler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available n a gap in consistent application of system-level strategies that can effectively translate organizational policies around patient and family engagement into practice. Methods The broad objective of this initiative was to develop a system-level implementation strategy to include patient and family advisors (PFAs at decision-making points in primary healthcare (PHC based on wellestablished evidence and literature. In this opportunity sponsored by the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (CFHI a co-design methodology, also well-established was applied in identifying and developing a suitable implementation strategy to engage PFAs as members of quality teams in PHC. Diabetes management centres (DMCs was selected as the pilot site to develop the strategy. Key steps in the process included review of evidence, review of the current state in PHC through engagement of key stakeholders and a co-design approach. Results The project team included a diverse representation of members from the PHC system including patient advisors, DMC team members, system leads, providers, Public Engagement team members and CFHI improvement coaches. Key outcomes of this 18-month long initiative included development of a working definition of patient and family engagement, development of a Patient and Family Engagement Resource Guide and evaluation of the resource guide. Conclusion This novel initiative provided us an opportunity to develop a supportive system-wide implementation plan and a strategy to include PFAs in decision-making processes in PHC. The well-established co-design methodology further allowed us to include value-based (customer driven quality and experience of care perspectives of several important stakeholders including patient advisors. The next step will be to implement the strategy within DMCs, spread the strategy PHC, both locally and provincially with a focus on sustainability.

  9. Aptamer-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Liu, Lihong; Duan, Nuo; Li, Qian; Zhou, You; Wang, Zhouping

    2018-02-28

    An aptamer-based lateral flow test strip was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN). This assay was based on the competition for the aptamer between ZEN and its complementary sequence. Several experimental conditions that could influence sensitivity have been investigated, including the concentration of aptamer and NaCl used in the probe preparation, the mole ratio of streptavidin and biotinylated DNA used in the preparation of test line and control line, and the loading quantity of gold nanoparticles-aptamer conjugates (AuNPs-Apt). Under the optimal experimental conditions, we successfully detected ZEN within a detection range of 5-200 ng/mL and the visual limit of detection of 20 ng/mL. This aptamer-based strip was successfully applied to the determination of ZEN in spiked corn samples, and the recoveries were from 93.4% to 114.2%. All detections can be achieved within 5 min. The results demonstrated that the developed aptamer-based lateral flow test strip is a potential alternative tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of ZEN.

  10. CO2-vegetation feedbacks and other climate changes implicated in reducing base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancoso, Ralph; Larsen, Joshua R.; McVicar, Tim R.; Phinn, Stuart R.; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2017-03-01

    Changes in the hydrological cycle have a significant impact in water limited environments. Globally, some of these regions are experiencing declining precipitation yet are simultaneously becoming greener, partly due to vegetation feedbacks associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Reduced precipitation together with increasing rates of actual evapotranspiration diminishes streamflow, especially base flow, a critical freshwater dry-season resource. Here we assess recent changes in base flow in Australia from 1981-2013 and 1950-2013 and separate the contribution of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and other factors on base flow trends. Our findings reveal that these other factors influencing the base flow trends are best explained by an increase in photosynthetic activity. These results provide the first robust observational evidence that increasing atmospheric CO2 and its associated vegetation feedbacks are reducing base flow in addition to other climatic impacts. These findings have broad implications for water resource management, especially in the world's water limited regions.

  11. Ground-water discharge and base-flow nitrate loads of nontidal streams, and their relation to a hydrogeomorphic classification of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, middle Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, L. Joseph; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Brakebill, John W.; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    billion gallons of water that reaches the Chesapeake Bay each day, nearly 27 billion gallons is base flow. Generalized lithology (siliciclastic, carbonate, crystalline, and unconsolidated) was combined with physiographic province (the Appalachian Plateau, the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, including the Mesozoic Lowland section, and the Coastal Plain) to delineate 11 hydrogeomorphic regions. Areal variation of base flow and base-flow nitrate yield were assessed by means of nonparametric, one-way analysis of variance on basins grouped by the dominant hydrogeomorphic region and by correlation analysis of base flow or base-flow nitrate yield with the percentage of land area of a given hydrogeomorphic region within a basin. Base flow appeared to have a significant relation to the hydrogeomorphic regions. The highest percentages of base flow were found in areas underlain by carbonate rock, crystalline rock with relatively low relief, and unconsolidated sediments. Lower percentages were found in areas underlain by siliclastic rocks and crystalline rocks with relatively high relief. The relation between base-flow nitrate yield and hydrogeomorphic region is less clear. Although there is a relation between low nitrate yields and areas underlain by highrelief siliciclastic rocks, and a relation between high yields and carbonate rocks, much of this relation can be explained by the strong association between the hydrogeomorphic units and land use. In addition, most basins are mixtures of several hydrogeomorphic regions, so the nitrate yield from a basin depends on a large number of complex interacting factors. These unclear results indicate that the sample of available data used here may not be adequate to fully assess the relation between base-flow nitrate yield and the hydrogeomorphic setting of the basin. The results appear to show, however, that ground-water discharge is an important component of the total nontidal streamflow, and that ground

  12. Confocal backscattering-based detection of leukemic cells in flowing blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Cherry; Hunter, Martin; Rius, Francisca; Huang, Peter; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2011-10-01

    The prognostic value of assessing minimal residual disease (MRD) in leukemia has been established with advancements in flow cytometry and PCR. Nonetheless, these techniques are limited by high equipment costs, complex, and costly cell processing and the need for highly trained personnel. Here, we demonstrate the potential of exploiting differences in the relative intensities of backscattered light at three wavelengths to detect the presence of leukemic cells in samples containing varying mixtures of white blood cells (WBCs) and leukemic cells flowing through microfluidic channels. Using 405, 488, and 633 nm illumination, we identify distinct light scattering intensity distributions for Nalm-6 leukemic cells, normal mononuclear (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) white blood cells and red blood cells. We exploit these differences to develop cell classification algorithms, whose performance is evaluated based on simultaneous acquisition of light scattering and fluorescence flow cytometry data. When this algorithm is used prospectively for the analysis of samples consisting of mixtures of PBMCs and leukemic cells, we achieve an average specificity and sensitivity of leukemic cell detection of 99.6 and 45.2%, respectively. When we consider samples that include leukemic cells along with PMNs and PBMCs, which can be acquired using a simple red blood cell lysis step following venipuncture, the specificity and sensitivity of the approach decreases to 91.6 and 39.5%, respectively. On the basis of the performance of these algorithms, we estimate that 42 or 71 μL of blood would be adequate to confirm the presence of leukemia at an 80% power level in samples containing 0.01% leukemia to either PBMCs or PBMCs and PMNs, respectively. Therefore, light scattering-based flow cytometry in a microfluidic platform could provide a low cost, highly portable, minimally invasive approach for detection and monitoring of leukemic patients. This could offer significant improvements

  13. Optical Flow in a Smart Sensor Based on Hybrid Analog-Digital Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Guzmán

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip. Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane and digital (NIOS II processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system’s performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  14. Optical flow in a smart sensor based on hybrid analog-digital architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Agís, Rodrigo; Ros, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a motion sensor (delivering optical flow estimations) using a platform that includes the sensor itself, focal plane processing resources, and co-processing resources on a general purpose embedded processor. All this is implemented on a single device as a SoC (System-on-a-Chip). Optical flow is the 2-D projection into the camera plane of the 3-D motion information presented at the world scenario. This motion representation is widespread well-known and applied in the science community to solve a wide variety of problems. Most applications based on motion estimation require work in real-time; hence, this restriction must be taken into account. In this paper, we show an efficient approach to estimate the motion velocity vectors with an architecture based on a focal plane processor combined on-chip with a 32 bits NIOS II processor. Our approach relies on the simplification of the original optical flow model and its efficient implementation in a platform that combines an analog (focal-plane) and digital (NIOS II) processor. The system is fully functional and is organized in different stages where the early processing (focal plane) stage is mainly focus to pre-process the input image stream to reduce the computational cost in the post-processing (NIOS II) stage. We present the employed co-design techniques and analyze this novel architecture. We evaluate the system's performance and accuracy with respect to the different proposed approaches described in the literature. We also discuss the advantages of the proposed approach as well as the degree of efficiency which can be obtained from the focal plane processing capabilities of the system. The final outcome is a low cost smart sensor for optical flow computation with real-time performance and reduced power consumption that can be used for very diverse application domains.

  15. Should professional development include analyzing and coaching ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily H.

    2009-12-01

    In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.

  16. Understanding Angiography-Based Aneurysm Flow Fields through Comparison with Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebral, J R; Mut, F; Chung, B J; Spelle, L; Moret, J; van Nijnatten, F; Ruijters, D

    2017-06-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to be an important factor for aneurysm progression and rupture. Our aim was to evaluate whether flow fields reconstructed from dynamic angiography data can be used to realistically represent the main flow structures in intracranial aneurysms. DSA-based flow reconstructions, obtained during interventional treatment, were compared qualitatively with flow fields obtained from patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models and quantitatively with projections of the computational fluid dynamics fields (by computing a directional similarity of the vector fields) in 15 cerebral aneurysms. The average similarity between the DSA and the projected computational fluid dynamics flow fields was 78% in the parent artery, while it was only 30% in the aneurysm region. Qualitatively, both the DSA and projected computational fluid dynamics flow fields captured the location of the inflow jet, the main vortex structure, the intrasaccular flow split, and the main rotation direction in approximately 60% of the cases. Several factors affect the reconstruction of 2D flow fields from dynamic angiography sequences. The most important factors are the 3-dimensionality of the intrasaccular flow patterns and inflow jets, the alignment of the main vortex structure with the line of sight, the overlapping of surrounding vessels, and possibly frame rate undersampling. Flow visualization with DSA from >1 projection is required for understanding of the 3D intrasaccular flow patterns. Although these DSA-based flow quantification techniques do not capture swirling or secondary flows in the parent artery, they still provide a good representation of the mean axial flow and the corresponding flow rate. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Optimizing Environmental Flow Operation Rules based on Explicit IHA Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongnan, L.; Wan, W.; Zhao, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-objective operation of reservoirs are increasingly asked to consider the environmental flow to support ecosystem health. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) is widely used to describe environmental flow regimes, but few studies have explicitly formulated it into optimization models and thus is difficult to direct reservoir release. In an attempt to incorporate the benefit of environmental flow into economic achievement, a two-objective reservoir optimization model is developed and all 33 hydrologic parameters of IHA are explicitly formulated into constraints. The benefit of economic is defined by Hydropower Production (HP) while the benefit of environmental flow is transformed into Eco-Index (EI) that combined 5 of the 33 IHA parameters chosen by principal component analysis method. Five scenarios (A to E) with different constraints are tested and solved by nonlinear programming. The case study of Jing Hong reservoir, located in the upstream of Mekong basin, China, shows: 1. A Pareto frontier is formed by maximizing on only HP objective in scenario A and on only EI objective in scenario B. 2. Scenario D using IHA parameters as constraints obtains the optimal benefits of both economic and ecological. 3. A sensitive weight coefficient is found in scenario E, but the trade-offs between HP and EI objectives are not within the Pareto frontier. 4. When the fraction of reservoir utilizable capacity reaches 0.8, both HP and EI capture acceptable values. At last, to make this modelmore conveniently applied to everyday practice, a simplified operation rule curve is extracted.

  18. Thermistor based, low velocity isothermal, air flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Admésio A. C. M.; Mendes, Ricardo; Quintela, Divo A.

    2016-03-01

    The semiconductor thermistor technology is applied as a flow sensor to measure low isothermal air velocities (sensor is subjected to heating and cooling cycles controlled by a multifunctional timer. In the heating stage, the alternating current of a main AC power supply source guarantees a uniform thermistor temperature distribution. The conditioning circuit assures an adequate increase of the sensors temperature and avoids the thermal disturbance of the flow. The power supply interruption reduces the consumption from the source and extends the sensors life time. In the cooling stage, the resistance variation of the flow sensor is recorded by the measuring chain. The resistive sensor parameters proposed vary significantly and feature a high sensitivity to the flow velocity. With the aid of a computer, the data transfer, storage and analysis provides a great advantage over the traditional local anemometer readings. The data acquisition chain has a good repeatability and low standard uncertainties. The proposed method measures isothermal air mean velocities from 0.1 ms-1 to 2 ms-1 with a standard uncertainty error less than 4%.

  19. Periodic transonic flow simulation using fourier-based algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaghegh, Mohammad Reza; Malekjafarian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The present research simulates time-periodic unsteady transonic flow around pitching airfoils via the solution of unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, using time spectral method (TSM) and compares it with the traditional methods like BDF and explicit structured adaptive grid method. The TSM uses a Fourier representation in time and hence solves for the periodic state directly without resolving transients (which consume most of the resources in a time-accurate scheme). Mathematical tools used here are discrete Fourier transformations. The TSM has been validated with 2D external aerodynamics test cases. These test cases are NACA 64A010 (CT6) and NACA 0012 (CT1 and CT5) pitching airfoils. Because of turbulent nature of flow, Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model has been used in viscous flow analysis with large oscillation amplitude (CT5 type). The results presented by the TSM are compared with experimental data and the two other methods. By enforcing periodicity and using Fourier representation in time that has a spectral accuracy, tremendous reduction of computational cost has been obtained compared to the conventional time-accurate methods. Results verify the small number of time intervals per pitching cycle (just four time intervals) required to capture the flow physics with small oscillation amplitude (CT6) and large oscillation amplitude (CT5) as compared to the other two methods.

  20. Large-Eddy-Simulation-based analysis of complex flow structures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, in turbulence modelling within centrifugal pumps, it is also important to model the complete interaction amongst different variables rather than a simplistic single blade passage flow analysis. In the present work, the complex blade–tongue interactions and their consequent effects on the pressure fluctuations within ...

  1. Energy efficient SDN commodity switch based practical flow forwarding method

    KAUST Repository

    AlGhadhban, Amer

    2016-07-04

    Recent SDN researches suffer from over-accumulation of unhealthy flow-load. Instead, we leverage the SDN controller network view to encode the end-to-end path information into the packet address. Our solution EncPath significantly reduces the flow-table size and the number of control messages. Consequently, the power consumption of network switches is in orders of magnitude less than other evaluated solutions. It also provides flow management flexibility and scalability. We compare EncPath with single and multipath routing solutions and single path solution. Also, we operated them in proactive and reactive modes. We find that EncPath flow entries in core switches in a multihomed fat-tree with 144 hosts is approximately 1000 times smaller than Equal-Cost MultiPath (ECMP) and random routing. Additionally, the number of control messages to setup the network is reduced by a factor of 200×. This, consequently, affords data-plane and control-plane devices space to process other tasks. © 2016 IEEE.

  2. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow and Effects of Ground-Water Irrigation on Base Flow in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Amanda T.; Bradley, Jesse R.

    2008-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is vital to the livelihood of communities in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins in Nebraska, and ground water is used to irrigate most of the cropland. Concerns about the sustainability of ground-water and surface-water resources have prompted State and regional agencies to evaluate the cumulative effects of ground-water irrigation in this area. To facilitate understanding of the effects of ground-water irrigation, a numerical computer model was developed to simulate ground-water flow and assess the effects of ground-water irrigation (including ground-water withdrawals, hereinafter referred to as pumpage, and enhanced recharge) on stream base flow. The study area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and includes the Elkhorn River Basin upstream from Norfolk, Nebraska, and the Loup River Basin upstream from Columbus, Nebraska. The water-table aquifer consists of Quaternary-age sands and gravels and Tertiary-age silts, sands, and gravels. The simulation was constructed using one layer with 2-mile by 2-mile cell size. Simulations were constructed to represent the ground-water system before 1940 and from 1940 through 2005, and to simulate hypothetical conditions from 2006 through 2045 or 2055. The first simulation represents steady-state conditions of the system before anthropogenic effects, and then simulates the effects of early surface-water development activities and recharge of water leaking from canals during 1895 to 1940. The first simulation ends at 1940 because before that time, very little pumpage for irrigation occurred, but after that time it became increasingly commonplace. The pre-1940 simulation was calibrated against measured water levels and estimated long-term base flow, and the 1940 through 2005 simulation was calibrated against measured water-level changes and estimated long-term base flow. The calibrated 1940 through 2005 simulation was used as the basis for analyzing hypothetical scenarios to evaluate the effects of

  3. Base Flow Investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module. Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, both Europe and the US are developing hypersonic research and operational vehicles. These include (re)entry capsules (both ballistic and lifting) and lifting bodies such as ExoMars, EXPERT, ARV, CEV and IXV. The research programs are meant to enable technology and engineering capabilities to support during the next decade the development of affordable (possibly reusable) space transportation systems as well as hypersonic weapons systems for time critical targets. These programs have a broad range of goals, ranging from the qualification of thermal protection systems, the assessment of RCS performances, the development of GNC algorithms, to the full demonstration of the performance and operability of the integrated vehicles. Since the aerothermodynamic characteristics influence nearly all elements of the vehicle design, the accurate prediction of the aerothermal environment is a prerequisite for the design of efficient hypersonic systems. Significant uncertainties in the prediction of the hypersonic aerodynamic and the aerothermal loads can lead to conservative margins in the design of the vehicle including its Outer Mould Line (OML), thermal protection system, structure, and required control system robustness. The current level of aerothermal prediction uncertainties results therefore in reduced vehicle performances (e.g., sub-optimal payload to mass ratio, increased operational constraints). On the other hand, present computational capabilities enable the simulation of three dimensional flow fields with complex thermo-chemical models over complete trajectories and ease the validation of these tools by, e.g., reconstruction of detailed wind tunnel tests performed under identified and controlled conditions (flow properties and vehicle attitude in particular). These controlled conditions are typically difficult to achieve when performing in flight measurements which in turn results in large associated measurement uncertainties. Similar problems arise

  4. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  5. Artificial intelligence based models for stream-flow forecasting: 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed; Jaafar, Othman; Afan, Haitham Abdulmohsin; Sayl, Khamis Naba

    2015-11-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has increased since the middle of the 20th century as seen in its application in a wide range of engineering and science problems. The last two decades, for example, has seen a dramatic increase in the development and application of various types of AI approaches for stream-flow forecasting. Generally speaking, AI has exhibited significant progress in forecasting and modeling non-linear hydrological applications and in capturing the noise complexity in the dataset. This paper explores the state-of-the-art application of AI in stream-flow forecasting, focusing on defining the data-driven of AI, the advantages of complementary models, as well as the literature and their possible future application in modeling and forecasting stream-flow. The review also identifies the major challenges and opportunities for prospective research, including, a new scheme for modeling the inflow, a novel method for preprocessing time series frequency based on Fast Orthogonal Search (FOS) techniques, and Swarm Intelligence (SI) as an optimization approach.

  6. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow pattern visualization using the image-based computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2017-04-01

    The image-based computational fluid dynamics (IB-CFD) technique, as the combination of medical images and the CFD method, is utilized in this research to analyze the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics. The research primarily aims to propose a semi-automated technique utilizing some freely available and commercial software packages in order to simulate the LV hemodynamics using the IB-CFD technique. In this research, moreover, two different physiological time-resolved 2D models of a patient-specific LV with two different types of aortic and mitral valves, including the orifice-type valves and integrated with rigid leaflets, are adopted to visualize the process of developing intraventricular vortex formation and propagation. The blood flow pattern over the whole cardiac cycle of two models is also compared to investigate the effect of utilizing different valve types in the process of the intraventricular vortex formation. Numerical findings indicate that the model with integrated valves can predict more complex intraventricular flow that can match better the physiological flow pattern in comparison to the orifice-type model.

  7. Model and simulation for melt flow in micro-injection molding based on the PTT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Kong, Lingchao; Li, Qian; Ying, Jin; Shen, Changyu

    2011-01-01

    Unsteady viscoelastic flows were studied using the finite element method in this work. The Phan-Thien–Tanner (PTT) model was used to represent the rheological behavior of viscoelastic fluids. To effectively describe the microscale effects, the slip boundary condition and surface tension were added to the mathematical model for melt flow in micro-injection molding. The new variational equation of pressure, including the viscoelastic parameters and slip boundary condition, was generalized using integration by parts. A computer code based on the finite element method and finite difference method was developed to solve the melt flow problem. Numerical simulation revealed that the melt viscoelasticity plays an important role in the prediction of melt pressure, temperature at the gate and the succeeding melt front advancement in the cavity. Using the viscoelastic model one can also control the rapid increase in simulated pressure, temperature, and reduce the filling difference among different cavities. The short shot experiments of micro-motor shaft showed that the predicted melt front from the viscoelastic model is in fair agreement with the corresponding experimental results

  8. An optical flow algorithm based on gradient constancy assumption for PIV image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qianglong; Yang, Hua; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-05-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has matured as a flow measurement technique. It enables the description of the instantaneous velocity field of the flow by analyzing the particle motion obtained from digitally recorded images. Correlation based PIV evaluation technique is widely used because of its good accuracy and robustness. Although very successful, correlation PIV technique has some weakness which can be avoided by optical flow based PIV algorithms. At present, most of the optical flow methods applied to PIV are based on brightness constancy assumption. However, some factors of flow imaging technology and the nature property of the fluids make the brightness constancy assumption less appropriate in real PIV cases. In this paper, an implementation of a 2D optical flow algorithm (GCOF) based on gradient constancy assumption is introduced. The proposed GCOF assumes the edges of the illuminated PIV particles are constant during motion. It comprises two terms: a combined local-global gradient data term and a first-order divergence and vorticity smooth term. The approach can provide accurate dense motion fields. The approach are tested on synthetic images and on two experimental flows. The comparison of GCOF with other optical flow algorithms indicates the proposed method is more accurate especially in conditions of illumination variation. The comparison of GCOF with correlation PIV technique shows that the proposed GCOF has advantages on preserving small divergence and vorticity structures of the motion field and getting less outliers. As a consequence, the GCOF acquire a more accurate and better topological description of the turbulent flow.

  9. An optical flow algorithm based on gradient constancy assumption for PIV image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Qianglong; Yang, Hua; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has matured as a flow measurement technique. It enables the description of the instantaneous velocity field of the flow by analyzing the particle motion obtained from digitally recorded images. Correlation based PIV evaluation technique is widely used because of its good accuracy and robustness. Although very successful, correlation PIV technique has some weakness which can be avoided by optical flow based PIV algorithms. At present, most of the optical flow methods applied to PIV are based on brightness constancy assumption. However, some factors of flow imaging technology and the nature property of the fluids make the brightness constancy assumption less appropriate in real PIV cases. In this paper, an implementation of a 2D optical flow algorithm (GCOF) based on gradient constancy assumption is introduced. The proposed GCOF assumes the edges of the illuminated PIV particles are constant during motion. It comprises two terms: a combined local-global gradient data term and a first-order divergence and vorticity smooth term. The approach can provide accurate dense motion fields. The approach are tested on synthetic images and on two experimental flows. The comparison of GCOF with other optical flow algorithms indicates the proposed method is more accurate especially in conditions of illumination variation. The comparison of GCOF with correlation PIV technique shows that the proposed GCOF has advantages on preserving small divergence and vorticity structures of the motion field and getting less outliers. As a consequence, the GCOF acquire a more accurate and better topological description of the turbulent flow. (paper)

  10. Additional flow field studies of the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap including slot-gap variations and cove shape modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Ostowari, C.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made to determine the effects of slot gap opening and flap cove shape on flap and airfoil flow fields. Test model was the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 0.30c Fowler flap deflected 35 degrees. Tests were conducted with optimum, wide and narrow gaps, and with three cove shapes. Three test angles were selected, corresponding to pre-stall and post-stall conditions. Reynolds number was 2,200,000 and Mach number was 0.13. Force, surface pressure, total pressure, and split-film turbulence measurements were made. Results were compared with theory for those parameters for which theoretical values were available.

  11. Characteristic-Based Split Meshless Solution for Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mužík Juraj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with use of the meshless method for incompressible fluid flow analysis. There are many formulations of the meshless methods. The article presents the Meshless Local Petrov-Galerkin method (MLPG - local weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The shape function construction is the crucial part of the meshless numerical analysis in the construction of shape functions. The article presents the radial point interpolation method (RPIM for the shape functions construction

  12. Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.

  13. The Impact of Flow in an EEG-based Brain Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mladenović, Jelena; Frey, Jérémy; Bonnet-Save, Manon; Mattout, Jérémie; Lotte, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Major issues in Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) include low usability and poor user performance. This paper tackles them by ensuring the users to be in a state of immersion, control and motivation, called state of flow. Indeed, in various disciplines, being in the state of flow was shown to improve performances and learning. Hence, we intended to draw BCI users in a flow state to improve both their subjective experience and their performances. In a Motor Imagery BCI g...

  14. Phase-contrast MRI volume flow – a comparison of breath held and navigator based acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Charlotta; Kihlberg, Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Lindström, Lena; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Engvall, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 2D phase-contrast flow measurement has been regarded as the gold standard in blood flow measurements and can be performed with free breathing or breath held techniques. We hypothesized that the accuracy of flow measurements obtained with segmented phase-contrast during breath holding, and in particular higher number of k-space segments, would be non-inferior compared to navigator phase-contrast. Volumes obtained from anatomic segmentation of cine MRI and Doppler echocardiography were used for additional reference. Forty patients, five women and 35 men, mean age 65 years (range 53–80), were randomly selected and consented to the study. All underwent EKG-gated cardiac MRI including breath hold cine, navigator based free-breathing phase-contrast MRI and breath hold phase-contrast MRI using k-space segmentation factors 3 and 5, as well as transthoracic echocardiography within 2 days. In navigator based free-breathing phase-contrast flow, mean stroke volume and cardiac output were 79.7 ± 17.1 ml and 5071 ± 1192 ml/min, respectively. The duration of the acquisition was 50 ± 6 s. With k-space segmentation factor 3, the corresponding values were 77.7 ml ± 17.5 ml and 4979 ± 1211 ml/min (p = 0.15 vs navigator). The duration of the breath hold was 17 ± 2 s. K-space segmentation factor 5 gave mean stroke volume 77.9 ± 16.4 ml, cardiac output 5142 ± 1197 ml/min (p = 0.33 vs navigator), and breath hold time 11 ± 1 s. Anatomical segmentation of cine gave mean stroke volume and cardiac output 91.2 ± 20.8 ml and 5963 ± 1452 ml/min, respectively. Echocardiography was reliable in 20 of the 40 patients. The mean diameter of the left ventricular outflow tract was 20.7 ± 1.5 mm, stroke volume 78.3 ml ± 15.2 ml and cardiac output 5164 ± 1249 ml/min. In forty consecutive patients with coronary heart disease, breath holding and segmented k-space sampling techniques for phase-contrast flow produced stroke volumes and cardiac outputs similar

  15. Base-flow investigation on the Sacramento River, September 25, 1985, near Sunspot, Otero County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Clint D.

    1990-01-01

    On September 25, 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a base-flow investigation to better define the surface-water resources of the Sacramento River drainage basin in Otero County , south-central New Mexico. The investigation included all flow in the Sacramento River from the initial point of flow to the point of zero flow 20.1 river miles downstream. A total of 12 discharge measurements, 3 observations of zero flow and 2 observations of initial flow were obtained during this investigation. Discharge measurements and observations showed a general increase in discharge from river mile 22.4 to a discharge of 6.69 cu ft/sec at river mile 8.4. Discharge then decreased from river mile 8.4 to zero flow at river mile 3.3. Specific conductance and water temperature also were taken concurrently with the discharge measurements. Specific conductance of water generally decreased in a downstream direction from 600 microsiemens/cm at 25 C at river mile 21.9 to 330 microsiemens/cm at 25C at river mile 4.6. (USGS)

  16. Calculation of the Instream Ecological Flow of the Wei River Based on Hydrological Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhi Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great significance for the watershed management department to reasonably allocate water resources and ensure the sustainable development of river ecosystems. The greatly important issue is to accurately calculate instream ecological flow. In order to precisely compute instream ecological flow, flow variation is taken into account in this study. Moreover, the heuristic segmentation algorithm that is suitable to detect the mutation points of flow series is employed to identify the change points. Besides, based on the law of tolerance and ecological adaptation theory, the maximum instream ecological flow is calculated, which is the highest frequency of the monthly flow based on the GEV distribution and very suitable for healthy development of the river ecosystems. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the sustainable development of river ecosystems under some bad circumstances, minimum instream ecological flow is calculated by a modified Tennant method which is improved by replacing the average flow with the highest frequency of flow. Since the modified Tennant method is more suitable to reflect the law of flow, it has physical significance, and the calculation results are more reasonable.

  17. Web-based execution of graphical work-flows: a modular platform for multifunctional scientific process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ley, E.; Jacobs, D.; Ounsy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Passerelle process automation suite offers a fundamentally modular solution platform, based on a layered integration of several best-of-breed technologies. It has been successfully applied by Synchrotron Soleil as the sequencer for data acquisition and control processes on its beamlines, integrated with TANGO as a control bus and GlobalScreen TM ) as the SCADA package. Since last year it is being used as the graphical work-flow component for the development of an eclipse-based Data Analysis Work Bench, at ESRF. The top layer of Passerelle exposes an actor-based development paradigm, based on the Ptolemy framework (UC Berkeley). Actors provide explicit reusability and strong decoupling, combined with an inherently concurrent execution model. Actor libraries exist for TANGO integration, web-services, database operations, flow control, rules-based analysis, mathematical calculations, launching external scripts etc. Passerelle's internal architecture is based on OSGi, the major Java framework for modular service-based applications. A large set of modules exist that can be recombined as desired to obtain different features and deployment models. Besides desktop versions of the Passerelle work-flow workbench, there is also the Passerelle Manager. It is a secured web application including a graphical editor, for centralized design, execution, management and monitoring of process flows, integrating standard Java Enterprise services with OSGi. We will present the internal technical architecture, some interesting application cases and the lessons learnt. (authors)

  18. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Materials The nickel-base, powder-metallurgy (PM) cc¢ super- alloy LSHR was used to establish the effect of test method on plastic -flow response under hot...of friction was estimated to lead to maximum errors in flow stress of the order of 3 pct for the sample geometry and height reduction used in the... plastic -flow behavior of LSHR (in effective stress-strain terms) was described using a phenomeno- logical relationship typical of those for

  19. Methodological Approach to Company Cash Flows Target-Oriented Forecasting Based on Financial Position Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krylov

    2012-01-01

    The article treats a new methodological approach to the company cash flows target-oriented forecasting based on its financial position analysis. The approach is featured to be universal and presumes application of the following techniques developed by the author: financial ratio values correction techniques and correcting cash flows techniques. The financial ratio values correction technique assumes to analyze and forecast company financial position while the correcting cash flows technique i...

  20. Bringing Value-Based Perspectives to Care: Including Patient and Family Members in Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Graeme; Sampalli, Tara; Ryer, Ashley; Porter, Judy; Wood, Les; Bedford, Lisa; Higgins-Bowser, Irene; Edwards, Lynn; Christian, Erin; Dunn, Susan; Gibson, Rick; Ryan Carson, Shannon; Vallis, Michael; Zed, Joanna; Tugwell, Barna; Van Zoost, Colin; Canfield, Carolyn; Rivoire, Eleanor

    2017-03-06

    Recent evidence shows that patient engagement is an important strategy in achieving a high performing healthcare system. While there is considerable evidence of implementation initiatives in direct care context, there is limited investigation of implementation initiatives in decision-making context as it relates to program planning, service delivery and developing policies. Research has also shown a gap in consistent application of system-level strategies that can effectively translate organizational policies around patient and family engagement into practice. The broad objective of this initiative was to develop a system-level implementation strategy to include patient and family advisors (PFAs) at decision-making points in primary healthcare (PHC) based on wellestablished evidence and literature. In this opportunity sponsored by the Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement (CFHI) a co-design methodology, also well-established was applied in identifying and developing a suitable implementation strategy to engage PFAs as members of quality teams in PHC. Diabetes management centres (DMCs) was selected as the pilot site to develop the strategy. Key steps in the process included review of evidence, review of the current state in PHC through engagement of key stakeholders and a co-design approach. The project team included a diverse representation of members from the PHC system including patient advisors, DMC team members, system leads, providers, Public Engagement team members and CFHI improvement coaches. Key outcomes of this 18-month long initiative included development of a working definition of patient and family engagement, development of a Patient and Family Engagement Resource Guide and evaluation of the resource guide. This novel initiative provided us an opportunity to develop a supportive system-wide implementation plan and a strategy to include PFAs in decision-making processes in PHC. The well-established co-design methodology further allowed us to

  1. A Risk-Based Ecohydrological Approach to Assessing Environmental Flow Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgregor, Glenn B.; Marshall, Jonathan C.; Lobegeiger, Jaye S.; Holloway, Dean; Menke, Norbert; Coysh, Julie

    2018-03-01

    For several decades there has been recognition that water resource development alters river flow regimes and impacts ecosystem values. Determining strategies to protect or restore flow regimes to achieve ecological outcomes is a focus of water policy and legislation in many parts of the world. However, consideration of existing environmental flow assessment approaches for application in Queensland identified deficiencies precluding their adoption. Firstly, in managing flows and using ecosystem condition as an indicator of effectiveness, many approaches ignore the fact that river ecosystems are subjected to threatening processes other than flow regime alteration. Secondly, many focus on providing flows for responses without considering how often they are necessary to sustain ecological values in the long-term. Finally, few consider requirements at spatial-scales relevant to the desired outcomes, with frequent focus on individual places rather than the regions supporting sustainability. Consequently, we developed a risk-based ecohydrological approach that identifies ecosystem values linked to desired ecological outcomes, is sensitive to flow alteration and uses indicators of broader ecosystem requirements. Monitoring and research is undertaken to quantify flow-dependencies and ecological modelling is used to quantify flow-related ecological responses over an historical flow period. The relative risk from different flow management scenarios can be evaluated at relevant spatial-scales. This overcomes the deficiencies identified above and provides a robust and useful foundation upon which to build the information needed to support water planning decisions. Application of the risk assessment approach is illustrated here by two case studies.

  2. Lateral flow microarrays: a novel platform for rapid nucleic acid detection based on miniaturized lateral flow chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Darren J.; Cary, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Widely used nucleic acid assays are poorly suited for field deployment where access to laboratory instrumentation is limited or unavailable. The need for field deployable nucleic acid detection demands inexpensive, facile systems without sacrificing information capacity or sensitivity. Here we describe a novel microarray platform capable of rapid, sensitive nucleic acid detection without specialized instrumentation. The approach is based on a miniaturized lateral flow device that makes use of...

  3. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Mario Helder; Saraiva, Joao Tome

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  4. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  5. Debris flow susceptibility assessment based on an empirical approach in the central region of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Seung-Rae

    2018-05-01

    Many debris flow spreading analyses have been conducted during recent decades to prevent damage from debris flows. An empirical approach that has been used in various studies on debris flow spreading has advantages such as simple data acquisition and good applicability for large areas. In this study, a GIS-based empirical model that was developed at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) is used to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Study sites are classified based on the types of soil texture or geological conditions, which can indirectly consider geotechnical or rheological properties, to supplement the weaknesses of Flow-R which neglects local controlling factors. The mean travel angle for each classification is calculated from a debris flow inventory map. The debris flow susceptibility is assessed based on changes in the flow-direction algorithm, an inertial function with a 5-m DEM resolution. A simplified friction-limited model was applied to the runout distance analysis by using the appropriate travel angle for the corresponding classification with a velocity limit of 28 m/s. The most appropriate algorithm combinations that derived the highest average of efficiency and sensitivity for each classification are finally determined by applying a confusion matrix with the efficiency and the sensitivity to the results of the susceptibility assessment. The proposed schemes can be useful for debris flow susceptibility assessment in both the study area and the central region of Korea, which has similar environmental factors such as geological conditions, topography and rainfall characteristics to the study area.

  6. Development of a Nanobody-Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Detection of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Sylvie Y; Tabatabai, Julia; Schnitzler, Paul; Farah, Carlo; Rameil, Steffen; Sander, Peter; Koromyslova, Anna; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. These viruses are usually detected by molecular methods, including reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically diverse, with two main genogroups that are further subdivided into over 40 different genotypes. During the past decade, genogroup 2 genotype 4 (GII.4) has dominated in most countries, but recently, viruses belonging to GII.17 have increased in prevalence in a number of countries. A number of commercially available ELISAs and lateral flow immunoassays were found to have lower sensitivities to the GII.17 viruses, indicating that the antibodies used in these methods may not have a high level of cross-reactivity. In this study, we developed a rapid Nanobody-based lateral flow immunoassay (Nano-immunochromatography [Nano-IC]) for the detection of human norovirus in clinical specimens. The Nano-IC assay detected virions from two GII.4 norovirus clusters, which included the current dominant strain and a novel variant strain. The Nano-IC method had a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 86% for outbreak specimens. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) representing four genotypes (GII.4, GII.10, GII.12, and GII.17) could be detected by this method, demonstrating the potential in clinical screening. However, further modifications to the Nano-IC method are needed in order to improve this sensitivity, which may be achieved by the addition of other broadly reactive Nanobodies to the system. IMPORTANCE We previously identified a Nanobody (termed Nano-85) that bound to a highly conserved region on the norovirus capsid. In this study, the Nanobody was biotinylated and gold conjugated for a lateral flow immunoassay (termed Nano-IC). We showed that the Nano-IC assay was capable of detecting at least four antigenically distinct GII genotypes, including the newly emerging GII.17. In the clinical setting, the

  7. Evaluation of the reliability of transport networks based on the stochastic flow of moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weiwei; Ning, Angelika; Ning Xuanxi

    2008-01-01

    In transport networks, human beings are moving objects whose moving direction is stochastic in emergency situations. Based on this idea, a new model-stochastic moving network (SMN) is proposed. It is different from binary-state networks and stochastic-flow networks. The flow of SMNs has multiple-saturated states, that correspond to different flow values in each arc. In this paper, we try to evaluate the system reliability, defined as the probability that the saturated flow of the network is not less than a given demand d. Based on this new model, we obtain the flow probability distribution of every arc by simulation. An algorithm based on the blocking cutset of the SMN is proposed to evaluate the network reliability. An example is used to show how to calculate the corresponding reliabilities for different given demands of the SMN. Simulation experiments of different size were made and the system reliability precision was calculated. The precision of simulation results also discussed

  8. Research on Underwater Vehicle Based on Multiphase Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for modeling the hydrodynamic characteristics of submarine-launched vehicle. In the numerical simulations, the SST (Shear Stress Transport turbulence model is employed to describe the turbulence phenomenon occurring in the continuous fluid. The Rayleigh-Plesset equations are applied to analyze the cavitation phenomenon. Three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the cavity shape, the surface pressure distribution and the drag force with different flow control. The result shows that the gas and the number of ventilation holes control to show any significant impact on the cavity shape and the surface pressure are effective measures to decrease resistance.

  9. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  10. 3D base: a geometrical data base system for the analysis and visualisation of 3D-shapes obtained from parallel serial sections including three different geometrical representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, F. J.; de Groot, M. M.; Huijsmans, D. P.; Lamers, W. H.; Young, I. T.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a geometrical data base that includes three different geometrical representations of one and the same reconstructed 3D shape: the contour-pile, the voxel enumeration, and the triangulation of a surface. The data base is tailored for 3D shapes obtained from plan-parallel

  11. Flow-Based Network Management: A Report from the IRTF NMRG Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Sadre, R.; Hendriks, Luuk

    This is the report on the Workshop on Flow-Based Network Management, held within the 37th IRTF NMRG meeting, during IETF 93, on 24th July 2015, in Prague, Czech Republic. Following the tradition of the IRTF NMRG, the workshop focused on technologies, developments, and challenges of using flow-level

  12. Determination of instantaneous pressure in a transonic base flow using four-pulse tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinde, P.L.; Lynch, K.P.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    A tomographic four-pulse PIV system is used in a transonic axisymmetric base flow experiment at a nominal free stream Mach number of 0.7, with the objective to obtain flow acceleration and pressure data. The PIV system, consisting of two double-pulse lasers and twelve cameras, allows acquiring two

  13. A Low-Power Thermal-Based Sensor System for Low Air Flow Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzman, Akm; Haider, Mohammad Rafiqul; Allison, David B

    2016-11-01

    Being able to rapidly detect a low air flow rate with high accuracy is essential for various applications in the automotive and biomedical industries. We have developed a thermal-based low air flow sensor with a low-power sensor readout for biomedical applications. The thermal-based air flow sensor comprises a heater and three pairs of temperature sensors that sense temperature differences due to laminar air flow. The thermal-based flow sensor was designed and simulated by using laminar flow, heat transfer in solids and fluids physics in COMSOL MultiPhysics software. The proposed sensor can detect air flow as low as 0.0064 m/sec. The readout circuit is based on a current- controlled ring oscillator in which the output frequency of the ring oscillator is proportional to the temperature differences of the sensors. The entire readout circuit was designed and simulated by using a 130-nm standard CMOS process. The sensor circuit features a small area and low-power consumption of about 22.6 µW with an 800 mV power supply. In the simulation, the output frequency of the ring oscillator and the change in thermistor resistance showed a high linearity with an R 2 value of 0.9987. The low-power dissipation, high linearity and small dimensions of the proposed flow sensor and circuit make the system highly suitable for biomedical applications.

  14. Numerical modeling of the strand deposition flow in extrusion-based additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Serdeczny, Marcin P.; Pedersen, David B.

    2018-01-01

    -based additive manufacturing, as well as the surface roughness of the fabricated part. Under the assumptions of an isothermal Newtonian fluid and a creeping laminar flow, the deposition flow is controlled by two parameters: the gap distance between the extrusion nozzle and the substrate, and the velocity ratio...

  15. Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-07

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are ideal biosensors to detect proteins, but their lack of sensitivity hinders their extensive use. We report a strategy that yields up to an 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of a gold nanoparticles-based LFIA by changing the sizes of the pads. Theoretical flow simulations of the developed LFIA architectures are in accordance with the experimental results.

  16. Biomimetic flow-sensor arrays based on the filiform hairs on the cerci of crickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Floris, J.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Izadi, N.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report on the latest developments in biomimetic flow-sensors based on the flow sensitive mechano-sensors of crickets. Crickets have one form of acoustic sensing evolved in the form of mechanoreceptive sensory hairs. These filiform hairs are highly perceptive to low-frequency sound

  17. Improvements of Critical Heat Flux Models Based on the Viscous Potential Flow Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2014-01-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is analyzed based on a potential flow of inviscid fluids. However, if the viscosity effect is taken into consideration, a nonuniform flow occurs due to the shear stress at the interface. The idea to incorporate the effects of fluid viscosities into the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can be found in the viscous potential flow theory. Joseph and Liao showed that the potential (irrotational) flow of viscous fluids satisfies the Navier- Stokes equation. For the potential flow, since the vorticity is identically zero, the viscous term vanishes in the Navier-Stokes equation; the motion of fluid is governed by the Bernoulli equation. However, the viscous stresses do not vanish in general. Therefore, the viscous pressure is entered through the normal stress balance at the interface. In the viscous potential flow, the shear stress is neglected at the interface and wall, and thus there is a velocity slip at the interface. These treatments are consistent with the fact that the interface waves are induced more by pressure than by shear force. Funada and Joseph presented a viscous potential flow analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Funada et al. carried out a stability analysis of a circular fluid jet into another fluid. Funada and Joseph considered the capillary instability. The viscous potential flow analysis is more accurate than the inviscid flow analysis in terms of the growth rate. Therefore, the critical condition of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can be predicted more accurately than the inviscid flow analysis. In this study, the interfacial instabilities of viscous potential flows are applied to critical heat flux models for saturated pool boiling on infinite horizontal surfaces, with the aim of including the effects of fluid viscosities. The critical conditions of the circular jet and Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities are incorporated into the hydrodynamic theory model and liquid macrolayer dryout model. Circular jet instabilities is

  18. Optimization of Financial Flow Management Based on Estimates of Regional Multiplicative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Aleksandrovich Tatarkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with questions of increasing the management efficiency of the regional financial resources. As the main hypothesis, the idea of the optimization of the management of the regional financial flows based on the multiplicative economic effect is proved. This measure will allow to evaluate more efficiently the impact of the regional socio-economic policy. The article presents a multifactor model of the management of the regional financial flows on the regional level — the matrix of financial flows, based on the principles of the general economic equilibrium theory, the balance method of «input-output» and the methodology of national accounts. The paper introduces a methodology for the integration of the regional consolidated budget balance in a matrix of financial flows. Matrix multipliers of the consolidated budget balance are calculated for some regions of the Russian Federation allowing to model the economic multiplicative effects resulting from impact of different types of exogenous factors on the economic development of the regions, such as to predict the impact of fiscal redistribution on the GRP and income, to assess the impact of foreign investment on economic growth, to explore the effectiveness of the federal tax policy at the regional level. The article shows that the multiplier effect depends on several factors, including the foreign trade relations of the region, its dependence on imports, the share of value added in gross output, as well as the household savings. Various levels of government can use the author’s approach during development of strategies for socio-economic development, in assessing the extent and direction of the influence of exogenous factors on the economy of the territory, as well as in analyzing the investment initiatives from the private sector applying for state financial support for projects. In the conclusion, the ways of improving the management of financial flows on the basis of

  19. Implementation of Finite Volume based Navier Stokes Algorithm Within General Purpose Flow Network Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Majumdar, Alok

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a finite volume based numerical algorithm that allows multi-dimensional computation of fluid flow within a system level network flow analysis. There are several thermo-fluid engineering problems where higher fidelity solutions are needed that are not within the capacity of system level codes. The proposed algorithm will allow NASA's Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) to perform multi-dimensional flow calculation within the framework of GFSSP s typical system level flow network consisting of fluid nodes and branches. The paper presents several classical two-dimensional fluid dynamics problems that have been solved by GFSSP's multi-dimensional flow solver. The numerical solutions are compared with the analytical and benchmark solution of Poiseulle, Couette and flow in a driven cavity.

  20. Mixed Platoon Flow Dispersion Model Based on Speed-Truncated Gaussian Mixture Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitiao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed traffic flow feature is presented on urban arterials in China due to a large amount of buses. Based on field data, a macroscopic mixed platoon flow dispersion model (MPFDM was proposed to simulate the platoon dispersion process along the road section between two adjacent intersections from the flow view. More close to field observation, truncated Gaussian mixture distribution was adopted as the speed density distribution for mixed platoon. Expectation maximum (EM algorithm was used for parameters estimation. The relationship between the arriving flow distribution at downstream intersection and the departing flow distribution at upstream intersection was investigated using the proposed model. Comparison analysis using virtual flow data was performed between the Robertson model and the MPFDM. The results confirmed the validity of the proposed model.

  1. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  2. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are simulated in the 15-ha Bukmoongol small-forested watershed located at the southern part of Korea.The WHAT system, PART,RORA,PULSE,BFI,and RAP software are used to estimate groundwater recharge or base flow and base flow index from ...

  3. Photoluminescent lateral flow based on non-radiative energy transfer for protein detection in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Gálvez, Alejandro; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Romero, Javier; Merkoçi, Arben

    2018-02-15

    A new paper-based lateral flow immunoassay configuration was engineered and investigated. The assay is intended for the detection of a model protein in human serum, that is, human immunoglobulin G, with the aim to demonstrate a virtually universal protein detection platform. Once the sample is added in the strip, the analyte is selectively captured by antibody-decorated silica beads (Ab-SiO 2 ) onto the conjugate pad and the sample flows by capillarity throughout the strip until reaching the test line, where a sandwich-like immunocomplex takes place due to the presence of antibody-functionalized QDs (Ab-QDs) onto the test line. Eventually, GO is added as a revealing agent and the photoluminescence of those sites protected by the complex Ab-SiO 2 /Antigen/Ab-QDs will not be quenched, whereas those photoluminescent sites directly exposed are expected to be quenched by GO, including the control line, made of bare QDs, reporting that the assay occurred successfully. Hence, the photoluminescence of the test line is modulated by the formation of sandwich-like immunocomplexes. The proposed device achieves a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.35ngmL -1 in standard buffer, which is lower when compared with conventional lateral flow technology reported by gold nanoparticles, including other amplification strategies. Moreover, the resulting device was proven useful in human serum analysis, achieving a LOD of 6.30ngmL -1 in this complex matrix. This low-cost disposable and easy-to-use device will prove valuable for portable and automated diagnostics applications, and can be easily transferred to other analytes such as clinically relevant protein biomarkers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The research of urban spatial polarization based on the space of flows theory——a case study of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chaoqing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the elite space and the relation model between the space of flows and the urban space,the paper analyzed the mechanism and consequence of the new urban spatial polarization.Using the Shanghai sixth census data and the sample data,the paper discussed the new phenomenon of urban spatial polarization in the information age by the location quotient analysis and GIS spatial analysis.The research result showed that the space of flows influencing urban spatial polarization through the elite space is a higher level agglomeration,including the spatial concentration of the human capital,the concentration of wealth and knowledge of science and technology.

  5. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  6. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  7. Discharge and water-quality data for selected streams at low flow including some bottom-material analyses, and limnological study of six lakes, Westchester County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Roger J.; Turk, John T.

    1977-01-01

    Water-quality data collected at sites on 33 Westchester County, N.Y., streams August 4 to 6, 1976 during low flow (80-percent or more duration) indicate that although the chemical characteristics of most streams met State standards for water-supply source waters, none met the coliform standard, and several failed to meet standards for organic nitrogen, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Chemical analyses of bottom materials indicated detectable concentrations of the insecticides chlordane, dieldrin, and DDT at most of the 17 stream sites sampled. Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCB's) were found in more than half the samples, and the lead concentration on one stream was significantly higher than at the other sites. The six lakes studied are similar in bedrock geology, climate, and algal types and numbers. Minor differences in the chemistry of the lakes is attributable to the presence or absence of marble (calcium carbonate) in the gneissic basins, septic loadings of soluble constituents, or runoff containing salt from winter road deicing. The lakes probably receive most of their water by direct runoff and groundwater seepage rather than from major streams. All six lakes can be classed as eutrophic on the basis of algal type and density, dissolved-oxygen distribution, and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. FLOW-BASED NETWORK MEASURES OF BRAIN CONNECTIVITY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Nir, Talia M; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new flow-based method for modeling brain structural connectivity. The method uses a modified maximum-flow algorithm that is robust to noise in the diffusion data and guided by biologically viable pathways and structure of the brain. A flow network is first created using a lattice graph by connecting all lattice points (voxel centers) to all their neighbors by edges. Edge weights are based on the orientation distribution function (ODF) value in the direction of the edge. The maximum-flow is computed based on this flow graph using the flow or the capacity between each region of interest (ROI) pair by following the connected tractography fibers projected onto the flow graph edges. Network measures such as global efficiency, transitivity, path length, mean degree, density, modularity, small world, and assortativity are computed from the flow connectivity matrix. We applied our method to diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) from 110 subjects (28 normal elderly, 56 with early and 11 with late mild cognitive impairment, and 15 with AD) and segmented co-registered anatomical MRIs into cortical regions. Experimental results showed better performance compared to the standard fiber-counting methods when distinguishing Alzheimer's disease from normal aging.

  9. A potential flow based flight simulator for an underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemsapthawee, Surasak; Le Boulluec, Marc; Laurens, Jean-Marc; Deniset, François

    2013-03-01

    Underwater gliders are recent innovative types of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) used in ocean exploration and observation. They adjust their buoyancy to dive and to return to the ocean surface. During the change of altitude, they use the hydrodynamic forces developed by their wings to move forward. Their flights are controlled by changing the position of their centers of gravity and their buoyancy to adjust their trim and heel angles. For better flight control, the understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior and the flight mechanics of the underwater glider is necessary. A 6-DOF motion simulator is coupled with an unsteady potential flow model for this purpose. In some specific cases, the numerical study demonstrates that an inappropriate stabilizer dimension can cause counter-steering behavior. The simulator can be used to improve the automatic flight control. It can also be used for the hydrodynamic design optimization of the devices.

  10. Estimation of inhalation flow profile using audio-based methods to assess inhaler medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terence E; Lacalle Muls, Helena; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are required to inhale forcefully and deeply to receive medication when using a dry powder inhaler (DPI). There is a clinical need to objectively monitor the inhalation flow profile of DPIs in order to remotely monitor patient inhalation technique. Audio-based methods have been previously employed to accurately estimate flow parameters such as the peak inspiratory flow rate of inhalations, however, these methods required multiple calibration inhalation audio recordings. In this study, an audio-based method is presented that accurately estimates inhalation flow profile using only one calibration inhalation audio recording. Twenty healthy participants were asked to perform 15 inhalations through a placebo Ellipta™ DPI at a range of inspiratory flow rates. Inhalation flow signals were recorded using a pneumotachograph spirometer while inhalation audio signals were recorded simultaneously using the Inhaler Compliance Assessment device attached to the inhaler. The acoustic (amplitude) envelope was estimated from each inhalation audio signal. Using only one recording, linear and power law regression models were employed to determine which model best described the relationship between the inhalation acoustic envelope and flow signal. Each model was then employed to estimate the flow signals of the remaining 14 inhalation audio recordings. This process repeated until each of the 15 recordings were employed to calibrate single models while testing on the remaining 14 recordings. It was observed that power law models generated the highest average flow estimation accuracy across all participants (90.89±0.9% for power law models and 76.63±2.38% for linear models). The method also generated sufficient accuracy in estimating inhalation parameters such as peak inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory capacity within the presence of noise. Estimating inhaler inhalation flow profiles using audio based methods may be

  11. Flow-based vulnerability measures for network component importance: Experimentation with preparedness planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, Charles D.; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    This work develops and compares several flow-based vulnerability measures to prioritize important network edges for the implementation of preparedness options. These network vulnerability measures quantify different characteristics and perspectives on enabling maximum flow, creating bottlenecks, and partitioning into cutsets, among others. The efficacy of these vulnerability measures to motivate preparedness options against experimental geographically located disruption simulations is measured. Results suggest that a weighted flow capacity rate, which accounts for both (i) the contribution of an edge to maximum network flow and (ii) the extent to which the edge is a bottleneck in the network, shows most promise across four instances of varying network sizes and densities. - Highlights: • We develop new flow-based measures of network vulnerability. • We apply these measures to determine the importance of edges after disruptions. • Networks of varying size and density are explored.

  12. Tribocorrosion in pressurized high temperature water: a mass flow model based on the third body approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guadalupe Maldonado, S.

    2014-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) used for power generation are operated at elevated temperatures (280-300 °C) and under higher pressure (120-150 bar). In addition to these harsh environmental conditions some components of the PWR assemblies are subject to mechanical loading (sliding, vibration and impacts) leading to undesirable and hardly controllable material degradation phenomena. In such situations wear is determined by the complex interplay (tribocorrosion) between mechanical, material and physical-chemical phenomena. Tribocorrosion in PWR conditions is at present little understood and models need to be developed in order to predict component lifetime over several decades. The goal of this project, carried out in collaboration with the French company AREVA NP, is to develop a predictive model based on the mechanistic understanding of tribocorrosion of specific PWR components (stainless steel control assemblies, stellite grippers). The approach taken here is to describe degradation in terms of electro-chemical and mechanical material flows (third body concept of tribology) from the metal into the friction film (i.e. the oxidized film forming during rubbing on the metal surface) and from the friction film into the environment instead of simple mass loss considerations. The project involves the establishment of mechanistic models for describing the single flows based on ad-hoc tribocorrosion measurements operating at low temperature. The overall behaviour at high temperature and pressure in investigated using a dedicated tribometer (Aurore) including electrochemical control of the contact during rubbing. Physical laws describing the individual flows according to defined mechanisms and as a function of defined physical parameters were identified based on the obtained experimental results and from literature data. The physical laws were converted into mass flow rates and solved as differential equation system by considering the mass balance in compartments

  13. Up-scaling of a two-phase flow model including gravity effect in geological heterogeneous media: application to CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Tri-Dat

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr

  14. Architecture Synthesis for Cost-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Flow-based Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Morten Chabert; Pop, Paul; Potluri, Seetal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the synthesis of fault-tolerant architectures for flow-based microfluidic biochips, which use microvalves and channels to run biochemical applications. The growth rate of device integration in flow-based microfluidic biochips is scaling faster than Moore's law........ The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several benchmarks and compared to the results of a Simulated Annealing metaheuristic....

  15. UAV-based remote sensing surveys of lava flow fields: a case study from Etna's 1974 channel-fed lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Massimiliano; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Nannipieri, Luca; Harris, Andrew; Calvari, Sonia; Lormand, Charline

    2018-03-01

    During an eruption, time scales of topographic change are fast and involve vertical and planimetric evolution of millimeters to meters as the event progresses. Repeat production of high spatial resolution terrain models of lava flow fields over time scales of a few hours is thus a high-value capability in tracking the buildup of the deposit. Among the wide range of terrestrial and aerial methods available to collect such topographic data, the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an acquisition platform, together with structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry, has become especially useful. This approach allows high-frequency production of centimeter-scale terrain models over kilometer-scale areas, including dangerous and inaccessible zones, with low cost and minimal hazard to personnel. This study presents the application of such an integrated UAV-SfM method to generate a high spatial resolution digital terrain model and orthomosaic of Mount Etna's January-February 1974 lava flow field. The SfM method, applied to images acquired using a UAV platform, enabled the extraction of a very high spatial resolution (20 cm) digital elevation model and the generation of a 3-cm orthomosaic covering an area of 1.35 km2. This spatial resolution enabled us to analyze the morphology of sub-meter-scale features, such as folds, blocks, and cracks, over kilometer-scale areas. The 3-cm orthomosaic allowed us to further push the analysis to centimeter-scale grain size distribution of the lava surface. Using these data, we define three types of crust structure and relate them to positions within a channel-fed ´áā flow system. These crust structures are (i) flow parallel shear lines, (ii) raft zones, and (iii) folded zones. Flow parallel shear lines are found at the channel edges, and are 2-m-wide and 0.25-m-deep zones running along the levee base and in which cracking is intense. They result from intense shearing between the moving channel lava and the static levee lava. In

  16. Optimal fuzzy logic-based PID controller for load-frequency control including superconducting magnetic energy storage units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothiya, Saravuth; Ngamroo, Issarachai

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new optimal fuzzy logic-based-proportional-integral-derivative (FLPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC) including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units. Conventionally, the membership functions and control rules of fuzzy logic control are obtained by trial and error method or experiences of designers. To overcome this problem, the multiple tabu search (MTS) algorithm is applied to simultaneously tune PID gains, membership functions and control rules of FLPID controller to minimize frequency deviations of the system against load disturbances. The MTS algorithm introduces additional techniques for improvement of search process such as initialization, adaptive search, multiple searches, crossover and restarting process. Simulation results explicitly show that the performance of the optimum FLPID controller is superior to the conventional PID controller and the non-optimum FLPID controller in terms of the overshoot, settling time and robustness against variations of system parameters

  17. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-08-01

    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  18. VFLOW2D - A Vorte-Based Code for Computing Flow Over Elastically Supported Tubes and Tube Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOLFE,WALTER P.; STRICKLAND,JAMES H.; HOMICZ,GREGORY F.; GOSSLER,ALBERT A.

    2000-10-11

    A numerical flow model is developed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow past immersed, elastically supported tube arrays. This work is motivated by the objective of predicting forces and motion associated with both deep-water drilling and production risers in the oil industry. This work has other engineering applications including simulation of flow past tubular heat exchangers or submarine-towed sensor arrays and the flow about parachute ribbons. In the present work, a vortex method is used for solving the unsteady flow field. This method demonstrates inherent advantages over more conventional grid-based computational fluid dynamics. The vortex method is non-iterative, does not require artificial viscosity for stability, displays minimal numerical diffusion, can easily treat moving boundaries, and allows a greatly reduced computational domain since vorticity occupies only a small fraction of the fluid volume. A gridless approach is used in the flow sufficiently distant from surfaces. A Lagrangian remap scheme is used near surfaces to calculate diffusion and convection of vorticity. A fast multipole technique is utilized for efficient calculation of velocity from the vorticity field. The ability of the method to correctly predict lift and drag forces on simple stationary geometries over a broad range of Reynolds numbers is presented.

  19. A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu L.; Wang, J.

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system (LBLSS), including soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants. SLS makes it possible to combine the processes of plant growth and the utilization of plant waste. Plants are to be grown on SLS on the basis of 20 kg of dry SLS mass or 100 kg of wet SLS mass per square meter. The substrate is to be delivered to the base ready-made as part of the plant growth subsystem. Food for the crew was provided by prestored stock 24% and by plant growing system 76%. Total dry weight of the food is 631 g per day (2800 kcal/day) for one crew member (CM). The list of candidate plants to be grown under lunar BLSS conditions included 14 species: wheat, rice, soybean, peanuts, sweet pepper, carrots, tomatoes, coriander, cole, lettuce, radish, squash, onion and garlic. From the prestored stock the crew consumed canned fish, iodinated salt, sugar, beef sauce and seafood sauce. Our calculations show that to provide one CM with plant food requires the area of 47.5 m 2. The balance of substance is achieved by the removal dehydrated urine 59 g, feces 31 g, food waste 50 g, SLS 134 g, and also waters 86 g from system and introduction food 236 g, liquid potassium soap 4 g and mineral salts 120 g into system daily. To reduce system setup time the first plants could be sowed and germinated to a certain age on the Earth.

  20. Estimation of the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries using a vessel length-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Ji, Yoon Cheol; Shin, Eun-Seok; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sung Joon; Shim, Eun Bo

    2016-08-01

    Flow resistances exerted in the coronary arteries are the key parameters for the image-based computer simulation of coronary hemodynamics. The resistances depend on the anatomical characteristics of the coronary system. A simple and reliable estimation of the resistances is a compulsory procedure to compute the fractional flow reserve (FFR) of stenosed coronary arteries, an important clinical index of coronary artery disease. The cardiac muscle volume reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images has been used to assess the resistance of the feeding coronary artery (muscle volume-based method). In this study, we estimate the flow resistances exerted in coronary arteries by using a novel method. Based on a physiological observation that longer coronary arteries have more daughter branches feeding a larger mass of cardiac muscle, the method measures the vessel lengths from coronary angiogram or CT images (vessel length-based method) and predicts the coronary flow resistances. The underlying equations are derived from the physiological relation among flow rate, resistance, and vessel length. To validate the present estimation method, we calculate the coronary flow division over coronary major arteries for 50 patients using the vessel length-based method as well as the muscle volume-based one. These results are compared with the direct measurements in a clinical study. Further proving the usefulness of the present method, we compute the coronary FFR from the images of optical coherence tomography.

  1. [Materiality Analysis of Health Plans Based on Stakeholder Engagement and the Issues Included at ISO 26000:2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano Santiago, Miguel Angel; Rivera Lirio, Juana María

    2017-01-18

    Health plans of the Spanish autonomous communities can incorporate sustainable development criteria in its development. There have been no analysis or proposals about development and indicators. The goal is to add a contribution to help build better health plans aimed at sustainable development and help to manage economic, social and environmental impacts of health systems criteria. We used a variation of the RAND/UCLA or modified Delphi technique method. The process consisted of a bibliographical and context matters and issues related to health and social responsibility analysis based on ISO 26000: 2010. A survey by deliberately to a selection of 70 expert members of the identified stakeholders was carried out and a discussion group was held to determine the consensus on the issues addressed in the survey sample. The research was conducted in 2015. From the literature review 33 health issues included in ISO 26000:2010 were obtained. 7 survey proved relevant high consensus, 8 relevance and average consensus and 18 with less relevance and high level of dissent. The expert group excluded 4 of the 18 subjects with less consensus. 29 issues included 33 at work, divided into 7 subjects contained in the guide ISO 26000 of social responsibility, were relevant stakeholders regarding possible inclusion in health plans. Considering the direct relationship published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) among the issues ISO 26000 and the economic, social and environmental indicators in GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) in its G4 version, a panel with monitoring indicators related to relevant issues were elaborated.

  2. Constraining a compositional flow model with flow-chemical data using an ensemble-based Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Gharamti, M. E.

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal compositional flow models require coupling transient compressible flows and advective transport systems of various chemical species in subsurface porous media. Building such numerical models is quite challenging and may be subject to many sources of uncertainties because of possible incomplete representation of some geological parameters that characterize the system\\'s processes. Advanced data assimilation methods, such as the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), can be used to calibrate these models by incorporating available data. In this work, we consider the problem of estimating reservoir permeability using information about phase pressure as well as the chemical properties of fluid components. We carry out state-parameter estimation experiments using joint and dual updating schemes in the context of the EnKF with a two-dimensional single-phase compositional flow model (CFM). Quantitative and statistical analyses are performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the assimilation schemes. Our results indicate that including chemical composition data significantly enhances the accuracy of the permeability estimates. In addition, composition data provide more information to estimate system states and parameters than do standard pressure data. The dual state-parameter estimation scheme provides about 10% more accurate permeability estimates on average than the joint scheme when implemented with the same ensemble members, at the cost of twice more forward model integrations. At similar computational cost, the dual approach becomes only beneficial after using large enough ensembles.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey; Egan, Sarah; Nordgren, Lise Bergman; Carlbring, Per; Landström, Andreas; Roos, Stina; Skoglund, Malin; Thelander, Elisabet; Trosell, Linnéa; Örtenholm, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Markov transition probability-based network from time series for characterizing experimental two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhong-Ke; Hu Li-Dan; Jin Ning-De

    2013-01-01

    We generate a directed weighted complex network by a method based on Markov transition probability to represent an experimental two-phase flow. We first systematically carry out gas—liquid two-phase flow experiments for measuring the time series of flow signals. Then we construct directed weighted complex networks from various time series in terms of a network generation method based on Markov transition probability. We find that the generated network inherits the main features of the time series in the network structure. In particular, the networks from time series with different dynamics exhibit distinct topological properties. Finally, we construct two-phase flow directed weighted networks from experimental signals and associate the dynamic behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow with the topological statistics of the generated networks. The results suggest that the topological statistics of two-phase flow networks allow quantitative characterization of the dynamic flow behavior in the transitions among different gas—liquid flow patterns. (general)

  5. Uncovering the Contribution of Microchannel Deformation to Impedance-Based Flow Rate Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Pengfei; Nablo, Brian J; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Reyes, Darwin R

    2017-11-07

    Changes in electrical impedance have previously been used to measure fluid flow rate in microfluidic channels. Ionic redistribution within the electrical double layer by fluid flow has been considered to be the primary mechanism underlying such impedance based microflow sensors. Here we describe a previously unappreciated contribution of microchannel deformation to such measurements. We found that flow-induced microchannel deformation contributes significantly to the change in electrical impedance of solutions, in particular to those solutions producing an electrical double layer in the order of a few tens of nanometers (i.e., containing relatively high ionic strength). Since the flow velocity at the measurement surface is near zero, due to the laminar nature of the flow, the contribution of the double layer under the conditions mentioned above should be negligible. In contrast, an increase in the fluid flow rate results in an increase in the microchannel cross-sectional area (because of higher local pressure), therefore, producing a decrease in solution resistance between the two electrodes. Our results suggest that microflow sensors based on the concept of elastic deformation could be designed for in situ monitoring and fine control of fluid flow in flexible microfluidics. Finally, we show that purposefully engineering a larger deformability of the microchannel, by changing the geometry and the Young's modulus of the microchannel, enhances the sensitivity of this flow rate measurement.

  6. Urban stormwater inundation simulation based on SWMM and diffusive overland-flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Guoru; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    With rapid urbanization, inundation-induced property losses have become more and more severe. Urban inundation modeling is an effective way to reduce these losses. This paper introduces a simplified urban stormwater inundation simulation model based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and a geographic information system (GIS)-based diffusive overland-flow model. SWMM is applied for computation of flows in storm sewer systems and flooding flows at junctions, while the GIS-based diffusive overland-flow model simulates surface runoff and inundation. One observed rainfall scenario on Haidian Island, Hainan Province, China was chosen to calibrate the model and the other two were used for validation. Comparisons of the model results with field-surveyed data and InfoWorks ICM (Integrated Catchment Modeling) modeled results indicated the inundation model in this paper can provide inundation extents and reasonable inundation depths even in a large study area.

  7. A lightweight, flow-based toolkit for parallel and distributed bioinformatics pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatic analyses typically proceed as chains of data-processing tasks. A pipeline, or 'workflow', is a well-defined protocol, with a specific structure defined by the topology of data-flow interdependencies, and a particular functionality arising from the data transformations applied at each step. In computer science, the dataflow programming (DFP paradigm defines software systems constructed in this manner, as networks of message-passing components. Thus, bioinformatic workflows can be naturally mapped onto DFP concepts. Results To enable the flexible creation and execution of bioinformatics dataflows, we have written a modular framework for parallel pipelines in Python ('PaPy'. A PaPy workflow is created from re-usable components connected by data-pipes into a directed acyclic graph, which together define nested higher-order map functions. The successive functional transformations of input data are evaluated on flexibly pooled compute resources, either local or remote. Input items are processed in batches of adjustable size, all flowing one to tune the trade-off between parallelism and lazy-evaluation (memory consumption. An add-on module ('NuBio' facilitates the creation of bioinformatics workflows by providing domain specific data-containers (e.g., for biomolecular sequences, alignments, structures and functionality (e.g., to parse/write standard file formats. Conclusions PaPy offers a modular framework for the creation and deployment of parallel and distributed data-processing workflows. Pipelines derive their functionality from user-written, data-coupled components, so PaPy also can be viewed as a lightweight toolkit for extensible, flow-based bioinformatics data-processing. The simplicity and flexibility of distributed PaPy pipelines may help users bridge the gap between traditional desktop/workstation and grid computing. PaPy is freely distributed as open-source Python code at http://muralab.org/PaPy, and

  8. A lightweight, flow-based toolkit for parallel and distributed bioinformatics pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Marcin; Mura, Cameron

    2011-02-25

    Bioinformatic analyses typically proceed as chains of data-processing tasks. A pipeline, or 'workflow', is a well-defined protocol, with a specific structure defined by the topology of data-flow interdependencies, and a particular functionality arising from the data transformations applied at each step. In computer science, the dataflow programming (DFP) paradigm defines software systems constructed in this manner, as networks of message-passing components. Thus, bioinformatic workflows can be naturally mapped onto DFP concepts. To enable the flexible creation and execution of bioinformatics dataflows, we have written a modular framework for parallel pipelines in Python ('PaPy'). A PaPy workflow is created from re-usable components connected by data-pipes into a directed acyclic graph, which together define nested higher-order map functions. The successive functional transformations of input data are evaluated on flexibly pooled compute resources, either local or remote. Input items are processed in batches of adjustable size, all flowing one to tune the trade-off between parallelism and lazy-evaluation (memory consumption). An add-on module ('NuBio') facilitates the creation of bioinformatics workflows by providing domain specific data-containers (e.g., for biomolecular sequences, alignments, structures) and functionality (e.g., to parse/write standard file formats). PaPy offers a modular framework for the creation and deployment of parallel and distributed data-processing workflows. Pipelines derive their functionality from user-written, data-coupled components, so PaPy also can be viewed as a lightweight toolkit for extensible, flow-based bioinformatics data-processing. The simplicity and flexibility of distributed PaPy pipelines may help users bridge the gap between traditional desktop/workstation and grid computing. PaPy is freely distributed as open-source Python code at http://muralab.org/PaPy, and includes extensive documentation and annotated usage

  9. A lightweight, flow-based toolkit for parallel and distributed bioinformatics pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bioinformatic analyses typically proceed as chains of data-processing tasks. A pipeline, or 'workflow', is a well-defined protocol, with a specific structure defined by the topology of data-flow interdependencies, and a particular functionality arising from the data transformations applied at each step. In computer science, the dataflow programming (DFP) paradigm defines software systems constructed in this manner, as networks of message-passing components. Thus, bioinformatic workflows can be naturally mapped onto DFP concepts. Results To enable the flexible creation and execution of bioinformatics dataflows, we have written a modular framework for parallel pipelines in Python ('PaPy'). A PaPy workflow is created from re-usable components connected by data-pipes into a directed acyclic graph, which together define nested higher-order map functions. The successive functional transformations of input data are evaluated on flexibly pooled compute resources, either local or remote. Input items are processed in batches of adjustable size, all flowing one to tune the trade-off between parallelism and lazy-evaluation (memory consumption). An add-on module ('NuBio') facilitates the creation of bioinformatics workflows by providing domain specific data-containers (e.g., for biomolecular sequences, alignments, structures) and functionality (e.g., to parse/write standard file formats). Conclusions PaPy offers a modular framework for the creation and deployment of parallel and distributed data-processing workflows. Pipelines derive their functionality from user-written, data-coupled components, so PaPy also can be viewed as a lightweight toolkit for extensible, flow-based bioinformatics data-processing. The simplicity and flexibility of distributed PaPy pipelines may help users bridge the gap between traditional desktop/workstation and grid computing. PaPy is freely distributed as open-source Python code at http://muralab.org/PaPy, and includes extensive

  10. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  11. Scavenge flow analysis of opposed-piston two-stroke engine based on dynamic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-kang Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Opposed-piston two-stroke engine has been proposed by Beijing Institute of Technology to improve power density and complete machine balance relative to conventional engines. In order to study opposed-piston two-stroke engine scavenging flow, a scavenging system was configured using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model effectively coupled to experiments. The boundary conditions are obtained through one-dimensional working process simulation results and experiments. As the opposed-piston relative dynamic characteristics of opposed-piston two-stroke engine depend on different design and operating parameters including the opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio, a numerical simulation program was built using MATLAB/Simulink to define opposed-piston motion profiles based on equivalent crank angle of opposed crank-connecting rod mechanism. The opposed-piston motion phase difference only affects scavenging timing while crank-connecting rod ratio affects scavenging timing and duration. Scavenging timing and duration are the main factors which affect scavenging performance. The results indicate that a match of opposed-piston motion phase difference and crank-connecting rod ratio has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiency with a right flow in cylinder.

  12. A simplified representation of biochemical principles based on the dynamics of chemical flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienari, J

    1995-06-01

    This work suggests that the amount of information included in biochemistry texts is artificially increased, because the knowledge presented contains tautologies that are obscured by the use of inappropriate methods of representation. The work then proposes alternative methods of representation for describing biochemical systems that are based on the dynamics of an idealized chemical open-flow system. They would clarify the fact, in an open system, the concentrations of the reactants and reaction products depend not only on the equilibrium constants but on the absolute velocities of the reactions as well. Similar rules apply to phenomena involving other processes, such as diffusion of ions. Biochemical systems are considered as a set of chemical flow systems in which individual processes have the potential for interactions if their end products influence the rate of other processes. These interactions are used to explain how biochemical systems maintain themselves in states of high order. By use of these formulations, some of the logical sequences by which biochemical principles can be deduced from the principles of chemistry can be given simple and illustrative expression.

  13. Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wang; Luo, Jun; Di Lucente, Stefano; Dorren, Harm; Calabretta, Nicola

    2014-02-10

    We propose and demonstrate an optical flat datacenter network based on scalable optical switch system with optical flow control. Modular structure with distributed control results in port-count independent optical switch reconfiguration time. RF tone in-band labeling technique allowing parallel processing of the label bits ensures the low latency operation regardless of the switch port-count. Hardware flow control is conducted at optical level by re-using the label wavelength without occupying extra bandwidth, space, and network resources which further improves the performance of latency within a simple structure. Dynamic switching including multicasting operation is validated for a 4 x 4 system. Error free operation of 40 Gb/s data packets has been achieved with only 1 dB penalty. The system could handle an input load up to 0.5 providing a packet loss lower that 10(-5) and an average latency less that 500 ns when a buffer size of 16 packets is employed. Investigation on scalability also indicates that the proposed system could potentially scale up to large port count with limited power penalty.

  14. Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services – Part 1: Theory on flow persistence, flashiness and base flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Noordwijk

    2017-05-01

    concepts. Inter-annual variation in the Fp metric in sample watersheds correlates with variation in the flashiness index used in existing watershed health monitoring programmes, but the relationship between these metrics varies with context. Inter-annual variation in Fp also correlates with common base-flow indicators, but again in a way that varies between watersheds. Further exploration of the responsiveness of Fp in watersheds with different characteristics to the interaction of land cover and the specific realisation of space–time patterns of rainfall in a limited observation period is needed to evaluate interpretation of Fp as an indicator of anthropogenic changes in watershed conditions.

  15. A Novel Gradient Vector Flow Snake Model Based on Convex Function for Infrared Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Shiping; Zhou, Qin

    2016-10-21

    Infrared image segmentation is a challenging topic because infrared images are characterized by high noise, low contrast, and weak edges. Active contour models, especially gradient vector flow, have several advantages in terms of infrared image segmentation. However, the GVF (Gradient Vector Flow) model also has some drawbacks including a dilemma between noise smoothing and weak edge protection, which decrease the effect of infrared image segmentation significantly. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel generalized gradient vector flow snakes model combining GGVF (Generic Gradient Vector Flow) and NBGVF (Normally Biased Gradient Vector Flow) models. We also adopt a new type of coefficients setting in the form of convex function to improve the ability of protecting weak edges while smoothing noises. Experimental results and comparisons against other methods indicate that our proposed snakes model owns better ability in terms of infrared image segmentation than other snakes models.

  16. An integrated, multiparametric flow cytometry chip using “microfluidic drifting” based three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaole; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Zhao, Yanhui; McCoy, J. Philip; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate an integrated, single-layer, miniature flow cytometry device that is capable of multi-parametric particle analysis. The device integrates both particle focusing and detection components on-chip, including a “microfluidic drifting” based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing component and a series of optical fibers integrated into the microfluidic architecture to facilitate on-chip detection. With this design, multiple optical signals (i.e., forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence) from individual particles can be simultaneously detected. Experimental results indicate that the performance of our flow cytometry chip is comparable to its bulky, expensive desktop counterpart. The integration of on-chip 3D particle focusing with on-chip multi-parametric optical detection in a single-layer, mass-producible microfluidic device presents a major step towards low-cost flow cytometry chips for point-of-care clinical diagnostics. PMID:22567082

  17. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  18. High educational impact of a national simulation-based urological curriculum including technical and non-technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Anna H; Schout, Barbara M A; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G; Pelger, Rob C M; Koldewijn, Evert L; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Wagner, Cordula

    2017-02-01

    Although simulation training is increasingly used to meet modern technology and patient safety demands, its successful integration within surgical curricula is still rare. The Dutch Urological Practical Skills (D-UPS) curriculum provides modular simulation-based training of technical and non-technical basic urological skills in the local hospital setting. This study aims to assess the educational impact of implementing the D-UPS curriculum in the Netherlands and to provide focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants. Educational impact was assessed by means of qualitative individual module-specific feedback and a quantitative cross-sectional survey among residents and supervisors. Twenty out of 26 Dutch teaching hospitals participated. The survey focussed on practical aspects, the D-UPS curriculum in general, and the impact of the D-UPS curriculum on the development of technical and non-technical skills. A considerable survey response of 95 % for residents and 76 % for supervisors was obtained. Modules were attended by junior and senior residents, supervised by a urologist, and peer teaching was used. Ninety percent of supervisors versus 67 % of residents judged the D-UPS curriculum as an important addition to current residency training (p = 0.007). Participants' aggregated general judgement of the modules showed a substantial percentage favorable score (M ± SE: 57 ± 4 %). The impact of training on, e.g., knowledge of materials/equipment and ability to anticipate on complications was high, especially for junior residents (77 ± 5 and 71 ± 7 %, respectively). Focus points for improvement of the D-UPS curriculum according to the participants include adaptation of the training level to residents' level of experience and focus on logistics. The simulation-based D-UPS curriculum has a high educational impact. Residents and supervisors consider the curriculum to be an important addition to current residency

  19. Architecture Design and Experimental Platform Demonstration of Optical Network based on OpenFlow Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangyuan; Wang, Honghuan; Yin, Hongxi; Li, Ming; Luo, Shenzi; Wu, Chenguang

    2016-02-01

    With the extensive application of cloud computing and data centres, as well as the constantly emerging services, the big data with the burst characteristic has brought huge challenges to optical networks. Consequently, the software defined optical network (SDON) that combines optical networks with software defined network (SDN), has attracted much attention. In this paper, an OpenFlow-enabled optical node employed in optical cross-connect (OXC) and reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM), is proposed. An open source OpenFlow controller is extended on routing strategies. In addition, the experiment platform based on OpenFlow protocol for software defined optical network, is designed. The feasibility and availability of the OpenFlow-enabled optical nodes and the extended OpenFlow controller are validated by the connectivity test, protection switching and load balancing experiments in this test platform.

  20. A rapid ELISA-based method for screening Bordetella pertussis strain production of antigens included in current acellular pertussis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoff, Alex-Mikael; Guiso, Nicole; Guillot, Sophie; Xing, Dorothy; Markey, Kevin; Berbers, Guy; Mertsola, Jussi; He, Qiushui

    2014-06-01

    Despite extensive vaccinations, there have been pertussis epidemics in many countries including the Netherlands, the UK, Australia and the USA. During these epidemics Bordetella pertussis strains not producing the vaccine antigen pertactin (Prn) are emerging and increasing in numbers. However, methods for confirming PRN production of B. pertussis isolates are combined PCR or PCR-based sequencing tests and western blotting. Furthermore, data about production of pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of these isolates are scarce. Fimbriae (Fim) production is usually determined by agglutination and reported as serotype. In this study we developed an easy, accurate and rapid method for screening PT and FHA production. Methods for Prn and Fim production have been published earlier. We analyzed altogether 109 B. pertussis strains, including 103 Finnish B. pertussis strains collected during 2006-2013, international strain Tohama I, French strains FR3496 (PT-negative), FR3693 (Prn-negative) and FR4624 (FHA-negative) and Fim-serotype reference strains S1 (producing only Fim2) and S3 (producing only Fim3). An indirect ELISA with whole bacterial cells as coating antigen was developed and used for rapid screening of the B. pertussis strains. Production of different antigens (PT, FHA, Prn, Fim2 and Fim3) was detected with specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). From the 103 Finnish B. pertussis strains tested, all were positive for PT, FHA and Fim. Four were found negative for Prn, and they were isolated during 2011-2013. The newly developed method proved to be useful and simple for rapid screening of different antigen production of B. pertussis isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Viscous Flow Behaviour of Karanja Oil Based Bio-lubricant Base Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh Chandra; Sachan, Sadhana; Trivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made. The aim of this comparison was to validate the superiority of KOTMPE bio-lubricant over its precursors KO and KOME in terms of stable viscous flow at high temperature and high shear rate conditions usually encountered in engine operations and industrial processes. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of KO was 5.76%. KOME was synthesized from KO in a two-step, acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification, process at 65°C for 5 hours with oil-methanol ratio 1:6, catalysts H 2 SO 4 and KOH (1 and 1.25% w/w KO, respectively). In the final step, KOTMPE was prepared from KOME via transesterification with trimethylolpropane (TMP) at 150°C for 3 hours with KOME-TMP ratio 4:1 and H 2 SO 4 (2% w/w KOME) as catalyst. The viscosity versus temperature studies were made at 0-80°C temperatures in shear rate ranges of 10-1000 s -1 using a Discovery Hybrid Rheometer, model HR-3 (TA instruments, USA). The study found that viscosities of all three samples decreased with increase in temperature, though KOTMPE was able to maintain a good enough viscosity at elevated temperatures due to chemical modifications in its molecular structure. The viscosity index (VI) value for KOTMPE was 206.72. The study confirmed that the synthesized bio-lubricant KOTMPE can be used at high temperatures as a good lubricant, though some additives may be required to improve properties other than viscosity.

  3. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sudden increase in consumption is spotted an alarm goes off in web based software, announcing the possible fractures in transmission lines and prevents water loss and other damage and also provides the ability to control and manage consumption. In this project, it is planned so that by using renewable energy sources, ...

  4. Observations on Experience and Flow in Movement-Based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Pasch, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; England, David

    2011-01-01

    Movement-based interfaces assume that their users move. Users have to perform exercises, they have to dance, they have to golf or football, or they want to train particular bodily skills. Many examples of those interfaces exist, sometimes asking for subtle interaction between user and interface and

  5. LES based POD analysis of Jet in Cross Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavar, Dalibor; Meyer, Knud Erik; Jakirlic, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of a POD investigation of the LES based numerical simulation of the jet-in-crossflow (JICF) flowfield. LES results are firstly compared to the pointwise LDA measurements. 2D POD analysis is then used as a comparison basis for PIV measurements and LES, and finally 3D POD...

  6. Design of Experience and Flow in Movement-based Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Reidsma, Dennis; Egges, A.; Kamphuis, A.; Overmars, M.

    2008-01-01

    Movement-based and exertion interfaces assume that their users move. Users have to perform exercises, they have to dance, they have to golf or football, or they want to train particular bodily skills. Many examples of those interfaces exist, sometimes asking for subtle interaction between user and

  7. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High soil organic matter features is prevalent in most parts of the area. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the watershed was estimated at 15.32 mm/h. The climate is classified as ... topography and soil characteristics. The water level from ...... nan S and Tripathy D 2005 Automated web GIS based hydrograph analysis ...

  8. An induction-based magnetohydrodynamic 3D code for finite magnetic Reynolds number liquid-metal flows in fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawczynski, Charlie; Smolentsev, Sergey, E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu; Abdou, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A new induction-based magnetohydrodynamic code was developed using a finite difference method. • The code was benchmarked against purely hydrodynamic and MHD flows for low and finite magnetic Reynolds number. • Possible applications of the new code include liquid-metal MHD flows in the breeder blanket during unsteady events in the plasma. - Abstract: Most numerical analysis performed in the past for MHD flows in liquid-metal blankets were based on the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number and involved numerical codes that utilized electric potential as the main electromagnetic variable. One limitation of this approach is that such codes cannot be applied to truly unsteady processes, for example, MHD flows of liquid-metal breeder/coolant during unsteady events in plasma, such as major plasma disruptions, edge-localized modes and vertical displacements, when changes in plasmas occur at millisecond timescales. Our newly developed code MOONS (Magnetohydrodynamic Object-Oriented Numerical Solver) uses the magnetic field as the main electromagnetic variable to relax the limitations of the low magnetic Reynolds number approximation for more realistic fusion reactor environments. The new code, written in Fortran, implements a 3D finite-difference method and is capable of simulating multi-material domains. The constrained transport method was implemented to evolve the magnetic field in time and assure that the magnetic field remains solenoidal within machine accuracy at every time step. Various verification tests have been performed including purely hydrodynamic flows and MHD flows at low and finite magnetic Reynolds numbers. Test results have demonstrated very good accuracy against known analytic solutions and other numerical data.

  9. Influence of quick groundwater recharge on base flow in karstic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zarfl, Christiane; Basu, Nandita B.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-04-01

    Flow from karst springs is important for the groundwater flow and its recharge which, in turn can determine the pattern of base flow. This behaviour can be well observed in the Ammer catchment, located in southwestern Germany. It covers an area of approximately 130.5 km2 with several karst springs contributing most of the groundwater flow to the Ammer River. Its discharge shows a very special behaviour with a sharp increase every winter. It is supposed that the groundwater storage layer of this catchment can store large volumes of water because of karstification of the aquifers. Recharge from the subsurface storage to the groundwater storage when subsurface storage reaches a threshold makes groundwater storage increase rapidly, which is also reflected in a quickly rising base flow. We set up a semi-distributed hydrologic model to reproduce this behaviour and gain additional insights on the underlying processes of these discharge dynamics. The model is composed out of three main components: soil moisture, subsurface storage and groundwater storage. Besides percolation from subsurface storage to groundwater storage, quick recharge was introduced into this model for interpreting the sharp rise of base flow. This model was used for five years of simulation (from 2003 to 2007). Results indicate that: (a) percolation is an every day process whereas quick recharge only occurs over few days within a year, mostly from December to April and also in June when precipitation is very large; (b) the annual average recharge from percolation and quick recharge account for 18% and 82% of the total groundwater recharge, respectively, but the quick recharge rate is seven times higher than the percolation rate; and (c) for a single event of sharp increase in base flow quick recharge contributes 70%-78% to groundwater recharge, but in case of a single event of gradual increase of the base flow quick recharge contributes only 30%.

  10. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Adults: An Evidence-based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G

    2018-02-01

    High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices because of its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance reduce work of breathing and better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has been shown to have similar, and in some cases superior clinical efficacy compared with conventional low-flow oxygen supplementation and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation also prevents reintubations in medical and postoperative surgical populations, provides preoxygenation for laryngoscopy, and supports oxygenation during bronchoscopy. This review examines the evidence for high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation use in adults, including a focus on the unique effects of high flow on respiratory physiology and keys for tailoring flow for specific clinical scenarios.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging 4-D flow-based analysis of aortic hemodynamics in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Raoul; Neu, Marie; Hirtler, Daniel; Gimpel, Charlotte; Markl, Michael; Geiger, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular surveillance is important in Turner syndrome because of the increased risk of aortic dilation and dissection with consecutively increased mortality. To compare 4-D flow MRI for the characterization of aortic 3-D flow patterns, dimensions and vessel wall parameters in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome and age-matched controls. We performed 4-D flow MRI measuring in vivo 3-D blood flow with coverage of the thoracic aorta in 25 patients with Turner syndrome and in 16 female healthy controls (age mean ± standard deviation were 16 ± 5 years and 17 ± 4 years, respectively). Blood flow was visualized by time-resolved 3-D path lines. Visual grading of aortic flow in terms of helices and vortices was performed by two independent observers. Quantitative analysis included measurement of aortic diameters, quantification of peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index at eight defined sites. Patients with Turner syndrome had significantly larger aortic diameters normalized to BSA, increased vortices in the ascending aorta and elevated helix flow in the ascending and descending aorta compared to controls (all PTurner patients compared to controls (p=0.02, p=0.002 and p=0.01 respectively). Four-dimensional flow MRI provides new insights into the altered aortic hemodynamics and wall shear stress that could have an impact on the development of aortic dissections.

  13. Ptaquiloside from bracken in stream water at base flow and during storm events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Ramwell, Carmel; Hansen, Hans Chr B; Strobel, Bjarne W

    2016-12-01

    The bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) densely populates both open and woodland vegetation types around the globe. Bracken is toxic to livestock when consumed, and a group of potent illudane-type carcinogens have been identified, of which the compound ptaquiloside (PTA) is the most abundant. The highly water soluble PTA has been shown to be leachable from bracken fronds, and present in the soil and water below bracken stands. This has raised concerns over whether the compound might pose a risk to drinking water sources. We investigated PTA concentrations in a small stream draining a bracken-infested catchment at base flow and in response to storm events during a growth season, and included sampling of the bracken canopy throughfall. Streams in other bracken-dominated areas were also sampled at base flow for comparison, and a controlled pulse experiment was conducted in the field to study the in-stream dynamics of PTA. Ptaquiloside concentrations in the stream never exceeded 61 ng L -1 in the base flow samples, but peaked at 2.2 μg L -1 during the studied storm events. The mass of PTA in the stream, per storm event, was 7.5-93 mg from this catchment. A clear temporal connection was observed between rainfall and PTA concentration in the stream, with a reproducible time lag of approx. 1 h from onset of rain to elevated concentrations, and returning rather quickly (about 2 h) to base flow concentration levels. The concentration of PTA behaved similar to an inert tracer (Cl - ) in the pulse experiment over a relative short time scale (minutes-hours) reflecting no PTA sorption, and dispersion and dilution considerably lowered the observed PTA concentrations downstream. Bracken throughfall revealed a potent and lasting source of PTA during rainfall, with concentrations up to 169 μg L -1 , that did not decrease over the course of the event. In the stream, the throughfall contribution to PTA cannot be separated from a possible below-ground input from litter, rhizomes

  14. Determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on scaling laws: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jerry T; Molloi, Sabee

    2008-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) provides an objective physiological evaluation of stenosis severity. A technique that can measure FFR using only angiographic images would be a valuable tool in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. To perform this, the diseased blood flow can be measured with a first pass distribution analysis and the theoretical normal blood flow can be estimated from the total coronary arterial volume based on scaling laws. A computer simulation of the coronary arterial network was used to gain a better understanding of how hemodynamic conditions and coronary artery disease can affect blood flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. Changes in coronary arterial flow and volume due to coronary stenosis, aortic pressure and venous pressure were examined to evaluate the potential use of flow and volume for FFR determination. This study showed that FFR can be estimated using arterial volume and a scaling coefficient corrected for aortic pressure. However, variations in venous pressure were found to introduce some error in FFR estimation. A relative form of FFR was introduced and was found to cancel out the influence of pressure on coronary flow, arterial volume and FFR estimation. The use of coronary flow and arterial volume for FFR determination appears promising

  15. Water flow through the polypropylene-based geotextiles.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available the Polypropylene-Based Geotextiles Asis Patanaik,1,2 Rajesh D. Anandjiwala1,2 1CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Fibers and Textiles Competence Area, Port Elizabeth 6000, South Africa 2Department of Textile Science, Faculty of Science, Nelson Mandela...) through the nonwoven fabrics plays an important role in many applications such as medical and hygiene, fil- tration, composite manufacturing, etc. Nonwoven geotextiles are fibrous structures capable of doing more than one functions simultaneously, i...

  16. Base flow (1966-2009) and streamflow gain and loss (2010) of the Brazos River from the New Mexico-Texas State line to Waco, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Schalla, Frank E.

    2012-01-01

    During 2010–11, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, used hydrograph separation to quantify historical base flow at 11 USGS streamflow-gaging stations between water years 1966–2009 and streamflow gains and losses from two sets of synoptic measurements of streamflow and specific conductance (the first in June 2010, followed by another set in October 2010) in the upper Brazos River Basin from the New Mexico–Texas State line to Waco, Texas. The following subbasins compose the study area: Salt Fork Brazos River Basin, Double Mountain Fork Brazos River Basin, Clear Fork Brazos River Basin, North Bosque River Basin, and the Brazos River Basin (main stem) (including its tributaries). Base-flow analysis was done using historical streamflow data from 11 USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the upper Brazos River Basin to compute yearly base-flow indexes (base flow divided by total streamflow) for each station. The base-flow index was used to indicate the fraction of flow consisting of base flow on an annual basis for the period of record evaluated at each streamflow-gaging station. At nine stations there were long-term streamflow data from water years 1966–2009 (October 1965 through September 2009); at two stations slightly shorter periods of record (water years 1967–2009 and 1969–2009) were available. The median base-flow indexes were 0.16 and 0.15 at USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08082000 Salt Fork Brazos River near Aspermont, Tex., and 08080500 Double Mountain Fork Brazos River near Aspermont, Tex., respectively. The amount of the total streamflow consisting of base flow was larger at sites in the Clear Fork Brazos River Basin compared to sites in the Salt Fork Brazos River Basin or Double Mountain Fork Brazos River Basin; at USGS streamflow-gaging stations 08084000 Clear Fork Brazos River at Nugent, Tex., and at 08085500 Clear Fork Brazos River at Fort Griffin, Tex., the median base-flow indexes were 0

  17. Speed-Density Model of Interrupted Traffic Flow Based on Coil Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental traffic diagram, the speed-density relationship can provide a solid foundation for traffic flow analysis and efficient traffic management. Because of the change in modern travel modes, the dramatic increase in the number of vehicles and traffic density, and the impact of traffic signals and other factors, vehicles change velocity frequently, which means that a speed-density model based on uninterrupted traffic flow is not suitable for interrupted traffic flow. Based on the coil data of urban roads in Wuhan, China, a new method which can accurately describe the speed-density relation of interrupted traffic flow is proposed for speed fluctuation characteristics. The model of upper and lower bounds of critical values obtained by fitting the data of the coils on urban roads can accurately and intuitively describe the state of urban road traffic, and the physical meaning of each parameter plays an important role in the prediction and analysis of such traffic.

  18. An efficient flow-based botnet detection using supervised machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Botnet detection represents one of the most crucial prerequisites of successful botnet neutralization. This paper explores how accurate and timely detection can be achieved by using supervised machine learning as the tool of inferring about malicious botnet traffic. In order to do so, the paper...... introduces a novel flow-based detection system that relies on supervised machine learning for identifying botnet network traffic. For use in the system we consider eight highly regarded machine learning algorithms, indicating the best performing one. Furthermore, the paper evaluates how much traffic needs...... to accurately and timely detect botnet traffic using purely flow-based traffic analysis and supervised machine learning. Additionally, the results show that in order to achieve accurate detection traffic flows need to be monitored for only a limited time period and number of packets per flow. This indicates...

  19. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  20. 3D CFD computations of trasitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Bechmann, Andreas; Zahle, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    The present article describes the application of the correlation based transition model of Menter et al. in combination with the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) methodology to two cases with large degree of flow separation typically considered difficult to compute. Firstly, the flow is computed over....... Secondly, the flow is computed over a thick airfoil at high angle of attack, in this case the DU-96-W351 is considered. These computations show that a transition model is needed to obtain correct drag predictions at low angle of attack, and that the combination of transition and the DES method improve...

  1. In vivo vascular flow profiling combined with optical tweezers based blood routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Robert; Sugden, Wade W.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    In vivo wall shear rate is quantified during zebrafish development using particle image velocimetry for biomedical diagnosis and modeling of artificial vessels. By using brightfield microscopy based high speed video tracking we can resolve single heart-beat cycles of blood flow in both space and time. Maximum blood flow velocities and wall shear rates are presented for zebrafish at two and three days post fertilization. By applying biocompatible optical tweezers as an Optical rail we present rerouting of red blood cells in vivo. With purely light-driven means we are able to compensate the lack of proper red blood cell blood flow in so far unperfused capillaries.

  2. Control volume based modelling in one space dimension of oscillating, compressible flow in reciprocating machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for modelling unsteady, primarily one-dimensional, compressible flow. The conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum are applied to a staggered mesh of control volumes and loss mechanisms are included directly as extra terms. Heat transfer, flow friction......, and multidimensional effects are calculated using empirical correlations. Transformations of the conservation equations into new variables, artificial dissipation for dissipating acoustic phenomena, and an asymmetric interpolation method for minimising numerical diffusion and non physical temperature oscillations...

  3. Automatic SIMD vectorization of SSA-based control flow graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Ralf Karrenberg presents Whole-Function Vectorization (WFV), an approach that allows a compiler to automatically create code that exploits data-parallelism using SIMD instructions. Data-parallel applications such as particle simulations, stock option price estimation or video decoding require the same computations to be performed on huge amounts of data. Without WFV, one processor core executes a single instance of a data-parallel function. WFV transforms the function to execute multiple instances at once using SIMD instructions. The author describes an advanced WFV algorithm that includes a v

  4. Student's social interaction in inquiry-based science education: how experiences of flow can increase motivation and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a

  5. The effects of forest cover on base flow of streams in the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martínez , Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

    2017-03-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, completed a study to determine whether a relation exists between the extent of forest cover and the magnitude of base flow at two sets of paired drainage basins in the highlands of the municipalities of Adjuntas and Utuado within the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico. One set of paired basins includes the Río Guaónica and Río Tanamá, both tributaries of the Río Grande de Arecibo. The other set includes two smaller basins in the drainage basin of the Río Coabey, which is a tributary of the Río Tanamá. The paired basins in each set have similar rainfall patterns, geologic substrate, and aspect; the principal difference identified in the study is the extent of forest cover and related land uses such as the cultivation of shade and sun coffee. Data describing the hydrology, hydrogeology, and streamflow were used in the analysis. The principal objective of the study was to compare base flow per unit area among basins having different areal extents of forest cover and land uses such as shade coffee and sun coffee cultivation. Within the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico, a substantial amount of the annual rainfall (45 to 39 percent in the Rio Guaónica and Rio Tanamá, respectively) can migrate to the subsurface and later emerge as base flow in streams. The magnitude of base flow within the two sets of paired basins varies seasonally. Minimum base flows occur during the annual dry season (generally from January to March), and maximum base flows occur during the wet season (generally from August to October). During the dry season or periods of below-normal rainfall, base flow is either the primary or the sole component of streamflow. Daily mean base flow ranged from 3.2 to 20.5 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) at the Rio Guaónica Basin, and from 4.2 to 23.0 ft3 /s at the Rio Tanamá Basin. The daily mean base flows during 2010 ranged from 0.28 to 0

  6. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  7. A pilot study of river flow prediction in urban area based on phase space reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Mohamed, Zulkifley; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md

    2017-08-01

    River flow prediction is significantly related to urban hydrology impact which can provide information to solve any problems such as flood in urban area. The daily river flow of Klang River, Malaysia was chosen to be forecasted in this pilot study which based on phase space reconstruction. The reconstruction of phase space involves a single variable of river flow data to m-dimensional phase space in which the dimension (m) is based on the optimal values of Cao method. The results from the reconstruction of phase space have been used in the forecasting process using local linear approximation method. From our investigation, river flow at Klang River is chaotic based on the analysis from Cao method. The overall results provide good value of correlation coefficient. The value of correlation coefficient is acceptable since the area of the case study is influence by a lot of factors. Therefore, this pilot study may be proposed to forecast daily river flow data with the purpose of providing information about the flow of the river system in urban area.

  8. A two-stage flow-based intrusion detection model for next-generation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Muhammad Fahad; Sher, Muhammad; Bi, Yaxin

    2018-01-01

    The next-generation network provides state-of-the-art access-independent services over converged mobile and fixed networks. Security in the converged network environment is a major challenge. Traditional packet and protocol-based intrusion detection techniques cannot be used in next-generation networks due to slow throughput, low accuracy and their inability to inspect encrypted payload. An alternative solution for protection of next-generation networks is to use network flow records for detection of malicious activity in the network traffic. The network flow records are independent of access networks and user applications. In this paper, we propose a two-stage flow-based intrusion detection system for next-generation networks. The first stage uses an enhanced unsupervised one-class support vector machine which separates malicious flows from normal network traffic. The second stage uses a self-organizing map which automatically groups malicious flows into different alert clusters. We validated the proposed approach on two flow-based datasets and obtained promising results.

  9. Development of a Quasi-Steady Flow Electrochemical Paper-Based Analytical Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jaclyn A; Noviana, Eka; Henry, Charles S

    2016-11-01

    An electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) was developed for quasi-steady flow detection at microwire electrodes, for the first time. The device implements a fan shaped geometry connected to an analysis channel whereby solution is pulled from an inlet, through a channel, and into the steadily increasing capillary network of the fan. The network counteracts the decrease in solution flow rate associated with increasing viscosity within the channel, generating quasi-steady flow within the analysis channel. Microwire electrodes were embedded between two paper layers within the analysis channel, such that solution flow occurred on both sides of the wire electrodes. The quasi-steady flow ePAD increased the current by 2.5 times and 0.7 times from a saturated channel with no flow and from a single-layer paper device with flow, respectively. Amperometric detection was used for flow injection analysis (FIA) of multiple analytes at both Au and Pt microwire working electrodes, both of which provided similar sensitivity (ca. 0.2 mM -1 ) when normalized to the same standard. The two-layer paper devices provided a detection limit of 31 μM for p-aminophenol (PAP) using Pt electrodes and was also used to detect enzyme activity for the reaction of β-galactosidase with p-aminophenyl-galactopyranoside (PAPG). Measured enzyme kinetics provided similar V max (0.079 mM/min) and K m (0.36 mM) values as those found in the literature. This device shows great promise toward use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or other analytical techniques where flow or washing steps are necessary. The developed sensor provides a simple and inexpensive device capable of performing multiple injection analysis with steady-flow and online detection that would normally require an external pump to perform.

  10. Investigation of Toroidal Flow Effects on L-H transition in Tokamak Plasma Based on Bifurcation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.; Onjun, T.

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study effects of toroidal flow on the L-H transition phenomenon in tokamak plasmas using bifurcation concept. Two-field (thermal and particle) transport equations with both neoclassical and turbulent effects included are solved simultaneously. The transport suppression mechanism used in this work is flow shear, which is assumed to affect only the turbulent transport. The flow shear can be calculated from the force balance equation with toroidal flow as a main contributor. The toroidal velocity profile is calculated using three different models. The first model is an empirical model in which the velocity is dependent on local ion temperature. The second model is based on neoclassical toroidal viscosity theory in which the velocity is driven by ion temperature gradient. In the third model, the velocity is dependent on current density flow in plasma. The two transport equations are solved both analytically and numerically using MATLAB to study the criteria for H-mode formation, pedestal width and its dynamics. The results from three toroidal velocity models are compared and analyzed with respect to bifurcation behavior and plasma performance.

  11. Morphology Dependent Flow Stress in Nickel-Based Superalloys in the Multi-Scale Crystal Plasticity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Keshavarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.

  12. A comparative study on the flow experience in web-based and text-based interaction environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ting; Chiu, Chen-An; Sung, Kai; Farn, Cheng-Kiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a substantial phenomenon related to flow experiences (immersion) in text-based interaction systems. Most previous research emphasizes the effects of challenge/skill, focused attention, telepresence, web characteristics, and systems' interface design on users' flow experiences in online environments. However, text-based interaction systems without telepresence features and web characteristics still seem to create opportunities for flow experience. To explore this phenomenon, this study incorporates subject involvement and interpersonal interaction as critical antecedents into the model of flow experience, as well as considers the existence of telepresence. Results reveal that subject involvement, interpersonal interaction, and interactivity speed are critical to focused attention, which enhances users' immersion. With regard to the effect of telepresence, the perceived attractiveness of the interface is a significant facilitator determining users' immersion in web-based, rather than in text-based, interaction environments. Interactivity speed is unrelated to immersion in both web-based and text-based interaction environments. The influence of interpersonal involvement is diminished in web-based interaction environments. The implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  13. Long-term flow forecasts based on climate and hydrologic modeling: Uruguay River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Carlos Eduardo Morelli; Clarke, Robin Thomas; Collischonn, Walter; da Silva Dias, Pedro Leite; de Oliveira, Gilvan Sampaio

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a procedure for predicting seasonal flow in the Rio Uruguay drainage basin (area 75,000 km2, lying in Brazilian territory), using sequences of future daily rainfall given by the global climate model (GCM) of the Brazilian agency for climate prediction (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Clima, or CPTEC). Sequences of future daily rainfall given by this model were used as input to a rainfall-runoff model appropriate for large drainage basins. Forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay were made for the period 1995-2001 of the full record, which began in 1940. Analysis showed that GCM forecasts underestimated rainfall over almost all the basin, particularly in winter, although interannual variability in regional rainfall was reproduced relatively well. A statistical procedure was used to correct for the underestimation of rainfall. When the corrected rainfall sequences were transformed to flow by the hydrologic model, forecasts of flow in the Rio Uruguay basin were better than forecasts based on historic mean or median flows by 37% for monthly flows and by 54% for 3-monthly flows.

  14. Experimental study of porous media flow using hydro-gel beads and LED based PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshani, H. M. D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Scheuermann, A.; Muhlhaus, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel experimental approach for measuring porous flow characteristics using spherical hydro-gel beads and particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is presented. A transparent porous medium consisting of hydro-gel beads that are made of a super-absorbent polymer, allows using water as the fluid phase while simultaneously having the same refractive index. As a result, a more adaptable and cost effective refractive index matched (RIM) medium is created. The transparent nature of the porous medium allows optical systems to visualize the flow field by using poly-amide seeding particles (PSP). Low risk light emitting diode (LED) based light was used to illuminate the plane in order to track the seeding particles’ path for the characterization of the flow inside the porous medium. The system was calibrated using a manually measured flow by a flow meter. Velocity profiles were obtained and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively in order to characterise the flow. Results show that this adaptable, low risk experimental set-up can be used for flow measurements in porous medium under low Reynolds numbers. The limitations of using hydro-gel beads are also discussed.

  15. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed-Baker Habhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  16. A Laminar Flow-Based Microfluidic Tesla Pump via Lithography Enabled 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habhab, Mohammed-Baker; Ismail, Tania; Lo, Joe Fujiou

    2016-11-23

    Tesla turbine and its applications in power generation and fluid flow were demonstrated by Nicholas Tesla in 1913. However, its real-world implementations were limited by the difficulty to maintain laminar flow between rotor disks, transient efficiencies during rotor acceleration, and the lack of other applications that fully utilize the continuous flow outputs. All of the aforementioned limits of Tesla turbines can be addressed by scaling to the microfluidic flow regime. Demonstrated here is a microscale Tesla pump designed and fabricated using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) based 3D printer with 43 µm lateral and 30 µm thickness resolutions. The miniaturized pump is characterized by low Reynolds number of 1000 and a flow rate of up to 12.6 mL/min at 1200 rpm, unloaded. It is capable of driving a mixer network to generate microfluidic gradient. The continuous, laminar flow from Tesla turbines is well-suited to the needs of flow-sensitive microfluidics, where the integrated pump will enable numerous compact lab-on-a-chip applications.

  17. Optical flow based guidance system design for semi-strapdown image homing guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on semi-strapdown image homing guided (SSIHG system design based on optical flow for a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF axial-symmetric skid-to-turn missile. Three optical flow algorithms suitable for large displacements are introduced and compared. The influence of different displacements on computational accuracy of the three algorithms is analyzed statistically. The total optical flow of the SSIHG missile is obtained using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, which is the best among the three for large displacements. After removing the rotational optical flow caused by rotation of the gimbal and missile body from the total optical flow, the remaining translational optical flow is smoothed via Kalman filtering. The circular navigation guidance (CNG law with impact angle constraint is then obtained utilizing the smoothed translational optical flow and position of the target image. Simulations are carried out under both disturbed and undisturbed conditions, and results indicate the proposed guidance strategy for SSIHG missiles can result in a precise target hit with a desired impact angle without the need for the time-to-go parameter.

  18. Rheological evaluation of petroleum jelly as a base material in ointment and cream formulations: steady shear flow behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Ki-Won

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically characterize a nonlinear rheological behavior of petroleum jelly (petrolatum) in steady shear flow fields correspondent to the spreading condition onto the human body. With this aim, using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available petroleum jelly have been measured at 37 degrees C (body temperature) over a wide range of shear rates. In this article, the shear rate dependence of steady shear flow behavior was reported from the experimentally obtained data. In particular, the existence of a yield stress and a non-Newtonian flow behavior were discussed in depth with a special emphasis on their importance in actual application onto the human body. In addition, several inelastic-viscoplastic flow models including a yield stress parameter were employed to make a quantitative description of the steady shear flow behavior, and then the applicability of these models was examined in detail. Main findings obtained from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Petroleum jelly exhibits a finite magnitude of yield stress. The appearance of a yield stress is attributed to its three-dimensional network structure that can show a resistance to flow and plays an important role in determining a storage stability and sensory feature of the product. (2) Petroleum jelly demonstrates a pronounced non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior which is well described by a power-law equation and may be interpreted by the disruption of a crystalline network under the influence of mechanical shear deformation. This rheological feature enhances sensory qualities of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products in which petroleum jelly is used as a base material during their actual usage. (3) The Casson, Mizrahi-Berk, Heinz-Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models are all applicable and have almost an equivalent ability to quantitatively describe the steady shear flow behavior of petroleum jelly whereas the

  19. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater-dependent ecosystems based on integrated groundwater flow modell construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Havril, Timea; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are highly influenced by the amount of groundwater, seasonal variation of precipitation and consequent water table fluctuation and also the anthropogenic activities. They can be regarded as natural surface manifestations of the flowing groundwater. The preservation of environment and biodiversity of these GDEs is an important issue worldwide, however, the water management policy and action plan could not be constructed in absense of proper hydrogeological knowledge. The concept of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow could aid the understanding of flow pattern and interpretation of environmental processes and conditions. Unless the required well data are available, the geological-hydrogeological numerical model of the study area cannot be constructed based only on borehole information. In this case, spatially continuous geophysical data can support groundwater flow model building: systematically combined geophysical methods can provide model input. Integration of lithostratigraphic, electrostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic information could aid groundwater flow model construction: hydrostratigraphic units and their hydraulic behaviour, boundaries and geometry can be obtained. Groundwater-related natural manifestations, such as GDEs, can be explained with the help of the revealed flow pattern and field mapping of features. Integrated groundwater flow model construction for assessing the vulnerability of GDEs was presented via the case study of the geologically complex area of Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, surface water-groundwater interaction, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. In spite of its important and protected status, fluid flow model of the area, which could support water management and natural protection policy, had not been constructed previously. The 3D

  20. Spatial patterns in a base-flow index across the conterminous United States (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolock, D.; Carlisle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Spatial patterns in a base-flow index (BFI)--defined as the estimated percentage of base flow in streamflow--were examined across the conterminous United States. The BFI values were computed by automated hydrograph separation of historical daily streamflow records at about 8000 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages. The goals of the study were to identify the natural factors (such as climate, geology, and topography) as well as the land and water management practices (such as reservoir construction and urban development) that affect base flow. Regional statistical models indicated that spatial variability in BFI values primarily was determined by climatic factors in the western United States and by geologic and soil characteristics in the remainder of the country. Land and water management practices, for the most part, provided limited additional power in explaining spatial variability in BFI values.

  1. Synthesis of Biochemical Applications on Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips using Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. In this paper we are interested in flow-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves....... By combining several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. We propose a constraint programming (CP) based approach for the synthesis of biochemical applications on flow-based microfluidic biochips. We use a sequencing graph to model...... the biochemical application and consider that the biochip architecture is given. We model the architecture using a topology graph. We are interested in synthesizing an implementation, consisting of binding and scheduling of the biochemical operations onto the components of the architecture, such that the resource...

  2. A Novel Mobile Personalized Recommended Method Based on Money Flow Model for Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personalized recommended method is widely used to recommend commodities for target customers in e-commerce sector. The core idea of merchandise personalized recommendation can be applied to financial field, which can also achieve stock personalized recommendation. This paper proposes a new recommended method using collaborative filtering based on user fuzzy clustering and predicts the trend of those stocks based on money flow. We use M/G/1 queue system with multiple vacations and server close-down time to measure practical money flow. Based on the indicated results of money flow, we can select the more valued stock to recommend to investors. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides investors with reliable practical investment guidance and receiving more returns.

  3. System-Level Modeling and Synthesis of Flow-Based Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers and are able to integrate the necessary functions for biochemical analysis on-chip. There are several types of microfluidic biochips, each having its advantages and limitations. In this paper we are interested in flow......-based biochips, in which the flow of liquid is manipulated using integrated microvalves. By combining several microvalves, more complex units, such as micropumps, switches, mixers, and multiplexers, can be built. Although researchers have proposed significant work on the system-level synthesis of droplet......-based biochips, which manipulate droplets on a two-dimensional array of electrodes, no research on system-level synthesis of flow-based biochips has been reported so far. The focus has been on application modeling and component-level simulation. Therefore, for the first time to our knowledge, we propose a system...

  4. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Yoshikawa, H.; Zhou Yangping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle sys- tem based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being, Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples. (authors)

  5. Preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on artificial compressibility method for solution of incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Parseh, Kaveh

    2017-09-01

    The preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions based on the artificial compressibility (AC) method are implemented at artificial boundaries for the solution of two- and three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in the generalized curvilinear coordinates. The compatibility equations and the corresponding characteristic variables (or the Riemann invariants) are mathematically derived and then applied as suitable boundary conditions in a high-order accurate incompressible flow solver. The spatial discretization of the resulting system of equations is carried out by the fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) scheme. In the preconditioning applied here, the value of AC parameter in the flow field and also at the far-field boundary is automatically calculated based on the local flow conditions to enhance the robustness and performance of the solution algorithm. The code is fully parallelized using the Concurrency Runtime standard and Parallel Patterns Library (PPL) and its performance on a multi-core CPU is analyzed. The incompressible viscous flows around a 2-D circular cylinder, a 2-D NACA0012 airfoil and also a 3-D wavy cylinder are simulated and the accuracy and performance of the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions applied at the far-field boundaries are evaluated in comparison to the simplified boundary conditions and the non-preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions. It is indicated that the preconditioned characteristic boundary conditions considerably improve the convergence rate of the solution of incompressible flows compared to the other boundary conditions and the computational costs are significantly decreased.

  6. Flow Orientation Analysis for Major Activity Regions Based on Smart Card Transit Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing public movement in transportation networks in a city is significant in understanding the life of citizen and making improved city plans for the future. This study focuses on investigating the flow orientation of major activity regions based on smart card transit data. The flow orientation based on the real movements such as transit data can provide the easiest way of understanding public movement in the complicated transportation networks. First, high inflow regions (HIRs are identified from transit data for morning and evening peak hours. The morning and evening HIRs are used to represent major activity regions for major daytime activities and residential areas, respectively. Second, the directional orientation of flow is then derived through the directional inflow vectors of the HIRs to show the bias in directional orientation and compare flow orientation among major activity regions. Finally, clustering analysis for HIRs is applied to capture the main patterns of flow orientations in the city and visualize the patterns on the map. The proposed methodology was illustrated with smart card transit data of bus and subway transportation networks in Seoul, Korea. Some remarkable patterns in the distribution of movements and orientations were found inside the city. The proposed methodology is useful since it unfolds the complexity and makes it easy to understand the main movement patterns in terms of flow orientation.

  7. Plasma-based actuators for turbulent boundary layer control in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budovsky, A. D.; Polivanov, P. A.; Vishnyakov, O. I.; Sidorenko, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study is devoted to development of methods for active control of flow structure typical for the aircraft wings in transonic flow with turbulent boundary layer. The control strategy accepted in the study was based on using of the effects of plasma discharges interaction with miniature geometrical obstacles of various shapes. The conceptions were studied computationally using 3D RANS, URANS approaches. The results of the computations have shown that energy deposition can significantly change the flow pattern over the obstacles increasing their influence on the flow in boundary layer region. Namely, one of the most interesting and promising data were obtained for actuators basing on combination of vertical wedge with asymmetrical plasma discharge. The wedge considered is aligned with the local streamlines and protruding in the flow by 0.4-0.8 of local boundary layer thickness. The actuator produces negligible distortion of the flow at the absence of energy deposition. Energy deposition along the one side of the wedge results in longitudinal vortex formation in the wake of the actuator providing momentum exchange in the boundary layer. The actuator was manufactured and tested in wind tunnel experiments at Mach number 1.5 using the model of flat plate. The experimental data obtained by PIV proved the availability of the actuator.

  8. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  9. 77 FR 1484 - Spring Valley Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Spring Valley Wind LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Spring Valley Wind LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  10. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  11. 77 FR 56839 - GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of GenOn Marsh Landing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  13. 77 FR 23476 - Cimarron Windpower II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cimarron Windpower II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Cimarron Windpower II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  14. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  15. 77 FR 53195 - C.P. Crane LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission C.P. Crane LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of C.P. Crane LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  16. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NJ), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  17. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (NY), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  18. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (MD), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  19. 75 FR 44788 - AP Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of AP Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  20. 77 FR 9228 - AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (IL), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  1. 77 FR 9227 - AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of AP Gas & Electric (OH), LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  2. 77 FR 58987 - North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of North Eastern States, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority...

  3. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star California XX, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  4. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Star Energy Partners LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  5. 78 FR 54888 - Guzman Power Markets, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Guzman Power Markets, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Guzman Power Markets, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  6. 75 FR 59260 - HOP Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission HOP Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of HOP Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 77 FR 47624 - Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Escanaba Green Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Escanaba Green Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority...

  8. 76 FR 52326 - Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Energy Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Green Mountain Energy Company's application for market-based rate...

  9. 78 FR 75560 - Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Green Current Solutions, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  10. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Sun City Project LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  11. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  12. 78 FR 4143 - Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Storage Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Storage Holdings, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  13. 76 FR 9348 - Sand Drag LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sand Drag LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Sand Drag LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Optical Sensor of Thermal Gas Flow Based on Fiber Bragg Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Wang, Keda; Li, Junqing; Zhan, Hui; Song, Zhenan; Che, Guohang; Lyu, Guohui

    2017-02-15

    This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit. In the heating unit, an absorbing coating is introduced to replace the traditional resistance heating module to minimize the risk of explosion. The measurement results demonstrate a fine consistency between the flow and temperature difference in simulation. The method to enhance the measurement resolution of flow is also discussed.

  16. Passenger Flow Forecasting Research for Airport Terminal Based on SARIMA Time Series Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyu; Bi, Jun; Li, Zhiyin

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data of practical operating of Kunming Changshui International Airport during2016, this paper proposes Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model to predict the passenger flow. This article not only considers the non-stationary and autocorrelation of the sequence, but also considers the daily periodicity of the sequence. The prediction results can accurately describe the change trend of airport passenger flow and provide scientific decision support for the optimal allocation of airport resources and optimization of departure process. The result shows that this model is applicable to the short-term prediction of airport terminal departure passenger traffic and the average error ranges from 1% to 3%. The difference between the predicted and the true values of passenger traffic flow is quite small, which indicates that the model has fairly good passenger traffic flow prediction ability.

  17. Optical Sensor of Thermal Gas Flow Based on Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at solving the problem of explosion proof in measurement of thermal gas flow using electronic sensor by presenting a new type of flow sensor by optical fiber heating. A measuring unit based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG for fluid temperature and a unit for heat dissipation are designed to replace the traditional electronic sensors. The light in C band from the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE light source is split, with one part used to heat the absorbing coating and the other part used in the signal processing unit. In the heating unit, an absorbing coating is introduced to replace the traditional resistance heating module to minimize the risk of explosion. The measurement results demonstrate a fine consistency between the flow and temperature difference in simulation. The method to enhance the measurement resolution of flow is also discussed.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging 4-D flow-based analysis of aortic hemodynamics in Turner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Raoul [University Medical Center Heidelberg, Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Neu, Marie [University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Hemostaseology, Mainz (Germany); Hirtler, Daniel [University of Freiburg, Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology, Heart Center, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gimpel, Charlotte [Center for Pediatrics, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Geiger, Julia [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Cardiovascular surveillance is important in Turner syndrome because of the increased risk of aortic dilation and dissection with consecutively increased mortality. To compare 4-D flow MRI for the characterization of aortic 3-D flow patterns, dimensions and vessel wall parameters in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome and age-matched controls. We performed 4-D flow MRI measuring in vivo 3-D blood flow with coverage of the thoracic aorta in 25 patients with Turner syndrome and in 16 female healthy controls (age mean ± standard deviation were 16 ± 5 years and 17 ± 4 years, respectively). Blood flow was visualized by time-resolved 3-D path lines. Visual grading of aortic flow in terms of helices and vortices was performed by two independent observers. Quantitative analysis included measurement of aortic diameters, quantification of peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index at eight defined sites. Patients with Turner syndrome had significantly larger aortic diameters normalized to BSA, increased vortices in the ascending aorta and elevated helix flow in the ascending and descending aorta compared to controls (all P<0.03). Patients with abnormal helical or vortical flow in the ascending aorta had significantly larger diameters of the ascending aorta (P<0.03). Peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index were significantly lower in Turner patients compared to controls (p=0.02, p=0.002 and p=0.01 respectively). Four-dimensional flow MRI provides new insights into the altered aortic hemodynamics and wall shear stress that could have an impact on the development of aortic dissections. (orig.)

  19. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  20. Investigation of an IC Engine Intake Flow Based on Highly Resolved LES and PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce emissions and fuel consumption, the current generation of gasoline engines uses technologies such as direct injection, downsizing and supercharging. All of them require a strong vortical in-cylinder charge motion, usually described as “tumble”, to improve fuel-air mixing and enhance flame propagation. The tumble development strongly depends on the flow field during the intake stroke. This flow field is dominated by the intake jet, which has to be captured well in the simulation. This work investigates the intake jet on a steady-state flow bench, especially in the vicinity of the intake valve. At first, the general flow dynamics of the intake jet for three different valve lifts and three different mass flows were investigated experimentally. For the smallest valve lift (3 mm, flow-field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV show that the orientation of the intake jet significantly depends on the air flow rate, attaching to the pent roof for low flow rates. This phenomenon is less pronounced for higher valve lifts. An intermediate valve lift and flow rate were chosen for further investigations by scale-resolving simulations. Three different meshes (coarse, medium and fine and two turbulence models (Sigma and Detached Eddy Simulation-Shear Stress Transport (DES-SST are applied to consider their effect on the numerical results. An ad-hoc post-processing methodology based on the ensemble-averaged velocity field is presented capturing the jet centerline’s mean velocity and velocity fluctuations as well as its orientation, curvature and penetration depth. The simulation results are compared to each other as well as to measurements by PIV.

  1. An XFEM-based model for fluid flow in fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenck, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Many fields of applications for porous media flow include geometrically anisotropic inclusions and strongly discontinuous material coefficients which differ in orders of magnitude. If the extension of those heterogeneities is small in normal direction compared to the tangential directions, e.g., long and thin, those features are called fractures. Examples which include such fractured porous-media systems in earth sciences include reservoir engineering, groundwater-resource management, carbon capture and storage (CCS), radioactive-waste reposition, coal bed methane migration in mines, geothermal engineering and hydraulic fracturing. The analysis and prediction of flow in fractured porous-media systems is important for all the aforementioned applications. Experiments are usually too expensive and time consuming to satisfy the demand for fast but accurate decision making information. Many different conceptual and numerical models to treat fractured porous-media systems can be found in the literature. However, even in the time of large supercomputers with massive parallel computing power, the computational efficiency, and therefore the economic efficiency, plays a dominating role in the evaluation of simulation software. In this thesis an efficient method to simulate flow in fractured porous media systems is presented. Darcy flow in fractures and matrix is assumed. The presented method is suited best for flow regimes depending on both, the fractures and the surrounding rock matrix and is able to account for highly conductive but also almost impermeable fractures with respect to the surrounding matrix. The newly developed method is based on a co-dimension one conceptual model for the fracture network which is embedded in the surrounding matrix. The basis for this model reduction is given in Martin et al. (2005). Numerically the fracture network is resolved by its own grid and coupled to the independent matrix grid. The discretization on this matrix grid allows jumps in

  2. 3D CFD computations of transitional flows using DES and a correlation based transition model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    The report describes the application of the correlation based transition model of of Menter et. al. [1, 2] to the cylinder drag crisis and the stalled flow over an DU-96-W-351 airfoil using the DES methodology. When predicting the flow over airfoils and rotors, the laminar-turbulent transition...... process can be important for the aerodynamic performance. Today, the most widespread approach is to use fully turbulent computations, where the transitional process is ignored and the entire boundary layer on the wings or airfoils is handled by the turbulence model. The correlation based transition model...

  3. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...... method for tracing carbon flow is proposed. In a lossy network, matrices such as carbon losses, net carbon intensity (NCI) and footprint carbon intensity (FCI) are obtained with the proposed method and used to allocate carbon obligation at demand side. Case studies based on realistic distribution...

  4. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  5. Design of a Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fibre (POF to Measure Fluid Flow and Turbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Zubia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many optical fibre applications are based on their capacity to transmit optical signals with low losses, it can also be desirable for the optical fibre to be strongly affected by a certain physical parameter in the environment. In this way, it can be used as a sensor for this parameter. There are many strong arguments for the use of POFs as sensors. In addition to being easy to handle and low cost, they demonstrate advantages common to all multimode optical fibres. These specifically include flexibility, small size, good electromagnetic compatibility behaviour, and in general, the possibility of measuring any phenomenon without physically interacting with it. In this paper, a sensor based on POF is designed and analysed with the aim of measuring the volume and turbidity of a low viscosity fluid, in this case water, as it passes through a pipe. A comparative study with a commercial sensor is provided to validate the proven flow measurement. Likewise, turbidity is measured using different colour dyes. Finally, this paper will present the most significant results and conclusions from all the tests which are carried out.

  6. Predicting debris flow occurrence in Eastern Italian Alps based on hydrological and geomorphological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Borga, Marco; Destro, Elisa; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Most of the work so far on the prediction of debris flow occurrence is focused on the identification of critical rainfall conditions. However, findings in the literature have shown that critical rainfall thresholds cannot always accurately identify debris flow occurrence, leading to false detections (positive or negative). One of the main reasons for this limitation is attributed to the fact that critical rainfall thresholds do not account for the characteristics of underlying land surface (e.g. geomorphology, moisture conditions, sediment availability, etc), which are strongly related to debris flow triggering. In addition, in areas where debris flows occur predominantly as a result of channel bed failure (as in many Alpine basins), the triggering factor is runoff, which suggests that identification of critical runoff conditions for debris flow prediction is more pertinent than critical rainfall. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the potential of a triggering index (TI), which combines variables related to runoff generation and channel morphology, for predicting debris flows occurrence. TI is based on a threshold criterion developed on past works (Tognacca et al., 2000; Berti and Simoni, 2005; Gregoretti and Dalla Fontana, 2008) and combines information on unit width peak flow, local channel slope and mean grain size. Estimation of peak discharge is based on the application of a distributed hydrologic model, while local channel slope is derived from a high-resolution (5m) DEM. Scaling functions of peak flows and channel width with drainage area are adopted since it is not possible to measure channel width or simulate peak flow at all channel nodes. TI values are mapped over the channel network thus allowing spatially distributed prediction but instead of identifying debris flow occurrence on single points, we identify their occurrence with reference to the tributary catchment involved. Evaluation of TI is carried out for five different basins

  7. Fine particle retention within stream storage areas at base flow and in response to a storm event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Larsen, L. G.; González-Pinzón, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harvey, J. W.

    2017-07-01

    Fine particles (1-100 µm), including particulate organic carbon (POC) and fine sediment, influence stream ecological functioning because they may contain or have a high affinity to sorb nitrogen and phosphorus. These particles are immobilized within stream storage areas, especially hyporheic sediments and benthic biofilms. However, fine particles are also known to remobilize under all flow conditions. This combination of downstream transport and transient retention, influenced by stream geomorphology, controls the distribution of residence times over which fine particles influence stream ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to quantify immobilization and remobilization rates of fine particles in a third-order sand-and-gravel bed stream (Difficult Run, Virginia, USA) within different geomorphic units of the stream (i.e., pool, lateral cavity, and thalweg). During our field injection experiment, a thunderstorm-driven spate allowed us to observe fine particle dynamics during both base flow and in response to increased flow. Solute and fine particles were measured within stream surface waters, pore waters, sediment cores, and biofilms on cobbles. Measurements were taken at four different subsurface locations with varying geomorphology and at multiple depths. Approximately 68% of injected fine particles were retained during base flow until the onset of the spate. Retention was evident even after the spate, with 15.4% of the fine particles deposited during base flow still retained within benthic biofilms on cobbles and 14.9% within hyporheic sediment after the spate. Thus, through the combination of short-term remobilization and long-term retention, fine particles can serve as sources of carbon and nutrients to downstream ecosystems over a range of time scales.

  8. Cluster-based control of a separating flow over a smoothly contoured ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eurika; Noack, Bernd R.; Spohn, Andreas; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Morzyński, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The ability to manipulate and control fluid flows is of great importance in many scientific and engineering applications. The proposed closed-loop control framework addresses a key issue of model-based control: The actuation effect often results from slow dynamics of strongly nonlinear interactions which the flow reveals at timescales much longer than the prediction horizon of any model. Hence, we employ a probabilistic approach based on a cluster-based discretization of the Liouville equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. The proposed methodology frames high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamics into low-dimensional, probabilistic, linear dynamics which considerably simplifies the optimal control problem while preserving nonlinear actuation mechanisms. The data-driven approach builds upon a state space discretization using a clustering algorithm which groups kinematically similar flow states into a low number of clusters. The temporal evolution of the probability distribution on this set of clusters is then described by a control-dependent Markov model. This Markov model can be used as predictor for the ergodic probability distribution for a particular control law. This probability distribution approximates the long-term behavior of the original system on which basis the optimal control law is determined. We examine how the approach can be used to improve the open-loop actuation in a separating flow dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz shedding. For this purpose, the feature space, in which the model is learned, and the admissible control inputs are tailored to strongly oscillatory flows.

  9. A blended pressure/density based method for the computation of incompressible and compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, C.-C.

    2003-03-01

    An alternative method to low speed preconditioning for the computation of nearly incompressible flows with compressible methods is developed. For this approach the leading terms of the flux difference splitting (FDS) approximate Riemann solver are analyzed in the incompressible limit. In combination with the requirement of the velocity field to be divergence-free, an elliptic equation to solve for a pressure correction to enforce the divergence-free velocity field on the discrete level is derived. The pressure correction equation established is shown to be equivalent to classical methods for incompressible flows. In order to allow the computation of flows at all speeds, a blending technique for the transition from the incompressible, pressure based formulation to the compressible, density based formulation is established. It is found necessary to use preconditioning with this blending technique to account for a remaining "compressible" contribution in the incompressible limit, and a suitable matrix directly applicable to conservative residuals is derived. Thus, a coherent framework is established to cover the discretization of both incompressible and compressible flows. Compared with standard preconditioning techniques, the blended pressure/density based approach showed improved robustness for high lift flows close to separation.

  10. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Wallace, J Bruce; Rosemond, Amy D

    2007-10-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material storage and cycling in the ecosystem. Understanding mechanisms and predicting consequences of nutrient-induced changes in material flows requires a quantitative food web approach that combines information on consumer energetics and consumer-resource stoichiometry. We examined effects of a whole-system experimental nutrient enrichment on the trophic basis of production and the magnitude and pathways of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) flows in a detritus-based stream food web. We compared the response of the treated stream to an adjacent reference stream throughout the study. Dietary composition and elemental flows varied considerably among invertebrate functional feeding groups. During nutrient enrichment, increased flows of leaf litter and amorphous detritus to shredders and gatherers accounted for most of the altered flows of C from basal resources to consumers. Nutrient enrichment had little effect on patterns of material flows but had large positive effects on the magnitude of C, N, and P flows to consumers (mean increase of 97% for all elements). Nutrient-specific food webs revealed similar flows of N and P to multiple functional groups despite an order of magnitude difference among groups in consumption of C. Secondary production was more strongly related to consumption of nutrients than C, and increased material flows were positively related to the degree of consumer-resource C:P and C:N imbalances. Nutrient enrichment resulted in an increased proportion of detrital C inputs consumed by primary consumers (from -15% to 35%) and a decreased proportion of invertebrate prey consumed by

  11. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  12. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Hao, Fen; Wu, Ying-Song

    2015-09-03

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC); the HT/HC ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0-1000 IU mL(-1)) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL(-1)) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both <10%. Furthermore, in the analysis of human serum samples, excellent correlation (n = 284, r = 0.9860, p < 0.0001) was obtained between the proposed method and a commercially available CLIA kit. Results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including early detection of cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jennifer S [Santa Fe, NM; Swanson, Basil I [Los Alamos, NM; Shively, John E [Arcadia, CA; Li, Lin [Monrovia, CA

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands adapted for binding to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of CEA is described including injecting a possible CEA-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between CEA present within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  14. Chaos in a dynamic model of urban transportation network flow based on user equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Meng; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamical behavior of network traffic flow. We first build a two-stage mathematical model to analyze the complex behavior of network flow, a dynamical model, which is based on the dynamical gravity model proposed by Dendrinos and Sonis [Dendrinos DS, Sonis M. Chaos and social-spatial dynamic. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1990] is used to estimate the number of trips. Considering the fact that the Origin-Destination (O-D) trip cost in the traffic network is hard to express as a functional form, in the second stage, the user equilibrium network assignment model was used to estimate the trip cost, which is the minimum cost of used path when user equilibrium (UE) conditions are satisfied. It is important to use UE to estimate the O-D cost, since a connection is built among link flow, path flow, and O-D flow. The dynamical model describes the variations of O-D flows over discrete time periods, such as each day and each week. It is shown that even in a system with dimensions equal to two, chaos phenomenon still exists. A 'Chaos Propagation' phenomenon is found in the given model.

  15. Complex fluid flow and heat transfer analysis inside a calandria based reactor using CFD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P. S.

    2017-04-01

    Series of numerical experiments have been carried out on a calandria based reactor for optimizing the design to increase the overall heat transfer efficiency by using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) technique. Fluid flow and heat transfer inside the calandria is governed by many geometric and flow parameters like orientation of inlet, inlet mass flow rate, fuel channel configuration (in-line, staggered, etc.,), location of inlet and outlet, etc.,. It was well established that heat transfer is more wherever forced convection dominates but for geometries like calandria it is very difficult to achieve forced convection flow everywhere, intern it strongly depends on the direction of inlet jet. In the present paper the initial design was optimized with respect to inlet jet angle, the optimized design has been numerically tested for different heat load mass flow conditions. To further increase the heat removal capacity of a calandria, further numerical studies has been carried out for different inlet geometry. In all the analysis same overall geometry size and same number of tubes has been considered. The work gives good insight into the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the calandria and offer a guideline for optimizing the design and/or capacity enhancement of a present design.

  16. Environmental flow assessments in estuaries based on an integrated multi-objective method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated multi-objective method for environmental flow assessments was developed that considered variability of potential habitats as a critical factor in determining how ecosystems respond to hydrological alterations. Responses of habitat area, and the magnitude of those responses as influenced by salinity and water depth, were established and assessed according to fluctuations in river discharge and tidal currents. The requirements of typical migratory species during pivotal life-stage seasons (e.g., reproduction and juvenile growth and natural flow variations were integrated into the flow-needs assessment. Critical environmental flows for a typical species were defined based on two primary objectives: (1 high level of habitat area and (2 low variability of habitat area. After integrating the water requirements for various species with the maximum acceptable discharge boundary, appropriate temporal limits of environmental flows for ecosystems were recommended. The method was applied in the Yellow River estuary in eastern Shandong province, China. Our results show that, while recommended environmental flows established with variability of potential habitats in mind may not necessarily benefit short-term survival of a typical resident organism on a limited temporal or spatial scale, they may encourage long-term, stable biodiversity and ecosystem health. Thus, short-term ecosystem losses may be compensated by significant long-term gains.

  17. Application of recently developed elliptic blending based models to separated flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Revell, A.; Craft, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study focuses on elliptic blending near-wall models. ► Models are compared on 2- and 3-dimensional separating flows. ► Conclusions are ambiguous on 2-d flows. ► Predictive superiority of Reynolds stress models over eddy viscosity model appear on 3-d flows. - Abstract: This paper considers the application of four Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models to a range of progressively complex test cases, exhibiting both 2-d and 3-d flow separation. Two Eddy Viscosity Models (EVM) and two Reynolds Stress Transport Models (RSM) are employed, of which two (one in each category) are based on elliptic blending formulations. By both reviewing the conclusions of previous studies, and from the present calculations, this study aims at gaining more insight into the importance of two modelling features for these flows: the usage of turbulence anisotropy resolving schemes, and the near-wall limiting behaviour. In general the anisotropy and near wall treatment offered by both elliptic blending models is observed to offer some improvement over other models tested, although this is not always the case for the 2-d flows, where (as ever) a single “best candidate” model does not emerge.

  18. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR-based mapping of volcanic flows: Manam Island, Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Weissel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new radar-based techniques for efficient identification of surface changes generated by lava and pyroclastic flows, and apply these to the 1996 eruption of Manam Volcano, Papua New Guinea. Polarimetric L- and P-band airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR data, along with a C-band DEM, were acquired over the volcano on 17 November 1996 during a major eruption sequence. The L-band data are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms on a per pixel basis using radar target decomposition techniques. A classification method is presented, and when applied to the L-band polarimetry, it readily distinguishes bare surfaces from forest cover over Manam volcano. In particular, the classification scheme identifies a post-1992 lava flow in NE Valley of Manam Island as a mainly bare surface and the underlying 1992 flow units as mainly vegetated surfaces. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Network reports allow us to speculate whether the bare surface is a flow dating from October or November in the early part of the late-1996 eruption sequence. This work shows that fully polarimetric SAR is sensitive to scattering mechanism changes caused by volcanic resurfacing processes such as lava and pyroclastic flows. By extension, this technique should also prove useful in mapping debris flows, ash deposits and volcanic landslides associated with major eruptions.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Flow Properties between Two Alumina-Based Dry Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Minniti de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured and compared the flow properties of two alumina-based powders. The alumina powder (AP is irregularly shaped and has a smooth surface and moisture content of 0.16% (d.b., and the ceramic powder (CP, obtained after atomization in a spray dryer, is spherical and has a rough surface and moisture content of 1.07%. We measured the Hausner ratio (HR, the static angle of repose (AoR, the flow index (FI, the angle of internal friction, and the wall's friction angle. The properties measured using aerated techniques (AoR and HR demonstrated that AP presents true cohesiveness (and therefore a difficult flow, while CP presents some cohesiveness and its flow might be classified as half way between difficult and easy flow. Their FI values, which were obtained using a nonaerated technique, enable us to classify the alumina as cohesive and the ceramic powder as an easy-flow powder. The large mean diameter and morphological characteristics of CP reduce interparticle forces and improve flowability, in spite of the higher moisture content of their granules. The angles of internal friction and of wall friction were not significantly different when comparing the two powders.

  20. Form and function in hillslope hydrology: characterization of subsurface flow based on response observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Lisa; Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas; Sprenger, Matthias; Zehe, Erwin; Tronicke, Jens; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2017-07-01

    The phrase form and function was established in architecture and biology and refers to the idea that form and functionality are closely correlated, influence each other, and co-evolve. We suggest transferring this idea to hydrological systems to separate and analyze their two main characteristics: their form, which is equivalent to the spatial structure and static properties, and their function, equivalent to internal responses and hydrological behavior. While this approach is not particularly new to hydrological field research, we want to employ this concept to explicitly pursue the question of what information is most advantageous to understand a hydrological system. We applied this concept to subsurface flow within a hillslope, with a methodological focus on function: we conducted observations during a natural storm event and followed this with a hillslope-scale irrigation experiment. The results are used to infer hydrological processes of the monitored system. Based on these findings, the explanatory power and conclusiveness of the data are discussed. The measurements included basic hydrological monitoring methods, like piezometers, soil moisture, and discharge measurements. These were accompanied by isotope sampling and a novel application of 2-D time-lapse GPR (ground-penetrating radar). The main finding regarding the processes in the hillslope was that preferential flow paths were established quickly, despite unsaturated conditions. These flow paths also caused a detectable signal in the catchment response following a natural rainfall event, showing that these processes are relevant also at the catchment scale. Thus, we conclude that response observations (dynamics and patterns, i.e., indicators of function) were well suited to describing processes at the observational scale. Especially the use of 2-D time-lapse GPR measurements, providing detailed subsurface response patterns, as well as the combination of stream-centered and hillslope-centered approaches